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Improving the Students Vocabulary Mastery by Maximizing the Use of Different Types of Dictionary Among Second Year Students

at SMA Negeri 3 Yogyakarta In the Academic Year 2008/2009

A proposal

By: Desiana Ratnaningtyas (05202244174)

It is caused by many problems. there are speaking. Comprehension a language means that we study about language skills. and writing and these skill has the core component that is vocabulary. Language proficiency is one of the important things in Globalization era. English has been taught from the level pre-school until university degree as a foreign language. Language is one of the means of communication where people express their feeling.The students who learn English usually feel difficult when they will understand about vocabulary.ENGLISH EDUCATION DEPARTMENT FACULTY OF LANGUAGE AND ARTS STATE UNIVERSITY OF YOGYAKARTA 2009 A. 1982: 98). and desires. such as the vocabulary mastery. Achieving the language proficiency need the mastery of integrated skills. . Background of the Problem English as a second language (ESL) refers to teaching English to a person who’s native or primary language is one other than English. Teaching English as a second language to the students in Indonesia still improve and have progress actually. It aims to face the globalization era where English become the main language to communicate each other. The first thing when we understand the sentence by looking the vocabulary. English has four skills. listening. words which it then used as if they were native (Burton. having been for centuries an ‘importer’ of words from other languages. ideas. As a foreign language. most of the students have difficulties to study English. opinions. reading. The English language is rich in its enormous range of words. Topic Improving the Students Vocabulary Mastery by Maximizing the Use of Different Types of Dictionary among Second Year Students at SMA Negeri 3 Yogyakarta in the Academic Year 2008/2009 B.

they still use the method grammar translation method when they will . such as guessing word meanings from the context clues. Almost. The teachers usually use only one up to two dictionaries. the role of the teacher is very important. the better for your chance of understanding or making yourself understood (Edge. besides that teachers usually just give questions and answer drill or other technique but she is not using mediator teaching aids. It is happened because the teacher did not use the different types of dictionary. We know. It makes the obstacles to master English vocabulary. Based on this condition. the teachers did not give the direction how the right ways to use dictionaries. C. there is many abbreviations and term that the students did not know it before. 1993:27).Most of them usually find the meaning of vocabulary by using the limited bilingual dictionary. in the dictionary. speaking. and speaking. Identification and Limitation of the Problem 1. One thing. The teacher should emphasize the students to do more practice find the meaning of words in the dictionaries. listening. They should give them more practice in variety way. They give some activities that can improve the vocabulary mastery. Knowing a lot of words in a foreign language is important. They always find the meaning but the meaning usually does not match with the context. The problem that commonly appears in teaching in teaching vocabulary is that the students easily forget the new words that they have just learned. she just uses a text to teach at school by reading the new words and except the students to memorize the words as soon as possible. Vocabulary master is very important thing for the students because it will support the students’ ability to master the four language skill. The teachers usually use less media or variety when they teach their students. reading. Identification of the Problem The identified problem is improving the students’ vocabulary mastery through different types of dictionary. If the students have been given more practices. The more words the students know. they will feel as usual when they meet the new vocabulary in a context.

Limitation of the Problem This study does not discuss and solve all the problems mentioned above but it will focus on improving students’ vocabulary mastery by maximizing the use of different types of dictionary. D. if this research is successful. For the other researchers. Review of Theory . implementation. the result can be an input to conduct a further research. The researcher will use monolingual dictionaries. G. implementation. and evaluation in improving students’ motivation by maximizing the use of different types of dictionary in the first year immersion class of SMA Negeri 3 Yogyakarta. F. Formulation of the Problem How are planning. the treatment can be used in the regular classes to improve the teaching learning process at SMA Negeri 3 Yogyakarta. and evaluation conducted in the effort to improve students’ vocabulary mastery by maximizing the use of different types of dictionary (bilingual and monolingual dictionary) since this school provides instruments related to this kind of media. For the English teacher at SMA Negeri 3 Yogyakarta. For the Headmaster of SMA Negeri 3 Yogyakarta. 2. The researcher things that it can build more new vocabulary when the students find the meaning through this dictionary. 3. Objective of the Research The objective of the research is to describe the planning. Review of Theory and Related Research Study 1. Significance of the Research 1. 2. the students’ vocabulary. this research can be used as guidance to teach English especially in improving the students’ vocabulary mastery.

