Constructing MulticuItural Education in a Diverse Society
ILGHIZ M. SINAGATULLIN

A ScarecrowEducation Book
The Scarecrow Press, Inc. Lanharn, Maryland, and London 2003 Published in partnership with the American Association of School Administrators

A SCARECROWEDUCATION BOOK
Published in partnership with the American Association of School Administrators
Published in the United States of America by Scarecrow Press, Inc. A Member of the Rowman & Littlefield Publishing Group 4501 Forbes Boulevard, Suite 200, Lanham, Maryland 20706 www.scarecroweducation.com 4 Pleydell Gardens, Folkestone Kent CT20 2DN, England Copyright 0 2003 by Ilghiz M. Sinagatullin All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior permission of the publisher. British Library Cataloguing in Publication Information Available

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Sinagatullin, Ilghiz M., 1954Constructing multicultural education in a diverse society I Ilghiz M. Sinagatullin. p. cm. “A Scarecrow Education Book.” Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 0-8108-4341-2(cloth : alk. paper) - ISBN 0-8108-4340-4 (pbk.) 1. Multiculturaleducation. 2. Educational anthropology. 3. Pluralism (Social sciences) I. Title. LC1099 .S55 2003 370.1174~21 2002003075 Printed in the United States of America

TMThe paper used in this publication meets the minimum requirements of American National Standard for Information Sciences-Permanence of Paper for Printed Library Materials. ANSVNISO 239.48-1992.

@

Contents

Acknowledgments Introduction 1 Diversity and Change
Racial, Ethnic, and Linguistic Diversity 7 Diversity on the Societal Level 13 Diversity of Information and Individual Diversity 24 Summary 37

2

Culture and Cultural Differences Culture as a Multidimensional Phenomenon 39
Ethniccultures 50 Summary 76

39
A Glimpse of

3

The Nature of Multiculural Education
History and Some Underlying Principles 79 Fundamentals of Multicultural Education 87 Diversity of School Environments f and General Strategies o Multicultural Education 96 General Strategies 100 Summary 110

79

4

Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective Bilingualism as a Sociolinguistic Phenomenon 113 The Politics
and Models of Bilingual Education 121 A Glance at Russia: A Language Policy for Studentsfrom Non-Russian Ethnic Backgrounds 128 Professional Competency of the Teacher 134 Summary 138

113

5

Making the Curriculum Multicultural
Multicultural Concerns in Social Studies Education 141 Pluralistic Approaches in Health Education 160 Pluralistic Approaches in Music Education 171 Summary 183

141

6

Multicultural Competency of the Teacher
Attitude 185 Knowledge Base 191 Summary 236 Pedagogical Skills 219

185

iii

iv

Contents

Conclusion References Index
About the Author

239 241 255 263

Ibrahim Tugrul and Melek Cakmak (Turkey). sponsored by USIA and administered by the Council for International Exchange of Scholars. Egle Perkumaite (Lithuania).Pooja Agarwal and Monica Singh (India). the Fulbright Program grant (1996-1997). Kamil Akhiyarov. sponsored by the U. William Howe. in conjunction with the National Council for Eurasian and East European Research (2001). Tonya Huber. and the Regional Scholar Exchange Program grant. These helped me enormously to get acquainted with a multicultural America and the American system of education. Joseph Suina.Klaas van der Meulen and Bert de Grijs (the Netherlands). Gennady Volkov. and Babacar Diop (Senegal). Liz Rothlein. Department of State. Michael Shvetsov. Rashyd Latypov. Ian Falk and Allan Luke (Australia). and Raisa Ignatyeva (Russia). I thank the many scholars and educators across the world who influenced my thinking and helped generate valuable ideas. Ludmila Dziewiecka-Bokun and Yolanta Dumicz (Poland). a program of the Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs of the U. Vladimir Gak. Galina Suvorova. Information Agency (USIA) (1994). Barbara Pearson. Gerald Larson. Larry Kaplan.S. Svetlana Romashina. Ludmila Cravchenco (Moldova). Penelope Lisi. This study would not have been possible without the following grants sponsored by the United States: the International Research and Exchange Board Open Competition Program grant. Galina Rogova.S. Julia Capuano. Zhenni Lieu (China).Adrilla Wallace and Deborah Campbell (the Bahamas). Alexey Leontiev. V . Vitaly Slastenin. I am especially indebted to Leroy Ortiz. administered by the American Councils for International Education. Raphael Kelani and Issaou Gad0 (Benin).Acknowledgments This project could not have proceeded successfully without help from many educators. ACTR/ACCELS. students. and librarians on both sides of the Atlantic. Petr Smolik (Czech Republic). and David Keller (the United States).

Marion Korllos. and its editors. who took me on extensive trips. who welcomed me as an international scholar in the fall of 2001 and provided me with office space and support. Also. Lynn Weber.vi Acknowledgments I extend my hearty gratitude to Professor Kenneth Cushner. staff members of the Gerald H. Cheryl Hoffman. Cindy Tursman. associate dean for student life and intercultural affairs at Kent State University’s College and Graduate School of Education. . Amos Guinan. for their patience and support and for helping bring the project to completion. Thomas Welsh. for providing me with ideas and helpful comments. Thomas Koerner. its editorial director. I am especially grateful to Milton and Sharon Bailey. introducing me to the American land. its people and culture. I express my gratitude to Linda Robertson. husband and wife. I extend my exceeding gratitude to Scarecrow Education. Read Center for International and Intercultural Education at the College and Graduate School of Education. and Lawrence Paulson.

age. Through multicultural education the teacher can reduce racial. exceptionality. On the national and global levels. religion. design. military buildups. freedom. environmental degradation. at promoting one important goal: to resolve the contradiction between the growing attempts of cultural groups to preserve and sustain their identities and their attempts to strive for mutual understanding and common aims within the global society. this new epoch is characterized by increasing diversity of race. teacher educators. such as HIV/AIDS. While considerable progress is being made in many spheres. ethnicity. and gender prejudices and provide students with equal opportunities for school success. and implement the ideas of multicultural and global education. ethnic. Excessive ethnocentrism and complete loss of ethnic and cultural identity are equally incompatible with the true principles of multicultural education. regardless of their backgrounds. urban and rural culture. This book promotes multicultural education. and education policy makers to further conceptualize.gender. socioeconomic polarization. propaganda and counterpropaganda. and knowledge and information dissemination. and human rights. social class. malnutrition and the spread of deadly diseases. religious chauvinism. and other negative processes are growing around the world. growing numbers of children with mental and physical disabilities. 1 . religious. language. we are at the same time witnessing regression in other aspects of life: interethnic and interreligious misunderstandings and conflicts. social class. especially in this new epoch. an education that is very timely today when ethnocentrism.Introduction The twenty-first century and the third millennium impose novel and unprecedented challenges as well as opportunities for teachers. Guided by fundamental ideas of democracy. a major methodological principle of multicultural education rests on the premise that such an education should be aimed. and the spread of terrorism and bioterrorism.

S. whose work may not be well known to teachers and educators in the United States and elsewhere. intercultural. The book concentrates. each with its own language. professional knowledge and skills. as well as with Eurasian educational systems.2 Introduction The multicultural and the global must be incorporated within the overarching continuum of multicultural education. and global and international education at both the undergraduate and graduate levels. on the issues of rural-urban diversity and folk pedagogy and ethnopedagogy. It may be a good source for U. and cross-cultural education. changing world. It may also be a valuable resource for prospective and working teachers who are attracted by the ideas of multicultural education and want to expand their multicultural expertise. which is one of the most ethnically and culturally diverse autonomous entities in Russia. The multicultural teacher will always be confronted with the objective of integrating the multicultural and the global. we and our descendants will be required to work continually to address issues of diversity. With each succeeding generation. Russia. This pleasant and difficult objective embodies great challenges and opportunities for curriculum makers and educators committed to multicultural. among many other important questions. with a special emphasis on multicultural educational practices of Russian educators. This book focuses on a wide range of issues of human diversity. international. boasting over 130 ethnic groups. Despite current socioeconomic difficulties. teacher educators teaching such courses as multicultural and bilingual education. multiculturalism. has a long history of public education that places the nation in the ranks of educational leadership on the planetary scale. I have drawn examples from a wide Russian context. the goals of multicultural education must be flexible enough to accommodate changes in society. and global scope. social studies education. as well as from the experience of teachers working in the Republic of Bashkortostan and from my experience as a teacher educator in this republic. issues that have not yet been explored in the western pedagogical literature devoted to multicultural education. One of the goals of this book is to acquaint educators from the United States and other countries with Russian cultural diversity and multicultural practices. As an ideal harmony between the multicultural and the global will never be fully attained in the contemporary. One idea underly- . Chapter 1focuses on issues of human diversity ranging from racial and ethnic diversity to the diversity of age and experience. it is equally useless to globalize education while ignoring a multicultural context. It is of little benefit to multiculturalize the educational process without providing a global context. and multicultural education in the United States and some other countries. In addition to the material related to the United States and other cultures.

and cultural backgrounds. with each society boasting its own diversity infrastructure. no single multicultural formula will work in all schools or situations. These areas are an important part of school curricula. music. such as schools for exceptional students or schools offering bilingual education. Obviously. approaching this multifaceted phenomenon from different criteria. ranging from sociohistorical and ethnolinguistic to sociocultural and religious.” notes Cushner (1998).Introduction 3 ing the chapter is that contemporary humankind is extremely diverse and continually changing. and implementing multicultural strategies in these subject areas is not always as easy as it would appear to be. “Successful innovation. .” This is the first lesson we offer multicultural educators. “is more likely to occur when educators make the effort to adapt what is known about specific cultural issues and effective schools to their own situation. educators. It is through bilingual education that the ideas of multiculturalism can be favorably introduced to students in stable bilingual communities. Concentrating on the nature of multicultural education is a major goal of chapter 3. A multicultural teacher should possess the appropriate attitudes. ethnic. Chapter 2 seeks to examine the essence of culture. The content of a multicultural teacher’s competency is analyzed in chapter 6. and skills to address the needs of students from different racial. The idea of multicultural education can be implemented in standard educational institutions with monoethnic or multiethnic student populations and in special schools. This growing and changing diversity poses huge challenges for teachers. and health education. The chapter also concentrates on the ethnopsychological and cultural characteristics of some racial and ethnic groups inhabiting the American and Eurasian continents and shows how students from these groups can be approached in classroom practice and everyday interaction. Chapter 5 examines some of the techniques of creating a multicultural curriculum in social studies. and curriculum makers. knowledge. and the book offers other recommendations to insightful teachers who are excited by the ideas of multicultural and global education. Chapter 4 focuses on bilingual education with a multicultural perspective.

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each speaking its own language. Ottoman. Phoenicia. there were myriad Native American tribes on the mainland and neighboring islands. socioeconomic. attitudes. Mayan. the exotic continent was peopled by a variety of different local tribes. the Holy Roman Empire. gradually destroying the well-organized Aztec. linguistic. Leif Eriksson. and economic diversity. currently known as Aborigines. sexual. Byzantium. and Incan civilizations. rural and urban standards of life. and Australian settlers-all plunged into new territories with a frontier spirit. cultural. and Mongol Empires were diverse. The people of Mesopotamia. educational. might have also met with ethnically diverse tribes upon disembarking on North American shores in 1000. ethnic. modes of migration. and the Islamic. After James Cook explored the east coast of Australia in 1770 and the Europeans began to settle on the newly discovered lands. value systems. sociopolitical. son of the famous Viking Erik the Red. cuisine. and many other explicit and implicit aspects of human existence and behavior.7 Diversity and Change Human diversity has existed to varying degrees throughout recorded history. The Russians encountered the same mosaic during the exploration of the Siberian region. age. further increasing cultural. styles of clothing. each conversing in its own language and pursuing specific values and lifestyles. Russian explorers. Closer examination gives rise to the conclusion that diversity also embraces human psychology. Spanish conquistadors. religious. linguistic. customs and traditions. Human diversity can be described as a phenomenon incorporating a whole range of racial. They met native peoples. ethnic. The notion of 5 . When Christopher Columbus accidentally "discovered" the Americas instead of the West Indies in 1492 and Spanish conquistadors rushed into the new lands. and ethnogeographic categories intertwined in contemporary societies.

especially in the United States. Immigrating to a foreign country requires. educators are more casual in behavior and clothing as well as in classroom communication with students. (4) intellectual (people experience a basic need to understand how the world came to be and where they fit in it). shelter. The many people changing residences are often driven by a desire to start a new life in a new place. challenging educators to generate new ideas in designing and implementing multicultural strategies and techniques. and (5) ethical (people must not despoil the world of living things that has been developing for nearly four billion years). student-student. 2001.). Mishler. cultural diversity. On a larger scale. The number of racially and ethnically mixed families is growing rapidly. while others gradually lose their native tongue and pass over to exclusively using the dominant language. Atheists become religiously minded and vice versa. Lizarralde.6 Chapter One ”diversity within diversity” also appears in the pedagogical literature uupp. food. student-teacher relations are less formal. In the United States. Mishler examines five viewpoints: (1) economic (natural lineages are a potential source of economically beneficial products-medicines. the teacher is usually an authority figure-ane to be respected and even feared. (2) ecological (a diversity of interactors is needed for a reasonable functioning of ecological systems). Migration has increased at the beginning of the twenty-first century. as a rule. 2001. Still others. 2001). 2001). change their religion. etc. Students can challenge teachers by posing questions and offering suggestions. Smith. (3) evolutionary (a diversity of replicators is needed as the raw material for natural selection). At the same time. and teacher-parent interactions. 2001. Evidence (Maffi. where moving from one social class to another has always been a normal practice. Social mobility has increased over the last decades. As regards educational matters. different cultures boast diverse approaches to teacher-student. Canada. human diversity is continually changing. adjusting to another environment and acquiring a second language and novel ways of life. . under the influence of different factors. In Asian countries. depending on the individual’s point of view (Maffi. For example. and northern European nation-states. the extinction of biodiversity-rich ecosystems leads to the demise of indigenous peoples and their native languages. and linguistic diversity. This constant increase in diversity makes a tremendous impact on education. Many people acquire new languages. 2001) indicates that there is a close relationship between biodiversity. scientists contemplate biodiversity and the ways of valuing it. People move both within homelands and around the globe. the Caribbean. and South America.

Ethnic. China. The growth of racial and ethnic diversity is a natural process in European countries. In the United States. France. India. Pakistan. Little Japan and Little Tokyo (Los Angeles). Slavic. Iran. as well as with different ethnic and cultural predispositions. Along with Celtic and Latin ethnic groups. D. It is not without reason that kindergarten. Native Americans. among stable ethnic minority groups in Italy. For instance. a seemingly monoethnic country to an alien eye. and other Asian countries. Sweden. inhabit either their ancestral lands or reservations. Los Angeles. Mexico. . a foreign tourist can often encounter people of Teutonic. ethnic. Germany. Korea. the Dominican Republic. 2001). members of minority racial and ethnic groups normally reside in certain enclaves such as Chinatown (Washington. Canada. there is a rapid increase of Germans. adding to the ethnically diverse population that has inhabited the British Isles since ancient timesEnglish. French.). Scottish. and university student populations in these regions are becoming more and more diverse racially and ethnically. Jamaica. inhabit all the southwestern states and Florida. A look at immigration rates can help explain this. The United Kingdom now boasts an immigration influx from India. immigrants came from the United Kingdom. the birthrate among people of Asian and African descent is growing faster than among those of European origin.. Taiwan. school-age children will be from minority (nonwhite) ethnic groups. etc.C. Canada. There is also a growing population of Syrian and Lebanese immigrants in the United States (Gualtieri. and Russia. encompassing around 18 percent of the whole population. Irish. around 40 percent of U. and the United Kingdom. and linguistic diversity. Italy Ireland. Children from these and other countries come to school with different religions and languages. Racial and Ethnic D v r i y iest In North America and Western Europe. Hispanics. has become a natural process in many societies.and other close-knit communities. is rapidly becoming a multicultural and multilingual nation. Brighton Beach (New York). El Pueblo (LosAngeles). Albanians. which immediately affects educational practices ranging from kindergartens to higher schools. 2001). From the 1850s to the 1950s. Cuba. Little Havana (Miami). Today they arrive predominantly from the Philippines. and Linguistic Diversity The growth of racial. Demographers predict that by the second decade of the twenty-first century. school. Slovenes. and Ulster (McGeveran. however.S. and Greeks. Little Italy (Cleveland). Vietnam.Diversity and Change 7 Racial. Welsh.

and others) and a small number of people of African origin are sparsely distributed only in certain areas. Russia’s colleges. and those of native origin. Ukrainians. the term ”minority” is seldom or never used to refer to non-Russian ethnic groups. is a good example.a considerable number of Chuvashes. Udmurts. which until recently have traditionally been attended by unicultural students. the southern Ural Mountains. and Bashkirs-the three largest groups. Belorussians. A glance at Australia. also reveals growing diversity. Jews and Tatars have their own independent territories-the Jewish Autonomous Region (capital: Birobidzhan) and the Republic of Tatarstan (capital: Kazan). Koreans. Some territories rank as high as autonomous republics. the northern Caucasian region. institutes. and Germans inhabit this republic.7 percent.All non-Russian nationalities have developed their own societal infrastructure. a unique country and continent. They are very few in number in comparison with the people of Asian and African backgrounds who now live throughout North America and northern Europe. located in the southern Ural Mountains area. those of Asian origin. Finding a single monoethnic classroom in these regions’ metropolitan areas is a difficult task. Almost all non-Russian nationalities have their own administrative territories with a capital city. people of Caucasian descent made up 96 percent of the population. Three ethnic groups. 0. content areas are taught in six native languages. descendants of groups from Asia (Chinese. 2001). Humanity has witnessed and is witnessing racial conflicts (Watkins- . the first autonomous entity within the former Soviet Union.8 Chapter One North African. As regards other non-Russian ethnic groups. In this country. Russia’s secondary-school student populations are growing diverse. particularly in the Volga region autonomous republics. and Basque descent in France. and 1 percent (Famighetti. and universities are no different. 1996. Unlike in some other countries. In 1975. There has been no dominance of one group over another. 3 percent. The Republic of Bashkortostan. Historically. McGeveran. The rural schools of Russia. their members are stably located in specific regions in relatively large groups. are also growing into diverse microcollectives because of population shifts from metropolitan to rural areas. Mordva. In 2000. Indochinese. which borrowed its name from a Germanic tribe and was for a long period a territory of the mighty Roman Empire.the Jews. and Siberia. In addition to Russians. the corresponding figures were 92 percent. Thirteen languages native to various local ethnic groups are taught in elementary and secondary schools. and Tatarsare widely dispersed throughout the country. Ukrainians. racial and ethnic diversity has influenced Russia. relationships between the existing ethnic groups have been based on the principles of mutual understanding. In a somewhat similar way. Mari. 7 percent. Tatars.

