1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String? StringBuilder is more efficient in the cases, where a lot of manipulation is done to the text. Strings are immutable, so each time it’s being operated on, a new instance is created. Can you store multiple data types in System.Array? No. What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()? The first one performs a deep copy of the array, the second one is shallow. How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order? By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods. What’s the .NET datatype that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key? HashTable. What’s class SortedList underneath? A sorted HashTable. Will finally block get executed if the exception had not occurred? Yes. What’s the C# equivalent of C++ catch (…), which was a catch-all statement for any possible exception? A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}. Can multiple catch blocks be executed? No, once the proper catch code fires off, the control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any), and then whatever follows the finally block. code to handle that error instead of passing a new Exception object to the catch block? Throwing your own exceptions signifies some design flaws in the project.

10. Why is it a bad idea to throw your own exceptions? Well, if at that point you know that an error has occurred, then why not write the proper 11. What’s a delegate? A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. In C++ they were referred to as function pointers. 12. What’s a multicast delegate? It’s a delegate that points to and eventually fires off several methods. 13. How’s the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was
available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.

14. What are the ways to deploy an assembly? An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command. 15. What’s a satellite assembly? When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application
separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.

16. What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? System.Globalization, System.Resources. 17. What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments? Single-line, multi-line and XML documentation comments. 18. How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler? Compile it with a /doc switch. 19. What’s the difference between <c> and <code> XML documentation tag? Single line code example and multiple-line code example. 20. Is XML case-sensitive? Yes, so <Student> and <student> are different elements. 21. What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK? CorDBG – command-line debugger, and DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET
uses the DbgCLR. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch.

22. What does the This window show in the debugger? It points to the object that’s pointed to by this reference. Object’s instance data is shown. 23. What does assert() do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is
false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.

24. What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use
Trace class for both debug and release builds.

25. Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The tracing dumps can be quite verbose and for some applications
that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive there. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing to fine-tune the tracing activities.

26. Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor. 27. How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger. 28. What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? Positive test cases (correct data, correct output), negative test cases (broken
or missing data, proper handling), exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).

29. Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application? Yes, if you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to
Immediate window.

30. Explain the three services model (three-tier application). Presentation (UI), business (logic and underlying code) and data (from storage or
other sources).

31. What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET? SQLServer.NET data provider is highspeed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix, but it’s a .NET layer on top of OLE layer, so not the fastest thing in the world. ODBC.NET is a deprecated layer provided for backward compatibility to ODBC engines.

32. What’s the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections? It returns a read-only dataset from the data source when the command is
executed.

33. What is the wildcard character in SQL? Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The
wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.

34. Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions. Transaction must be Atomic (it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and
following transactions), Consistent (data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t), Isolated (no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction), Durable (the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after).

35. What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support? Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via
Microsoft SQL Server username and passwords).

36. Which one is trusted and which one is untrusted? Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with
the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction.

37. Why would you use untrusted verificaion? Web Services might use it, as well as non-Windows applications.

38. What does the parameter Initial Catalog define inside Connection String? The database name to connect to. 39. What’s the data provider name to connect to Access database? Microsoft.Access. 40. What does Dispose method do with the connection object? Deletes it from the memory. 41. What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter
is the same, including the security settings

1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String? StringBuilder is more efficient in the cases, where a lot of manipulation is done to the text. Strings are immutable, so each time it’s being operated on, a new instance is created. Can you store multiple data types in System.Array? No. What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()? The first one performs a deep copy of the array, the second one is shallow. How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order? By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods. What’s the .NET datatype that allows the retrieval of data by a unique key? HashTable. What’s class SortedList underneath? A sorted HashTable. Will finally block get executed if the exception had not occurred? Yes. What’s the C# equivalent of C++ catch (…), which was a catch-all statement for any possible exception? A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}. Can multiple catch blocks be executed? No, once the proper catch code fires off, the control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any), and then whatever follows the finally block. code to handle that error instead of passing a new Exception object to the catch block? Throwing your own exceptions signifies some design flaws in the project.

10. Why is it a bad idea to throw your own exceptions? Well, if at that point you know that an error has occurred, then why not write the proper 11. What’s a delegate? A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. In C++ they were referred to as function pointers. 12. What’s a multicast delegate? It’s a delegate that points to and eventually fires off several methods. 13. How’s the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was
available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.

14. What are the ways to deploy an assembly? An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command. 15. What’s a satellite assembly? When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application
separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.

16. What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? System.Globalization, System.Resources. 17. What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments? Single-line, multi-line and XML documentation comments. 18. How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler? Compile it with a /doc switch. 19. What’s the difference between <c> and <code> XML documentation tag? Single line code example and multiple-line code example. 20. Is XML case-sensitive? Yes, so <Student> and <student> are different elements. 21. What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK? CorDBG – command-line debugger, and DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET
uses the DbgCLR. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch.

22. What does the This window show in the debugger? It points to the object that’s pointed to by this reference. Object’s instance data is shown. 23. What does assert() do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is
false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.

24. What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use
Trace class for both debug and release builds.

25. Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The tracing dumps can be quite verbose and for some applications
that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive there. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing to fine-tune the tracing activities.

26. Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor. 27. How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger. 28. What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? Positive test cases (correct data, correct output), negative test cases (broken
or missing data, proper handling), exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).

29. Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application? Yes, if you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to
Immediate window.

30. Explain the three services model (three-tier application). Presentation (UI), business (logic and underlying code) and data (from storage or
other sources).

31. What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET? SQLServer.NET data provider is highspeed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix, but it’s a .NET layer on top of OLE layer, so not the fastest thing in the world. ODBC.NET is a deprecated layer provided for backward compatibility to ODBC engines.

32. What’s the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections? It returns a read-only dataset from the data source when the command is
executed.

33. What is the wildcard character in SQL? Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The
wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.

34. Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions. Transaction must be Atomic (it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and
following transactions), Consistent (data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something

hasn’t), Isolated (no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction), Durable (the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after).

35. What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support? Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via
Microsoft SQL Server username and passwords).

36. Which one is trusted and which one is untrusted? Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with
the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction.

37. Why would you use untrusted verificaion? Web Services might use it, as well as non-Windows applications. 38. What does the parameter Initial Catalog define inside Connection String? The database name to connect to. 39. What’s the data provider name to connect to Access database? Microsoft.Access. 40. What does Dispose method do with the connection object? Deletes it from the memory. 41. What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter
is the same, including the security settings

General Questions

1. 2. 3.

Does C# support multiple-inheritance? No. Who is a protected class-level variable available to? It is available to any sub-class (a class inheriting this class). Are private class-level variables inherited? Yes, but they are not accessible. Although they are not visible or accessible via the class interface, they are inherited. Describe the accessibility modifier “protected internal”. It is available to classes that are within the same assembly and derived from the specified base class. What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from? System.Object. What does the term immutable mean? The data value may not be changed. Note: The variable value may be changed, but the original immutable data value was discarded and a new data value was created in memory. What’s the difference between System.String and System.Text.StringBuilder classes? System.String is immutable. System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed. What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String? StringBuilder is more efficient in cases where there is a large amount of string manipulation. Strings are immutable, so each time a string is changed, a new instance in memory is created. Can you store multiple data types in System.Array? No.

4. 5. 6.

7.

8.

9.

10. What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?
The Clone() method returns a new array (a shallow copy) object containing all the elements in the original array. The CopyTo() method copies the elements into another existing array. Both perform a shallow copy. A shallow copy means the contents (each array element) contains references to the same object as the elements in the original array. A deep copy (which neither of these methods performs) would create a new instance of each element's object, resulting in a different, yet identacle object.

11. How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?
By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.

12. What’s the .NET collection class that allows an element to be accessed using a unique key?
HashTable.

13. What class is underneath the SortedList class?
A sorted HashTable.

14. Will the finally block get executed if an exception has not occurred?
Yes.

15. What’s the C# syntax to catch any possible exception?
A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.

16. Can multiple catch blocks be executed for a single try statement?
No. Once the proper catch block processed, control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any).

17. Explain the three services model commonly know as a three-tier application.
Presentation (UI), Business (logic and underlying code) and Data (from storage or other sources).

Class Questions

1.

What is the syntax to inherit from a class in C#? Place a colon and then the name of the base class. Example: class MyNewClass : MyBaseClass Can you prevent your class from being inherited by another class? Yes. The keyword “sealed” will prevent the class from being inherited. Can you allow a class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-ridden? Yes. Just leave the class public and make the method sealed. What’s an abstract class? A class that cannot be instantiated. An abstract class is a class that must be inherited and have the methods overridden. An abstract class is essentially a blueprint for a class without any implementation. When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract? 1. When the class itself is inherited from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been overridden. 2. When at least one of the methods in the class is abstract. What is an interface class? Interfaces, like classes, define a set of properties, methods, and events. But unlike classes, interfaces do not provide implementation. They are implemented by classes, and defined as separate entities from classes. Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the interface? They all must be public, and are therefore public by default. Can you inherit multiple interfaces? Yes. .NET does support multiple interfaces. What happens if you inherit multiple interfaces and they have conflicting method names? It’s up to you to implement the method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you’re okay. To Do: Investigate

2. 3. 4.

5.

6.

7. 8. 9.

10. What’s the difference between an interface and abstract class?
In an interface class, all methods are abstract - there is no implementation. In an abstract class some methods can be concrete. In an interface class, no accessibility modifiers are allowed. An abstract class may have accessibility modifiers.

11. What is the difference between a Struct and a Class?
Structs are value-type variables and are thus saved on the stack, additional overhead but faster retrieval.

Another difference is that structs cannot inherit.

Method and Property Questions

1. 2. 3.

What’s the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the set method/property of a class? Value. The data type of the value parameter is defined by whatever data type the property is declared as. What does the keyword “virtual” declare for a method or property? The method or property can be overridden. How is method overriding different from method overloading? When overriding a method, you change the behavior of the method for the derived class. Overloading a method simply involves having another method with the same name within the class. Can you declare an override method to be static if the original method is not static? No. The signature of the virtual method must remain the same. (Note: Only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override) What are the different ways a method can be overloaded? Different parameter data types, different number of parameters, different order of parameters. If a base class has a number of overloaded constructors, and an inheriting class has a number of overloaded constructors; can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to a specific base constructor? Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.

4.

5. 6.

Events and Delegates

1. 2.

What’s a delegate? A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. What’s a multicast delegate? A delegate that has multiple handlers assigned to it. Each assigned handler (method) is called.

XML Documentation Questions

1. 2. 3.

Is XML case-sensitive? Yes. What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments? Single-line comments, multi-line comments, and XML documentation comments. How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler? Compile it with the /doc switch.

Debugging and Testing Questions

1.

What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK? 1. CorDBG – command-line debugger. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch.

2. DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR.

2.

What does assert() method do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true. What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds. Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The tracing dumps can be quite verbose. For applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing you to fine-tune the tracing activities. Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor. How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger. What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? 1. Positive test cases (correct data, correct output). 2. Negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling). 3. Exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly). Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application? Yes. If you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

ADO.NET and Database Questions

1.