grammar (verb. lexis.a.or. From the interpretation above. spelling). Vocabulary Mastery Mastery means complete control or complete knowledge (hornby. gerund/infinitive. connotation.esp-world. we can conclude that vocabulary is the total number of word in language which make up the language and have a function in communication and acquisition. collocation. Definition of Vocabulary Hornby (1995:461) define vocabulary as the total number of words in language. As life become more complex. roots and compound . This term has the same meaning as achievement that is how much a student has learned with reference to a particular course of study. appropriateness. http://www. Hodges. 1974: 523). and noun: words). Jackson and Amvela ( 2000:11) says that the terms vocabulary. b. stative/dynamics. and word formation (affixes. regular/irregular. Sinaga and Chris (2001) states vocabulary is about (pronunciation. vocabulary take place in building the countable. No one knows exact numbers of words in the English vocabulary today. people devise or borrow new words to describe man’s activities.pdf. regular. In language /vocabulary. accompanying/prepositions. Burton (1982:98) states that vocabulary is the range of language of particular person.html The vocabulary of language always changes and grows. transitive/intransitive. and lexicon are synonymous. Richards (1984) (1984:1) states that vocabulary or lexicon of language encompasses the stock of that language which is as disposal of a speaker or writer.

. The objective of the vocabulary mastery is to make the students have a good language proficiency in the language skills. they will get the better skill that can be attained in using language. It can bring it everywhere because the shape usually is simple and in the small size. Jack C. It depends on the quality and quantity of the vocabulary being mastered. The richer the vocabulary that can be mastered by the students. c. All the learners’ especially in the International standard school other subjects will also benefit if their vocabulary is large. and without repeating yourself in composition (Burton. Dictionaries According to Burton (1982: 101). 1982: 98). vividly. or watching television. According to Richard. reading. write. without an extensive vocabulary and strategies for acquiring new vocabulary. the learners often achieve less than their potential and may be discouraged from making use of language learning opportunities around them such as listening to the radio. and write.language proficiency because vocabulary is core component in language proficiency and provides much of the basis for how well the students speak. for the passages and questions involve a range of words much wider than that of daily conversation. This dictionary is admirably suited to the students’ present need. It usually contains limited meaning of a word. there are three kinds of dictionaries: 1) ‘Desk’ dictionaries Desk dictionaries also called one-volume and short dictionaries. listening to native speakers. using the language in different context. A large vocabulary helps the learners to express their ideas precisely. The students can not do well in comprehension without large vocabulary. listen.

The number of words that a dictionary contains will depend on its size and purpose. . economics. their derivations. Children’s dictionaries come in various sizes. Collins Concise English Dictionary.2) ‘Library dictionaries This dictionary can be use as multi-volume works of reference because it provides exhaustive information about wordstheir meaning. b.g. proverbs. sports and pastime. Longman Dictionary of the English Language (LDEL). The most famous is the Oxford English Dictionary – the world-renowned O. Concise size E. Pocket size E. psychology. Jackson and Amvela (2000:161) classified the dictionaries based the purpose and size. quotations. history. 3) Specialist dictionaries It devoted to the vocabulary of various specialized subjects. 2) Children’s dictionaries It aimed at those acquiring English as their first language or through English-medium education. slang. etc. the Pocket Oxford Dictionary.D. clichés. General-purpose dictionaries come in three main sizes: a. Desk size It is equivalent to college dictionary in USA.g. etc. c. the Concise Oxford Dictionary (COD).E. Longman concise English Dictionary. their use in the past and their use nowadays. Collins English Dictionary (CED). geography.g. the New Oxford dictionary of English. e. There are three major categories of English dictionary according to purpose: 1) General-purpose dictionaries It aimed at native speakers of the language. There are dictionaries of science. (etymologies).

The lexicographer (dictionary-maker or compiler) is cramming a great deal of information into one book.’) arranged in alphabetical . but more importantly from a lexical perspective. Dictionaries for teenager that begin to resemble adult dictionaries. 1982: 101). If we will learn the vocabulary from a dictionary. and we have learn from it that the words in dictionary are usually (‘usu. He has to use abbreviations and a fairly complicated and rigidly observed system of ‘code signal’. Different in size is reflected partly in difference format and page size. what the original.ctionary’). such as different type faces and brackets of various kinds. difference of vocabulary selection and information about words. As lexical records of the language. 3) Learner’s dictionaries.a. his pronunciation signs (Burton. they must contain the everyday words. usually in adolescence or adulthood. b. The large format picture book dictionaries for infant school children to school dictionaries b. It often seen as a progression from bilingual dictionaries in the language learning process and they are therefore usually aimed at learners either at intermediate or at the advanced stage of language learning. The word is pronounced with the stress on the first syllable (‘di. c. his symbol. It is a noun (‘n’). a. It is definition follows. aimed at those learning English as a second or foreign language. we must familiarize ourselves with the lexicographer’s abbreviations.