English. Nubian. foreign. Linguistic Diversity Language has a strong effect on human lives and educational issues and on designing strategies of multicultural education. ethnolinguistically diverse states. having survived the disintegration of the empires that fostered them. past and present. Korean (78). Chinese. Japanese (125). English. Sindhi. Some countries are very rich in languages: China (Mandarin [the official language]. Wu (77). 2000). Cooper. and socially unjust. Yue. Portuguese (176). Language is the main distinctive ethnic feature and ethnic symbol (Brown and Lauder. Mari. The difficulty of distinguishing between dialects and languages on linguistic grounds hinders an exact or even a most approximate calculation. Xiang. Pakistan (Urdu. Wu. has continued (Bonnett. represents an intellectual error. Two of them-Mandarin Chinese and Russiancontinue as languages of administration within single. English (341). Minnan). the struggle against racism or that against sexism. English [associate official]. Hakka. Yue (71). and distorts and erases people’s identities. Tatar. and skills within and across cultures. Russia (Russian [official]. fourteen regional languages). Racism sustains the ruling class. Ukrainian. French (77). dominance. Interestingly. Javanese (75). 1997: 272). antiegalitarian. Spanish. many cases of racial and ethnic hatred. The others-Arabic. and Rosenbaum (1977) point out that the great world languages of today (Mandarin Chinese. One of the most controversial encounters has been the relationship between antiracism and feminism. and Spanish-represent imperial legacies. 1996). Antiracist movements developed not only in response to biological racism but also in reaction to discrimination on the basis of culture. and gender. Bonnett characterizes racism as socially disruptive. But the relationship between antiracism and other emancipation movements has been far from straightforward. exclusion. Bashkir. Bengali (207). and French) are languages of empire.Diversity and Change 9 Coffman. Mandarin (874 million). Gan. Debate about which is more important. Language is an indispensable bridge for sharing attitudes. and marginalization. Russian (167). Pashtu). Spanish (322-58). knowledge. and Telugu (69) (McGeveran. Arabic. Hindi (366). German (100). The principal languages of the world are distributed as follows (“first language’’ speakers are presented): Chinese. English [both official]. India (Hindi [official]. 2001). Fishman. There are between three thousand and five thousand languages currently spoken in the world. French. Punjabi. 2001). Nilotic. Chuvash. religion. Ta Bedawie. It fosters children’s and adults’ cognitive development and ”can open or close the door to academic achievement” (Ovando. others). Nilo- . Sudan (Arabic [official]. Chinese. Russian. hinders progress.

meaning “gave. others) (McGeveran. is widespread. from the Carolinas to northern Florida. the Russian ”there. go?” and tuda. only the verb dal is Russian. Chinese.” The rest of the elements are from Tatar: min is the personal pronoun ”I. present-day Russia boasts over 130 living languages. called Ebonics. and (3) Hawaiian creole. which has been influenced by Hawaiian. Italian. I have chronicled these and many other speech units1during my interactions with students of Tatar ethnic backgrounds.” The whole meaning of the sentence is “I lent (gave) them money yesterday. in the United States. shows parallels in historical development with creole languages and reflects influences from British and American English and also from English-based pidgin from sixteenth-century West Africa (Ovando.” akcha denotes ”money. In Russia.10 Chapter One Hamitic). Mongo. creole. although a dialect of English rather than a creole of English. For example. The real linguistic picture is quite different. black English. This list includes only principal languages spoken in the given countries. based on Russian and Tatar. which coexists with two local varieties of French and another local variety of English. Luba. In addition to the many languages. because only the pronoun “you“ belongs to the Tatar language. a creole of English and West African origin spoken on the Sea Islands. For instance. there are three examples of creole: (1)Gullah. German. the Russian influence prevails. ”yesterday. (2) Louisiana French creole. there exist a lot of language varieties (such as pidgin. Min alarga dal akcha kicha.” kicha. others). the other elements are from Russian. I will provide several speech units (sentences)that symbolize the creation and usage of one such blended language. the United States (English. try to converse in a “strange pidginized language” with their native counterparts.” Below. Zaire (French [official]. In another sentence. in the sentence Sin hadil tuda? sin is the Tatar ”you. and dialects) in the world. the so-called ”pidginalization” of some non-Russian minority languages has also been noticeable within the last two to three decades. the non-Russian elements constitute most of the structure. Rwanda. For instance. Kongo. being fluent speakers of Russian and poor users of their indigenous means of communication. Portuguese. In it. . Spanish.” hadil is the Russian ”Did . in which the Tatar elements are marked by the symbol (T).” The whole sentence is rendered into English as ”Did you go there?” In this sentence. English. 2001). Some people from non-Russian language groups (mostly urban residents). Japanese.” alarga is “to them. I offer two more examples of this blended language. . Besides these varieties. Russian elements by (R): Kim belan poydesh sin? Whom (T) will (R) you (T) go (R) with (T)?2 . and Ilocano. Black English. 1997).

often bear a serious expression.McClelland. Linguistic diversity is determined not only by the number of ethnic groups each speaking a different language. a language variation called ”rural English” (sometimes ”mountain English) is spoken primarily in Appalachia. Mishar. Lewis (1980) postulates that Americans tend to differentiate on the basis of ethnic origin. and eye contact) is often closely tied to culture (Cushner. or multilingual. while interacting with people. without much regard for language. Some people from Latin American countries speak fluent Spanish but do not care much about Spanish culture and follow their indigenous forebears’ cultural and historical heritages. There are also different traditional approaches to the relationship between language and ethnicity. extensive smiling may imply a nonserious attitude toward the conversational partner. Derived from the language of early English settlers in this area.Diversity and Change 11 Bik matur devushka idet! A very (T) pretty (T) girl (R) is coming (R)! Ranking second after Russian in number of users. mountain English is considered by some linguists to be the ”purest” English spoken in the United States and the closest to the language spoken in Shakespeare’s time. and Safford. posture. lights. 2000). whereas most people from Russian culture. Morse code. and Safford. the English normally ignore ethnicity and differentiate . In the United States. McClelland. The differences among the dialects lie in the sound system rather than in grammar and vocabulary. Among Russians. but also by the number of people who are monolingual. For example. The semaphore alphabet is a visual alphabet that uses flags. or mechanical moving arms. some young non-Russian students living in their native communities and adhering to their indigenous traditions and cultures do not speak their native language and use exclusively Russian. language and ethnic affiliations do not always coincide. facial expressions. in similar situations. and the degree of its manifestation (through gestures.Also. 1991). adds to the overall picture of language diversity. People also use so-called body language. Because of the isolation of mountain people. More than half the world’s population claims to be bilingual (Hoffman. 2000). a system of communication in which letters and numbers are represented by dots and dashes or short and long sounds. Sign language. used by the deaf and the hearing impaired. For instance. Americans tend to show a sense of gratitude by their facial expressions (they often smile). is used widely in telegraphy. and Eastern. bilingual. this variation has been preserved in much the same way that Gullah has been preserved off the coast of the Carolinas (Cushner. For example. Tatar has three dialects: Middle.

the world’s linguistic array is constantly changing. such as duma (a group of legislative officials) and lavka (a small shop). economy (moving to another country to find a better job). as Spanish and Portuguese have largely displaced the indigenous languages in Latin America. and the United States. the use of the Internet has made many people throughout the world learn English) (Wei. shuzi (shoes). and technology (for example. The situation is more difficult in multilingual and multicultural countries. like creole or black English in the United States. and so on. lav (love). Owing to contact and other causes. and annexation). disinterested labor for the sake of Soviet society. and (4)the emergence of some borrowings from English that express the same phenomena in Russian and are pronounced in almost the same way: khit (English hit). 2000). especially in terms of vocabulary. a language tends to adjust to a nation’s socioeconomic changes. One language may completely displace the other. which used to be organized annually on an April day). khay (hi).). so was the Russian language. The task is easy in monolingual countries such as Japan. such as Zeninism (a salient part of Communist ideology based on the teachings of Vladimir Lenin. whereas Russians assume that ethnicity determines language affiliation. Switzerland. Live languages determine language policies for educational purposes. the founder of a new Soviet state in the 1920s) and subbotnik (a form of collective. People speaking different languages continually come into contact. volcanic eruptions.natural disasters (famine. Over time any language undergoes definite phonetic. resettlement. education (learning another language). As Russia’s late-twentieth-century history was relatively changeable. The many factors that contribute to language contact include politics (political and military acts such as colonization. gudbay (goodbye). New languages and their variants may be formed. boyfiend (boyfriend). without suppression of anything objectionable). During the previous two decades Russian citizens have witnessed (1)the birth of a number of new words. such as perestroika (a reorganization of all sides of life) and glasnost (a phenomenon denoting a situation when sociopolitical questions are solved openly. floods. (3) the gradual disappearance of a number of words and phrases denoting the past communist life. such as Russia. etc.12 Chapter One on the basis of language. khelou (hello). where the population is made up almost entirely of people of Japanese origin. and lexical changes. As a resilient system. grammatical. kis (kiss). where language-policy makers must design adequate policies and strategies to address the needs of . religion (immigration to a country because of its religious significance or leaving a country because of its religious oppression). (2) the rebirth of temporarily forgotten vocabulary items. culture (a desire to identify with a concrete cultural group).

the Organization of African Unity).Diversiry and Change 13 several language groups.S. religious. social. the Organization of American States. Artificial languages. socioeconomic. the International Finance Corporation. at many U. and trade unions. Countless social organizations are launched and sustained by secondary school and university students. For example. English. confederations. Unfortunately. carrying away into oblivion a former means of communication. campus life revolves around fraternities (social and residential clubs for men) and sororities (similar clubs for women). Phi Beta Delta. In this respect. the International Atomic Energy Agency). Language planning and language policy strategies for bilingual and multilingual/multicultural classrooms should be resistant to sudden sociopolitical and economic changes and responsive to local conditions. Language policy issues deserve greater attention and will be discussed separately. and other European languages. alliances. and rural versus urban diversity. Diversity on the Societal Level Societal diversity occurs along many dimensions. there are numerous political parties. including teachers’ and teacher educators’ academic. The best-known are national groups with chapters at schools throughout the country. 1990). and fellowships. universities. some languages die. For example. These societies also meet the needs of international scholars. Sociopolitical Diversity Nationally and internationally. the International Bank for Reconstruction Development. founded at California State University in 1986. still more diversify and beautify the world’s linguistic annals. some dead languages play a significant role in linguistic research and historical investigation. such as Alpha Delta Phi. Spanish. business and economic organizations (the International Labor Organization. This section examines sociopolitical. Even though they are no longer spoken. and research unions. such as Esperanto and Volapuk. is the first national honor society dedicated to recognizing scholarly achievements in international education (Tiersky and Tiersky. for the latter have much in common with ancient Latin in vocabulary and grammar. and health care and sports associations and societies. Their names are Greek letters. The world also boasts a variety of sociopolitical organizations (the United Nations. knowing Latin is an aid in learning French. . social associations and organizations. as well as facilitate the learning of other languages. the Organization of Security and Co-operation in Europe.

democracy has affected Russian education on the levels of methodology.14 Chapter One Sociopolitical. intensive or gradual. Within the many variables that can be attributed to methodology. two reorganizations have occurred in schooling under the impact of democracy: decentralization and the cre- . as illustrated by the impact of democratic principles on the Russian system of education. This principle has necessitated a new search for educational technologies capable of making the teaching process more child centered and creating necessary conditions for pedagogues’ and students’ self-realization and self-actualization (Slastenin and Shiyanov. educational reorganizations. Armed with efficient means of communication. didactic principles. Ideological and political changes normally entail governmental. as in the former Soviet society in the 1990s. when the communist ideology was replaced by the ideas of democracy and humanization. and educational structures and movements change over time. 1994). Russia’s attempts to pursue democratic reforms in education). 1990. and styles of teacher-student interaction.A pertinent example of a mobile nation is the United States. First of all. The changes may be slight. the principle of humanization has taken a visible shape. inevitably. requiring their children to attend new schools and adjust to novel environments. Sometimes new ideas or approaches are not adequately understood by all people. On the organizational level. Migration has increased both nationally and cross-culturally. social. curriculum content. and. a desire for change of climate. Societal changes have become pervasive over the last decades. Over forty million Americans change residences every year. Their development may be progressive or regressive. cultural. The winds of democracy were always blowing along the borders of the former Soviet Union. Bellfy. others are fostered by exterior influences (for instance. Certain changes on the societal level occur because of interior factors (for example. or the promptings of a frontier spirit. but it was only after Mikhail Gorbachev came to power in 1985 that these winds managed to make real breakthroughs on the country’s political and economic borders. a boom in the study of English in many developing and Eastern European countries for job and career opportunities). The average American moves about fourteen times in her or his lifetime because of job changes. overt or covert. economic. organization of schooling. The democratic perestroika could not avoid the educational institutions. a resident of the United States can easily get in touch with any relative or friend in any comer of the country (Tiersky and Tiersky. language planning. and international education. or they may amount to a loss of identity or replacement by another entity. 2001). Sociopolitical changes refocus the methodology of teaching. One ideology may be substituted for another.

The regional component includes the content reflecting the national (ethnic) and regional cultural peculiarities (the native language and literature. regional ecology and culture.Diversity and Change 15 ation of alternative ways of educating children and young people. The federal component contains courses on Russian language and literature. successfully practiced in czarist Russia before the 1917 Revolution. In the 1990s. alternative schools began to emerge. national history. The share of English (among other traditional foreign languages. As for foreign languages. . Today. The local component-the most variable part of the curriculum (optional courses. gymnasia. and the quality of teaching of indigenous languages has improved considerably. physics. Considerable reformation has affected curriculum planning. etc.)-reflects a school’s specificity and enables the school council to design and implement educational programs in congruence with teachers’ expertise and students’ motivational needs. These days. In addition to the eleven-year public schools. Implementing democratic principles has promoted alterations in language planning and affected the role of non-Russian ethnic groups’ native languages and foreign languages in the curriculum. geography. health lessons. The growth of democracy has contributed to further development of multicultural and international (cross-cultural) education. mostly in metropolitan areas. as well as international exchange of teachers. chemistry. etc. such as German. the number of hours for native language and culture instruction has increased. over the last two decades. In this regard. and world culture. Those who have already made their choice are convinced that the advantages of home schooling outweigh the disadvantages. astronomy. lyceums. the weekly academic load per student is twenty-two to twenty-seven hours in grades 14. private schools. and farming schools were opened. mathematics. regional/republic. the system does not expect. the number of subjects taught in the native tongue has increased rapidly. demand. rural colleges. and local/school. Home schooling. and thirty-six to thirty-eight hours in grades 10-11. Three curriculum components have been mandated: federal. There is now a growing body of awareness among Russian teachers that young people should be knowledgeable about the world and should acquire Values and skills that will enable them to interact effectively with people different from themselves in an interdependent world. students and university faculty.).thirty-two to thirty-six hours in grades 5-9. and Spanish) has risen rapidly. and reward conformity. Decentralization has promoted the development of students’ critical thinking and decision making. French. has been resumed with a new content in some families. there has been a strong trend among young people and adults to switch to learning English as a foreign language.

con men. The latter include drug and alcohol addicts. two-parent family can provide. today there are more than one billion people in famine conditions around the world. The destruction of families inevitably results in shrinking society’s moral and citizenship foundations. one can see whole clusters of poverty-stricken and homeless people. In the United States the rise in real wealth and continuing inflation produced over a million millionaires. and mosques). In Russia’s metropolitan areas. These people. dependent on social status: the higher the social status. and people who have a job and those who have none. informal communities of their own. Conversely. seldom venturing into risky and large-scale criminal activities. particularly in downtown urban areas.16 Chapter One Socioeconomic Diversity Socioeconomic diversity has accompanied human existence throughout recorded history. has a particularly crucial impact on the upbringing of children. people standing high socially and those occupying the lower levels on the social ladder. which is now rampant in industrialized societies. People are engaged in various socioeconomic activities. traditional. churches. especially around railway stations. and the overly materialistic. divorce. The two categories-prosperity and poverty-have often operated side-by-side in human societies. prostitutes. Economic welfare is usually. In a prosperous United States. quarrel seekers. the repeatedly divorced. self-destructive individuals. but not always. For example. even among highly educated people. The majority of people lead normal social lives. but the contemporary era might be considered the culminating point of such diversity. Children raised in one-parent and multiply divorced families lack the necessary nurturing that a strong. Despite all the advances of humankind in agriculture. often build close-knit. Golosenko (1996) admits that until recently this social phenomenon has not been a focus of thorough investigation among Russian researchers. Recent findings indicate that beggary has a centuries-long and ongoing history in the country. As for beggary as a social problem. Their numbers are growing rapidly nowadays. subway passages. Much of their wealth was earned in the frantic real estate and stock market boom during the last decades. the . whereas certain individuals’ behavior transgresses generally accepted standards. and outside religious shrines (temples. There are wealthy and affluent people and people living beyond their means. so-called revolutionaries. The statement ”the rich get richer and the poor get poorer” is still true. each contributing to national and global welfare. a passer-by can also encounter poorly dressed and miserable-looking people who have staked out a certain territory and earn their living by begging or petty theft. the richer the person.

In other societies. There is considerable disagreement among social scientists about which variables are the most important in determining the social class of an individual or family. among others. numerically large and small. movie stars. probably in equal proportion to the total population of each given ethnic group. thus immediately lowering the social status enjoyed in the home country. and ranked high in society. For instance. it is often difficult to agree on criteria for determining social class. In Russia. particularly if they make philanthropic and charitable donations in the fields of education. some officials and administrative workers who rank high socially are ill paid. Becoming famous is another social change. But there may be exceptions in both cases. such as single-parent households. socioeconomic differences among and between racial and ethnic groups remain a major issue. wealthy and lowincome people can be met among all ethnic groups. have a very low social status. a new shopping center requires a parking lot. who have grown wealthy. these characteristics are no longer rare among the middle and upper class. immigrating to another country often makes a person a minority member in a host society. they are often considered as "dumb. For instance. and politicians. and substance abuse. American social scientists used to attribute characteristicsto the lower class that are found in the middle class today. Among ordinary people. where since the 1990s new businesses have sprung up like mushrooms. socioeconomic differences are not so clear-cut on the ethnic level. valued. medicine. such as the United States. Today. Many rural and urban settlements in industrialized countries are sprawled out. even though their frequency is still higher among lower-class families. high divorce rates. in contemporary Russia and the Newly Independent States. and the like. Rapid economic changes and the growth in the number of vehicles. These differences are usually associated with school achievement. Such is the case with some sportsmen." "empty-headed. Socioeconomic changes may be gradual or rapid. including boats. For example." In some societies. In the 1950s. Most newly built rural and urban settlements do not resemble the older settlementswith closely spaced houses and apartment buildings. On the . and participation in the job market beyond the entry level. The same person can regain his social standing after returning to his homeland. Also in Russia.Diversity and Change 17 wealthy are traditionally accepted. such as Russia. have affected the spatial configuration of metropolitan and coastal areas. certain "newly sprung" businessmen." "dull. Because societies are constantly changing. discriminatory barriers hindering access to decision-makingpositions in the political structure. otherwise customers are likely to select another place to shop. the so-called new Russians. so that children have to travel large distances to and from school.