What is the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections? It returns a read-only, forward-only rowset from the data source. A DataReader provides fast access when a forward-only sequential read is needed. What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET? SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix. OLE-DB.NET is a .NET layer on top of the OLE layer, so it’s not as fastest and efficient as SqlServer.NET. What is the wildcard character in SQL? Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’. Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions. A transaction must be: 1. Atomic - it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions. 2. Consistent - data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t. 3. Isolated - no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction). 4. Durable - the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after. What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support? Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via Microsoft SQL Server username and password). Between Windows Authentication and SQL Server Authentication, which one is trusted and which one is untrusted? Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction.

2.

3.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

What does the Initial Catalog parameter define in the connection string? The database name to connect to. What does the Dispose method do with the connection object? Deletes it from the memory. To Do: answer better. The current answer is not entirely correct. What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings. The connection string must be identical.

9.

Assembly Questions

1.

How is the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly. What are the ways to deploy an assembly? An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command. What is a satellite assembly? When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies. What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? System.Globalization and System.Resources. What is the smallest unit of execution in .NET? an Assembly. When should you call the garbage collector in .NET? As a good rule, you should not call the garbage collector. However, you could call the garbage collector when you are done using a large object (or set of objects) to force the garbage collector to dispose of those very large objects from memory. However, this is usually not a good practice. How do you convert a value-type to a reference-type? Use Boxing. What happens in memory when you Box and Unbox a value-type? Boxing converts a value-type to a reference-type, thus storing the object on the heap. Unboxing converts a reference-type to a value-type, thus storing the value on the stack.

2. 3.

4. 5. 6.

7. 8.

General Questions

1. 2. 3.

Does C# support multiple-inheritance? No. Who is a protected class-level variable available to? It is available to any sub-class (a class inheriting this class). Are private class-level variables inherited? Yes, but they are not accessible. Although they are not visible or accessible via the class interface, they are inherited.

4. 5. 6.

Describe the accessibility modifier “protected internal”. It is available to classes that are within the same assembly and derived from the specified base class. What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from? System.Object. What does the term immutable mean? The data value may not be changed. Note: The variable value may be changed, but the original immutable data value was discarded and a new data value was created in memory. What’s the difference between System.String and System.Text.StringBuilder classes? System.String is immutable. System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed. What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String? StringBuilder is more efficient in cases where there is a large amount of string manipulation. Strings are immutable, so each time a string is changed, a new instance in memory is created. Can you store multiple data types in System.Array? No.

7.

8.

9.

10. What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?
The Clone() method returns a new array (a shallow copy) object containing all the elements in the original array. The CopyTo() method copies the elements into another existing array. Both perform a shallow copy. A shallow copy means the contents (each array element) contains references to the same object as the elements in the original array. A deep copy (which neither of these methods performs) would create a new instance of each element's object, resulting in a different, yet identacle object.

11. How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?
By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.

12. What’s the .NET collection class that allows an element to be accessed using a unique key?
HashTable.

13. What class is underneath the SortedList class?
A sorted HashTable.

14. Will the finally block get executed if an exception has not occurred?
Yes.

15. What’s the C# syntax to catch any possible exception?
A catch block that catches the exception of type System.Exception. You can also omit the parameter data type in this case and just write catch {}.

16. Can multiple catch blocks be executed for a single try statement?
No. Once the proper catch block processed, control is transferred to the finally block (if there are any).

17. Explain the three services model commonly know as a three-tier application.
Presentation (UI), Business (logic and underlying code) and Data (from storage or other sources).

Class Questions

1.

What is the syntax to inherit from a class in C#? Place a colon and then the name of the base class. Example: class MyNewClass : MyBaseClass Can you prevent your class from being inherited by another class? Yes. The keyword “sealed” will prevent the class from being inherited.

2.

3. 4.

Can you allow a class to be inherited, but prevent the method from being over-ridden? Yes. Just leave the class public and make the method sealed. What’s an abstract class? A class that cannot be instantiated. An abstract class is a class that must be inherited and have the methods overridden. An abstract class is essentially a blueprint for a class without any implementation.

5.

When do you absolutely have to declare a class as abstract? 1. When the class itself is inherited from an abstract class, but not all base abstract methods have been overridden. 2. When at least one of the methods in the class is abstract. What is an interface class? Interfaces, like classes, define a set of properties, methods, and events. But unlike classes, interfaces do not provide implementation. They are implemented by classes, and defined as separate entities from classes. Why can’t you specify the accessibility modifier for methods inside the interface? They all must be public, and are therefore public by default. Can you inherit multiple interfaces? Yes. .NET does support multiple interfaces. What happens if you inherit multiple interfaces and they have conflicting method names? It’s up to you to implement the method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you’re okay. To Do: Investigate

6.

7. 8. 9.

10. What’s the difference between an interface and abstract class?
In an interface class, all methods are abstract - there is no implementation. In an abstract class some methods can be concrete. In an interface class, no accessibility modifiers are allowed. An abstract class may have accessibility modifiers.

11. What is the difference between a Struct and a Class?
Structs are value-type variables and are thus saved on the stack, additional overhead but faster retrieval. Another difference is that structs cannot inherit.

Method and Property Questions

1.

What’s the implicit name of the parameter that gets passed into the set method/property of a class? Value. The data type of the value parameter is defined by whatever data type the property is declared as. What does the keyword “virtual” declare for a method or property? The method or property can be overridden. How is method overriding different from method overloading? When overriding a method, you change the behavior of the method for the derived class. Overloading a method simply involves having another method with the same name within the class. Can you declare an override method to be static if the original method is not static? No. The signature of the virtual method must remain the same. (Note: Only the keyword virtual is changed to keyword override) What are the different ways a method can be overloaded? Different parameter data types, different number of parameters, different order of parameters. If a base class has a number of overloaded constructors, and an inheriting class has a number of overloaded constructors; can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to a specific base constructor?

2. 3.

4.

5. 6.

Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.

Events and Delegates

1. 2.

What’s a delegate? A delegate object encapsulates a reference to a method. What’s a multicast delegate? A delegate that has multiple handlers assigned to it. Each assigned handler (method) is called.

XML Documentation Questions

1. 2. 3.

Is XML case-sensitive? Yes. What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments? Single-line comments, multi-line comments, and XML documentation comments. How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler? Compile it with the /doc switch.

Debugging and Testing Questions

1.

What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK? 1. CorDBG – command-line debugger. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch. 2. DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR. What does assert() method do? In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true. What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class? Documentation looks the same. Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds. Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher? The tracing dumps can be quite verbose. For applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing you to finetune the tracing activities. Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected? To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor. How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger. What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing? 1. Positive test cases (correct data, correct output). 2. Negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling). 3. Exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly).

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8.

Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application? Yes. If you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.

ADO.NET and Database Questions

1.

What is the role of the DataReader class in ADO.NET connections? It returns a read-only, forward-only rowset from the data source. A DataReader provides fast access when a forward-only sequential read is needed. What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET? SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix. OLE-DB.NET is a .NET layer on top of the OLE layer, so it’s not as fastest and efficient as SqlServer.NET.

2.

3.

What is the wildcard character in SQL? Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’. Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions. A transaction must be: 1. Atomic - it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions. 2. Consistent - data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t. 3. Isolated - no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction). 4. Durable - the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after. What connections does Microsoft SQL Server support? Windows Authentication (via Active Directory) and SQL Server authentication (via Microsoft SQL Server username and password). Between Windows Authentication and SQL Server Authentication, which one is trusted and which one is untrusted? Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction. What does the Initial Catalog parameter define in the connection string? The database name to connect to. What does the Dispose method do with the connection object? Deletes it from the memory. To Do: answer better. The current answer is not entirely correct. What is a pre-requisite for connection pooling? Multiple processes must agree that they will share the same connection, where every parameter is the same, including the security settings. The connection string must be identical.

4.

5.

6.

7. 8.

9.

Assembly Questions

1.

How is the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly. What are the ways to deploy an assembly? An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command. What is a satellite assembly? When you write a multilingual or multi-cultural application in .NET, and want to distribute the core

2. 3.

application separately from the localized modules, the localized assemblies that modify the core application are called satellite assemblies.

4. 5. 6.

What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application? System.Globalization and System.Resources. What is the smallest unit of execution in .NET? an Assembly. When should you call the garbage collector in .NET? As a good rule, you should not call the garbage collector. However, you could call the garbage collector when you are done using a large object (or set of objects) to force the garbage collector to dispose of those very large objects from memory. However, this is usually not a good practice. How do you convert a value-type to a reference-type? Use Boxing. What happens in memory when you Box and Unbox a value-type? Boxing converts a value-type to a reference-type, thus storing the object on the heap. Unboxing converts a reference-type to a value-type, thus storing the value on the stack.

7. 8.

1.

1.

Name 10 C# keywords.

abstract, event, new, struct, explicit, null, base, extern, object, this 2. 2. What is public accessibility?

There are no access restrictions. 3. 3. What is protected accessibility?

Access is restricted to types derived from the containing class. 4. 4. What is internal accessibility?

A member marked internal is only accessible from files within the same assembly. 5. 5. What is protected internal accessibility?

Access is restricted to types derived from the containing class or from files within the same assembly. 6. 6. What is private accessibility?

Access is restricted to within the containing class. 7. 7. What is the default accessibility for a class?

internal for a top level class, private for a nested one. 8. 8. What is the default accessibility for members of an interface?

public 9. 9. What is the default accessibility for members of a struct?

private 10. 10. Can the members of an interface be private? No. 11. 11. Methods must declare a return type, what is the keyword used when nothing is returned from the method?

void 12. 12. Class methods to should be marked with what keyword? static 13. 13. Write some code using interfaces, virtual methods, and an abstract class. using System; public interface Iexample1 { int MyMethod1(); } public interface Iexample2 { int MyMethod2(); } public abstract class ABSExample : Iexample1, Iexample2 { public ABSExample() { System.Console.WriteLine("ABSExample constructor"); } public int MyMethod1() { return 1; } public int MyMethod2() { return 2; } public abstract void MyABSMethod(); } public class VIRTExample : ABSExample { public VIRTExample() { System.Console.WriteLine("VIRTExample constructor"); } public override void MyABSMethod() { System.Console.WriteLine("Abstract method made concrete"); } public virtual void VIRTMethod1() { System.Console.WriteLine("VIRTMethod1 has NOT been overridden"); } public virtual void VIRTMethod2() { System.Console.WriteLine("VIRTMethod2 has NOT been overridden"); } } public class FinalClass : VIRTExample { public override void VIRTMethod2() { System.Console.WriteLine("VIRTMethod2 has been overridden"); } }

14. 14. A class can have many mains, how does this work? Only one of them is run, that is the one marked (public) static, e.g: public static void Main(string[] args) { // // TODO: Add code to start application here // } private void Main(string[] args, int i) { }

15. 15. Does an object need to be made to run main? No 16. 16. Write a hello world console application. using System; namespace Console1 { class Class1 { [STAThread] // No longer needed static void Main(string[] args) { Console.WriteLine("Hello world"); } }