We can refer to somebody as ‘a walking dictionary’ or a ‘living dictionary’. a Shakespeare dictionary. We also learn that the word can be used figuratively. meaning that his way of talking or writing is over-correct or pedantic. a dictionary of a Bible. containing French words with English explanation. a GermanSpanish dictionary would contain German words with Spanish explanation. meaning that he is well informed.. A dictionary is a wordbook’ or lexicon’. we learn that the word is derived from a medieval Latin word – dictionarium. f. author. Examples of wordbooks or lexicon given : French-English Dictionary. d. For further information about its derivation we are referred to the preceding word in the dictionary (‘prec. Finally.&c’). e. We can refer to somebody’s use of English as ‘dictionary English’ or to his writing as ‘dictionary style’. We also learn that a dictionary is either general (‘the words of language’) or specialized (‘of some special subject. etc. and the ‘&c’ tells us that there are similar dictionaries of other languages.order. h. That word is diction which. for example. g.’). the . Examples of specialist dictionaries are: a dictionary of architecture.

1997). 2002: 263).dictionary tells us. and beginners can use the translation. Furthermore. as well as L1 synonyms. In most classroom. A further advantage is that they can be used by all level or learners. came into English from the Latin word diction. Luppescu & day. L2 sentence examples. Whereas bilingual dictionaries usually provide just an L1 synonyms. Advanced students can concentrate on the English part of the entry. 2. Finally. learners may need extra practice for words with many entries. 1993) . learning symbols and what information a dictionary can and cannot offer. learners need to be taught to use all the information in an entry before making conclusions about the meaning of word (Laufer & Hader. billingualized dictionaries include L2 definitions. 1997). 1988).Summers. Billingual dictionaries have been found to result in vocabulary learning (Knight. So training in the use of dictionaries is essential. meaning ‘say’. and pragmatic information about word. Bilingualized dictionaries essentially do the job of both a bilingual and monolingual dictionary. The learners’ attention should also be directed toward the value of good sentence examples which provide collocational.1994. Related Research Study a. very little time is provided for training in dictionary use (graves. Besides. (Hunt & Beglar. 1987. which was itself derived from dicere. Billingulized dictionaries were found to result in better comprehension of new words than either bilingual or monolingual dictionaries (Laufer & Harder. teacher should emphasize the importance of checking a word’s original context carefully and comparing this to entry chosen because context determines which sense of a word is being used. Billingualized dictionaries may have some advantages over traditional bilingual or monolingual dictionaries. grammatical.

unless the unfamiliar word had numerous entries. Research Method In the previous part. in which case the dictionaries may have confused learners. some theories. there was about a 10% chance of learning its meaning from contest. the better it is learned. estimating that. H. Luppescu and Day’s (1993) study on Japanese students reports that bilingual dictionaries did result in vocabulary learning. The quality of learning depends on the quality of the use previously unknown vocabulary during the communicative task (Joe. 1995). This part describes the methods that were used in conducting this research study. and Anderson (1985) concluded that (for native speaker of English) learning vocabulary from context is gradual process. Newton (1995) found that all of the vocabulary negotiated in the ranking and problem-solving tasks he investigated was in the written task sheet handed out to the learners. Nagy. It is action research because it tries to find the truth of actual actions in implementing the use of different types of dictionary maximally by showing the cause-effect relationships between the action and the results which would be achieved directly. e. The more the vocabulary is observed or used in the contexts which differ from its occurrence in the written input. d. c.b. Herman. we have discussed this research study that aims at improving students’ vocabulary mastery. 1. . Kinds of Research This research study is action research. The written input to a communicative task has a major effect on what vocabulary is used and negotiated during the task. some researches in the same topics and the conceptual framework. given a single exposure to an unfamiliar word.