India. teachers staged a series of hunger strikes in Ulyanovsk and Khabarovsk. Following this financial deterioration. Vivid in mind are the events in Ireland.” theorizes Uphoff (1997). numerous calls by Muslim extremists to launch a jihad (holy war) on the infidel and Judeo-Christian world. the forces of nature. and Buddhism) followed by a relatively large number of people from various ethnic and racial groups or in ethnic or smaller religions pursued by representatives of one ethnic group. such as the depression that enveloped the United States and other countries in the 1930s or the monetary crisis that struck Russia in 1998. and declarations of different branches of Christianity about their supremacy over other Christian denominations-all are only a few historical examples depicting tensions on the religious basis. The former incorporates an organized system of beliefs and rituals related to a supernatural power or powers. without any noticeable economic collapses. Islam.” Certain individuals or whole enterprises get wealthy gradually or quickly. there might occur another change-becoming infamous. tripling the dollar-ruble rate. Pakistan. The latter change may occur with any celebrity as if following Napoleon’s dictum ”There is but one step from the sublime to the ridiculous. “we need to use both a close-up and a wide-angle lens” (108). such as belief in humanism. Muslims. Uphoff maintains that ”one important aspect of this dual definition is that many individuals use and live by b o t h (1997 110). Christians. Religious diversity often creates problems on the national and international levels. Buddhists. Religious Diversity The world around us is religiously diverse and is becoming more so every day. the future. Religious diversity is in full swing in the United States. wisdom transmitted from ancestors. other societies undergo economic crises.18 Chapter One other pole. Religion seems easy to define but in fact is difficult to explain. it greatly influences educational canons. Jews-all are represented in one multireli- . Hindus. “As we focus our camera on this concept. The Crusaders’ invasion of the Middle East in the eleventh through the thirteenth centuries. others go bankrupt in the same manner.At least two definitions of religion can be given-narrow and broad. The broader definition looks at religion as any faith or set of values to which an individual or group gives ultimate loyalty. such as in the world religions (Christianity. smooth development. Some societies experience an even. proclamations of certain religions about their superiority over other religions. Even though religion as an organized system of beliefs in a supreme being is separated from school in most countries. This crisis added to the already worsening economic state of Russian teachers. love. and so on. and Sri Lanka.

and personal responsibility. that it now makes sense to talk about the oppression of religious subcultures” (65). Religion is important to people because religions have always addressed the questions of salvation and the meaning of life. Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (Mormons). Methodists. and synagogues were closed or vandalized. the Bolsheviks . and people are free to believe in God or not and to worship in any way they choose. Episcopalians. mullahs (Muslim clergymen). 2000). The existence of God was denied. The national motto on U.” According to the basic American attitude. the positive historical role of religion was criticized. Some school textbooks and other literature used in educational institutions contained antireligious material and propaganda (Latishina. Russia also boasts various religions.S. The temple was erected in 1881 in honor of the victory over Napoleon in the 1812 war. Armed with the resolution ”On the liquidation and demolition of the Temple of Christ the Savior. Pentecostals. Church of Christ. Russia’s atheistic past impedes demographers’ attempts to calculate exactly the number of adherents of different confessions.” The pledge of allegiance to the flag declares that the country is ”one nation under God. Protestantism is considered to have had the greatest influence on American life because of its philosophy stressing the moral value of work. 1990). currency reads ”In God We Trust.Lutherans. The largest Christian denominations are Baptists. Everything related to religion was studied from an atheistic perspective. and United Church of Christ. gender.Diversity and Change 19 gious melting pot. 1998). Roman Catholics. including education. It is impossible to avoid mentioning the explosion of the Moscow Temple of Christ the Savior in 1931. Presbyterians. huge questions in human society (Nord. Orthodox. and thousands of churches. mosques. Under the Communist government and Communist Party rule. On the other side of the Atlantic. The accumulation of wealth is not considered evil unless it leads to an idle or sinful life. Millions of Americans find the most profound sources of meaning in religion and religious traditions and often define themselves not in terms of ethnicity. or nationality but in terms of religion (Tiersky and Tiersky. Almost all religious educational institutions were banned.and even common believers were prosecuted. Jehovah’s Witnesses. Nord notes: ”The tensions between religion and the dominant culture [in the United States] are so marked and the victory of the dominant culture over religion is so complete in many of the institutional domains of life. and a considerablenumber of clergymen.” adopted on June 16. Three hundred and forty feet high. God is in the universe. The vast majority of Americans believe in God. At the same time. the temple was one of the most beautiful edifices in Russia. until the mid-1980s religions and beliefs were prosecuted. 1931. and its influence on human lives was discussed from a negative perspective. self-discipline.

Its beauty is beyond imagination. For a long time I stood near the edifice wondering at its grandeur and sublimity. in France there is a noticeable trend among Christians to convert to Islam or convert from one branch of Christianity to another. and started going to church. under the influence of the democratic thaw. In 1918. adopted Orthodox Christianity and was named Alexandra Feodorovna. Built by the Byzantians as a stronghold of Christianity. did away with their ”dark religious past” and stepped onto the path of building Communism-a ”society that is free of God. Such is a trend in some European countries. the temple has been rebuilt. Students and teachers are no longer persecuted because of their religious beliefs. Fortunately. mainly under the influence of Communist propaganda. the reverse occurred: a considerable number of the former ”fighters against God” suddenly rose up and started negating the Communist ideology. prior to marrying Nicholas. there has been a tremendous shift in the way that information about religion is presented in Russian society and the nation’s educational institutions. Certain people change their religion and beliefs. similar conversions were not rare. For example.20 Chapter One carried out their plan on December 5. Historically. millions of people. believers become atheists. from 1839 till 1881. I have visited the newly built Temple of Christ the Savior in Moscow. into a secular edifice. Over the last eighty years Russia has witnessed both trends. A pertinent example is Hagia Sofia (Saint Sofia) in Istanbul. 1931. The empress remained a faithful Orthodox believer until her last breath. I thought to myself that the rebirth of the temple manifests a great sign of the spiritual resurgence of Russia. this Muslim shrine was turned into a museum. the czar’s entire family was assassinated in Ekaterinburg. It took them only forty-five minutes to explode and completely destroy the sanctuary that required forty-two years to build. by the Turkish leader Kemal Atatiirk. Since the mid-l980s. In other cases. Religious diversity does not remain static. and the role of religion in the development of Russia is reflected from a positive perspective. it was turned into a Muslim mosque after Constantinople was seized by the Turks in 1453. Nicholas 11.” In the mid-1980s and 1990s. In 1895 he married Queen Victoria’s granddaughter Alex de Hessen. in the 1930s. who. A trend to convert from one religion into another is often observed before or after ethnically and religiously mixed marriages. and vice versa. Instruction about religion is unprejudiced. is worth recalling. Another side of religious change is shown in the emergence of new . Then. In the 1920s and 1930s. Holy shrines dedicated to one religion can be turned into temples for another religion. that is. It looks exactly the same as the one I saw in numerous pictures before. The case of the last Russian czar. rushed into reading religious literature.

45 to 55. 76 to 24. an ambivalence pervades the entire process of schooling in these societies. Urban versus Rural Diversity Another form of diversity is defined by the distinction between rural and urban life. such as Russia. Seal and Harmon. 2001). in Qatar. 77 to 23. Urban and rural residents’ adherence to basic human values and their attitudes to the issues of education have always differed more or less distinctly (Nachtigal. the Netherlands. In 2000. 14 to 86 (McGeveran. and love for . as well as in the quality of urban and rural education. in large part. Students often learn two. 1992. as well as from the United States. Only barely noticeable in some European countries.In contemporary nation-states. in certain countries. children hear speculations about building an everlasting peace and a strong economy on Earth. in turn. In a secular classroom. 55 to 45. the United States. Egypt. Asian. security. the urban-rural population split in Belgium was 97 percent urban to 3 percent rural. at school children are taught that human development traces from a tiny tree-dwelling primate to Homo sapiens. Who could believe that Russia would become a Babel of religions at the beginning of the third millennium? The ”winds of democracy” have brought into Russia dozens of alien religions from European and Asian countries. sometimes diametrically opposed. and Uganda. and Kazakhstan. a sense of being happy with what they have. are becoming pronounced (Dzurinsky. whereas during Bible study lessons the same children learn another version of human origins-from Adam and Eve. the population is estimated to be 60 percent urban to 40 percent rural. who. and Latin American nation-states. As religion and school are. Russia. 32 to 68. the Bahamas. the most densely 1 populated country in Europe. 21 to 79. 2001a). The advantages of rural life are normally characterized as follows. 89 percent to 1 percent. Paraguay. were created by God. viewpoints about reality. China. whereas the Bible teaches that the biological life is a preliminary stage of existence and that the individual soul will be judged by the Almighty after death according to the person’s deeds on Earth. which ultimately will lead to a wealthy life. In rural communities. Belarus. 1995. For example. the differences between rural and urban standards of life. Sinagatullin. separated from each other in many societies. these differences are distinct and pervasive in African. 92 percent to 8 percent. 1999a).Diversify and Change 21 branches of religion and various beliefs. Moreover. and fulfillment. Thailand. residents experience a sense of togetherness. 88 to 12. They also hear about a possibility of creating an earthly paradise where a person’s fate will be dependent on the individual.

kidnappings. . as well as rural educators and students. and child abuse. prostitution. and help each other. Rio de Janeiro. The men and women on the farms stand for what is fundamentally best and most needed in our American life (219). Los Angeles. entertainment. adultery. . juvenile delinquency. low levels of formal education-are common in many parts of the world. especially in middle and high schools. Urban residents are closer to cultural. accidents. Rural residents are healthier physically. loving the land and people they live with. Rural people maintain indigenous values. satanism.22 Chapter One the land. rural communities. and child abuse. Rural communities are usually tightly knit. They have access to public transportation. rural communities also experience problems. assault. lack of sociocultural assets. London. for our civilization rests at bottom on the wholesomeness. Teachers and educators have to cope with disciplinary problems. This is what Theodore Roosevelt said in reference to rural life (cited in Fuller. Mexico City. divorce. prostitution. being physically active. and informational assets and are more “refined” and knowledgeable about the world. lead a relatively easy life. Negative features of urban life are myriad. help their neighbors in everyday activities. there is a higher rate of drug addiction and alcoholism. Contemporary urban residents tend to strive for pragmatic values and sustain relatively . Some of them-population decrease. Living and working in an ecologically favorable environment. and. Paris. consuming healthier food and purer water-all these factors add to the physical well-being of rural laborers. we can mention the following assets. parental. low income. homicide. sustain psychologically favorable relations with one another. and spousal. Undoubtedly. school dropouts. they value friendship. Sao Paulo. Moscow. pornography distribution. 1982): I warn my countrymen that the great recent progress in city life is not a full measure of our civilization. divorce. In urban areas. customs. and place lower value on making huge amounts of money. suicide. possess a higher level of formal education. educational. . are the backbone of a nation. Among the positive factors of urban life. Even though rural people are usually considered less cultured and less educated than their urban counterparts. the attractiveness. Finally. care about each other. and Saint Petersburg (the second-largest city in Russia). rural communities gave birth to many famous people. and the prosperity of the life in the country. which also boast frequent family and community gatherings and offer a hearty welcome to newcomers. especially sprawling cities such as New York. At the same time. and traditions. depending on their employment. Chicago. morally healthier because rural people are “less corrupted” by such societal ulcers as alcohol and drug addiction.

Canada. Interestingly. whereas gradually growing numbers of farmers run their own businesses and live in the villages together with the members of nonfarm groups. In urban centers. rural residents and their children build houses for themselves. the rural population can be subdivided into rural nonfarm and rural farm groups. also garden in the nearby countryside. These characteristics of urban and rural lives might not always be as clear-cut as they have been depicted. Unlike in Western countries. require extra time and energy. as if following their deeply rooted ancestral national traditions and customs. and Australia. both subgroups are engaged in physical labor: nonfarm groups work collectively. In Russia and some Newly Independent States. In Western European countries. metropolitan areas has increased considerably. children and teenagers are not usually closely attached to family and community values. In the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. industrialization in most parts of the world caused millions of rural residents to move to urban centers. in rural communities. for the two may be intertwined. when done by families themselves.S. Nonetheless. Engaging in these and other activities after classes and on weekends leaves little time for schoolchildren to do their homework or for self-education. growing vegetables and fruit. rural residents may also be divided into nonfarm and farm subgroups. Rural nonfarm groups are not engaged in agricultural labor. Today it is not always easy to draw a strict line of demarcation between rural and urban cultures. where people migrated in large numbers to urban areas even in the nineteenth century.Diversity and Change 23 cool interpersonal relations with their acquaintances and friends. The proportion of rural and urban populations undergoes continuous changes. except for doing some gardening for pleasure. Another population shift struck after World War 11. a great number of urban people. Traditionally. raising cattle and poultry. They are more independent and generally make decisions themselves regarding their future career. Normally. the United States. In addition to these occupations. most of rural residents run their personal households. some core truths and salient features about these two categories will continue to exist for a long time.when industrialization became a prime policy of the . especially if there is little or no difference between what we call the rural and the urban. cultivating small strips of land. mainly in the 1950s through the 1970s. the population of most of U. Unlike the United States. Since the 1970s. in Russia there were few signs of urbanization in the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries. even with their own children and parents. The situation changed in the 1930s. adults’ behavior and ways of handling various enterprises are inherited by the youth and often become an integral part of their character and everyday behavior. All these tasks.

These changes predicted the fate of rural schools. journals. rural and urban. There is a direct link between the favorable functioning of both and the amelioration of a nation’s economic strength. The modern telephone with a digital answering machine can record callers’ voices. Bookstore and library shelves sag under the weight of billions of books. and computers. can succeed academically. it is possible to send or . automatic weapons. and age. airplane. television. manned spaceship. and the first manned spaceship. other nations actively join the space programs of the two countries. The flow of rural residents to urban areas took a toll on the agrarian sector of economy. Some of them ceased to exist. educational institutions with small classes (Sinagatullin. even tiny. Diversity of Information and Individual Diversity This section will examine the diversity in knowledge explosion and dissemination. The past century and a half has seen the invention of the telephone. The first Sputnik. At the press of a button. launched in 1957. and quality of education. Today. as well as diversity on the individual level. Some branches of the economy profited from industrialization. Mobile phones can receive the voices of our colleagues from the dense jungles of South America and the hottest deserts of North Africa. others. as well as in future career opportunities.24 Chapter One Soviet government. f Dissemination o Diverse Knowledge and Information Contemporary educational institutions function in an epoch of an unparalleled expansion of information and knowledge. automobile. most small rural schools were closed. With the decline of rural settlements. We are able to correspond by e-mail with any part of the globe within seconds. flights into space have become a normal practice in Russia and the United States. cultural welfare. like the agrarian subdivisions-kolkhozes (collective enterprises) and sovkhozes (state enterprises)-were not so lucky. Since the mid-nineteenth century. with Yuri Gagarin on board in 1961. and magazines. Other things being equal. radio. socially. an explosion of knowledge has occurred that is unprecedented in previous recorded history. A considerable number of large and small villages declined. Well-functioningeducational institutions are the lifeblood of both rural and urban communities. all children. gender. Earth-orbiting satellites. Since the 1960s. the majority of remaining rural institutions turned into small. and culturally. atomic weapons. 2001a). made a mind-boggling impact on humankind. which gained its second wind in the 1950s. such as human physiology and mental ability.

Bowers.Diversity and Change 25 receive a fax in our car or at home or get a message on our sky pager. which may both hinder and facilitate the cultural information processing. For example. Vasquez. and store information so that it will be available when needed? What should be done to avoid getting lost in the welter of divergent information? People involved in the business of education in general and multicultural education in particular are required to find reasonable answers to these and other questions. and Palacios. On the other hand. the use of computers and the explosion of knowledge and information have made it difficult for children and teenagers to orient themselves in all the richness of the emerging information and have begun to threaten the transmission and maintenance of culture." "global information ethics. such expressions as "cyberethics. Computer technology has progressed considerably within the last two decades. 2001). A number of questions arise: As it is impossible to use all this information. Some elementary and secondary school textbooks are sometimes outmoded before they are published. each overflowing with information. select. 2001. Scientific knowledge changes as quickly as a lightning strike.S. Information and knowledge about the world changes extremely fast." and "Internet ethics" have come into use (Spinello and Tavani. Lal. 2001)." "information technology ethics. At the same time. There is access to numerous television channels. including biases. they think that computers will hardly help in cultural transmission of knowledge among Native Americans without substantial culture loss. This is exactly what has occurred in a multicultural Russia with some school textbooks on the humanities and social sciences within the last two decades because of rapid and pervasive sociopolitical changes. Kraemer. On the one hand. what portion of it is more profitable and congruent with the basic curriculum perspectives? What additional knowledge could be most useful to expand students' multicultural and global horizons? What information or knowledge is most applicable in adulthood to be a good citizen or just a good human being? What knowledge is of prime importance? What piece of knowledge is of lesser value? How can students be taught to find. and Roaf (2001)underline the importance of computer technology in the lives of indigenous peoples. Among Internet specialists." "information ethics. the immense progress in technology has made it easier for educational institutions to organize the pedagogical process. referring to the Native American cultures of North America. Modern computers equipped with the Internet can provide us with information on any topic and provide access to any part of the world (Debrick. and Russian cultures. Processing information about culture differs from group to group and may be influenced by individual and sociocultural factors. What was a sensation yesterday might fall into oblivion today. Abalakina- . On the basis of studying the U.

Stepanenkov. psychological. moral individual and good citizen. 2000). for instance. 1997. Many of those who made barbaric and inhumane decisions were educated men. Americans show more ethnocentric bias in recognizing unfavorable cultural information. The shocking state of children’s and teenagers’ health in Russia. redesigned programs and curricula implemented in Russia’s teacher training institutions. ready to help a fellow countryman in need. around 40 percent of preschool children had various forms of nervous and psychological disorders. in contemporary. (2001) suggest evidence that. antidemocratic policies in the former socialist countries. Hitler ’s Nazis sent millions of people into concentration camps. shows that being well-informed and educated does not always coincide with what we call being a diligent. History offers exceedingly barbaric examples. Unfortunately. in Russia. Human history. and over one million school-age children were classified as invalids (Akhiyarov. Health Problems and AbilityDisability Dimension Most students. Also. some had scientific degrees and honors. anti-Indian and racial segregation policies in the United States. In 2000. For example. invasions by militarily powerful countries of small and innocent nation-states-all are consequences of the workings of the minds of educated people who were born predominantly to well-bred and educated families. being educated becomes the norm in human societies. the number of school-age students with physical and psychological problems has increased as much as twenty times over the previous decade. executed innocent Jewish children and adults. are physically able and cognitively normal and progress academically. one whole block of disciplines is devoted to vakological education (in Latin. whereas Russians tend to recognize information that has not been presented. For example. vale0 means ”to be healthy”). however. threw a stunning number of people into the ovens. being healthy refers not only to physical health but also to the idea of the person’s corporal. and spiritual welfare (Popov. Belarus. the growth of agricultural out- . 1998). As knowledge explodes. both Russians and Americans recognize different types of information. intellectual. from kindergartners to college students. Progress in technology and medicine. and Ukraine resulted in intensifying both medical and pedagogical research and in reorganizing teacher preparation programs. but Americans are more likely to recognize information that has been presented.and university-age students who have problems with health is on the increase these days. For example. In the given context.26 Chapter One Paap et al. The antireligious course in Russia from the 1920s through the 1980s. the number of school.