} 17. 17. What are the two return types for main? void and int 18. 18. What is a reference parameter? Reference parameters reference the original object whereas value parameters make a local copy and do not affect the original. Some example code is shown: using System; namespace Console1 { class Class1 { static void Main(string[] args) { TestRef tr1 = new TestRef(); TestRef tr2 = new TestRef(); tr1.TestValue = "Original value"; tr2.TestValue = "Original value"; int tv1 = 1; int tv2 = 1; TestRefVal(ref tv1, tv2, ref tr1, tr2); Console.WriteLine(tv1); Console.WriteLine(tv2); Console.WriteLine(tr1.TestValue); Console.WriteLine(tr2.TestValue); Console.ReadLine(); }

static public void TestRefVal(ref int tv1Parm, int tv2Parm, ref TestRef tr1Parm, TestRef tr2Parm) { tv1Parm = 2; tv2Parm = 2; tr1Parm.TestValue = "New value"; tr2Parm.TestValue = "New value"; } } } class TestRef { public string TestValue; } The output for this is: 2 1 New value New value

19. 19. What is an out parameter? An out parameter allows an instance of a parameter object to be made inside a method. Reference parameters must be initialised but out gives a reference to an uninstanciated object. 20. 20. Write code to show how a method can accept a varying number of parameters. using System; namespace Console1 { class Class1 { static void Main(string[] args) { ParamsMethod(1,"example"); ParamsMethod(1,2,3,4); Console.ReadLine(); } static void ParamsMethod(params object[] list) { foreach (object o in list) { Console.WriteLine(o.ToString()); } } }

} 21. 21. What is an overloaded method? An overloaded method has multiple signatures that are different. 22. 22. What is recursion? Recursion is when a method calls itself. 23. 23. What is a constructor? A constructor performs initialisation for an object (including the struct type) or class. 24. 24. If I have a constructor with a parameter, do I need to explicitly create a default constructor? Yes

25. 25. What is a destructor? A C# destuctor is not like a C++ destructor. It is actually an override for Finalize(). This is called when the garbage collector discovers that the object is unreachable. Finalize() is called before any memory is reclaimed. 26. 26. Can you use access modifiers with destructors? No 27. 27. What is a delegate? A delegate in C# is like a function pointer in C or C++. A delegate is a variable that calls a method indirectly, without knowing its name. Delegates can point to static or/and member functions. It is also possible to use a multicast delegate to point to multiple functions. 28. 28. Write some code to use a delegate. Member function with a parameter using System; namespace Console1 { class Class1 { delegate void myDelegate(int parameter1); static void Main(string[] args) { MyClass myInstance = new MyClass(); myDelegate d = new myDelegate(myInstance.AMethod); d(1); // <--- Calling function without knowing its name. Test2(d); Console.ReadLine(); } static void Test2(myDelegate d) { d(2); // <--- Calling function without knowing its name. } } class MyClass { public void AMethod(int param1) { Console.WriteLine(param1); } } } Multicast delegate calling static and member functions using System; namespace Console1 { class Class1 { delegate void myDelegate(int parameter1); static void AStaticMethod(int param1) { Console.WriteLine(param1); } static void Main(string[] args) { MyClass myInstance = new MyClass(); myDelegate d = null; d += new myDelegate(myInstance.AMethod); d += new myDelegate(AStaticMethod);

d(1); //both functions will be run. Console.ReadLine(); } } class MyClass { public void AMethod(int param1) { Console.WriteLine(param1); } } }

29. 29. What is a delegate useful for? The main reason we use delegates is for use in event driven programming. 30. 30. What is an event? See 32 31. 31. Are events synchronous of asynchronous? Asynchronous 32. 32. Events use a publisher/subscriber model. What is that? Objects publish events to which other applications subscribe. When the publisher raises an event all subscribers to that event are notified. 33. 33. Can a subscriber subscribe to more than one publisher? Yes, also - here's some code for a publisher with multiple subscribers. using System; namespace Console1 { class Class1 { delegate void myDelegate(int parameter1); static event myDelegate myEvent; static void AStaticMethod(int param1) { Console.WriteLine(param1); } static void Main(string[] args) { MyClass myInstance = new MyClass(); myEvent += new myDelegate(myInstance.AMethod); myEvent += new myDelegate(AStaticMethod); myEvent(1); //both functions will be run. Console.ReadLine(); } } class MyClass { public void AMethod(int param1) { Console.WriteLine(param1); } } } Another example: using System;

using System.Threading; namespace EventExample { public class Clock { public delegate void TwoSecondsPassedHandler(object clockInstance, TimeEventArgs time); //The clock publishes an event that others subscribe to public event TwoSecondsPassedHandler TwoSecondsPassed; public void Start() { while(true) { Thread.Sleep(2000); //Raise event TwoSecondsPassed(this, new TimeEventArgs(1)); } } } public class TimeEventArgs : EventArgs { public TimeEventArgs(int second) { seconds += second; instanceSeconds = seconds; } private static int seconds; public int instanceSeconds; } public class MainClass { static void Main(string[] args) { Clock cl = new Clock(); // add some subscribers cl.TwoSecondsPassed += new Clock.TwoSecondsPassedHandler(Subscriber1); cl.TwoSecondsPassed += new Clock.TwoSecondsPassedHandler(Subscriber2); cl.Start(); Console.ReadLine(); } public static void Subscriber1(object clockInstance, TimeEventArgs time) { Console.WriteLine("Subscriber1:" + time.instanceSeconds); } public static void Subscriber2(object clockInstance, TimeEventArgs time) { Console.WriteLine("Subscriber2:" + time.instanceSeconds); } } }

34. 34. What is a value type and a reference type? A reference type is known by a reference to a memory location on the heap. A value type is directly stored in a memory location on the stack. A reference type is essentially a pointer, dereferencing the pointer takes more time than directly accessing the direct memory location of a value type.

35. 35. Name 5 built in types. Bool, char, int, byte, double 36. 36. string is an alias for what? System.String 37. 37. Is string Unicode, ASCII, or something else?

Unicode 38. 38. Strings are immutable, what does this mean? Any changes to that string are in fact copies. 39. 39. Name a few string properties. trim, tolower, toupper, concat, copy, insert, equals, compare. 40. 40. What is boxing and unboxing? Converting a value type (stack->heap) to a reference type (heap->stack), and vise-versa. 41. 41. Write some code to box and unbox a value type. // Boxing int i = 4; object o = i; // Unboxing i = (int) o;

42. 42. What is a heap and a stack? There are 2 kinds of heap – 1: a chunk of memory where data is stored and 2: a tree based data structure. When we talk about the heap and the stack we mean the first kind of heap. The stack is a LIFO data structure that stores variables and flow control information. Typically each thread will have its own stack. 43. 43. What is a pointer? A pointer is a reference to a memory address. 44. 44. What does new do in terms of objects? Initializes an object. 45. 45. How do you dereference an object? Set it equal to null. 46. 46. In terms of references, how do == and != (not overridden) work? They check to see if the references both point to the same object. 47. 47. What is a struct? Unlike in C++ a struct is not a class – it is a value type with certain restrictions. It is usually best to use a struct to represent simple entities with a few variables. Like a Point for example which contains variables x and y.

48. 48. Describe 5 numeric value types ranges.
sbyte -128 to 127, byte 0 – 255, short -32,768 to 32,767, int -2,147,483,648 to 2,147,483,647, ulong 0 to 18,446,744,073,709,551,615 49. 49. What is the default value for a bool? false 50. 50. Write code for an enumeration. public enum animals {Dog=1,Cat,Bear}; 51. 51. Write code for a case statement. switch (n) { case 1:

x=1; break; case 2: x=2; break; default: goto case 1; }

52. 52. Is a struct stored on the heap or stack? Stack 53. 53. Can a struct have methods? Yes 54. 54. What is checked { } and unchecked { }? By default C# does not check for overflow (unless using constants), we can use checked to raise an exception. E.g.: static short x = 32767; // Max short value static short y = 32767; // Using a checked expression public static int myMethodCh() { int z = 0; try { z = checked((short)(x + y)); //z = (short)(x + y); } catch (System.OverflowException e) { System.Console.WriteLine(e.ToString()); } return z; // Throws the exception OverflowException } This code will raise an exception, if we remove unchecked as in: //z = checked((short)(x + y)); z = (short)(x + y); Then the cast will raise no overflow exception and z will be assigned –2. unchecked can be used in the opposite way, to say avoid compile time errors with constanst overflow. E.g. the following will cause a compiler error: const short x = 32767; // Max short value const short y = 32767; public static int myMethodUnch() { int z = (short)(x + y); return z; // Returns -2 } The following will not: const short x = 32767; // Max short value const short y = 32767; public static int myMethodUnch() { int z = unchecked((short)(x + y)); return z; // Returns -2 }

55. 55. Can C# have global overflow checking? Yes 56. 56. What is explicit vs. implicit conversion?

When converting from a smaller numeric type into a larger one the cast is implicit. An example of when an explicit cast is needed is when a value may be truncated. 57. 57. Give examples of both of the above. // Implicit short shrt = 400; int intgr = shrt; // Explicit

shrt = (short) intgr; 58. 58. Can assignment operators be overloaded directly? No 59. 59. What do operators is and as do? as acts is like a cast but returns a null on conversion failure. Is comares an object to a type and returns a boolean. 60. 60. What is the difference between the new operator and modifier? The new operator creates an instance of a class whereas the new modifier is used to declare a method with the same name as a method in one of the parent classes. 61. 61. Explain sizeof and typeof. typeof obtains the System.Type object for a type and sizeof obtains the size of a type.

62. 62. What doe the stackalloc operator do? Allocate a block of memory on the stack (used in unsafe mode). 63. 63. Contrast ++count vs. count++. Some operators have temporal properties depending on their placement. E.g. double x; x = 2; Console.Write(++x); x = 2; Console.Write(x++); Console.Write(x);

Returns 323 64. 64. What are the names of the three types of operators? Unary, binary, and conversion. 65. 65. An operator declaration must include a public and static modifier, can it have other modifiers? No 66. 66. Can operator parameters be reference parameters? No 67. 67. Describe an operator from each of these categories:

Arithmetic: + Logical (boolean and bitwise): & String concatenation: + Increment, decrement: ++ Shift: >> Relational: == Assignment: = Member access: . Indexing: [] Cast: () Conditional: ?: Delegate concatenation and removal: + Object creation: new Type information: as Overflow exception control: checked Indirection and Address: *

68. 68. What does operator order of precedence mean?
Certain operators are evaluated before others. Brackets help to avoid confusion. 69. 69. What is special about the declaration of relational operators? Relational operators must be declared in pairs. 70. 70. Write some code to overload an operator. class TempleCompare { public int templeCompareID; public int templeValue; public static bool operator == (TempleCompare x, TempleCompare y) { return (x.templeValue == y.templeValue); } public static bool operator != (TempleCompare x, TempleCompare y) { return !(x == y); } public override bool Equals(object o) { // check types match if (o == null || GetType()!= o.GetType()) return false; TempleCompare t = (templeCompare) o; return (this.templeCompareID == t.templeCompareID) && (this.templeValue == t.templeValue); } public override int GetHashCode() { return templeCompareID; } }

71. 71. What operators cannot be overloaded? =, ., ?:, ->, new, is, sizeof, typeof 72. 72. What is an exception? A runtime error. 73. 73. Can C# have multiple catch blocks? Yes 74. 74. Can break exit a finally block? No 75. 75. Can Continue exit a finally block? No 76. 76. Write some try…catch…finally code.