4. The researcher. The reason why the researcher used this school as the setting of the research is because this school is one of the International standard schools in Yogyakarta. The Subjects of the Research The subjects of this study will be the students of the second years. and the headmaster will work cooperatively as a team in conducting this research. The Setting of the Research This research study will be done in the English lesson in the first year of immersion class at SMA Negeri 3 Yogyakarta. The number of this class is 25 students. in-depth interviews students’ feedback. SMA Negeri 3 is located on Jalan Yos Sudarso Yogyakarta.2. The Data Collection . Besides. 5. The Instrument of The Research The main instruments will the researcher herself because she will undertake the observation. Place and Time of the Research This research study will be conducted at SMA Negeri 3 Yogyakarta in the academic years 2009/2010. the researcher will use observation. That is why the researcher and the English teacher there will do the collaborative action research. planning. implementation. evaluation. and some photographs as the other instruments to collect the data. The researcher has been there to do interview with the headmaster and have permission to do this research. the teacher. 6. and reflection and made the report. 3. The English lesson is three times a week and last 2 X 45 minutes for each meeting.

The actions will implement in three cycles. the researcher and the collaborator will decide the problems and they will solve based on the urgency and feasibility. 7. The reflection will be done after each cycle of action implementation. the English teacher. After getting information. Planning After deciding the thematic problems. d. the English teacher and the researcher will implement the actions in the teaching learning process. Determining the thematic-concern reconnaissance The researcher will find out the information about teaching-learning process by doing observation and conduct in-depth interviews to the students and the English teachers. and the students who joined into this class. comments. c. the involved member will evaluate the results of implementation. During the implementation of the actions the researcher and the English teacher will observe and record the processes. The researcher will obtain the information by having a discussion with the headmaster and English teacher and will do the observation in the classroom. The plan action is improving students’ vocabulary mastery by maximizing the use of different types of dictionary. b. the researcher will plan some actions. The research members are the researcher. suggestions. Research Procedure a. It will be done by discussing the success of the actions as well as problems happening in the classroom during the actions of implementation. Implementation After planning the actions. . the headmaster. Reflection Based on the observation on the process of implementation.In gaining the data the researcher will collect the opinions. and expectations from the research members.

interview transcripts. implementing. Data Validity The validity of the data was established by fulfilling the democratic. students’ feedback forms and photographs. catalytic. 3) Process validity which raises questions about the process of conducting the research. process. Data Analysis a. outcome. The researcher will fulfill the catalytic validity by interviewing the collaborator and . The researcher will fulfill the democratic validity by asking the English teacher to be her collaborator in conducting this research. Burns (1999: 161-163) has proposed some criteria to fulfill the validity of the research as follows: 1) Democratic validity which is concerned to the extend in which the research is truly collaborative. The analysis mostly deals with language (words) than with numbers. Data analysis technique The data are qualitative in nature. The researcher will fulfill the process validity by planning.8. b. reporting the outcomes. 2) Outcome validity which is related to the notion of actions leading to outcomes those are successful within research context. and presenting the data. comparing the data. The steps of the data analysis are collecting the data. 4) Catalytic validity which allows participants to depend their understanding of the research by monitoring other participants. The researcher will fulfill the outcome validity by providing the genuine data. and revising the actions. building interpretation. The data are presented in the form of field notes. and dialogic validity.

3) Investigator triangulation: More than one observer is used in the same research setting to avoid observer bias and provides checks on reliability of the observations. The researcher will refer to many theories in conducting this research study. 1) Time triangulation: data are collected at one point in time or over a period of time to get a sense of what factors are involved in change processes.the students and asking the students to give their feedback. 2) Space triangulation: Data are collected across different subgroups of people to avoid the limitation of studies conducted within one group. 4) Theoretical triangulation: Data are analyzed from more than one perspective. The researcher will involved the research team. Burn (1999:163) suggests four triangulation techniques. the researcher will involve more than one source in gathering the data. To obtain the trustworthiness. the English teacher and the students who are in the second years. The researcher will fulfill the dialogic validity by having discussions with the firs and second consultant. Schedule of the Research This research will conduct from April until September 2009 . 5) Dialogic validity which is related to the notion that the research is conducted through reflective dialogue with critical friends or other practitioner researchers. I. To assess the reliability of the data.

Mastering English Language. Words. (1984). .esp-world. Howard and Amvela.html Jackson. Etienne Z.No Activities April May √ June √ Month July August September 1 2 3 4 5 Planning Research Data collection Analysis data Arrangement of the data √ √ √ √ √ J. 2002. Cambridge University Press. Methodology in Language Teaching. http://www. H. 2000. S. New York: Longman Publishing Hodges. Meaning and Vocabulary. Jack C. London: Cassell Richards. 1993. Macmillan Press Ltd. Essentials of English Language Teaching. Richard E. Julian. References Burton. Edge. et all.