“if his cognitive activity is stably affected as a result of the organic brain lesion (due to inherited or acquired factors)” (8).and speech-impaired children attend schools for exceptional children. it prolongs the unhealthy state of children and adults. and dysentery-or who suffer from long-lasting ailments.” Similarly. pneumonia. heart. even leaving some patients physically or mentally handicapped. we do not place HIV-infected students into special institutions. Vygotsky (1991) subdivided children with mental defects into three types: children with inherited mental retardation. . such children are referred to as ”physically weak. leukemia. In Russia. chicken pox. While the physically handicapped. such as diabetes. conventional runny-nose disease. those who frequently fall ill with typical. the common cold. tonsillitis. allergies. Instead. typhus. and sadomasochism. trachoma. new diseases have surfaced. Vygotsky warned (regarding children with inherited mental anomalies) that it is extremely important. measles. the reduction of tuberculosis. Passing over into a chronic stage. whereas those in the second and third categories attend traditional educational institutions. today can have very serious aftereffects. we normally do not set up separate groups or schools for students who are prone to illness-that is. and those who have psychoneurosis. The old venereal diseases have developed immunity to almost every known antibiotic. Many problems arise when educators and parents have to cope with children suffering from cognitive and mental disabilities. etc. cholera.Diversity and Change 27 put. from a psychological perspective. not to isolate such children in separate. widespread diseases such as bronchitis. often ignored by people as being just a weeklong. Influenza. kidney and liver disturbances. children who suffer from epilepsy or hysteria. bestiality. the topsoil is exhausted in most areas. Both physically healthy and physically weak children study in one class. In daily practice. blind. Mentally retarded children need special care. A salient symptom of mental retardation is an organic brain disease. and hearing. What Leo Tolstoy (1989) once said about the category of progress is equally true nowadays. children of the first type are normally placed in special schools. and it is the teacher’s duty to give equal and equitable attention to both. diphtheria. and other insidious diseases have brought only partial relief to humanity. the ecological condition of the world has enormously worsened. and some old forms have considerably spread. Sexual dissoluteness and licentiousness is sometimes coupled with such bizarre practices as pedophilia. “A child can be referred to as mentally retarded. epilepsy. He pointed out that ”progress in one side [of life] is always ransomed by regress in some other side of human life” (255). Having this in mind. syphilis. The dissemination of HIVI AIDS has created a worldwide epidemic.” states Rubinstein (1986).

Astapov (1994) postulates that this complexity can be proven by the existence of the ”primary defect. and special physical characteristics (Matushkin. so they need to be placed in the mass [public] school. and consequently gifted children are supported to a corresponding extent. they are observed to sleep less than average and to be rather energetic (Leytes. and a sense of humor. Gilbukh. such children can later develop normally” (11). Scientists and practicing educators’ viewpoints on the phenomenon of giftedness vary. 1991). and secondary imbalances.28 Chapter One special groups but to give them every opportunity to communicate with normal children. evidence indicates that gifted children are not provided with the care they need on the local and federal levels (Fai. In educational practice. empathy.1988. “it means that their nervous processes are normal. Such misunderstandings arise from lack of knowledge of a child’s real state of mental health. Some claim that a person can have a special talent only in limited areas. Horst. Experience indicates that. 2000. Garnets. Giftedness is being investigated in many countries. it is also customary to subdivide the student . (2) shows a willingness to study a number of interesting topics at a time and persistence in attaining results. and Korobko. Gifted children. 1990). 1991). Gifted children may rush into solving a problem that is often difficult for them to solve. emerging in the process of further anomalous development under the influence of the primary defect” (7). 2000). In educational practice.and long-term memory capacities based on abstract thinking. some misbehaving children are mistakenly considered mentally retarded. 1989). self-evaluation. a gifted child (1)possesses better short. 1971. (4)builds and ”plays over” alternative models and submodels of a hypothetical activity or situation. Contrary to the popular view that such children are easy to teach and communicate with. As for the general physical traits of gifted adults. (5) develops a considerable vocabulary. a gifted and talented pupil possesses a strongly developed sense of justice. is another segment of student population. under subsequent conditions. ”If pedagogically neglected children do not have any organic brain lesion.” notes Rubinstein (1986). and (6) begins to speak early. or even in only one area (Vygotsky. advanced psychological development. 1989. Basing his assumptions on the idea of complex structure of the anomalous child’s development proposed by Vygotsky. (3) can concentrate intensely on a target issue. 1971. gifted children often create numerous problems and unexpected difficulties for educators and parents. A gifted child may manifest at least three variables: rapid cognitive development. self-criticism. Cognitively. 1989. who tend to excel their peers cognitively and academically. Matushkin. However. initiated by biological factors. Matushkin. In the domain of psychological development. Vygotsky. while others assume that giftedness characterizes the entire person (Leytes.

probably. As for most renowned historical personages. 1991). in kitchen and child-rearing duties. (7) Christopher Columbus. (2) Isaac Newton. and put into print by males. and the empires of Greece. problems in language and speech. The written historical chronicles of China and India. According to this classification.Diversity and Change 29 population into two more or less distinct categories: students who progress normally and achieve academically. ~~ Promoting the idea that women are equal to men in the ability to learn and in professional occupations was one of the salient goals of this movement. aggression. 1564-1616. the city-states of Mesopotamia.A contemporary. and ancient America were all created by educated men whose creative careers had been influenced by male rulers and the standards of male-dominated microstructures. 1473-1543. 1578-1657. in The World Almanac and Book o Facts. attention and memory problems. to render them assistance in everyday life (Tiersky and Tiersky. Rome. poor motor and perceptual abilities. encyclopedias and reference books tend to mention predominantly male heroes. etiquette required them to adopt a protective attitude toward women. especially in the Western countries and particularly in the . 1990). the ten f most influential people (who are also males) of the second millennium are listed in the following order of importance: (1) William Shakespeare. 1564-1642. Historically. 1642-1727. (6) Albert Einstein. shaped. liberated woman. For example. students with different degrees of mental retardation are often placed in the second group (Bos and Vaughn. was typically conceptualized. Despite benefiting women in terms of advancement and job opportunities. 1397-1468. (8) Abraham Lincoln. Gender Diversity Expected gender roles vary across civilizations and societies and change over time. Byzantium. hyperactivity. Early records suggest that knowledge about the world and human fundamental truths. 2000 (Famighetti. 1809-1882. 1999). 1879-1955. and those who have learning and behavior problems. and withdrawn and bizarre behavior. 1809-1865. (4) Nicolaus Copernicus. (3) Charles Darwin. the liberation movement also created great psychological confusion regarding manners and everyday interactions of men and women. 1451-1506. and (10) William Harvey. (9) Johannes Gutenberg. early Russia. Students with learning and/or behavior problems manifest one or more of the following problems: poor academic performance. As men were formerly considered the dominant sex. (5) Galileo Galilei. This unjust historical situation started radically changing only in the 1 9 6 0 when the women’s liberation movement began in many countries. both secular and religious. the majestic culture of Egypt. males have dominated females in most activities except.

It has become very unusual for a woman to give up a job if she gets married (Horst. textile production. The first schools for girls from different social classes were opened in the 1860s. By 1940. For example. female activists emerged under the motto Het persoonlijke is politiek (personal relations are political). The findings also indicate that the stereotypes of male leadership in business are not so salient in Russia as in the northern European countries. the United States. and Canada (Babaeva and Chirikova. 1996). An American woman may take the initiative in most important family matters. education of girls became generally accepted only after the opening of public high schools in the early nineteenth century. girls were given access to elementary and middle schools only after 1786. and food processing and constitute more than half of the labor force. The Smolny Institute for Noble Girls. In Russia there were no indications of the so-called organized feminist movement in pre-Revolutionary or in post-Revolutionary times. In their communities. Dewey placed the child at the center of the pedagogical process. girls were predominantly home schooled. such as planning the family budget and solving household problems. schoolgirls’ rights were enormously strengthened under the influence of John Dewey’s philosophy of education. In the domain of education. Despite some small privileges. For instance. the Puritans were the most influential group with regard to education. the number of women entering the workforce increased rapidly. health care. males and females did not enjoy equal rights until the twentieth century. As a result. the landowner Grigoriev orga- . a high percentage of women began to be employed in the labor market. retail trade. Russia’s gradual entry into European and world economic markets created a new social layer. With the impact of industrialization in the 1930s. women made up nearly 40 percent of the workforce. As regards the psychological climate in schools. in the Netherlands. 1996). Women demanded equal rights for themselves in job opportunities. set up in 1764 in Saint Petersburg. women predominate in education. Early histories of the development of different societies across the globe show that education was initially a privilege for men. as well as in educating children and orienting them to certain professions.30 Chapter One United States. the woman entrepreneur. In the United States. In 1857. Challenging traditional theories and practices. which they themselves had established. In Russia. offered education to girls (aged six to eighteen) exclusively from noble families. in colonial America. needs less male protection. girls were not admitted to grammar schools. as well as in household duties. In modem Russia. considering herself equal with a man. The number of women occupying leading positions in business is growing rapidly. Feminist movements were widespread in the 1960s and 1970s in Europe.

Similar schools were organized in France. and some unwilling girls are still carried off by their suitors with no recourse (Dresser. In some Asian countries.At the beginning of the twentieth century. Muslim taboos regarding interaction between unrelated members of the opposite sex must be maintained. Moreover. McClelland. a tangible equality in education of boys and girls was also gained only on the threshold of the twentieth century. Bade1 in Great Britain opened the first school for boys and girls.565 students (Latishina. when a man converses with a Muslim husband. many African American girls may fall closer to the less-submissive end of the .” in Kastroma. Vodorosov. 1998). there were 189 female elementary and advanced (middle) schools encompassing 25.Diversity and Change 31 nized and opened the first such school. they may be mistaken for homosexuals. and Safford (2000)maintain that. French. Ushinsky. in the Hmong communities and some parts of Georgia. However. For example. Spanish. only 23 percent of the rural and provincial population was literate. By that time. Greeks. 1996). Traditionally. when they practice such signs of affection in the United States. in Asian countries an open public display of affection between men and women through kissing or other forms of body contact is disapproved. Cushner. Equal rights for men and women were proclaimed only in 1918. Even in medical crises and with the curtains drawn around the bed. located between Europe and Asia. an unmarried Latin American girl should not be alone in the company of a man. D. in large urban areas literacy rates approached 50 percent (Dzurinsky. Vishnegradsky. A. 1999a). A great contribution to the education of women was made by N. and . similar signs of affection are approved and practiced in everyday interaction between men and women. Male-female relations often differ across cultures. J. Germany. whereas in the Anglo-Saxon cultures this custom is not observed. While bride capture seems to be strange to many cultures.Submissiveness to men is another delicate issue in relationships between men and women. Considering American ethnic and racial cultures. it is acceptable for two women or two men to walk in public holding hands. 1999b). he should not refer to having previously met the wife. In Islamic cultures a woman is supposed to be a virgin at the time of her marriage. Italians.Austria. In 1893. and Middle Easterners. for example. K. In northern European and English-speaking countries.V I. Children are also not allowed to touch the hands of the opposite sex. called a ”gymnasium. Even husbands and wives avoid body contact in public. Same-sex hand holding or walking with arms on each other’s shoulders also occurs among Latinos. In Western European countries. there were 30 institutions of higher education for women and 29 coeducational institutions. and Switzerland (Dzurinsky. bride kidnapping still exists. By 1874.

seem to surpass other magazines in the world in readership as a percentage of the population (Wesselius. in Canada they complain of the gendered nature of public and private spheres. and Safford. a man aged sixty looks like an old man overloaded with wisdom. communities. many Hispanic girls. There is also a growing awareness of the gendered nature of computing. pointing out the dichotomy in much of Western theory between the political (public) sphere populated by male citizens.32 Chapter One scale. 2001). which is associated with masculinity. but it is equally true that women teachers. Second-wave feminists are not satisfied with the present state of affairs. sororities. and the nonpolitical (private) sphere populated by their noncitizen wives (Arneil. I remember talking to my wife’s grandfather in the . parties. Combating social. and other orientations. In a sense. 2001. and clubs. is a relative category.and space-related issues. 1999b). motherly nature. The mere fact that women make up over half of the world’s elementary. from an earthly perspective. For example. and cultural restraints. McClelland. family. women try to become equal with men in all spheres of life. which may. females who possess largely feminine traits. including administrative positions. If a berdache takes an interest in a child or children. remain excellent educators by the very essence of their inner. and many European American girls would probably be somewhere in between. From a teenager’s perspective. four orientations are approved: biological males who possess largely masculine traits. males who possess largely feminine traits. 2001). same-sex. it is considered to be an advantage (Cushner. have opposite-sex. speaks for itself. and religious causes. and females who possess largely masculine traits. on the whole. secondary. the contemporary epoch might be called a new era of women’s emancipation. Girls and working women must increase their computer skills (Stepulevage. women have their own societies. Cleggs. In Lakota society. it seems long. 2000). like most other time. in the Lakota Sioux communities. the female-identified male is called berduche and is accorded high honor for possessing multiple characteristics. Libelle and Murgriet. As for women’s magazines. For example. and higher school populations and over 30 percent of the workforce. In many countries. Age. Gender issues are closely related to sexuality. as well as special magazines and publications. women enjoy equal or almost equal rights with men. closer to the more-submissive end. published in the Netherlands. Some say that we should enroll more men in the teaching profession. cultural. It is absolutely true. In most societies. Diversity in Age Although a human being’s life span is extremely short as seen from the heights of the universe. owing to innate.

nothing new occurs. who then was eighty-three. “Really! Your father is still a child. ages fifteen to seventeen or eighteen. ages six or seven to ten. from the elderly people whom I considered as the ”firsthand carriers of wisdom itself. age issues seem to have always been considered in designing and implementing educational programs and curricula. Yet. and senior school. In contemporary education. Vygotsky (1991) postulated that all theories around these issues could be reduced to two main conceptions. middle school. ”as if I have been living in this world for only three days. With a smile on his face the wrinkle-faced man exclaimed. on the other. “My dad has just turned sixtyone. and combination of a child’s dispositions. The first suggests that child development is a realization. Each mature adult is experientially aware that age is a relative issue and that human life has its own boundaries and limits. In this case. junior school. In the second case. then ninety-three years old. inquired about my father’s age.” What I heard from these two old men has considerably influenced the development of my personality and teaching career. So quickly and imperceptibly the time has passed. ”It seems to me. modification. His whole life is ahead of him. child development is understood as a process characterized by a unity of physical.Diversify and Change 33 late 1970s. the requirements for knowledge and personality development traditionally address the needs and age of students. Generalizing prior scientific experience on child development and growth. at my early and “green” years when I was a twenty-something. In this regard. my friend’s father. until age five or six. What is important is that I heard these two pieces of wisdom. on the one hand. personality development is a continuous process of self-advancement characterized by a nonstop emergence and development of novel traits. .” There might be nothing novel in these two assumptions of the two old men. According to the other conception.” Some habitually complain of how rapidly time passes away. Traditionally. It is abundantly clear that every teacher is required to have a good understanding of students’ personality and age characteristics to promote effective personality development and content instruction. I again recall a conversation with an old man. and regroup. except that the inherited traits grow. and social domains. The age periods of children and teenagers can be measured and classified by different criteria. cognitive. according to the Russian educational tradition. the age development of preschool and school children is divided into four periods or stages: preschool.” I answered.” the old man once confessed to me. For instance. ages ten to fifteen. Curious to learn more about my parents. he. a wide range of issues remains unattended. unfold.

Children tend to memorize information by rote. and visual acuity increases by 80 percent (Stepanenkov. Playing for pleasure gradually turns into a child-developing activity. While involved in individual object-related games. A five. Great changes occur in an individual’s cognitive and socioemotional development. elementary pupils’ abilities to perceive colors rise by 45 percent. and (4) a relatively sufficient level of speech and language proficiency. Students’ personality and age development progress rapidly during . 1998). 1973). A pupil tends to be interested in many things at a time. Nemov. curiosity.. memory. as well as short-term and longterm memory. 1998. During the junior school period.or six-year-old child is ready to declare his independence from home and parents. Learning activity is predominantly motivated by the teaching/learning process itself. Nemov. an ability to harness and monitor minor emotions and keep to established standards of behavior). abilities of the joint and muscular system increase by 50 percent.or six-year-old child possesses (1)certain physical maturity enabling the child to perform prolonged physical labor. a child undergoes a particular period of development and enters school possessing certain physiological and mental capacities. a child applies new knowledge and constructive approaches (Stepanenkov. (3) relatively stable attention. This stage is also characterized by intellectual growth. 1991. 1998). and visual aids promote the understanding of subject matter content and the exterior world. Stepanenkov. which results in a disproportion leading to fast exhaustion and irritability. and a great impetus to cognitive activity.Perception processes at this period are of fixed concrete-graphic character. Physiological growth of the child is characterizedby a rapid development of (1) body mass and slow development of the cardiovascular system. Stepanenkov (1998) assumes that a five. abilities to think abstractly and logically grow significantly. 1998). He takes many things for granted and is ”ready for the larger world of the schoolroom” (Broadribb and Lee. and his interests are not sufficiently stable and differentiated. Because the development of the entire body exceeds that of the cardiovascular system. which manifests itself in an inclination to experimentation and theorization (Vygotsky. 1998.g. and (3) the bone and muscular system. learning becomes the leading type of activity. (2) the sexual sphere. as well as for support and guidance. The middle-school period requires greater efforts and responsibility on the part of educators.34 Chapter One During the preschool years. (2) a variety of personality characteristics (e. in comparison to preschool peers. Thanks to rapid physical development. but he is still dependent on them for all the necessities of life. With further development of cognitive processes. educators and parents should be alert not to overburden teenagers with hard physical exercises.

Nemov. College and university students are not uninterested in the opposite sex. self-reliance. Students’ physical development nears that of adults. psychological. creative initiative. and decisiveness are further developed. Vygotsky. 1998). and altruism) rise to their substantial potential. fidelity. The hidden meaning of the saying “You never know happiness until you get married” often becomes a guiding princi- . An average urban-born student is relatively selective and may probe friendship and/or sexual relations with several members of the opposite sex before getting married. a teenager tends to concentrate and internalize objective reality purposefully. in Russia. 1988. Among the former. is marked by further development of all physical. Such personal capacities as purposefulness. as well as by incentives for career opportunities. there is a tendency toward earlier marriage. cognitive. Therefore university structures and faculty should be rather sensitive and supportive in this respect. rationally. Students’ attitudes to moral issues (such as parenthood. A rural-born student. In marriage matters. when a young specialist starts a professional career. particularly to freshmen. either in the graduate year-the fifth year of study at a Russian higher-education institution-or in postgraduate years. and selectively.Diversity and Change 35 the senior-school period. The attitude to schooling is driven mainly by the social values of education. 1991. For example. General interests are relatively stable and differentiated. self-esteem. 1971. duty. They become able to monitor their emotions and drives in frustrating situations. Some students attend to the problem rather seriously and ultimately get married. as if following the motto “love at first sight. from eighteen through twenty-two or twenty-five. Intersex relations acquire great importance. Their professional goals and behaviors are predominantly driven by conscious social motives. Self-evaluation and selfeducation are important techniques in gaining authority and prestige among their peers inside and outside school (Leytes. they have to adapt and adjust to a novel multicultural environment after well-regulated and caring lives at parents’ homes. The college period. The disproportion between body mass and the cardiovascular system slowly resolves. Plunging into college life is not very easy for many students. love. some difference may be seen between Russia’s rural-born and urban-born students.” normally marries the one whom she or he first falls in love with. In addition to academic studies. Students are able to tell the positive from the negative in the whole gamut of teachers’ instructional styles and attitudes toward students. and social characteristics. Gurevich. With cognitive abilities accelerating and growing. persistence. happiness. Stepanenkov. 1998. nearly 20 percent of university students find the ”second halves of their hearts” and officially seal their relationships by the time they receive a diploma. Urban-born students tend to marry somewhat later.