// try-catch-finally using System; public class TCFClass { public static void Main () { try { throw new NullReferenceException(); } catch(NullReferenceException e) { Console.WriteLine("{0} exception 1.", e); } catch { Console.WriteLine("exception 2."); } finally { Console.WriteLine("finally block."); } } }

77. 77. What are expression and declaration statements?

• •

Expression – produces a value e.g. blah = 0 Declaration – e.g. int blah;

78. 78. A block contains a statement list {s1;s2;} what is an empty statement list?
{;} 79. 79. Write some if… else if… code. int n=4; if (n==1) Console.WriteLine("n=1"); else if (n==2) Console.WriteLine("n=2"); else if (n==3) Console.WriteLine("n=3"); else Console.WriteLine("n>3");

80. 80. What is a dangling else? if (n>0) if (n2>0) Console.Write("Dangling Else")

else 81. 81. Is switch case sensitive? Yes 82. 82. Write some code for a for loop for (int i = 1; i <= 5; i++) Console.WriteLine(i);

83. 83. Can you increment multiple variables in a for loop control? Yes – e.g. for (int i = 1; j = 2;i <= 5 ;i++ ;j=j+2)

84. 84. Write some code for a while loop. int n = 1; while (n < 6) { Console.WriteLine("Current value of n is {0}", n); n++; }

85. 85. Write some code for do… while. int x; int y = 0; do { x = y++; Console.WriteLine(x); }

while(y < 5); 86. 86. Write some code that declares an array on ints, assigns the values: 0,1,2,5,7,8,11 to that array and use a foreach to do something with those values. int x = 0, y = 0; int[] arr = new int [] {0,1,2}; foreach (int i in arr) { if (i%2 == 0) x++; else y++; }

87. 87. Write some code for a custom collection class. using System; using System.Collections; public class Items : IEnumerable { private string[] contents; public Items(string[] contents) { this.contents = contents; } public IEnumerator GetEnumerator() { return new ItemsEnumerator(this); } private class ItemsEnumerator : IEnumerator { private int location = -1; private Items i; public ItemsEnumerator(Items i) { this.i = i; } public bool MoveNext() { if (location < i.contents.Length - 1) { location++; return true; } else

{ return false; } } public void Reset() { location = -1; } public object Current { get { return i.contents[location]; } } } static void Main() { // Test string[] myArray = {"a","b","c"}; Items items = new Items(myArray); foreach (string item in items) { Console.WriteLine(item); } Console.ReadLine(); }

} 88. 88. Describe Jump statements: break, continue, and goto. Break terminates a loop or switch. Continue jumps to the next iteration of an enclosing iteration statement. Goto jumps to a labelled statement. 89. 89. How do you declare a constant? public const int c1 = 5;

90. 90. What is the default index of an array? 0 91. 91. What is array rank? The dimension of the array. 92. 92. Can you resize an array at runtime? No 93. 93. Does the size of an array need to be defined at compile time. No 94. 94. Write some code to implement a multidimensional array. int[,] b = {{0, 1}, {2, 3}, {4, 5}, {6, 7}, {8, 9}};

95. 95. Write some code to implement a jagged array. // Declare the array of two elements: int[][] myArray = new int[2][]; // Initialize the elements: myArray[0] = new int[5] {1,3,5,7,9};

myArray[1] = new int[4] {2,4,6,8};

96. 96. What is an ArrayList? A data structure from System.Collections that can resize itself. 97. 97. Can an ArrayList be ReadOnly? Yes 98. 98. Write some code that uses an ArrayList. ArrayList list = new ArrayList(); list.Add("Hello"); list.Add("World");

99. 99. Write some code to implement an indexer. using System; namespace Console1 { class Class1 { static void Main(string[] args) { MyIndexableClass m = new MyIndexableClass(); Console.WriteLine(m[0]); Console.WriteLine(m[1]); Console.WriteLine(m[2]); Console.ReadLine(); } } class MyIndexableClass { private string []myData = {"one","two","three"}; public string this [int i] { get { return myData[i]; } set { myData[i] = value; } } } }

100. 100. Yes 101. 101. Yes 102. 102.

Can properties have an access modifier?

Can properties hide base class members of the same name?

What happens if you make a property static?

They become class properties. 103. 103. Can a property be a ref or out parameter?

A property is not classified as a variable – it can’t be ref or out parameter. 104. 104. Write some code to declare and use properties.

// instance public string InstancePr { get { return a; } set { a = value; } } //read-only static public static int ClassPr { get { return b; } }

105. 105.

What is an accessor?

An accessor contains executable statements associated with getting or setting properties. 106. 106. Yes 107. 107. What is early and late binding? Can an interface have properties?

Late binding is using System.object instead of explicitly declaring a class (which is early binding). 108. 108. What is polymorphism

Polymorphism is the ability to implement the same operation many times. Each derived method implements the operation inherited from the base class in its own way. 109. 109. What is a nested class?

A class declare within a class. 110. 110. What is a namespace?

A namespace declares a scope which is useful for organizing code and to distinguish one type from another. 111. 111. Yes 112. 112. Yes 113. 113. object is an alias for what? Can base constructors can be private? Can nested classes use any of the 5 types of accessibility?

System.Object 114. 114. What is reflection?

Reflection allows us to analyze an assembly’s metadata and it gives us a mechanism to do late binding. 115. 115. What namespace would you use for reflection?

System.Reflection 116. 116. What does this do? Public Foo() : this(12, 0, 0)

Calls another constructor in the list 117. 117. Do local values get garbage collected?

They die when they are pulled off the stack (go out of scope). 118. 118. No 119. 119. Describe garbage collection (in simple terms). Is object destruction deterministic?

Garbage collection eliminates uneeded objects.

1.
2. 3.

the new statement allocates memory for an object on the heap. When no objects reference the object it may be removed from the heap (this is a non deterministic process). Finalize is called just before the memory is released.

120. 120.

What is the using statement for?

The using statement defines a scope at the end of which an object will be disposed.

121. 121.

How do you refer to a member in the base class?

To refer to a member in the base class use:return base.NameOfMethod(). 122. 122. No 123. 123. No 124. 124. All classes derive from what? Does C# supports multiple inheritance? Can you derive from a struct?

System.Object 125. 125. Is constructor or destructor inheritance explicit or implicit? What does this mean?

Constructor or destructor inheritance is explicit…. Public Extended : base()à this is called the constructor initializer.

126. 126. No 127. 127.

Can different assemblies share internal access?

Does C# have “friendship”?

Not before C# 2.0 128. 128. Yes 129. 129. Nothing 130. 130. Yes Can abstract methods override virtual methods? In terms of constructors, what is the difference between: public MyDerived() : base() an public MyDerived() in a child class? Can you inherit from multiple interfaces?

131. 131. this 132. 132. Yes 133. 133.

What keyword would you use for scope name clashes?

Can you have nested namespaces?

What are attributes?

Attributes are declarative tags which can be used to mark certain entities (like methods for example). 134. 134. Name 3 categories of predefined attributes.

COM Interop, Transaction, Visual Designer Component Builder 135. 135. What are the 2 global attributes.

assembly and module. 136. 136. Why would you mark something as Serializable?

To show that the marked type can be serialized. 137. 137. Write code to define and use your own custom attribute.

(From MSDN) // cs_attributes_retr.cs using System; [AttributeUsage(AttributeTargets.Class|AttributeTargets.Struct, AllowMultiple=true)] public class Author : Attribute { public Author(string name) { this.name = name; version = 1.0; } public double version; string name; public string GetName() { return name; } }

138. 138.

List some custom attribute scopes and possible targets.

Assembly – assembly Class – type Delegate - type, return 139. 139. #if #else #elif #endif #define #undef #warning #error #line #region #endregion List some compiler directives?

140. 140.

What is a thread?

A thread is a the entity within a process that Windows schedules for execution. A thread has: • • The contents of a set of CPU registers representing the state of the processor. 2 stacks, 1 for the thread to use in kernel mode, and 1 for user mode. Private storage called Thread Local Storage for use by subsystems, run-time libraries, and DLLs. A thread ID.

• •

Threads sometimes have their own security context. 141. 141. Spin off 142. 142. What is the volatile keyword used for? Do you spin off or spawn a thread?

It indicates a field can be modified by an external entity (thread, OS, etc.).

143. 143.

Write code to use threading and the lock keyword.

using System; using System.Threading; namespace ConsoleApplication4 { class Class1 { [STAThread] static void Main(string[] args) { ThreadClass tc1 = new ThreadClass(1); ThreadClass tc2 = new ThreadClass(2); Thread oT1 = new Thread(new ThreadStart(tc1.ThreadMethod)); Thread oT2 = new Thread(new ThreadStart(tc2.ThreadMethod)); oT1.Start(); oT2.Start(); Console.ReadLine(); } } class ThreadClass { private static object lockValue = "dummy"; public int threadNumber; public ThreadClass(int threadNumber) { this.threadNumber = threadNumber; } public void ThreadMethod() { for (;;) { lock(lockValue) { Console.WriteLine(threadNumber + " working"); Thread.Sleep(1000); } } } } }

144. 144.

What is Monitor?

Monitor is a class that has various functions for thread synchronization.

145. 145.

What is a semaphore?

A resource management, synchronization, and locking tool. 146. 146. What mechanisms does C# have for the readers, writers problem?

System.Threading.ReaderWriterLock which has methods AcquireReaderLock, ReleaseReaderLock, AcquireWriterLock, and ReleaseWriterLock 147. 147. What is Mutex?

A Mutex object is used to guarantee only one thread can access a critical resource an any one time. 148. 148. What is an assembly?

Assemblies contain logical units of code in MSIL, metadata, and usually a manifest. Assemblies can be signed and the can dome in the form of a DLL or EXE. 149. 149. What is a DLL?

A set of callable functions, which can be dynamically loaded. 150. 150. What is an assembly identity?

Assembly identity is name, version number, and optional culture, and optional public key to guarantee uniqueness. 151. 151. What does the assembly manifest contain?

Assembly manifest lists all names of public types and resources and their locations in the assembly. 152. 152. What is IDLASM used for?

Use IDLASM to see assembly internals. It disassembles into MSIL. 153. 153. Where are private assemblies stored?

Same folder as exe 154. 154. The GAC 155. 155. What is DLL hell? Where are shared assemblies stored?

DLLs, VBX or OCX files being unavailable or in the wrong versions. Applicatioins using say these older DLLs expect some behaviour which is not present. 156. 156. In terms of assemblies, what is side-by-side execution?

An app can be configured to use different versions of an assembly simultaneously. 157. 157. Name and describe 5 different documentation tags.

/// <value></value> /// <example></example> /// <exception cref=""></exception> /// <include file='' path='[@name=""]'/> /// <param name="args"></param> /// <paramref name=""/> /// <permission cref=""></permission> /// <remarks> /// </remarks> /// <summary> /// <c></c> /// <code></code> /// <list type=""></list> /// <see cref=""/> /// <seealso cref=""/> /// </summary>

158. 158.

What is unsafe code?

Unsafe code bypasses type safety and memory management. 159. 159. What does the fixed statement do?

Prevents relocation of a variable by GC. 160. 160. How would you read and write using the console?

Console.Write, Console.WriteLine, Console.Readline 161. 161. Give examples of hex, currency, and fixed point console formatting.