Specialists on life-span development traditionally distinguish the following periods in an individual’s development prenatal. Freud’s theory of personality development includes a series of psychosexual stages: oral. Psychological age has to do with a person’s adaptive capacities compared to those of other people of the same biological age. infancy. W. middle childhood. biological age. Social age is related to social roles and expectations surrounding a person’s age. Alfred Adler saw individuals as struggling from birth to overcome profound feelings of helplessness and inferiority and striving for perfection. the ego. Age differences and child development have been extensively studied through diverse scientific approaches to personality. and cognitive social approaches. The major determinants of behavior are unconscious and irrational: individuals are driven by persistent. Jung)have as a major goal exploring traits and biological-geneticbases for personality development. and Roodin (cited in Santrock. Rybash. and genital.providing much encouragement for this approach. anal. Cattel. late childhood. phallic. not unconscious sexual urges. The most influential psychodynamic theory was that of Sigmund Freud. G. so named for the erogenous zone that characterizes each. B. and the superego. According to this theory. early adulthood. Sheldon. early childhood. and late adulthood. Erik Erikson viewed social adaptation. age may be divided into chronological age. Psychologists who adopt trait and behavioral approaches (C. personality dynamics involve a perpetual conflict between the id. Through the prism of life-span development. 2002) suggest that chronological age deals with the number of years that have passed since a person’s birth. as the key force underlying development that takes place over an entire lifetime. trait and biological. people are influenced more by cultural influences and personal relations than by sexual and aggressive instincts. Erich Fromm likewise saw people primarily as social beings that can be understood best in relation to others. H. J. Eysenck.behavioral. Biological age encompasses the phenomenon of biological health one individual’s capacities may be better or worse than those of other people of comparable chronological age. Mischel(l993)lists at least five major approaches to personality development that emerged from a century of work in psychology: psychodynamic. illogical demands from within. Hoyer. the psychoanalytic followers of Freud have concerned themselves more with the social milieu and the ego. psychological age. Research increasingly points to the important role of genes in personality development. middle adulthood. adolescence. . H. As social beings. Having deemphasized the role of instincts and psychosexual stages. R. and C.36 Chapter One ple to some young metropolitan residents who are in no hurry to join in this quest for happiness. and social age. phenomenological. Allport.

exert considerable influence on the system of education. For example. in their focus on the individual’s ways of thinking and processing information (cognitive processes) as determinants of distinctive and meaningful patterns of experience and social behavior. Rogers. Summary Contemporary humankind is extremely diverse and continually changing. S. Behavioral approaches to personality development (J. Cantor. Religious diversity is another objective reality encompassing all societies without exception. C. N. Dollard. Mischel. ethnic. and C. Miller. especially in authoritarian countries. in Russia. A. In many countries there is a divide between urban and rural life. Lewin. Cognitive social approaches (W. Instead. N. h e c k ) have emerged from the work of many theorists who share common themes and goals. Each society has its own diversity infrastructure. Sociopolitical and economic changes. E. These researchers and theorists are unified. The growing tendency of economic polarization requires novel methods of teaching and interaction with pupils. These approaches focus on an important behavior relevant to concepts about personality and then analyze the conditions that seem to control the behavior of interest. phenomenologists focus on the individual’s perceptions and interpretations of the meaning of events and on each individual’s own subjective experiences and feelings about those events.The ever-growing and unparalleled information explosion and fast dissemination of various scientifically proven and false information force educational institutions to search for better ways to use technology and construct knowledge as well as to be selective in curriculum building and curriculum inclusion. Many societies boast racial. The worsening of students’ health and the growth of sexually transmitted diseases such as HIV/AIDS . Skinner. Higgins. Bandura) emphasize that there is no way of knowing what goes on inside other people except by observing carefully what they say and do. F. however. educators are required to make a Solomonic decision about how schooling can ”befriend” religion. Despite numerous mismatches between the religious and the secular. This chapter has explored only a limited number of important variables that should be considered in designing and implementing multicultural educational strategies and approaches. and linguistic diversity that necessitates a refocusing of efforts on effective pedagogical policies. Kelly) insist that people are not merely passively molded by internal and external forces. T.Diversity and Change 37 Phenomenological approaches (K. and A. and C. considering the effects of this division on education is a primary objective. including bicultural and bilingual education strategies. B.

parents. One more salient dimension for educators not to bypass is students' age characteristics and the peculiarities of their psychological and physiological development. go" is expressed by one word. and medical personnel.38 Chapter One in schools. and numerous unsolved problems with exceptional students perplex and hamper educators. there have been countless debates among scholars in different fields of research. . it is necessary to examine culture and surrounding issues. With the women's emancipation movement still felt in many parts of the globe. the structure "will . . To advance the exploration and discussion of the issues of education in an ethnically and culturally pluralistic society. In the English translation. Notes 1. . until recently. the necessity to deeply consider gender issues in the pedagogical process never ceases to exist. over which. Examples in Russian and Tatar are given in Latin script. colleges and universities. poydesh. 2.

spiritual category is often desacralized. and the image of an educated person is normally perceived as an informed and ”computer-literate” individual. education pursues at least two objectives: socioeconomic (finding a job and earning for a living) and sociopatriotic (becoming a diligent. Culture is an ”ideal linking element between the eternal and the transient” (Arnoldov. capable of social action and decision making). 1990: 198). the essence of culture as a resilient. in large part. 1992 8). Today. 1991: 20-21). Culture as a Multidimensional Phenomenon There are innumerable attempts to define the notion of culture in scientific literature. in contemporary times.2 Culture and Cultural Differences The notion of culture has always been explicitly or implicitly related to the issues of education. Culture symbolizes a “method of activity enabling and promoting the overall human activity” (Ivanova. 39 . The very origin of the word ”culture” (from Latin meaning ”cultivation.” ”upbringing”) speaks for itself.” ”education. educated citizen. 1985: 4 . ) Culture represents a state of society at its ”fullest blossom” (Eyford. Sadly. Culture is an ”amalgam of materialistic and spiritual elements determining the existence and political and economic consolidation of nations” (Kabakchi. One specific contemporary difficulty is that of moving from an information-based to a culture-based education.

Culture is the values. Gurevich (1998) examines the essence of culture in the framework of six categories: culture as (1) a production of man. Japanese. just as the air we breathe” (33). one important facet of our discussion becomes abundantly clear: culture is a highly multidimensional and virtually omnipresent category. Therefore. Mesopotamian. in his speculations Erickson assumes that “culture can be thought of as a construction-it constructs us and we construct it” (39). Russ- . shares particular viewpoints on the outer world. Byzantine. 2000: 17). generalized definition also might turn into futile endeavors. None of the given characteristics fully unravels the intrinsic features of this notion. Phoenician. enables us to extend our activity still further” (33). From a shorter sociohistorical perspective. 1994).40 Chapter Two Doldzenko (1992) identifies culture with a category of reality ”that is filtered through the soul” (28). deals with definite situations. 1995). all the proposed and other possible clarifications. ancient American. This chapter attempts to sketch the landscape and evaluate this phenomenon as it looks to me. (5) a an dialogue. explores concrete realms of science. and approaches can be considered relevant because each enthusiast investigating this phenomenon functions in a particular society. and further attempts to formulate a comprehensive. and perspectives that distinguish one people from another in modernized societies (Banks. stressing in advance that my assumptions and the criterion-based approach will be grounded in previous research and that my personal speculations will incorporate a minority view. which. Egyptian. In a sense. interpretations. it is possible to trace the successive or parallel developments of Chinese. meanings. and (6) a historical wholeness. Sociohistorical Criterion From a broad perspective. symbols. (3) a realization of an ideal. Arabic. Greek. Erickson (1997) is right to assume that “culture is in us and around us. “Culture is an integrated social and individual activity devoted to realizing the potential and capacities of man” (Flier. Indian. once we have it. At the same time. Erickson (1997) postulates that culture is a ”product of human creativity in action. and puts forward concrete objectives and goals in scientific research. and Neolithic cultures (Fagan. (2) an anthropological phenomenon. Roman. Mesolithic.Further. scientists subdivide prehistory into the Paleolithic. (4) activity.

and Chattergy. Communitarianism identifies culture with communities. Each formation can be referred to as a culture. and communist. Although technological revolution has brought television. Madagascar. a flourishing era of sociocultural and economic development where a great principle may be actualized: “From each according to his ability. and the Internet to many homes and educational institutions.Culture and Cultural Differences 4 1 ian. Despite their shortcomings in comparison to communitarianism. those social groups bound together by pervasive patterns of mutual interaction that reflect continuing and shared traditions that in turn define the identities. 1992). and Chattergy maintain that of the three theories of political morality. Tonga. and New Zealand are water-enclaved cultures.” If the proposition is possible that a primeval society grows logically into a slave-owning and. According to this criterion. roles. Asian. African. represents. autonomously chosen self-definitions. the Bahamas. The last stage of human advancement. Kiribati. a capitalist society. Fruehling. Sociogeographic Criterion Life in defined geographical areas and continents is often labeled as a culture. American. Fiji. Australian. being cut off from . The phenomenon of culture can also be viewed from liberal. Liberalism identifies culture with individuals’ vision of the good life. with their personal. mobile phones. both democracy and liberalism do assign a reasonably significant role to culture in social decision making. European culture. and land-and-water-rich cultures. to each according to his needs. history is divided into socioeconomic formations: primeval or primordial. according to Marxist prerequisite. Such subdivisions as European. Democracy sees culture as a political faction. it is possible to divide the countries of the world into water-enclaved. Iceland. communitarianism has the most adequate conception of culture. democratic. the Philippines. According to a criterion resting on the Marxist premise. Bull. Cuba. and Western cultures. and communitarian perspectives (Bull. and responsibilities of their members. because it recognizes and protects the rights of the members of legitimate cultures to live their lives as their culture requires. slave-owning. land-enclaved. is still fallaciously considered the most refined and advanced. Sri Lanka. Fruehling. communism. Scandinavian. for example. a group of people with a shared vision of society’s present and future. any hint of the possibility of humanity’s ultimate transformation into a perfect communist society seems doubtful. Middle Eastern. feudal. owing to viable stereotypes. they regard culture as an important source of value in a society. Pacific. On the basis of a purely geographic criterion. capitalist. and Siberian cultures are frequently used in scientific literature. later.

in Russia. Tonga. Nepal. In ethnically pluralistic countries such as the United States. These are called. capital. where 82 percent of the population is of Russian ethnic background. the core culture is an amalgam of a number of cultures where the influence of a numerically larger nation prevails. can be referred to as landenclaved societies or cultures. core culture. Spain. Tuvalu. civil laws. located in continental inlands and having no direct or convenient access to sea or ocean. Canada. For instance. It is not without reason that the Washington Monument and the Jefferson Memorial were constructed near the center of the U. as well as political. which had primarily inhabited the European part of modern Russia. Chad. and educational institutions. the core culture. respectively. All nation-states of North and South America. and educational norms that reflect the nation’s basic values. Russia. the Czech Republic. the United States.S. and India. majority. China. In immigrant societies. Vanuatu.S. Kiribati. At the starting point of the American saga stood the founding fathers George Washington and Thomas Jefferson. Samoa. Their geographic location may be considered favorable from the viewpoint of both land and water. Russia. numerically small) cultures. Brazil. France. newly arrived people have to adapt to new surroundings and acquire cor- . Switzerland. governmental. Belarus. overarching (dominant. Australia. and India belong to societies of the latter category. the Federated States of Micronesia. particularly those at a considerable distance from a continent (such as Fiji. consist of a shared macroculture as well as microcultures. Within the same broad criterion. most contemporary societies. but the prevailing influence has historically been that of the eastern Slavic tribes. Afghanistan. Namibia. Mali. and New Zealand are societies of the former type. The U.42 Chapter Two mainlands creates certain difficulties in organizing education in waterenclaved cultures.). etc. and many other nations enjoy easy water access. has been heavily influenced by the English. China. core. we can focus on societies of two types: those composed of both indigenous and immigrant people and those consisting primarily of indigenous communities that have inhabited a country for many generations. the Marshall Islands. as well as political and governmental structures. particularly highly multicultural ones. Palau. Canada. has been molded under the influence of dozens of ethnic and cultural groups. Some countries have either a direct or favorable access to open water. numerically large) and subordinate (minority. Niger. mainstream. Mongolia. Somalia. and Kyrgyzstan. Sociocultural Criterion From a broad sociocultural perspective.

India. Some religions (such as Christianity and Islam) ”permeate” different . the United States. Canada. Poland. In linguistically diverse societies. is a multilingual culture. bilingual education programs are being designed to address the language and cultural needs of minority students. Two years later the district established a bilingual program that was launched at the Coral Way Elementary School. Ethnic Criterion Societies can be classified as monoethnic or polyethnic. the Dade County Public School provided ESL (English as a Second Language) instruction. Religious Criterion In opposing religion to atheism. Interestingly. and Germany can be called (relatively)monoethnic cultures. bilingual. From this perspective. Japan.Culture and Cultural Differences 43 responding attitudes and skills to function effectively both within the national macroculture and within their own immigrant microcultures. Germany. Russia itself. Spain. Japan. Russia. stretching the point. societies can be divided into monoreligious and polyreligious. and Canada are polyreligious cultures. in this respect. and in 1961 it initiated a Spanish-for-Spanish-speakers program. Such countries as Italy and Poland can be ranked. as monoreligious cultures. and the objective was fluent bilingualism for both groups (Crawford. The experiment was open to both English and Spanish speakers. and multilingual cultures. whereas Israel. To serve this need. For example. Linguistic Criterion Societies can also be classed as monolingual. 1995a). and Cuba represent relatively monolingual cultures. the ethnic minority communities dispersed all over Russia are mainly bilingual. The United States can be named among advocates of bilingual education. Russia. whereas the United States. given that certain portions of a country’s population might be atheistically minded. the renaissance of bilingual education occurred not among Mexican Americans or Puerto Ricans but among Cubans who had fled to Florida after the 1959 revolution in Cuba. and Brazil are polyethnic cultures. Poland. China. The terms ”trilingual” and ”quadralingual” are equally relevant regarding specific individuals. The Bilingual Education Act of 1968 marked a new outlook toward Americans whose mother tongue was not English. Any minority ethnic community conversing both in indigenous and mainstream languages can be called bilingual.

It is acquired and created by human beings only as members of society. Even in such a formerly authoritari- . typical traditions. skills. together and separately. Ovando contends. 1997). and jazz have been accepted and adopted in the overwhelming majority of countries. In this respect. and values found in the Western world. symphony halls. In the realm of popular culture. many other facets of the culture can. High versus Low Culture As most conceptions of culture imply a distinction between the cultural and the natural. From the latter point of view. day after day. culture also represents activities carried out by official institutions. popular culture as chewing gum. Both views bypass a premise particularly essential to multicultural education: that no child or teacher is without culture” (141). deal with culture from the “high civilization” and “set-of-trait” viewpoints. 1997). also referred to as popular culture. (2) Cultural components are interrelated. culture incorporates a series of significant historical events and heroes. According to the former. there exists low culture. In contrast to prestigious high culture. including educators. (3) Culture is learned and not carried in the genes. In this very institutionalized sense.In the former sense. ”Both views deprive us of an awareness of culture as an integral aspect of our own lives as the web we all weave. just as they do in the realm of high culture (Erickson. fashions change across time and social groups. Coca-Cola. classic rock and roll. and culturally coded concepts or terms.S. such as the ministry of cultural affairs. culture is the accumulation of the best knowledge. culture embodies all functions carried out by this ministry and other bureaucratic systems.44 Chapter Two cultures ”ingathering” members of various ethnic and cultural groups into one faith. such artifacts of U. Ovando (199813) states that Western anthropologists tend to agree on three basic traits of culture: (1)Culture is shared and exists only in relation to specific social grouping. The ideas of democracy-the most pervasive and premium element of the entire American culture-are praised in most of the world’s educational institutions. and probably will. and theaters. culture is associated with what is found in museums. in ordinary use culture has come to mean ”high culture” and “low culture” (Erickson. blue jeans. Nonanthropologists. When one characteristic of a culture changes. cowboy boots. be affected in some way. For example. Anthropological versus Nonanthropological Criterion Basing his assumptions on Hall’s (1976) viewpoint.

Italy. Objective components of a culture (artifacts. 1972. clothing. Russian. and European Americans). Individualism versus Collectivism Criterion Hofstede (cited in Sudweeks. etc. food. Members of individualistic cultures tend to be field independent. and European Americans score higher in individualism than minorities. This assumption was supported by an investigation undertaken by Kuhnen et al. The United States. the United Kingdom. A clear differencewas found between the two . whereas Guatemala. in collectivist cultures. It is here that the study of intercultural interaction should focus” (318-19). In investigating differences in individualism and collectivism between the United States’s four largest ethnic groups (African Americans. and Sweden belong to individualistic cultures. Subjective components of culture are much more difficult to study and analyze (Triandis.Culture and Cultural Differences 45 an country as Russia. tangible aspects of a particular group of people. Australia. Indonesia. In individualistic cultures. and Korea are collectivistic cultures.S. German.) refer to the visible. and Malaysian cultures. are its subjective components. Pakistan. Asian Americans. Ecuador. values. whereas those belonging to collectivistic cultures are expected to be field dependent. including the less visible. the goals of the individual are emphasized over the goals of the group. African Americans exhibited the highest level of individualistic features. the group takes care of its members. Cushner and Trifonovitch maintain that ”it is at the level of people’s subjective culture that most intercultural misunderstandings and communication problems exist. Coon and Kemmelmeer (2001)draw a conclusion that runs counter to previous opinions.. (2001) with representatives of U. Individualism and collectivism characterize broad group tendencies. Falling into this category are attitudes. the ideas of democracy and humanism have been at the forefront of the national system of education since the mid-1980s. In their survey. however. norms of behavior. Asian Americans and African Americans (but not Latinos) scored higher in collectivism than did Americans of European origin. Objective versus Subjective Criterion The distinction between objective and subjective cultures is essential in dealing with diversity among students. and the roles people assume. 1989). 1991)assumes that this is the most widely used dimension to understand how cultures vary. Latino Americans. minorities score higher in collectivism than European Americans. The more potent and powerful aspects of a culture. There are collectively oriented people in individualistic cultures and vice versa. asserting that U. less tangible aspects that people carry around in their minds.S. Cushner and Trifonovitch.