Console.Write("{0:X}", 250); à FA Console.Write("{0:C}", 2.5); à $2.50 Console.Write("{0:F2}", 25); à 25.00 162. 162. Given part of a stack trace: aspnet.debugging.BadForm.Page_Load(Object sender, EventArgs e) +34. What does the +34 mean?

It is an actual offset (at the assembly language level) – not an offset into the IL instructions. 163. 163. Yes 164. 164. How can you implement a mutable string? Are value types are slower to pass as method parameters?

System.Text.StringBuilder 165. 165. What is a thread pool?

A thread pool is a means by which to control a number of threads simultaneously. Thread pools give us thread reuse, rather than creating a new thread every time. 166. 166. From Describe the CLR security model.

http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/02/09/SecurityinNET/default.aspx “Unlike the old principal-based security, the CLR enforces security policy based on where code is coming from rather than who the user is. This model, called code access security, makes sense in today's environment because so much code is installed over the Internet and even a trusted user doesn't know when that code is safe.” 167. 167. What’s the difference between camel and pascal casing?

PascalCasing, camelCasing 168. 168. From What does marshalling mean?

http://www.dictionary.net/marshalling “The process of packing one or more items of data into a message buffer, prior to transmitting that message buffer over a communication channel. The packing process not only collects together values which may be stored in non-consecutive memory locations but also converts data of different types into a standard representation agreed with the recipient of the message.” 169. 169. What is inlining?

From (Google web defintions)

“In-line expansion or inlining for short is a compiler optimization which "expands" a function call site into the actual implementation of the function which is called, rather than each call transferring control to a common piece of code. This reduces overhead associated with the function call, which is especially important for small and frequently called functions, and it helps call-site-specific compiler optimizations, especially constant propagation.” 170. 170. • • List the differences in C# 2.0. Generics Iterators Partial class definitions Nullable Types Anonymous methods :: operator Static classes static class members Extern keyword Accessor accessibility Covariance and Contravariance Fixed size buffers Fixed assemblies #pragma warning What are design patterns?


• • • • • • • •

• •
171. 171. From

http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/Patterns.aspx “Design patterns are recurring solutions to software design problems you find again and again in real-world application development.” 172. 172. From Describe some common design patterns.

http://www.dofactory.com/Patterns/Patterns.aspx Creational Patterns Abstract Factory Creates an instance of several families of classes Builder Separates object construction from its representation Factory Method Creates an instance of several derived classes Prototype A fully initialized instance to be copied or cloned Singleton A class of which only a single instance can exist Structural Patterns

Adapter Match interfaces of different classes Bridge Separates an object’s interface from its implementation Composite A tree structure of simple and composite objects Decorator Add responsibilities to objects dynamically Façade A single class that represents an entire subsystem Flyweight A fine-grained instance used for efficient sharing Proxy An object representing another object Behavioral Patterns

Chain of Resp. A way of passing a request between a chain of objects Command Encapsulate a command request as an object Interpreter A way to include language elements in a program Iterator Sequentially access the elements of a collection Mediator Defines simplified communication between classes Memento Capture and restore an object's internal state Observer A way of notifying change to a number of classes State Alter an object's behavior when its state changes Strategy Encapsulates an algorithm inside a class Template Method Defer the exact steps of an algorithm to a subclass Visitor Defines a new operation to a class without change

173.173.
From

What are the different diagrams in UML? What are they used for?

http://www.developer.com/design/article.php/1553851

• • • • • • • • •

“Use case diagram: The use case diagram is used to identify the primary elements and processes that form the system. The primary elements are termed as "actors" and the processes are called "use cases." The use case diagram shows which actors interact with each use case. Class diagram: The class diagram is used to refine the use case diagram and define a detailed design of the system. The class diagram classifies the actors defined in the use case diagram into a set of interrelated classes. The relationship or association between the classes can be either an "is-a" or "has-a" relationship. Each class in the class diagram may be capable of providing certain functionalities. These functionalities provided by the class are termed "methods" of the class. Apart from this, each class may have certain "attributes" that uniquely identify the class. Object diagram: The object diagram is a special kind of class diagram. An object is an instance of a class. This essentially means that an object represents the state of a class at a given point of time while the system is running. The object diagram captures the state of different classes in the system and their relationships or associations at a given point of time. State diagram: A state diagram, as the name suggests, represents the different states that objects in the system undergo during their life cycle. Objects in the system change states in response to events. In addition to this, a state diagram also captures the transition of the object's state from an initial state to a final state in response to events affecting the system. Activity diagram: The process flows in the system are captured in the activity diagram. Similar to a state diagram, an activity diagram also consists of activities, actions, transitions, initial and final states, and guard conditions. Sequence diagram: A sequence diagram represents the interaction between different objects in the system. The important aspect of a sequence diagram is that it is time-ordered. This means that the exact sequence of the interactions between the objects is represented step by step. Different objects in the sequence diagram interact with each other by passing "messages". Collaboration diagram: A collaboration diagram groups together the interactions between different objects. The interactions are listed as numbered interactions that help to trace the sequence of the interactions. The collaboration diagram helps to identify all the possible interactions that each object has with other objects. Component diagram: The component diagram represents the high-level parts that make up the system. This diagram depicts, at a high level, what components form part of the system and how they are interrelated. A component diagram depicts the components culled after the system has undergone the development or construction phase. Deployment diagram: The deployment diagram captures the configuration of the runtime elements of the application. This diagram is by far most useful when a system is built and ready to be deployed.”

C# developer interview questions A representative of a high-tech company in United Kingdom sent this in today noting that the list was used for interviewing a C# .NET developer. Any corrections and suggestions would be forwarded to the author. I won’t disclose the name of the company, since as far as I know they might still be using this test for prospective employees. Correct answers are in green color. 1) The C# keyword ‘int’ maps to which .NET type? 1. 2. 3. System.Int16 System.Int32 System.Int64

4.

System.Int128

2) Which of these string definitions will prevent escaping on backslashes in C#? 1. 2. 3. 4. string s = #”n Test string”; string s = “’n Test string”; string s = @”n Test string”; string s = “n Test string”;

3) Which of these statements correctly declares a two-dimensional array in C#? 1. 2. 3. 4. int[,] myArray; int[][] myArray; int[2] myArray; System.Array[2] myArray;

4) If a method is marked as protected internal who can access it? 1. 2. 3. 4. Classes that are both in the same assembly and derived from the declaring class. Only methods that are in the same class as the method in question. Internal methods can be only be called using reflection. Classes within the same assembly, and classes derived from the declaring class.

5) What is boxing? a) Encapsulating an object in a value type. b) Encapsulating a copy of an object in a value type. c) Encapsulating a value type in an object. d) Encapsulating a copy of a value type in an object. 6) What compiler switch creates an xml file from the xml comments in the files in an assembly? 1. 2. 3. 4. /text /doc /xml /help

7) What is a satellite Assembly? 1. 2. 3. 4. A peripheral assembly designed to monitor permissions requests from an application. Any DLL file used by an EXE file. An assembly containing localized resources for another assembly. An assembly designed to alter the appearance or ‘skin’ of an application.

8) What is a delegate? 1. 2. 3. 4. A strongly typed function pointer. A light weight thread or process that can call a single method. A reference to an object in a different process. An inter-process message channel.

9) How does assembly versioning in .NET prevent DLL Hell? 1. 2. 3. 4. The runtime checks to see that only one version of an assembly is on the machine at any one time. .NET allows assemblies to specify the name AND the version of any assemblies they need to run. The compiler offers compile time checking for backward compatibility. It doesn’t.

10) Which “Gang of Four” design pattern is shown below? public class A { private A instance; private A() { } public static A Instance { get

{ if ( A == null ) A = new A(); return instance; } } } 1. 2. 3. 4. Factory Abstract Factory Singleton Builder

11) In the NUnit test framework, which attribute must adorn a test class in order for it to be picked up by the NUnit GUI? 1. 2. 3. 4. TestAttribute TestClassAttribute TestFixtureAttribute NUnitTestClassAttribute

12) Which of the following operations can you NOT perform on an ADO.NET DataSet? 1. 2. 3. 4. A DataSet can be synchronised with the database. A DataSet can be synchronised with a RecordSet. A DataSet can be converted to XML. You can infer the schema from a DataSet.

13) In Object Oriented Programming, how would you describe encapsulation? 1. 2. 3. 4. The conversion of one type of object to another. The runtime resolution of method calls. The exposition of data. The separation of interface and implementation.

Posted in: .NET, Database | 17 Responses to “C# developer interview questions”

1.

tasa Says: October 19th, 2004 at 5:50 am The question number 10 isn’t correct. The class given in the question can’t be created under any circumstances. The c’tor in private so no instance can be created and the Instance() func isn’t static, so it can’t be called without instance of the class. It’s Singleton pattern only if the Instance() func is static and private member A is static too.

2.

Tim Haughton Says: October 21st, 2004 at 3:49 am Well spotted. I’ll issue a change correcting this ‘deliberate’ mistake ;¬)

3.

Chandra Says: October 21st, 2004 at 4:49 pm Question 10 is incorrect. To create a Singleton class, question 10 should be changed as follows: public class A { static private A instance; private A() { } static public A GetInstance() { if ( instance == null ) instance = new A(); return instance;

} }

4.

Leo Gan Says: May 9th, 2005 at 7:35 pm Question 3) has two correct answers (jagged array is second) 3) Which of these statements correctly declares a two-dimensional array in C#? int[,] myArray; int[][] myArray; and Question 10) has a more shorter code: public sealed class Singleton { private static readonly Singleton instance = new Singleton(); private Singleton(){} public static Singleton Instance { get { return instance; } } } http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/dnpatterns/html/ImpSingletonInCsharp.asp

5.

one from 4guys4mrola Says: December 30th, 2005 at 12:42 am I am sure, these question are from brainbench

6.

ziv Says: March 20th, 2006 at 4:12 pm question 10 should be: public class A { private static A instance; private A() { } public static A Instance { get { if (instance == null) instance = new A(); return instance; } } }

……………

1.

1.

What is MSIL?

From (Google web definitions) Microsoft Intermediate Language (MSIL) is the CPU-independent instruction set generated by .NET compilers from .NET languages such as J#, C# or Visual Basic. MSIL is compiled before or during execution of the program by a Virtual Execution System (VES), which is part of the Common Language Runtime module (CLR).

2.

2.

What is the CLR and how is it different from a JVM?

From http://www.itwriting.com/dotnet4.php The JVM can either interpret or just-in-time compile the byte code. The CLR always compiles to native code. Another is that the CLR supports unmanaged code, known as “unsafe”, where the programmer assumes the responsibility for managing memory and can do pointer arithmetic and so forth.

3.

3.

What is WinFX?

From (Google web definitions) The new Windows API that will be released with the Microsoft Longhorn Operating System. This will include features for Avalon, Indigo, and WinFS as well as a number of fundamental routines.

4.

4.

What is Indigo?

From (Google web definitions) The code name for the communications portion of Longhorn that is built around Web services. This communications technology focuses on providing spanning transports, security, messaging patterns, encoding, networking and hosting, and more.

5.

5.

Explain the Remoting architecture.

From http://www.kippsoftware.com/san200405.htm

• • • • 6.
6.

The developer first instantiates locally a proxy interface to the remote assembly. Local code calls a method of the proxy The .NET platform calls the corresponding method on the remote server and returns the results (see figure). Developers can use TCP or HTTP remoting. Remoting makes use of Leases and allocations to improve efficiency. How would you write an asynchronous webservice?