East Africa. Venezuela. Austria. from collectivistic cultures).. Masculinity/femininity differences. such as. this category concerns the emotional roles in the family. Unlike this latter dimension. Applying the masculinity/femininity criterion. 1998) indicates that the masculinity/femininity variable is crucial in understanding cultural differences. there is masculine and feminine feminism. To a large extent. the Netherlands. Femininity is not equated with feminism. feminine values such as interpersonal relationships.e. Conflicts are avoided or resolved by discussion. The five countries that are highest on masculinity are (in rank order) Japan. Cultures high on the masculinity scale emphasize highly differentiated sex roles and view work as more central to life. Masculinity/Femininity Criterion Hofstede (1991. which are historically deeply rooted and are unlikely to disappear. and Switzerland. Hofstede (1998) has drawn up a table of fifty countries and three multicountry regions (Arab countries. that is. the emotional roles are more equally divided. In others. Denmark. Norway. these roles are determined by economic variables.e. are sometimes hidden behind other influences. differences in national wealth. The category of masculinity stands for a culture where men tend to be tough and assertive and concentrate on material success. and concerned with the quality of life. The masculinity/femininity dimension should not be confused with the individualismlcollectivism dimension. In some countries.. fluid sex roles. women tend to be more modest. such as males going out to work and females taking care of household duties. tender. Hofstede offers the following explanation: Feminism is an ideology taking different forms in masculine and feminine cultures. and Costa Rica. The United States is fifteenth on the list and is also considered a masculine country. “men specialize in ego-boosting. Hofstede (1998)points out that the category of masculinity/femininity has little to do with the visible roles in society. and concern for the weak predominate. In cultures high on the femininity dimension (or low on the masculinity dimension). The five most feminine countries are (in rank order) Sweden. the masculinity/femininity is not related to wealth both masculine and feminine countries can be rich or poor.46 Chapter Two types of cultures. for instance. First of all. with men also being oriented toward egoeffacing goals” (11). The category of femininity stands for a culture where both men and women tend to be modest and tender and are concerned with the quality of life. Italy. and West Africa). and women in ego-effacing. participants from the United States and Germany (i. The first is about access . from individualistic cultures) were more field independent than were participants from Russia and Malaysia (i.

1991) differentiates high-power-distance and low-power-distance cultures. Cultures low in this dimension are tolerant of ambiguity. in feminine societies. Greece. Portugal. Malaysia. in masculine cultures. the Philippines. it is about complementarity between the genders and it implies ’men’s lib(eration)’as much as ’women’s lib. Sudweeks (1991) notes that. Communication Criterion One of the important characteristics of human communication within a culture and cross culturally is the amount of information one conveys while interacting with other people.Culture and Cultural Differences 47 of women to jobs hitherto taken only by men. and Costa Rica belong to low-power-distance countries. Power Distance Criterion Hofstede (cited in Sudweeks. Jamaica. autocratic and democratic societies. or unclear situations. teachers tend to be more tolerant of misbehaving students and a student’s failure is a relatively minor accident. and Mexico are high-power-distance countries. Denmark. In low-uncertainty-avoidance societies. In high-power-distance societies. For example. and Denmark can be placed in the ranks of the latter type. unpredictable. and Japan belong to the former type. the United States. 1991). in other words. seek change. In low-power-distance societies education is normally student centered.’ (19) Applying the masculinity/ femininity dimension to education issues. with a premium on initiative. For instance. it is a severe blow to a student’s self-image. students expect the teacher to initiate communication (Sudweeks. Israel. In high-uncertainty-avoidance cultures. and accept risk taking. 1991). A question arises in this context: How . Panama. education is usually teacher centered. Singapore. The second is about a redistribution of roles inside and outside the home. Cultures high in uncertainty avoidance develop strict codes of behavior. it is about competition between the genders. students tend to prefer structured learning situationswith precise objectives and timetables and are rewarded for accuracy in problem solving. 1991)bases this dimension on the extent to which people in a culture strive to avoid unstructured. Uncertainty Avoidance Criterion Hofstede (cited in Sudweeks. whereas Austria. students feel comfortable in unstructured learning situations and are rewarded for innovative problem solving (Sudweeks.

Teachers and educators are required to cope with the diverse spatial characteristics and needs of their students. and many aspects of everyday life (Hall and Hall. and educators and are involved in close personal relationships. Each individual’s skin-a visible physical boundary-separates him or her from the external environment. Swiss. and transmitted part of the message. This visible boundary is surrounded by a series of invisible boundaries that “begin with an individual’s personal space and terminate with her or his ’territory”’ (10). Even though students in one . the mass of the information is vested in the explicit code. 1990). 1990). Save for the social activities. they do not require. territoriality is highly developed and strongly influenced by culture. Scandinavians. and those from Mediterranean nations. background information. colleagues. Arabs. people like the Germans are highly territorial and tend to barricade themselves from others to concentrate on their work. because they keep themselves informed about everything having to do with people important in their lives (Hall and Hall.Information in high-context countries’ educational institutions flows freely and from all sides. etc. much in-depth. their work. who have extensive information networks among family. For example. Japanese. Low-context people include Americans. and each student stays informed about every other student’s academic achievements. Space Criterion Hall and Hall (1990)state that spatial organization can be the key to unlocking the mentality of a people. While communicating. and family relations. They try to stay close to other people and thrive on interaction and high information flow to provide them the context they need. nor do they expect.In low-context countries much of the information among students is not shared and grades are normally kept secret. emotional state. explicit. students tend not to be open about their academic and daily problems. Personal space is another form of territory. hobbies. whereas the French have a close personal distance and are not so territorial. and other northern Europeans. are high context. In a high-context communication or message. In low-context communication. Each individual has an invisible bubble of space that may expand or contract depending on a number of things: the activity being performed. where a group of students can discuss sociocultural problems. who need detailed background information every time they interact with others because they compartmentalize their personal relationships. friends. while very little is in the coded. In human society. the cultures of the world can be ranked from high to low context. most of the information is already known to the speakers.48 Chapter Two much information is enough to communicate adequately with an interlocutor? In this respect.

Problems may arise with children who emigrate from cultures where communication styles and spatial dimensions differ from those of the host society. for example. A good understanding of the difference between monochronic and polychronic cultural patterns helps in dealing with students from different cultural backgrounds. except. In polychronic cultures. Switzerland.Culture and Cultural Differences 49 class are a close-knit community with many shared abilities and obligations. The Phenomenon of National Character In the Russian humanitarian and pedagogical tradition the term “culture” may refer to state (country) or nationality (ethnic group). are highly distractible and subject to interruptions by their counterparts. and are inclined not to disturb their peers. polychronic time denotes being able to be involved with several activities at once. a newcomer from northern Europe is apt to be misunderstood at a Greek or Spanish school if he keeps ostentatiously neglecting and showing a dislike for his classmates’ friendly shoulder pats or hand touches. students from monochronic cultures tend to do one academic task at a time. concentrate on the learning process. Conversely. In northern European schools children and teachers normally do not or rarely touch each other. teachers should differentiate between ”territorial” and ”proximityindifferent” students. newly immigrated to a northern European school. human interactions and relationships are valued over strict schedules and appointments. and Germany. emphasize promptness. Highly monochronic cultures are the United States. Latin Americans and Arabs are highly polychronic. consider time commitments an objective not to be achieved promptly. Time Criterion Hall and Hall (1990) write about two kinds of time systems operating in human relations. may be disliked by his new counterparts if he keeps touching them. monochronic and polychronic. take school and social commitments seriously. Polychronic students are likely to do more than one task at once. as a general rule. but the . Monochronic cultures stress a high degree of scheduling and a concentration on an elaborate code of behavior concerning obligations and appointments. Educators need to know that. boyfriends and girlfriends or children engaged in organized activities. a Spanish student. and base promptness on the relationship with their friends. are more concerned with their classmates. One also should know that there may be monochronic students in polychronic cultures and vice versa. Monochronic time means doing one activity at a time. For example.

) intellectual (degree of adherence to logic. often incorporates the idea of an ethnic group. ability to concentrate) emotional (dynamics of the manifestations of emotions and sensation) volitional (orientation to volitional activity. and discipline. rationalism.This notion determines people’s habitual behavior and their attitude to the everyday social environment. by scope. etc. mental organization) cognitive (depth. the same characteristic feature of Americans. and diligence. impetuousness. Also. frequently used in Russia and incorporating . disposition to risk. degree of zeal. adroitness. For instance. vividness of imagination. circumspectness. quickness of mind. and selectivity of perception. The chapter has also interpreted the notion of national character. completeness and operativeness of ideas and notions. 1996): motivational (capacity for work. not of a whole country. Structurally. Sarakuev and Krysko point out that a definite human trait can manifest differently in the national character of different ethnic groups. is often used. the industriousness of Japanese is distinguished by patience. the surrounding world. inexhaustible business-like passion. steadiness of volitional processes. Sarakuev and Krysko (1996)maintain that national character is a ”historically developed wholeness of stable psychological traits” of members of a certain ethnic group (53). solidarity and estrangement) A Glimpse of Ethnic Cultures The preceding pages have explored the notion of culture from different focal points. substantiality.” often coinciding with the categories of ethnopsychological characteristics and mentality.50 Chapter Two term ”nation. and duration of volitional efforts) communicative (modes of interaction with people. national characteristics fall into six dimensions (Sarakuev & Krysko. punctuality.” unlike in American tradition. width and depth of abstract thinking. activity. This information might be instrumental for multicultural teachers in their professional activity. by accuracy. persistence. the industriousness of Germans. labor activity. substantiality. in Russian usage the term ”national character. and initiative. and their own and other ethnic groups.

Even though European Americans pride themselves on being highly individualistic and more concerned about their own careers than about the welfare of the organization or group. The statement “All men are created equal” means that all people should be treated equally before the law and given equal opportunities and privileges. and have been heavily influenced by. While the country has absorbed millions of immigrants from all over the world. no matter how poor. frontier spirit has been a specific feature of Americans since colonial times. educator and philosopher John Dewey (1859-1952). praising and cherishing both outstanding. I myself was amazed to see how involved were . the chapter will examine cultural and ethnopsychologicalaspects of different ethnic groups. nine were of Scottish or Scotch-Irish origin. astronaut Neil Armstrong (born in 1930). three Irish. five Welsh. 1915). renowned president Franklin Roosevelt (1882-1945). Anglo-Saxon culture (Hall and Hall. as well as heroes marked by negative connotations. 1990). who in 1969 became the first man to walk on the moon. have their roots in. Mainstream Americans Like many other societies. The founding fathers were markedly English. and university communities represent interesting and special groups. Americans believe that any individual. the Declaration of Independence was signed by fifty-six European men. and William Bonney or ”Billy the Kid” (1859-1881). writer Mark Twain (1835-1910). college. Students get involved in various extracurricular activities (sports. the creation of American democracy. 1997). which often impede their academic advancement.Culture and Cultural Differences 51 important ethnocultural traits peculiar to certain ethnic groups. they easily participate in and organize social or professional groups and adore the feeling of belonging to a group that works toward the achievement of common goals. the United States boasts a shared set of values and a variety of customs and traditions that constitute the core culture. religious and community activities). For example. Jesse James (1847-1882). such as the notorious outlaws James Butler Hickok or “Wild Bill” (1837-1876). thirty-eight of them were English by birth or background. To provide more insight into cultural differences. “positive” personalities such as the novelist James Fenimore Cooper (1789-1851). poet and humanist Henry Wadsworth Longfellow (1807-1882). The pioneering. High school. Banks. which reflect the nation’s core values. the basic modes of life and political thinking and most of the civic and religious laws. when the nation’s founders started one of the greatest experiments in human history. American democracy has become both a form of government and a way of life. can achieve success through honesty and hard work (Tiersky and Tiersky. 1990. and one Swedish (Ford.They take pride in their history.

in comparison with European and Asian ones. knowledge growth and dissemination. Young people try to function and remain optimistic in a new era of cyberspace that adds to the speed of information dissemination (Cortks. Students. offer more extracurricular activities and pay less attention to learning foreign languages. Most of the mainstream American youth. Their analytic learning style is consonant with instructional methods praising individual and cooperative participation of learners (Halverson. The majority of them are monochronic. teachers. Normally. and just solving certain problems. at the University of Miami Coral Gables campus. and technological change (Nine. They believe that its classes impart knowledge and develop attitudes that people need to become good adults and good citizens capable of functioning effectively in a multicultural world (Nine. try to finish high school. when h e r - . honesty. and university faculty prefer to concentrate on one task at a time. They spent hours in or outside campus buildings meeting people. They are able to focus on parts of a whole.52 Chapter Two university students in social activities. 2001). I profited from participating in a couple of their activities. American schools. as well as their nonAnglo counterparts. Native Americans This name reminds the world of the first people to live in the Americas. On Thanksgiving Day. I saw a considerable number of students every day getting involved in various activities. Watkins-Coffman. For example. 2000). 1979). objectivity. and concerned with their appearance. weight. Out of dozens of invitations. and income-whereas an average mainstream school or college student is against discussing academic grades and copying from their peers’ notes. and striving for socialization. competition. mainstream Americans are outwardly oriented. In communication. Mainstream Americans are low-context people who tend to compartmentalize and require lots of background information in interaction with others. they tend to avoid close physical contact and keep their distance. 2000. the fourth Thursday in November. they are task-centered and more independent of external judgement. linearity. In sum. prized values among young American students of Anglo-Saxon descent are individuality. An average American is likely to stay away from discussing three subjects-age. distributing booklets. rationality. 2000). Contemporary young Americans are far better off than their parents were at the same age and cope relatively well with challenges such as psychological and interpersonal problems. a trait highly noticeable in the sphere of education. Mainstream American students tend to be field independent and prefer to work for individual recognition. eager to be liked and accepted.

In later years. hominy. such as canoes. Present-day issues in the domain of ecology also illustrate the wisdom of traditional Indian reluctance to disturb the balance of nature (123). Dakota (Tiersky and Tiersky. 2001). who beautifully decorated the interior of the Old Zuiii Mission Church. 1990). Native Americans are traditionally collectivists.Culture and Cultural Differences 53 icans remember the Pilgrims. I got acquainted with Alex Seowtewa. whose collection of poems in the book Woven Stone captures the imagination. They showed the European settlers how to cook the unfamiliar plants to make grits. popcorn. the needs of a group are often considered over the needs of an individual. Many mountains. Vivid in my mind are my first meetings with Native American faculty members and students at the University of New Mexico. As emphasis is often placed on the importance of maintaining harmony within the group. and Seminoles leader Osceola (1800-1838). We also visited a number of elementary schools in Albuquerque and vicinity. uncles may have some of the responsibilities the dominant culture assigns to fathers. Massachusetts. and cousins may be treated like siblings. Chiricahua chiefs Cochise (1812-1874) and Geronimo (1829-1909). aunts play roles similar to mothers. snowshoes. a talented muralist from Zuiii Pueblo. and moccasins. dog sleds. and cities have Indian namesChicago. Native Americans pay tribute to their heroes who defended the interests of their tribes in the previous epochs. and empathically minded. While traveling. In some communities. defeated Custer at the Battle of Little Big Horn in 1876. Oregon. rivers. lakes. they also recall how much Native Americans have contributed to modem American life. The influence of Indian cultures on the settlers is evident in American English. who. Among them are the Cherokee scholar Sequoya (1760-1843). very friendly. Deloria. and tapioca and introduced the newcomers to Indian inventions. Shawnee chief Tecumseh (1768-1813). and the extended family plays an important role in child-rearing practices. guide Sacagawea (1786-1812). Sioux leader Sitting Bull (1831-1890). The family is an asset in Native American cultures.They are also proud of contemporary Native Americans. 1996) indicates that American Indian children often feel more comfortable participating in class after they have been granted time to . west of Albuquerque. Sandler’s study (cited in Fuller. he explained to me the essence that the murals depict inside the church. who showed me a lot of historic places. with Gall and Crazy Horse. With a hearty welcome. states. succotash. I met many other Native Americans whose humanistic attitude toward the surrounding people attracted and absorbed my imagination. Mississippi. such as the world-famous poet Simon Ortiz. pipes. Native Americans have fought to maintain their ethnic identities and social cohesiveness even if they live and work in a society that prides itself on being multiethnic (Sita. 1997. Nez Perce chief Joseph (1840-1904).

are still unable to reach economic parity with the majority (Feagin. and others. Both learning styles have been traditionally practiced. religion. A student might feel uneasy being singled out for praise in front of the group. 1995a). are descendants of former political refugees from Cuba. Because American Indian children are field sensitive. One of the factors interfering in teacher-parent relationships is the significant role that the extended family plays in a child’s life. Although there has not been a strong historical tradition of home-school relations in Native American communities.S. 1996). they feel more comfortable in a cooperative learning environment when small group activities are used as instructional techniques. the United States’s largest minority. Despite a relatively high level of educational attainment and employment and their concentration in urban areas. Schools often misinterpret the active part that close relatives take in child-rearing as “lack of parental concern or avoidance of parental responsibility when it is neither’’ (Fuller. Hispanic population consists of ethnically diverse communities. They also tend to delay answering questions. 2001: 129). Daniels. Cavalcanti and Schleef. such as Mexicans. As they grow up speaking English rather than their tribal language. Cubans. Native Americans traditionally excel in observational learning as well as learning through exploration and social dialogue. For example. Puerto Ricans. Spanish. parental involvement is gradually becoming an important part of successful classroom management.54 Chapter Two consider their answers and practice their skills. Hispanics share a common language and some broad cultural values. and customs. John-Steiner (1984) proves this assumption by studying Pueblo rural and tribal communities in Arizona and New Mexico. Reprimanding an Indian child in the presence of peers is another wrong technique (John-Steiner. for example. they are traditionally dominant in English (Crawford. Most Native American students are bilingual. Cuban Americans. 2001). 1992. the third largest Hispanic group. among Navaho Indians (Keating. 1989. 2001). Mexican Americans’ cultural background is predominantly Native American but is heavily Spanish in language. whereas the same student might feel pride if the group receives recognition. Puerto Ricans represent a fusion of Native American. Hispanics. Native American children and adults are also inclined to holistic approaches to learning and often give cognitive preference to listening over talking. Baruth and Manning. 1984. and African heritages. They prefer to learn using spatial and visual information. Hispanics Although the U. one of the acute problems that needs immediate attention among .

They often place more emphasis on completing human transactions. 1999). and schoolmates. 1979. As in Native American communities. . I had a feeling they were taking me for a relative and required me to behave like a relative. I was absorbed by their collective story. shoulder pats. because they undertake several activities simultaneously and are not frustrated by being interrupted. the extended family plays an important role.” began telling me a story about these amphibious reptiles. As I was born and raised in a geographical region where snow covers the ground for at least six months every year and alligators can be viewed only in pictures or on television. they may be working to help support their families (Dresser. Tan and Ryan. One day a Hispanic family with their four children invited me to visit Everglades National Park. and Florida. asked me to carry them on my back. not necessarily on holding to schedules.Culture and Cultural Differences 55 Hispanics is homelessness (Baker. Hispanics are not so territorial as Anglo-Americans. The teacher is an authority figure and is expected to play a positive role (Halverson. In determining an individual’s status. In interpersonal communication. 2001). Handshakes.Because Hispanic children tend to be field sensitive and feel more comfortable in a cooperative environment. there is a growing influx of Latino students with little education in their home countries. particularly in rural areas. For this and other reasons. from which I learned very specific information concerning these strong and sharp-jawed creatures. family members. children’s and teenagers’ status in the workplace has a higher priority than in the classroom. and hugs are common among friends. The family is the most valued and prized institution. The main priorities for Hispanic students are the family. ten-year-old Carlos. located in southern Florida. Fuller. When we came up to the alligators’ habitat. For example. they keep themselves informed about everything concerning their neighbors and colleagues and normally do not require or expect much background information. cooperative instructional methods and techniques are appropriate strategies in a Hispanic classroom. Dealing with behavior problems. Hispanic children respect adults and have respect for age. the dropout rate among Hispanics is rather high (Carrasquillo. In the United States. Sometimes. 1996). age and gender are salient factors. New Mexico. who had visited the park before. were very eager to show me around. and benefited from my shoulder pats and hugs. 1996). Other children also from time to time added useful information to his story. when Latino students miss school. I remember conversing with Hispanic children while visiting some of the schools and cultural places in California. Arizona. 1996. community. a teacher is required to play an active. The smaller ones held my hand. The children. one of the boys of our ”extended family group. and ethnic group. Hispanic people tend to be polychronic.

television. and blues. Parents’ attitudes emerged from incorrect assumptions that schools had made about them in the past (Fuller. African Americans stay in school longer than in past decades. Moreover. African Americans Constituting around 13 percent of the entire US. Michael Jackson. helping them to succeed (Tiersky and Tiersky. that of parents of successful students from European American families. African Americans also remember their former leader and fighter for freedom Sojourner Truth (1797-1883). Bill Cosby. findings (Christian and Barbarian. and many other spheres of socioeconomic and cultural life. despite the comparatively disadvantaged home environments of the former (Yan. population. government. Some educators and teachers erroneously view African American parents as being unconcerned about their children’s education.56 Chapter Two nurturing role similar to a parent and to encourage and support the feeling of community. ranging from Jesse Owens to Michael Jordan. 1999). sports. and to be publicly disciplined is often demeaning for them.a national hero of the United States. Hispanic children are rather sensitive to support or doubt from others. These days there are African Americans in the US. jazz. and Tina Turner). and learning styles and consider these characteristics not as deficits but as strengths (Carrasquillo. Many African Americans have become famous superstars and entertainers (Eddie Murphy. African American culture has had great influence in musical fields such as spirituals. and any disciplinary measure should be undertaken away from the group (Fuller. Realizing the importance of education for their career advancement. African Americans have gained much within the previous decades because of the civil rights movement led by Martin Luther King Jr.Myriad African American athletes. linguistic levels. 1999). Educators are expected to take into consideration Hispanic children’s cultural diversity. have brought a special recognition to both America and world sports. Studies in black history have been included in college curricula because African Americans became interested in investigating their past and their role in the development of the United States. 1990). Recent studies indicate that African American parents are concerned about their children’s academic success in school. or even higher than. parents of successfulAfrican American students demonstrate involvement that is equal to. Most colleges and universities actively recruit African Americans. religion plays an important role in child-rearing practices. the purpose of discipline should always be to change a behavior (as opposed to punishing a child). With reference to a Hispanic child.In African American families. 2001) indi- . For example. 1996). cinematography. (1929-68). 2001).

2001) indicates that the common view of Asian Americans as quiet and hardworking immigrants is a misperception and a stereotype. African American students tend to feel comfortable in small-group and cooperative learning conditions. Korea. During my numerous interactions with African American children and teenagers. and traditionally are not susceptible to external interruptions. Placing a considerable emphasis on hard work. HarrisHastick (cited in Watkins-Coffman.S. Vietnam. This “model minority” stereotype first gained currency in the 1960s and was used as a means of showcasing Asian Americans as nonrebelling and hardworking. African American students are high on the context scale because they stay informed about their peers and everything that is going on in school and their local communities. Kaplan and Maehr (1999) assume that task goals (engagement in academic tasks for the purpose of learning and improving) are more conducive to African American students’ success than goals emphasizing ego objectives (engagement for the purpose of ”excelling and besting others”) (23). For example. the average African American student is open to intejections of other students. Asian Americans The fastest-growing group in the United States. Compared to their AngloSaxon peers. Although making up a highly diverse segment of the U.Culture and Cultural Differences 57 cate that children of parents attending church at least weekly have fewer problems than those whose parents attend church less frequently. 1994). they possess some common cultural traits and values. can be involved in many activities at once. population. who were portrayed as those angrily demanding help from the federal government. not with elite members o the host sof ciety. They tend to pose questions on their own initiative and challenge teachers. Asian Americans’ frame of reference is traditionally the country from which they emigrated. in contrast with African Americans. There are also other views regarding these characteristics. and they tend to evaluate their success in the new country by comparing themselves. but with their peers in the old country or with peers in the immigrant country (McKeon. Japan. In conversation. they are not so territorial and may “come close’’ in interpersonal interactions. Collectivistically and polychronically minded. I have noticed that they are distinguished from other ethnic groups by a special sense of solidarity: they are committed to their friends and accustomed to long-term relationships with them. Asian Americans tend to be high-context and . they are normally industrious people. the Asian American community includes relatively recent immigrants from China. and other countries of southeastern Asia. the Philippines.

As in working with families of any other ethnic and racial minority group. They prize the family and highly value education. Daniels. Minami (2000) contends that Asian students.Asian students’ parents may not value extracurricular activities. and Asian educational systems. 1981. who traditionally acquire different interaction styles in their homes. . teachers’ approaches to Asian families should not be stereotyped. inclined to listening. Therefore teachers should be very sensitive dealing with these situations. 1995. they are apt to blame themselves rather than surrounding conditions. Dresser. understand diversity within Asian ethnic groups. 2001). therefore open-ended situations may result in confusion. hardworking. They customarily feel more comfortable in cooperative learning environments and benefit from positive reinforcement (Dunn. therefore educators need to create environments that maximize their participation in classroom activities. memorization. and reluctant to ask questions or to share or challenge ideas.S. Children from Asian cultural backgrounds are traditionally field dependent and like to learn by observation. Lee and Manning (2001) suggest that in dealing with Asian American parents and families. provide opportunities to share differences between the U. are especially sensitive about being understood. the performance of each individual-as opposed to the group-is valued. parents and teachers may misunderstand each other’s motives and behavior (Fuller. and recognize Asian traditions of respect toward teachers. Because Asian American parents’ expectations differ considerably from those of the host country. Students are seen as integral parts of the family. 1996). considering them as mere play.58 Chapter Two polychronically minded people.1999). If they perform poorly at school. generally urban community enclaves are small masculine societies where men tend to be ambitious and women soft and understanding. Children of Asian backgrounds have a specific tradition to be respectful to teachers and people in positions of authority (KangNing. 1996. and eliminate the stereotypes that all Asian children are smart academically. and their academic accomplishments are perceived as bringing honor or shame to their families. Students perform better when they clearly know what is expected of them. teachers should respect both immediate and extended family members. They generally think carefully before speaking and prefer being called on to volunteering responses to questions. Teachers are also advised to consider Asian parents’ English language proficiency. Fuller. 1996. They are likely to be polite. and patterned practice. Children are required and expected to attend seriously to their academic responsibilities. Therefore. encourage children to be bilingual and bicultural. understand the importance of nonverbal communication. Their ethnic.

Two great insurrectionists. add to the overall picture. Berdyayev also maintained that ethnic Russians are followers of the “idea of their national house. It is in Russia that the communistic ideology took root for a relatively long time. Russia’s greatest poet. full of predictions of coming historical events. chemist Dmitry Mendeleev (1834-1907). we can name the poet Alexandr Pushkin (1799-1837). have been committed to the Christian canons. easily absorbing and getting accustomed to different alien philosophies and ideologies. as well as the notorious mystic Gregory Rasputin (1872-1916). Until 1917. composer Pyotr Tchaikovsky (1840-1893). The Soviet epoch affected the psychology of ethnic Russians. economic. save for a considerable period in the twentieth century.” a special spiritual sensitivity. who abolished serfdom in 1861. They adopted Orthodox Christianity from Byzantium in 988 and since then. Leonid Brezhnev (1964-1982). pedagogue. Following Hofstede’s (1998) logic. and astronaut Yury Gagarin (1934-1968). A considerable part of ethnic Russians were and now are strong advocates of the Orthodox Church.Culture and Cultural Differences 59 Ethnic Russians Contemporary Russia has become a vast and multicultural state owing to integration of numerous territories with different climatic. commitment to the nation-state has been more important than individual success. physiologist Ivan Pavlov (1849-1936). scholar. Emperor Alexander I1 (1818-1881. Berdyayev stated that the poetry of Pushkin. contains a variety of clear hints on the upcoming revolution and summons to a rivalry. 1671) and Yemelyan Pugachov (1742-1775). and religious characteristics. Throughout Russia’s history. Each newly elected leader-Joseph Stalin (in power 1922-1953). Nikita Khrushchev (1958-1964).The Russian people have embodied an eschatological “soul structure. The renowned Russian philosopher Nikolay Berdyayev (1990)pointed out that the immensity of land and absence of distinct boundaries has affected the development of Russian character. Russians may be considered a feminine people. Russian literature of the nineteenth century was the world’s most prophetic literature. Among the ethnic Russians who have contributed to the national and global progress. reigned: 1855-1881). Stepan Razin (d. sociopolitical. the majority of elementary and secondary schools with a Russian student population included theological disciplines. novelist and pedagogue Leo Tolstoy (1828-1910). and psychologist Lev Vygotsky (1896-1934). novelist Fyodor Dostoyevsky (1821-1881). Mikhail . ethnic.” an idea based on perceptions of their centuries-old culture and traditions of education and teaching (40). For example.

philanthropically and empathetically minded. Sarakuev and Krysko (1996) contend that ethnic Russians are tolerant. and educational potential. 1993). Russia’s role and place in human history. as Karsavin (cited in Zimin. They are collectivistically oriented. and Russia as a whole has a very great economic. Students of Russian background are mainly polychronic but when necessary can concentrate on one task. Vladimir Putin continued the democratic course begun in the 1990s. ”It is impossible to be higher than a collective” remains a favorite maxim among thousands of Russian educators. Despite domestic sociopolitical changes. and bound to civic solidarity. The contemporary Russian idea can be represented through the following variables (Belozertsev. some people of Russian origin. is to overcome the transgressions and temptations of the West: individualism. On the whole. Low achievers often ask bright students for academic help. Kotkin. owing to close contacts with a minority ethnic group. private houses. The mentality of Russia’s citizens differs from that of Europeans and North Americans and even from other Slavs. and the United States. valorous. that is. Russian-made cars-all are smaller. 2000) states. Ethnic Russians are high-context people: everybody knows almost everything about everybody in an average community and educational institution. rationalism. sobornostl over individualism. In specific bi. the width of highways. 1997): (1)the existence of a historical triple wholeness. acquire a second language to some degree of fluency. state. the scale of many things is smaller within the country than. and future generations. Canada. the average Russian is a creatively minded person. Even though Russia is large territorially. (3) educational unity: the primacy of spirituality over materialism.60 Chapter Two Gorbachev (1985-1991). sociocultural. and social atomism. the nation-state dominates other societal organizations (Zimin. 1991. (2) the social unity of the Orthodox Church. present. Apartment buildings. transferring the country and its educational policy to democratic principles. ethnic Russians have preserved most of their ancestral characteristic features. Information flows freely from class to class: stu- . good over evil. a stable linkage between past. Individually and socially.and multiethnic settings. and society. unpretentious. Boris Yeltsin (1991-1999)-contributed to the welfare of the nation (Mackenzie and Curran. Present-day democratic reorganizations are helping revive inexcusably forgotten values and reshape modes of thinking and attitudes toward education. 2000). Yeltsin did much to revolutionize all sides of life. Gorbachev is still kindly remembered in Western countries. supermarkets. Whether it is true or not will be proved in future years. Ethnic Russians are normally monolingual. human. for example in northern European countries. hospitable.

The Tatars Tatars (formerly. except when the teacher organizes special work in small groups. Their ancestors were converted to this religion in the sixteenth century. they are industrious and keen witted. this small republic boasts 106 different ethnic groups (Bondarenko. Sitting in a place other than the assigned one. after the signing of a series of documents (Arutunian. The teacher is an authority figure. and social activities (Sarakuev and Krysko. and strict discipline is considered a valuable asset in enhancing students’ academic performance. and Susokolov. the country has been historically molded as a monolithic whole. atheistic ideology has influenced on Tatars’ mentality. school staff. after Ivan IV (the Terrible) conquered Kazan in 1552. Within multiethnic societies. such as the floor or the table. located on the middle Volga River and its eastern tributary. Bulgars) make up the second largest ethnic group within Russia’s borders. which was normalized in the mid 1990s. Each student has a fixed place at a table and is not allowed to move within the classroom or leave it without the teacher’s permission. Despite Russia’s ethnic mosaic. Such people are quite numerous throughout Russia. Gabdulla Tukay. there was ethnopolitical tension between the Federal Center and Tatarstan. and university faculty stay informed about . 1999). In addition to Tatars. among all ethnic groups. They pay tribute to their renowned national poet. Unlike Western European and North American educators. is not allowed. the mentality and characteristic features of ethnic Russians have subsequently affected all ethnic subdivisions. they also easily mingle with members of other cultures in labor. Tatars are proud people. Russian teachers and university faculty cannot permit themselves to sit on a table. The majority of contemporary Tatars live in the Republic of Tatarstan (capital: Kazan).In the 1990s. Drobidzeva. As Tatars were ”under the same roof” with ethnic Russians during the Soviet epoch. the Kama. In professional activities. Parents often blame educators and the overall system of education for their children’s academic and behavior problems.Culture and Cultural Differences 61 dents know about their peers’ academic outcomes and personal lives. Some numerically small Tatar communities populating the middle Volga region and western Bashkortostan follow Orthodox Christianity. Adhering both to Islamic culture and to their ancestral traditions and customs. 1996). possessing highly developed self-respect and self-confidence. 1999). members of Tatar communities. Some people are still attached to communistic morality and reminisce about the Soviet times. education.Most Tatars are adherents of Islam. Higher on the context scale than ethnic Russians. they tend to form microgroups.

Tatars are adherents of the strong family: in rural areas the family and relatives often make up close-knit extended families. Tatar youth and adults are bilingual owing to early exposure to natural bilingualism. Collectivistically minded. they help each other in business. farming. household duties. describing them as extremely charming and pretty. and begin their professional careers successfully. Parents are proud when their children achieve in school. Like ethnic Russians. By their national character and physical features. are more fluent in their native language than in Russian.and low-achieving students is a common practice in class and after classes. The Tatar woman and her beauty deserve special mention. this “urban-rural-bilingualism”axiom remains true with respect not only to Tatars but also to other non-Russian ethnic groups. but they also possess unique characteristics. which was a separate socialist republic in Soviet times. they excel in a cooperative and collectivistic learning environment. Tatars have what may be referred to as a masculine culture: they emphasize differentiated sex roles and material success and appreciate people who reach visible results by working hard. Creating and sustaining favorable classroom discipline and order is an objective of prime importance for Tatar educators. in turn. Parents are very sensitive to their children’s academic progress and maintain close relations with teachers and school. they may be referred to as a feminine ethnic group: they place more emphasis on solidarity and equality. who is considered the father of Ukrainian national literature. Field-sensitive. Tatar students tend to be polychronic and hardworking and have inquiring minds.62 Chapter Two everyone and many things that happen around them and do not need exhaustive background information. These traits are especially noticeable in rural areas. Even though there are many exceptions to the rule. and conflicts are normally re- . they are close to Russians. Ukraine (capital: Kiev). Like their Russian counterparts. Unlike Russians. and the pedagogue Anton Makarenko. Ukrainians have their own nation-state outside Russia. Family gatherings are a favorite pastime. continue education in colleges and institutions of higher learning. and education. who. Mutual help and collaboration of high. Education is an asset in Tatar communities. They cherish their poet Taras Shevchenko (1814-1861). The Ukrainians Ukrainians make up the third largest group in Russia and live throughout the country. Urban Tatar children and teenagers are more proficient in Russian than their rural counterparts. Battalov (1996) notes that many historians and contemporary eyewitnesses have left most favorable impressions of Tatar women. Normally.

Ukrainian teachers maintain rather strict discipline in class. 1996) indicate that Bashkirs are industrious. cherish interpersonal communication and collectivistic styles of work and learning. Ukrainian parents are concerned about their children’s academic standing and sustain close links with teachers and the school administration. render academic assistance to low-achieving classmates. They like their work and themselves as performers of the work. Information flows freely in the school environment and local communities. In comparison to other Slavic nationalities. and children consider them authority figures. Hospitable. led by the legendary general Shaymuratov. marvelously performed on hundreds of stages across the globe. As with the Tatars. and unpretentious people. they build up microgroups within multicultural environments. Sociological surveys (Sarakuev and Krysko. Another hero of Bashkortostan. showed tremendous courage and endurance fighting the Nazi Germans. and like to spend time outdoors. kindhearted. Some small Bashkir communities exist outside Bashkortostan. the ballet dancer Rudolf Nureyev (1938-1993). and cheerfully share reflections on their academic grades. and are not susceptible to interruptions while performing academic tasks. they are more musically minded. They can be hot-tempered interacting with others but always try to control themselves owing to a highly developed sense of responsibility. Bashkirs adhere to the Muslim religion as well as to their national traditions and customs. Bashkir regiments courageously fought against the Napoleonic army in 1812. Their colleagues from other ethnic groups sometimes dislike this characteristic. accurate. Bashkirs now live in the settled communities of the Republic of Bashkortostan (capital: Ufa). Kukushin and Stoliarenko (2000) postulate that Ukrainians possess a well-developed sense of humor. in the 1990s. They also like to be noticed in professional and learning activities and to be in the ranks of the best.Culture and Cultural Differences 63 solved peacefully. Like their Russian counterparts. In general. are polychronic. Ukrainians are adherents of law and order. like to participate in discussions about interesting topics in class and during extracurricular activities. and cheerful. prudent. there were some minor ethnopolitical . Like Tatars. diligent. Valor is a distinctive ethnic feature of Bashkir males. They easily adapt to an alien environment and easily make friends. Students often volunteer questions. the Bashkir cavalry. they are industrious. Ukrainian students feel comfortable in cooperative learning environments. The Bashkirs Formerly a nomadic people. and calculating. the first autonomous republic founded in the former Soviet country. In World War 11.

Cheremises). they may be referred to as a masculine ethnic group emphasizing divided sex roles and the necessity of hard work to achieve economic and educational success. have their own autonomous republic. The Mari Mari (formerly.64 Chapter Two differences between Bashkortostan and Moscow that were later favorably settled (Arutunian. hospitable. Mari El (capital: Yoshkar Ola).Although Bashkir men tend to dominate in the family. Bashkirs are high-context people. who inhabit Bashkortostan. and the linguistic similarity of Bashkir and Tatar. each using his own language. Bashkir-Russian-Tatar trilingualism may be a consequence of two factors: the sociogeographic proximity of Bashkirs to the two numerically largest ethnic groups. they keep close to their relatives. located northwest of Tatarstan. grammatically. Russians and Tatars. Bashkir students prefer cooperative learning strategies. Adherents of a strong family. Mutual academic assistance is a normal practice. that is. a Finno-Ugric people. The sustained paganism within this eastern branch is considered a unique phenomenon among Finno-Ugric ethnic and language groups (Ibulaev. they treat their wives respectfully and appreciatively. and possess a high sense of responsibility undertaking a definite objective. Any Bashkir student can communicate comprehensibly with a Tatar counterpart. have retained much from their pagan past. Drobidzeva. Children can cheerfully discuss their academic grades and test outcomes. and phonetically. Our longitudinal observations show that they prefer listening to volunteering and challenging questions and ideas and excel in mathematics. On the masculine-feminine scale. Mari are industrious. The language situation among Bashkirs is virtually similar to that of Tatars: bilingualism proficiency is dependent on the urban-rural factor. They easily establish contacts with members of other ethnic groups and are gentle enough in in- . Bashkir parents are very concerned about their children’s education and behavior and consider teachers authority figures and school a ”temple of science” for their children. Normally. diligent. The Eastern Mari. Students have a special respect for the teacher and the elderly and obediently follow instructions. 2000). Reserved as they may be. Mari also populate the neighboring regions. and Susokolov. The Bashkir and Tatar languages are very similar lexically. Field-sensitive and polychronic. 1999). In rural families. educational and child-rearing practices that have been traditionally used by their ancestors (Akhiyarov. thus creating extended-family groups. 2000). especially in rural areas. Bashkirs are advocates of using elements of folk pedagogy. an average Bashkir person fluently speaks Tatar and can be ranked as trilingual.