Use a callback and call BeginSubmit yourself.

7.

7.

What is the Microsoft Enterprise Library?

A set of functions that adhere to Microsoft’s Patterns and Practices guidelines. These functions include: Caching Application Block, Configuration Application Block, Data Access Application Block, Cryptography Application Block, Exception Handling Application Block, Logging and Instrumentation Application Block and the Security Application Block.

8.

8.

Discuss System.Collections

8 – 24 From http://msdn.microsoft.com/

The System.Collections namespace contains interfaces and classes that define various collections of objects, such as lists, queues, bit arrays, hashtables and dictionaries.

9.

9.

Discuss System.Configuration

The System.Configuration namespace provides classes and interfaces that allow you to programmatically access .NET Framework configuration settings and handle errors in configuration files (.config files).

10. 10.

Discuss System.Data

The System.Data namespace consists mostly of the classes that constitute the ADO.NET architecture.

11. 11.

Discuss System.Diagnostics

The System.Diagnostics namespace provides classes that allow you to interact with system processes, event logs, and performance counters.

12. 12.

Discuss System.DirectoryServcies

The System.DirectoryServices namespace provides easy access to Active Directory from managed code.

13. 13.

Discuss System.Drawing

The System.Drawing namespace provides access to GDI+ basic graphics functionality.

14. 14.

Discuss System.EnterpriseServices

The System.EnterpriseServices namespace provides an important infrastructure for enterprise applications. COM+ provides a services architecture for component programming models deployed in an enterprise environment. This namespace provides .NET objects with access to COM+ services making the .NET Framework objects more practical for enterprise applications.

15. 15.

Discuss System.Globalization

The System.Globalization namespace contains classes that define culture-related information, including the language, the country/region, the calendars in use, the format patterns for dates, currency, and numbers, and the sort order for strings.

16. 16.

Discuss System.IO

The System.IO namespace contains types that allow reading and writing to files and data streams, and types that provide basic file and directory support.

17. 17.

Discuss System.Net

The System.Net namespace provides a simple programming interface for many of the protocols used on networks today.

18. 18.

System.Runtime contains System.Runtime.CompilerServcies, what else?

CompilerServices, InteropServices, Remoting, Serialization.

19. 19.

Discuss System.Security

The System.Security namespace provides the underlying structure of the common language runtime security system, including base classes for permissions.

20. 20.

Discuss System.Text

The System.Text namespace contains classes representing ASCII, Unicode, UTF-7, and UTF-8 character encodings; abstract base classes for converting blocks of characters to and from blocks of bytes; and a helper class that manipulates and formats String objects without creating intermediate instances of String.

21. 21.

Discuss System.Threading

The System.Threading namespace provides classes and interfaces that enable multithreaded programming.

22. 22.

Discuss System.Web

The System.Web namespace supplies classes and interfaces that enable browser-server communication.

23. 23.

Discuss System.Windows.Forms

The System.Windows.Forms namespace contains classes for creating Windows-based applications.

24. 24.

Discuss System.XML

The System.Xml namespace provides standards-based support for processing XML.

25. 25.
Yes

Does VS.NET 2003 have a web browser (think about it)?

26. 26.

How are VB.NET and C# different?

Different syntax, no unsafe VB.NET code, VB.NET is case insensitive, etc.

27. 27.
Overview

Contrast .NET with J2EE.

J2EE is a set of non-vendor specific standards for developing “fat” and “thin” applications and services, J2EE is mainly directed at “thin” clients. These standards are the collaborative effort of more than 400 companies.

.net is a tangible set of software and services designed to run on the Windows platform. The .net software and services also allow the design and implementation of enterprise and non-enterprise applications. Equal emphasis has been given to “fat” and “thin” clients. .net was developed exclusively by Microsoft.

Virtual Machines Both .net and J2EE use a Virtual Machine to interpret intermediate code. With J2EE this intermediate code is called “Byte Code”. With .net the code is called the “Intermediate Language”. When Java or .net code is written and compiled it compiles to intermediate code. With J2EE the JVM (Java Virtual Machine) interprets its byte code line by line into the machine’s native language. J2EE byte code can be compiled directly to native machine code or JIT (Just In Time) compiled, but the vast majority of J2EE applications are interpreted.

The .NET virtual machine, the CLR (Common Language Runtime) uses a JIT compiler to compile blocks of IL code into native machine code at run time. Visual Studio.net can also compile directly to native code.

Programming Languages Both platforms have the option of using multiple programming languages for an enterprise application, although this is a much easier task to achieve with the .net platform.

The J2EE standard is based on Java, so applications are mainly developed in Java. Interoperability is possible through JNI (Java Native interface) and CORBA (Common Object Request Broker Architecture). The latter is almost never done as the APIs are complicated and time consuming.

.net supports the seamless integration of over 20 languages, this is done via strong typing, common interfaces and a concept called “managed code”. On the down side, the language differences are largely semantic (VB.NET vs. C#). Also, languages like C++ require extra imports (managed extensions).

Operating Systems Both .NET and J2EE have pretensions to having portable source code. J2EE is by far the best for portability, the whole specification is designed as to be non-vendor specific. In practice though, Java source is often not portable without modifications.

.net has promised that the CLR and core languages like C# will eventually be portable. At present .net only runs on Windows.

J2EE versus .net at Each Tier An enterprise application can be logically separated into 3 tiers - Presentation, Business Logic, and the Data tier.

Presentation Tier

Both .net and J2EE use a scripting language at the presentation tier for “thin” clients or “Web Applications”. They also have similar ways of generating this tier for “fat” client applications. For “thin” client applications J2EE uses Java Servlets and a derivative of ASP (Active Server Pages) called JSP (Java Server Pages), which intermingles HTML with Java based script. Calls to Business logic components (EJB - Enterprise Java Beans) are made from these JSP pages. Coding the page to render on a number of different “thin” clients must be done manually. For “fat” clients there is the Java Swing API, with a set of standard java beans and a number of different GUIs to build applications with.

.net uses Visual Studio.net for both “thin” and “fat” clients. .net “thin” client applications use the ASP.NET scripting language. ASP.NET can be used in the traditional script based way, but Microsoft encourages the use of a “Code Behind Page”. One simply drags and drops various “Web Controls” onto an ASP.NET (.aspx) page and then uses the code behind page to adjust those controls programmatically. When an .aspx page is requested by a “thin” client the page is rendered automatically by the .net runtime which checks the type of “thin” client and adjusts each control accordingly. The result is that an .aspx page can render on any supported “thin” client without any extra work. This has a down side, that being that the look n’ feel of each page is limited by the controls offered. Microsoft’s IIS server also has legacy support for ASP, so ASP.NET and ASP can be used in conjunction with each other. For “fat” clients the process is the same except that there is a different set of controls for a “Windows Form” (as opposed to a “Web Form”). Business Logic Tier The two technologies are very similar on this level with each borrowing concepts from the other. Java Beans are the basic components (defined properties, event handling and persistence). EJB are the distributed equivalents that have extra functions for application level security, distributed transactions, life cycle management and resource pooling. The java runtime handles the life cycle of each component, deciding when to destroy a component (garbage collection) and what memory it can access (sandbox security).

.net uses an enriched version of COM+ (assemblies) which gives its components all of the above functions with the addition of newer concepts like extensible meta-data for each assembly. Like J2EE the “registration” of components is much easier with a new deployment model and .net projects also support traditional COM and COM+ components. Perhaps the biggest difference is the ability to go into “unmanaged mode” which allows the application to access areas of memory normally inaccessible via the CLR Sandbox.

Data Tier For relational database access J2EE uses JDBC (Java Database Connection) – which is based on Microsoft’s ODBC (Open Database Connectivity). At a higher level it is conceptually the same as ADO (ActiveX Data Objects - which sits on top of ODBC) with connections, statements and Result sets. JDBC does perform better than ADO. For Naming and Directory Services J2EE uses JNDI (Java Naming and Directory Interface) and JDBC does not support hierarchical Database access.

.net uses ADO.NET , it has all the ADO functionality and more. All data transmission from source to component is now done via XML (eXtensible Markup Language). This means that ADO.NET can use ANYTHING that emits XML data in the ADO.NET schema as a data source. ADO.NET supports hierarchical data access, and naming and directory services are accessed via ADSI (Active Directory Services Interface).

XML, Web Services, and Remoting Web services and remoting are web and TCP/IP based remotely callable functions that sit on top of a predetermined protocol. J2EE’s web services run with a host of different protocols. They run with HTTP, RMI/JRMP (Remote Method Invocation / Java Remote Method Protocol) or IIOP (Internet InterORB Protocol).

.net web services run exclusively on HTTP with a SOAP (Simple Object Access Protocol) wrapper. All data interchange is done with XML. Web services in .net are all standardised with XML interfaces. Remoting uses either SOAP or TCP/IP directly. The entire .net framework is very XML centric.

Performance In an enterprise environment .net outperforms J2EE. Benchmarks show that it is more scalable, efficient, faster to run and develop, easier to use and cheaper - sometimes by a factor of five. .net is designed to work just as well in a non-enterprise environment (pointers, unmanaged code, etc.). J2EE is rarely used in a non-enterprise environment to write graphically or numerically intensive code for executables.

28. 28.

What benefit do you have by implementing IDisposable interface in .NET?

You can use Dispose to clean up unmanaged resources.

29. 29.

Explain the difference between the Application object and Session object in ASP.NET.

The Application object affects all users of the application whereas a session only affects one (the session holder).

30. 30.

Explain the difference between User controls and Custom controls in ASP.NET.

From http://msdn.microsoft.com/library/default.asp?url=/library/en-us/vbcon/html/vbconwebusercontrolsvscustomwebcontrols.asp

Web user controls Easier to create Limited support for consumers who use a visual design tool

Web custom controls Harder to create Full visual design tool support for consumers

A separate copy of the control is required in each application Cannot be added to the Toolbox in Visual Studio Good for static layout

Only a single copy of the control is required, in the global assembly cache Can be added to the Toolbox in Visual Studio Good for dynamic layout

31. 31.

Write code for transaction control in ADO.NET.

string connectionString = "........."; SqlConnection myConnection = new SqlConnection(connectionString); myConnection.Open(); // Start transaction. SqlTransaction myTransaction = myConnection.BeginTransaction(); // Assign command in the current transaction. SqlCommand myCommand = new SqlCommand(); myCommand.Transaction = myTransaction; try { //db ops here. myTransaction.Commit(); Console.WriteLine("Records are modified in the database."); } catch(Exception e) { myTransaction.Rollback(); Console.WriteLine(e.ToString()); Console.WriteLine("Neither record was written to database."); } finally { myConnection.Close(); }

32. 32.

Write code for transaction control in SQL Server.

BEGIN TRAN A UPDATE mytable BEGIN TRAN B WITH MARK UPDATE mytable2 SELECT * frommytable COMMIT TRAN B UPDATE mytable3 ...

33. 33.

In .NET, what is an application domain?

From (Google Web Definitions) A secure unit of processing that the Common Language Runtime uses to provide isolation between applications.

34. 34.

In SQL Server, what is an index?

From http://www.faqts.com/knowledge_base/view.phtml/aid/8188/fid/87 An index is a list of sorted record pointers based on a column. Having indexes on your database tables will speed up SELECT queries if it is properly applied. Indexes will take up some disk space and will slow down INSERT and UPDATE queries.

35. 35.

What is optimistic vs. pessimistic locking?

From http://blogs.msdn.com/ricom/archive/2004/06/24/165063.aspx Optimistic locking -- that's where you assume things will go well and design your locks so that they handle conflicts as the exceptional case Pessimistic locking -- the converse where you assume conflicts are likely and create some kind of reservation system where sections are locked while they are edited

36. 36.

What is the difference between a clustered and non-clustered index.

From http://www.dotnetspider.com/technology/kbpages/1140.aspx - The difference is that, Clustered index is unique for any given table and we can have only one clustered index on a table. The leaf level of a clustered index is the actual data and the data is resorted in case of clustered index. Whereas in case of non-clustered index the leaf level is actually a pointer to the data in rows so we can have as many non-clustered indexes as we can on the db.

37. 37.

In terms of remoting what is CAO and SAO?

Server Activated Objects : Stateless - Singlecall This object type is the most prevalent and is recommended by Microsoft for use as the primary remoting type. Server activated Singlecall objects hold no state, which makes them ideal for use with clustered web servers, object pooling, and all other sorts of useful things. Since there is no state held in the object, you have to pass all the data that the object needs to do its work on every call. Server Activated Objects : Stateful - Singleton These objects are used when you need both a stateful object AND you need that objects data to persist over time and multiple instantiation. If 3 computers instance an SAO Singleton on a server, they will all get a reference to that same object. Singletons are commonly used to direct access to scarce resources and should generally be avoided when possible. Client Activated Objects : Stateful CAO Objects are used when you need an object to be stateful throughout its lifetime to its caller. CAO Objects persist data to their caller, however they are different from SAO Singletons in that multiple instantiations of a CAO will get brand new instances of that CAO each time.

38. 38.

Remoting uses MarshallByRefObject, what does this mean?

A reference is returned to the remote object. 39. Write some code to use reflection, remoting, threading, and thread synchronization. Threads and remoteable object: using System; using System.Reflection; using System.Threading; namespace Example { public class allThreads { const int NUMBER_OF_OPS = 10; const int SLEEP_TIME = 2000; private int threadNumber; static int threadGlobalDS; static object lockVariable = "dummy"; public allThreads(int threadNumber) { this.threadNumber = threadNumber; } // Thread with critical data access section using lock and global object public void threadMethod()

{ System.Console.WriteLine("Thread " + threadNumber.ToString() + " starting with Hashcode: " + Thread.CurrentThread.GetHashCode()); System.Console.WriteLine("------------------"); for (int i=1;i<=NUMBER_OF_OPS;i++) { System.Console.WriteLine("--> Thread " + threadNumber.ToString() + " performing operation " + i.ToString()); } System.Console.WriteLine("--> Thread " + threadNumber.ToString() + " sleeping"); Thread.Sleep(SLEEP_TIME); // Locking using a global variable lock(lockVariable) { System.Console.WriteLine("--> Thread " + threadNumber.ToString() + " has a lock"); // Access critical data threadGlobalDS = threadNumber; System.Console.WriteLine("--> Thread " + threadNumber.ToString() + " sleeping"); Thread.Sleep(SLEEP_TIME); } System.Console.WriteLine("--> Thread " + threadNumber.ToString() + " sleeping"); Thread.Sleep(SLEEP_TIME); } } // Producer and consumer example using Monitor public class monitorThreads { const int SLEEP_TIME = 2000; const int MAX_PRODUCED = 5; private static int threadGlobalDS = 0; private static int bufferCount = 1; private static bool producing = true; private static bool consuming = true; public void monitorMethod1() { // Producer... while(producing) { // Synch using monitor /* Attempt to get an exclusive lock on this object * Block otherwise */ Monitor.Enter(this); if(bufferCount == 1) { /* Release the lock on this object and block * the current thread until it reacquires the lock. */ Monitor.Wait(this); } threadGlobalDS +=1; ++bufferCount; if (threadGlobalDS == MAX_PRODUCED) { producing = false; } /* Notify a thread in the waiting * queue of a change in the locked object's state (this object). */ Monitor.Pulse(this); // Releases the exclusive lock on this object. Monitor.Exit(this); System.Console.WriteLine("--> Producer sleeping"); Thread.Sleep(SLEEP_TIME); } } public void monitorMethod2() { while(consuming)

{ // Consumer... // Synch using monitor Monitor.Enter(this); if(bufferCount == 0) { Monitor.Wait(this); } --bufferCount; System.Console.WriteLine("--> Consumed " + threadGlobalDS.ToString()); Monitor.Pulse(this); Monitor.Exit(this); if (!producing) { consuming = false; } } } } // Class to be remoted public class RemotingLoader : System.MarshalByRefObject { public RemotingLoader() { System.Console.WriteLine("New Client Added"); } public SomeMetadata GetSomeMetadata(decimal userID) { // Create objects to thread allThreads threadObj1 = new allThreads(1); allThreads threadObj2 = new allThreads(2); allThreads threadObj3 = new allThreads(3); // Instanciate and spin off some of threads Thread thread1 = new Thread(new ThreadStart(threadObj1.threadMethod)); Thread thread2 = new Thread(new ThreadStart(threadObj2.threadMethod)); Thread thread3 = new Thread(new ThreadStart(threadObj3.threadMethod)); thread1.Start(); thread2.Start(); thread3.Start(); // Show that thread1 is alive if (thread1.IsAlive) { System.Console.WriteLine("*-> Thread 1 is alive"); } // Abort thread1 and check again thread1.Abort(); if (!thread1.IsAlive) { System.Console.WriteLine("*-> Thread 1 is dead"); } // Monitor example monitorThreads monitorObj = new monitorThreads(); // Instanciate and spin off some of threads Thread monitorThread1 = new Thread(new ThreadStart(monitorObj.monitorMethod1)); Thread monitorThread2 = new Thread(new ThreadStart(monitorObj.monitorMethod2)); monitorThread1.Start(); monitorThread2.Start(); monitorThread1.Join(); monitorThread2.Join(); thread1.Join(); thread2.Join(); thread3.Join();

System.Console.WriteLine("*-> Finished"); return new SomeMetadata(1); } } // Class to be serialized [Serializable] public class SomeMetadata { public Type objectType; public ConstructorInfo [] info; public MethodInfo [] methods; private string objectName; decimal remoteObjectID; public SomeMetadata(decimal remoteObjectID) { objectType = this.GetType(); info = objectType.GetConstructors(); methods = objectType.GetMethods(); this.remoteObjectID = remoteObjectID; } public String Name { get { return objectName; } set { this.objectName = value; } } } } Server using System; using System.Runtime.Remoting; using System.Runtime.Remoting.Channels; using System.Runtime.Remoting.Channels.Tcp; namespace Example { public class RemotingServer { public static void Main(String[] args) { // Register Channel TcpServerChannel channel = new TcpServerChannel(9000); ChannelServices.RegisterChannel(channel); // Register Service Type RemotingConfiguration.RegisterWellKnownServiceType(typeof(RemotingLoader), "RemotingLoader", WellKnownObjectMode.SingleCall); // Wait System.Console.WriteLine("Press Any Key To Kill The Server"); System.Console.ReadLine(); } } } Client using System; using System.Reflection; using System.Runtime.Remoting.Channels; using System.Runtime.Remoting.Channels.Tcp; namespace Example { public class RemotingClient { public static void Main(string[] args) { // Register channel and point to remote object ChannelServices.RegisterChannel(new TcpClientChannel()); RemotingLoader loader = (RemotingLoader)Activator.GetObject(

typeof(RemotingLoader), "tcp://localhost:9000/RemotingLoader"); // Get a reference to the remote object SomeMetadata objReference = loader.GetSomeMetadata(1); // Display data from object Console.WriteLine(""); Console.WriteLine("*--- Object Type ---*"); Console.WriteLine(""); Console.WriteLine(objReference.objectType); Console.WriteLine(""); Console.WriteLine("*--- Constructor Info. ---*"); Console.WriteLine(""); foreach(ConstructorInfo consInfo in objReference.info) { Console.WriteLine(consInfo); } Console.WriteLine(""); Console.WriteLine("*--- Method Info. ---*"); Console.WriteLine(""); foreach(MethodInfo methodInfo in objReference.methods) { Console.WriteLine(methodInfo); } Console.WriteLine(""); Console.WriteLine("*--- Setting and getting a Remote Variable. ---*"); Console.WriteLine(""); objReference.Name = "Test Name"; Console.WriteLine(objReference.Name); // Wait... Console.ReadLine(); } } } These next questions and answers are taken from: http://blog.daveranck.com/archive/2005/01/20/355.aspx Misc

1.

1.

Can you prevent your class from being inherited by another class?

Yes. The keyword “sealed” will prevent the class from being inherited.

2.

2.

Explain the three tier or n-Tier model.

Presentation (UI), business (logic and underlying code) and data (from storage or other sources).

3.

3.

What is SOA?

Service Oriented Architecture. In SOA you create an abstract layer that your applications use to access various "services" and can aggregate the services. These services could be databases, web services, message queues or other sources. The Service Layer provides a way to access these services that the applications do not need to know how the access is done. For example, to get a full customer record, I might need to get data from a SGL Server database, a web service and a message queue. The Service layer hides this from the calling application. All the application knows is that it asked for a full customer record. It doesn't know what system or systems it came from or how it was retrieved.

4.
Yes

4.

Is XML case-sensitive?

5.

5.

Can you explain some differences between an ADO.NET Dataset and an ADO Recordset? (Or describe some features of a Dataset).

A DataSet can represent an entire relational database in memory, complete with tables, relations, and views. A DataSet is designed to work without any continuing connection to the original data source. Data in a DataSet is bulk-loaded, rather than being loaded on demand. There's no concept of cursor types in a DataSet. DataSets have no current record pointer You can use For Each loops to move through the data. You can store many edits in a DataSet, and

write them to the original data source in a single operation. Though the DataSet is universal, other objects in ADO.NET come in different versions for different data sources. ASP.NET

1.

1.

Explain the differences between Server-side and Client-side code?

Server-side code executes on the server. Client-side code executes in the context of the clients' browser.

2.

2.

What does the "EnableViewState" property do? Why would I want it on or off?

It allows page objects to save their state in a Base64 encoded string in the page HTML. One should only have it enabled when needed because it adds to the page size and can get fairly large for complex pages with many controls. (It takes longer to download the page).

3.

3.

What is the difference between Server.Transfer and Response.Redirect? Why would I choose one over the other?

Server.Transfer transfers excution directly to another page. Response.Redirect sends a response to the client and directs the client (the browser) to load the new page (it causes a roundtrip). If you don't need to execute code on the client, Transfer is more efficient.

4.

4.

What base class do all Web Forms inherit from?

The Page class (System.Web.UI.Page).

5.

5.

What does WSDL stand for? What does it do?

(Web Services Description Language). It describes the interfaces and other information of a web service.

6.

6.

Which WebForm Validator control would you use if you needed to make sure the values in two different WebForm controls matched?

CompareValidator Control.

7.

7. What property must you set, and what method must you call in your code, in order to bind the data from some data source to the Repeater control?

You must set the DataSource property and call the DataBind method.

These next questions and answers are taken from: http://www.techinterviews.com/?p=153

1.

1.

What is a satellite Assembly?

An assembly containing localized resources for another assembly.

2.

2.

In Object Oriented Programming, how would you describe encapsulation?

The separation of interface and implementation. * Encapsulation describes the ability of an object to hide its data and methods from the rest of the world. (Google web definitions).

These next questions and answers are taken from: http://blogs.wwwcoder.com/tsvmadhav/archive/2005/04/08/2882.aspx

1.
No.

1.

Can you store multiple data types in System.Array?

2.

2.

What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()?

The first one performs a deep copy of the array, the second one is shallow. A shallow copy of an Array copies only the elements of the Array, whether they are reference types or value types, but it does not copy the objects that the references refer to. The references in the new Array point to the same objects

that the references in the original Array point to. In contrast, a deep copy of an Array copies the elements and everything directly or indirectly referenced by the elements.

3.

3.

How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order?

By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods.

4.

4.

What’s the .NET collection class that allows an element to be accessed using a unique key?

HashTable.

5.

5.

What class is underneath the SortedList class?

A sorted HashTable.

6.
Yes

6.

Will the finally block get executed if an exception has not occurred?

7.

7.

Can you prevent your class from being inherited by another class?

Yes. The keyword “sealed” will prevent the class from being inherited

8.

8. If a base class has a number of overloaded constructors, and an inheriting class has a number of overloaded constructors; can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to a specific base constructor?

Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class.

9.

9.

What’s a multicast delegate?

(See the first set of answers)

10. 10.

What’s the difference between // comments, /* */ comments and /// comments?

Single-line comments, multi-line comments, and XML documentation comments.

11. 11.

How do you generate documentation from the C# file commented properly with a command-line compiler?

Compile it with the /doc switch.

12. 12.

What debugging tools come with the .NET SDK?

.CorDBG – command-line debugger. To use CorDbg, you must compile the original C# file using the /debug switch. DbgCLR – graphic debugger. Visual Studio .NET uses the DbgCLR.

13. 13.

What does assert() method do?

In debug compilation, assert takes in a Boolean condition as a parameter, and shows the error dialog if the condition is false. The program proceeds without any interruption if the condition is true.

14. 14.

What’s the difference between the Debug class and Trace class?

Use Debug class for debug builds, use Trace class for both debug and release builds.

15. 15.

Why are there five tracing levels in System.Diagnostics.TraceSwitcher?

The tracing dumps can be quite verbose. For applications that are constantly running you run the risk of overloading the machine and the hard drive. Five levels range from None to Verbose, allowing you to fine-tune the tracing activities.

16. 16.

Where is the output of TextWriterTraceListener redirected?

To the Console or a text file depending on the parameter passed to the constructor.

17. 17.

How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application?

Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger.

18. 18.
1. 2. 3.

What are three test cases you should go through in unit testing?

Positive test cases (correct data, correct output). Negative test cases (broken or missing data, proper handling). Exception test cases (exceptions are thrown and caught properly). Can you change the value of a variable while debugging a C# application?

19. 19.

Yes. If you are debugging via Visual Studio.NET, just go to Immediate window.

20. 20.

What are advantages and disadvantages of Microsoft-provided data provider classes in ADO.NET?

SQLServer.NET data provider is high-speed and robust, but requires SQL Server license purchased from Microsoft. OLE-DB.NET is universal for accessing other sources, like Oracle, DB2, Microsoft Access and Informix. OLE-DB.NET is a .NET layer on top of the OLE layer, so it’s not as fastest and efficient as SqlServer.NET.

21. 21.

What is the wildcard character in SQL?

Let’s say you want to query database with LIKE for all employees whose name starts with La. The wildcard character is %, the proper query with LIKE would involve ‘La%’.

22. 22.

Explain ACID rule of thumb for transactions.

A transaction must be: 1. Atomic - it is one unit of work and does not dependent on previous and following transactions. 2. Consistent - data is either committed or roll back, no “in-between” case where something has been updated and something hasn’t. 3. Isolated - no transaction sees the intermediate results of the current transaction). 4. Durable - the values persist if the data had been committed even if the system crashes right after.

23. 23.

Between Windows Authentication and SQL Server Authentication, which one is trusted and which one is untrusted?

Windows Authentication is trusted because the username and password are checked with the Active Directory, the SQL Server authentication is untrusted, since SQL Server is the only verifier participating in the transaction.

24. 24.

What are the ways to deploy an assembly?

An MSI installer, a CAB archive, and XCOPY command.

25. 25.

What namespaces are necessary to create a localized application?

System.Globalization and System.Resources.

26. 26.

What is the smallest unit of execution in .NET?

An Assembly. ………… .Net & C# Interview question, along with general programming questions Hey, These are some Interview Questions with suggested answers we collected in Middle-East-Developers, for more questions in other fields like C++, you can check the group. These questions are collected by

• •

Adel Khalil Yehia Megahed

• •

Hisham Abd El-Hafez Mohammed Hossam

Q1: Can DateTime variables be null? A1: No, because it is a value type (Struct) Q2: Describe the Asp.net Page Life Cycle? A2: http://msdn2.microsoft.com/en-us/library/ms178472.aspx Q3: Describe the Asp.net pipeline ? Give an Example when you need to extend it? How do you do so? A3: http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/02/09/HTTPPipelines/ Q4: Describe the accessibility modifier protected internal A4: Members are accessible to derived classes and classes within the same Assembly Q5: Difference between an interface and abstract class? A5: In the interface all methods must be abstract, in the abstract class some methods can be concrete. In the interface no accessibility modifiers are allowed, which is ok in abstract classes. Q6: How do you perform pre- and post-processing to extend a WebMethod ? A6: Use SOAP extensions ...http://msdn.microsoft.com/msdnmag/issues/04/03/ASPColumn/ Q7: What are Design Patterns? A7: It is a big topic in Object Oriented, so for more information see this, http://dofactory.com/Patterns/Patterns.aspx Q8: What do you know about .net framework 3.0 ? A8: any answer that introduces Windows Communication Foundation (WCF), Windows Workflow Foundation (WF), Windows Presentation Foundation (WPF) and Windows Card Space (WCS) is right, also you can mention that it was originally called WinFX Q9: What do you know about ATLAS (Microsoft ASP.net AJAX Extensions) ? A9: for more information check here, http://ajax.asp.net Q10: What do you know about Agile software methodologies? A10: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Agile_software_development Q11: What do you know about Web Services Enhancements (WSE)? A11: http://msdn.microsoft.com/webservices/webservices/building/wse/default.aspx Q12: What is AJAX ? A12: Asynchronous Javascript And XML Q13:What is NUnit, or What is Unit testing? A13: Unit testing: is a procedure used to validate that a particular module of source code is working properly from each modification to the next. The procedure is to write test cases for all functions and methods so that whenever a change causes a regression, it can be quickly identified and fixed. Ideally, each test case is separate from the others; constructs such as mock objects can assist in separating unit tests. This type of testing is mostly done by the developers, NUnit is a famous tool for Unit Testing in .net Q14: What is an Asp.net Http Handler & Http Module? A14: http://www.15seconds.com/issue/020417.htm Q15: What is mutable type ? immutable type ? A15: Immutable type are types whose instance data, fields and properties, does not change after the instance is created. Most value types are immutable, but the mutable type are A type whose instance data, fields and properties, can be changed after the instance is created. Most Reference Types are mutable. Q16: What is the HttpContext Object? Where is it accessible? A16: It's is an Object that Encapsulates all HTTP-specific information about an individual HTTP request. it is avaliable through out the Asp.net request pipline. Q17: What is the difference between String & StringBuilder classes? A17: String is an immutable type while StringBuilder is a mutable type Q18: What's the difference between C# 1.0 & C# 2.0? A18: Any answer that introduces stuff like, Generics, Anonymous Methods, Nullable types, Iterators ... etc, is correct Q19: Without using the multiplication or addition operations, how can you multiply a number x by 8? A19: Shift x to the left 3 times, x << 3, because every shift left multiplies the number by 2

Q20: What is the difference between ASP.net 1.x & ASP.net 2.0 ? A20: Any answer that include stuff like Provider model (membership provider, role provider ... etc) and Master Pages, Code Beside model, new web controls will be ok. If you have more questions feel free to join the user group and add them directly to the database. Published Monday, February 26, 2007 5:38 PM by Mohammed Hossam Filed Under: C# Language Comment Notification If you would like to receive an email when updates are made to this post, please register here

Subscribe to this post's comments using RSS Comments # Interview Questions for DotNet, C#, OOP, ASP.net ... etc Monday, February 26, 2007 6:10 PM by DotNetKicks.com You've been kicked (a good thing) - Trackback from DotNetKicks.com # re: .Net & C# Interview question, along with general programming questions Tuesday, February 27, 2007 9:11 AM by Mohamed Tanna More Interview question 1-Does C# support multiple-inheritance? -No. 2-Who is a protected class-level variable available to? -It is available to any sub-class (a class inheriting this class). 3-Are private class-level variables inherited? -Yes, but they are not accessible. Although they are not visible or accessible via the class interface, they are inherited. 4-Describe the accessibility modifier “protected internal”. -It is available to classes that are within the same assembly and derived from the specified base class. 5-What’s the top .NET class that everything is derived from? -System.Object. 6-What does the term immutable mean? -The data value may not be changed. Note: The variable value may be changed, but the original immutable data value was discarded and a new data value was created in memory. 7-What’s the difference between System.String and System.Text.StringBuilder classes? -System.String is immutable. System.StringBuilder was designed with the purpose of having a mutable string where a variety of operations can be performed. 8-What’s the advantage of using System.Text.StringBuilder over System.String? -StringBuilder is more efficient in cases where there is a large amount of string manipulation. Strings are immutable, so each time a string is changed, a new instance in memory is created. 9-Can you store multiple data types in System.Array? -No. 10-What’s the difference between the System.Array.CopyTo() and System.Array.Clone()? -The Clone() method returns a new array (a shallow copy) object containing all the elements in the original array. The CopyTo() method copies the elements into another existing array. Both perform a shallow copy. A shallow copy means the contents (each array element) contains references to the same object as the elements in the original array. A deep copy (which neither of these methods performs) would create a new instance of each element's object, resulting in a different, yet identacle object. 11-How can you sort the elements of the array in descending order? -By calling Sort() and then Reverse() methods. 12-What happens if you inherit multiple interfaces and they have conflicting method names? -It’s up to you to implement the method inside your own class, so implementation is left entirely up to you. This might cause a problem on a higher-level scale if similarly named methods from different interfaces expect different data, but as far as compiler cares you’re okay. To Do: Investigate 13-If a base class has a number of overloaded constructors, and an inheriting class has a number of overloaded constructors; can you enforce a call from an inherited constructor to a specific base constructor? -Yes, just place a colon, and then keyword base (parameter list to invoke the appropriate constructor) in the overloaded constructor definition inside the inherited class. 14-What’s a multicast delegate? -A delegate that has multiple handlers assigned to it. Each assigned handler (method) is called. 15-How do you debug an ASP.NET Web application? -Attach the aspnet_wp.exe process to the DbgClr debugger. 16-How is the DLL Hell problem solved in .NET? -Assembly versioning allows the application to specify not only the library it needs to run (which was available under Win32), but also the version of the assembly.

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