1999: 6). Mari people’s ethnocentric drive is rather moderate and never oversteps its boundaries. teachers. They also have relatively stable communities outside Chuvashia. . as the second largest ethnic group in the Russian Federation. In Chuvash communities. who. The language situation in Chuvash communities is similar to that in Bashkir and Mari settings. and have a strong tendency to build long-term relationships. and natural phenomena. Evidence suggests that Mari students tend to be field dependent and polychronic. they may be reserved and work individually at a task to compete with each other. and discuss interesting topics and ideas. A considerable number of Mari can converse in Tatar because of their close intercultural relationship with Tatars. Chuvashes are diligent and assiduous in carrying out official duties and persistent in attaining aims and objectives.Culture and Cultural Differences 65 tercultural interaction not to hurt the feelings of their interlocutors. possess great capacity for work. The material rests on the premise that people must have a caring attitude to fauna and flora. The Chuvashes Chuvashes inhabit the Republic of Chuvashia (capital: Cheboksary). They believe that achieving success depends on hard work (Sarakuev and Krysko. 1996). a striving for “thorough personality perfection” has been an invaluable idea in life and education. More feminine on the masculine-feminine scale. The Chuvashes cherish their famous writers Konstantin Ivanov (1890-1915) and Yakov Ukhsay (1911-1988). As in Bashkir communities. trilingualism (Mari-Russian-Tatar)is not uncommon. The Chuvash-Russian-Tatarnatural trilingualism among the Chuvash population may be attributed to their sociogeographic closeness to mainstream Russians and the second-largest nationality. Achieving better academic performance in small groups. and solidarity. avoid or resolve conflicts by discussion. Mari children are considerate and courteous to parents. ”that person can be referred to as industrious who performs an unloved job with a sense of love” (Volkov. volunteer questions. they can also work individually. situated west of Tatarstan. and elderly people. they emphasize modesty. Academic mutual assistance is widespread. food grains. equality. According to the old Chuvash tradition. Even though Mari are high context and polychronic. The Mari folk pedagogy heritage contains rich material that can be used in ecological education. numerically predominate over other non-Russian groups in the middle Volga area and Bashkortostan. and place high emphasis on the needs of the group rather than on their own personal interests. water resources and soil. the Tatars.

which one can not change or leave without the teacher’s permission (a common practice in Russia’s schools). According to the masculinity-femininity variable. 1999: 52). kindness. temperance. Volunteering questions and challenging teachers and educators often occur in secondary and college classrooms. Tatar. Chuvash students change personal distance. satisfied with themselves and with their orderly little country. Chuvashes predominantly pursue feminine values. and an international orientation” (19). and Ukrainian counterparts. The Dutch “Picture someone watching television in North America. An average Chuvash student assists peers in completing academic tasks and discusses grades freely in the classroom. 1991: 1). Bashkir. chastity. and honesty (Volkov. Akhiyarov. While communicating. This one phrase expresses all the legendary past of the Dutch. Horst (1996) points out that the Dutch are democratic. The saying ”People contain all that is stronger than the ever strongest and cleverer than the ever cleverest” has been a precious tenet in Chuvash educational traditions (Volkov. interpersonal relationships. Another tenet in folk pedagogy is based on the realization of seven characteristics: industriousness. The creative spirit of Rem- . whose contemporary culture is equally worth studying. a sober-minded tolerance. From a certain vantage point. Dutch culture can be viewed as a society of and for painters. 1999. skillful seafarers and dike builders. students of Chuvash background progress academically in cooperative environments but are also able to achieve high results working individually. Diligence. peace loving by nature. such as fluid sex roles. Russian. . Collectivistically and polychronically minded. health. As among their Mari. They are obsessively fond of modern styles and do not forget their classical heritage. Possessing an officially fixed classroom place. The merchant has left such traits as an ”examination of reality. intelligence. and responsibility for people who suffer: these are the virtues the preacher imparted from the pulpit. Every day this person sees news programs featuring superpowers. Holland is hardly mentioned. . . the phenomenon of territoriality is not well developed among Chuvash children. and collective concern for neighbors. Most people cannot imagine that there was a time when Holland was one of those superpowers” (Stegeren. they may ”get too close” and touch each other on the hand or the shoulder and hug. does not refer to the notion of territoriality and personal space in this respect. 2000).66 Chapter Two The very wholeness of the Chuvash people is considered to encompass all that is necessary for personality perfection. friendship. Stegeren holds that two types have provided for Dutch identity and behavior: the preacher and the merchant.

Prisoners receive relatively mild sentences. Social psychologist Geert Hofstede (cited in Wesselius. and the central government publishes a national guide providing general information about the education system and the rights and obligations of parents. Dutch students tend to be field independent and low context and feel more comfortable working individually. feminine societies also have more women in male roles and vice versa. in secondary and higher institutions. and participate in group activities. prostitution. their attaching relatively little value to wealth and appearance. the Germans contributed much to the socioethnic development of Europe. ”Even at school. and compassion are felt even in the prison system and policies relating to drug abuse. In communication the Dutch keep a distance between themselves and avoid physical contact as much as possible. Dutch is just one language used in educational institutions. It is the former Germanic tribes. School participation councils include representatives of both the staff and parents. 1991). students from ordinary schools cooperate with their counterparts from schools for exceptional students. Under the ”Going to School Together” policy. a student who grows too achievement-oriented will quickly fall victim to the mockery of his or her classmates” (Stegeren. Schools in the province of Friesland can also teach in Friesian (”Education in the Netherlands. Compassionate and tolerant. ”Act normal. ”Somehow she’s just remained the ordinary girl she always was” is a comment a Dutch movie star can receive.C. euthanasia was officially legalized in Holland. Prostitutes have always been allowed to pursue their livelihood with relative freedom. Soft drugs like hashish are sold openly in special shops. and their tolerance. sustain a spirit of friendship with guards.2000. The Germans In the past. they are independent of external judgment and quite tolerant of disturbances from peers.” 1998). and you will be conspicuous enough is a well-known remark in Holland. use available sport facilities.On November 28. parents are keenly interested in their children’s academic achievement and keep close contact with school.Culture and Cultural Differences 67 brandt Harmenszoon van Rijn (1606-1669) and Vincent Willem van Gogh (1853-1890) is deeply embedded in the Dutch heart. Concentrating on one task at a time. 1999a) views the Dutch as a feminine society because of their advantage in trade. some subjects are taught in English as well. and constituted the core of . they are entitled to receive allowances for holidays and illness (Stegeren. and euthanasia or mercy killing. Leveling and restraint are other characteristic features of the Dutch. 1991: 10). Democracy. if officially registered. According to Hofstede. the Angles and the Saxons. that arrived in the British Isles in 440 B. tolerance.

a German treasures home life. Their mentality encompasses a capability to abstract thinking and broad philosophizing. waste is a sin. In German culture. Ger- . as a tiny part of the whole society. or university. 1990. secrecy is common. children learn compartmentalization early. through the English. The slightest violation or disruption of a carefully planned activity frustrates and disorganizes Germans (Sarakuev and Krysko. The German working population and students do not expect fun at work. territoriality. honesty. The term zum Beispiel (for example) is a frequently used phrase (Hall and Hall. and other empirical assets. In the sphere of skillful planning of the future. privacy. Sarakuev and Krysko. Schools are compartmentalized and only academic subjects are taught. The dominant themes in contemporary German culture are order and structure. A German’s home is his castle. providing much more information than most people from other cultures require (Hall and Hall. the most prominent national features of Germans are order and structure. Unlike Russian and American schools. excellent design. 1996). Germans can reach the point of the speech right at the end. Since knowledge is power. For example. 1996). Germans compartmentalize time with schedules and space by sealing themselves behind closed doors. space is a sacred thing. poet and dramatist Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (1749-1832). later. it is almost an obsession. and poet and dramatist Friedrich von Schiller (1 759-1805). who tend to announce at the start what they are going to talk about. punctuality. The German student. Students do not share information freely. German culture gave to the world such famous geniuses as the organist and composer Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1750). practicality. Time lies at the core of their culture. and directness. They may be sensitive to definite external influences such as facts.68 Chapter Two the English culture and. industriousness. 1990). and quality materials and expect things to wear well. In the fifth century. Sticking to high morality with regard to family values. composer Ludwig von Beethoven (177&1827).In sum. cooling. They appreciate and demand fine workmanship. generally possesses all that is peculiar to German culture. added to the nucleus of European Americans. Unlike Americans and Russians. and they wonder at how Americans can waste so much energy by heating. Germans respect privacy to a degree far beyond anything known in the United States. they surpass the majority of other ethnic groups. Decentralization and compartmentalization are basic structural features in German culture. and lighting buildings at obviously excessive levels. school. numerical data. Germanic tribes also promoted the collapse of the already deeply corrupted and declining Roman Empire and founded a new territorial and socioethnic order on the European continent. in fact. For an average German. promptness is taken for granted. his most important possession.

and Alexander Dumas fils (1824-1895). Many things are centralized in French culture. appreciate scholarly allusions. love to talk and communicate with their whole body. painter Pierre-Auguste Renoir (1841-1919). fluency. High on the polychronic scale. do not always adhere to schedules and appointments. The French revere literature and philosophical ideas. Although the young and parents are rather independent of each other. The importance of French history to an average French person can hardly be overstated. and change plans at the last moment. and slight emotional excitability. For their special susceptibility to ideas. and pedagogue Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778). and great precision. who prefer empirically proven information . 1990). general and politician Charles de Gaulle (1890-1970). they were often criticized by the British and Germans. and singer Edith Piaf (1915-1963).Culture and Cultural Differences 69 man schools pay little or no attention to extracurricular activities. Considering France and the French language as the center of importance and power.Elementary and secondary students are monochronically minded and susceptible to interruptions. novelists Alexander Dumas pPre (1802-1870). tolerate interruptions. writer. Both the French themselves and those of other nationalities remember and value the creative talent of the philosopher. the French can do several things at a time. The French also pride themselves on their numerous accomplishments and contributions to world culture (Hall and Hall. the French tend to see things in their historical context and relate contemporary events to their origin (Hall and Hall. they are reluctant and slow to learn foreign languages. They pride themselves on the art of speaking their language with brilliance. Surrounded by thousands of monuments and statues to their glorious past. 1990). parents require that their children do well at school. inexhaustible wit. in both urban and rural settlements. The French The prime distinctive feature of the French is their high sensitivity to all that is related to their national history. with Paris as the nucleus of everything French for centuries. their love of the amenities of life. engineer AlexandreGustave Eiffel (1832-1923). The competition for university admission is fierce and based primarily on scholastic achievement (Hall and Hall. adding a Latin flavor to the ethnic texture. Located where north and south meet. political scientist and historian Alexis de Tocqueville (1805-1859). At one time French was the language of the courts in Europe. French culture has absorbed people from North Africa and the Mediterranean countries. They are known as excellent football players and skillful movie makers and are recognized cosmetics manufacturers. 1990). and are distinguished by subtle thinking.

require that teachers explain material well and use French eloquently and articulately. in Tel Aviv and two days later. later. another thousand killed in the 1956 Sinai Campaign and the 1967 Six-Day War. challenge questions.D. As high-context communicators.French students prefer an individualistic learning environment. they prefer subtlety and tact to frankness and fact and admire sophistication. they proclaimed the Declaration of Independence in May 12. received their long-awaited nationhood or ”rebirth (Kotliarsky. As in many industrialized cultures. which is traditionally relatively strict. 1992).Perfectionism in manners. Compared to Americans and Germans.1948. The French relish conversation and can be totally absorbed in their discussions.. French students’ mentality is significantly affected by computers. France has been known all over the world as a center of learning and education. logic. three thousand killed in the October 1973 war. 1996). The centralized system of education in the country affects both the school discipline. We offer ourselves grim consolation: all the wars have cost us less than three days at Auschwitz.70 Chapter Two (Sarakuev and Krysko. across the world. (524) Having survived against the most impossible odds. on May 14. 1999a). they sit and stand close to each other in general conversation (Hall and Hall. and teacher-student relations. 1990). The Jews have given the world the Holy Bible containing the truths . pragmatism. and nuance. to the brutal pogroms in Russia in the 1880s. Feagin (1989) contends that Jews have been hated by dominant peoples around the globe for thousands of years: from the Egyptian and Roman persecutions to the expulsions in Spain in the late 1400s. communal organizations of parents help schools meet students’ urgent needs (Dzurinsky. the Jewish people have been scattered all over Europe and. to the Nazi massacres in the 1940s. and realism constitute a strong current in French society. and related technology. individuality. hundreds killed by terrorist raids. Potok (1980) writes: What a price we have paid for that land [Israel]:Seven hundred killed in the War of Independence. “Jews might be regarded as the most consistently and widely persecuted ethnic group in the world history” (144). television. erudition. The Iews Since the 70s A. Historically. when the Romans attacked Jerusalem. Comparing the death toll in the Holocaust to other critical periods of the history of the Jewish people. and make indepth inquiries into the essence of the topics under consideration. School-family cooperation is well regulated.

Constantinople.D. banking. and the principles of liberty and tolerance.Culture and Cultural Differences 71 and commandments followed by a considerable part of the world’s population. marking the renewal of Jewish life in the land (Shoam. a language that. love of the land. multicultural society. The list of Jews who have contributed to the world’s progress could be very long. just in the sciences. aims to prepare children to become responsible members of a democratic. after a long restriction to liturgy and literature. arts. Educational television broadcasts scholastic programs and collaborates with university faculty and teachers in developing new instructional strategies. Today. Students often volunteer questions and challenge teachers. parent-teacher relations are warm. the Jews of Israel use Hebrew. The Jewish people are known to excel in many activities they undertake. Jewish students tend to be monochronic and concentrate intently on the material under study in both individual and cooperative learning environments. . and based on mutual help. In Jewish schools subject areas are taught in Hebrew with a parallel study of Arabic and one foreign language. who organized a revolt in 131-135 A. based on national values. was revived a century ago. the philosopher Baruch Spinoza (1632-1677). but the teacher is an authority figure. physicist Albert Einstein (1879-1955). To gain knowledge about the world. in Israel or other countries. especially in the sciences. The educational tradition. mainly English. 1989). 1989). Jewish people live all over the world. a precious legacy. and Krakow. political philosopher and socialist Karl Marx (1818-1883). One of the prominent national features of Jewish adults and youth is their cherishing and striving for knowledge. friendly. the Arabic schools located in Israel require all disciplines to be taught in Arabic with a parallel study of Hebrew and one foreign language. Bologna. For instance. Among the greatest Jews. they possess many common features and traits. The Bible has been translated into more than two hundred languages and some of its chapters into over a thousand different dialects (Shoam. the number of Jewish-owned printing houses began to grow rapidly. against Roman domination. education. Following the tradition of past generations. Jews have won around 12 percent of the Nobel Prizes. Russian-born theorist Lev Trotsky (1879-1940). and writer Franz Kafka (1883-1924). we can name Simeon Bar Kokhba. neurologist Sigmund Freud (1856-1939). continues to be a fundamental value in Jewish culture and is recognized as the key to its future. In the sixteenth century Jews owned printing houses in Venice. and different domains of business. Parental involvement is praised in schools. Cairo. Wherever they live. Immediately after the invention of printing by Johannes Gutenberg. cinematography and television.

The Spanish know that Pablo Picasso (1881-1973). this pastime for brave males is experiencing an unexpected revival both in Spain and in other countries that had been influenced by Spanish culture ("All about Spain. the golden age of Spanish literature and art produced works of social satire (Lope de Vega. To a certain degree. 1547-1616). McGeveran. the Spanish family is undergoing a transition from an extended to a nuclear model. The Spanish obtained a colonial empire with the "discovery" of America by Columbus in 1492 and the conquest of Mexico in 1519-1521 by Hernando Cortes (1485-1547) and of Peru in 1532 by Francisco Pizarro (1475-1541). and English in terms of native speakers. bullfighting was transformed to combating bulls on foot in 1724. Polychronic and high-context. poetry.72 Chapter Two The Spanish Spanish culture has developed in specific sociogeographical surroundings in comparison with northern European nations. the Spanish may be exposed to favoritism and corporativism in some spheres of group and social organizations as well as interpersonal interaction (Sarakuev and Krysko. 2001). which is more in keeping with urban industrial societies. 1996). made up of a married couple and children. in whose veins runs Spanish blood. also continuously reminds them of their past as well as present-day grandeur. One of the most striking assets of Spanish culture is bullfighting. 1599-1660) (Famighetti. These national preferences have shaped the people's adherence to spiritual and idealistic values and their capacity for being unpretentious and modest with regard to natural conditions." 2000. Contemporary Spanish people tend to consider themselves as representatives of a former great empire that for a long time determined international policy and opened the Americas (Sarakuev and Krysko. arts. Boasting a low divorce rate. The level of legal and social equality of Spanish women has experienced a continuous growth due to their liberation from domestic tasks and greater participation in jobs outside the home. Hindi. The prevalence of idealism and emotions over rationalism has initiated their creative success in the domain of literature. as well as greater enrollment in secondary and higher education. Currently. The Spanish have traditionally been religious and have praised a spirit of nobility. Originally done on horseback by the aristocracy. 1562-1635. as well as spiritual intensity (El Greco. An . and valor. 1996). 1541-1614. Miguel de Cervantes. Spanish students can attend to several academic activities at a time and bear interruptions without offense. Spanish. honor. Along with expanding colonial lands from the late fifteenth century. Diego Rodriguez de Velbzquez. the fourth language in the world after Mandarin. 1999). and drama. is one of the most renowned painters and sculptors of all times.

C. diligent. to the twelfth century A. eccentricity and smoothness.D. that is why the student does not need to be given much background information. statesman and prime minister Sir Winston Churchill (18761965). self-confidence. affable. restraint. friendly. The core of the English ethnicity is considered to have been molded approximately from the tenth century B. Compared to other northern European cultures. stick to traditional meals at assigned times. The English are known as the former major navigators and founders of huge colonies in the New World (Famighetti. the English are psychologically stable. George Harrison. and self-discipline. often considered the greatest writer of plays and poetry of all time.Also. . cheerfulness and reticence. We maintain that the most fascinating thing about English culture is its export of the English language. or Great Britain. or the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland: these three names often embody one culture called the English.Culture and Cultural Differences 73 average student cherishes conversation with his or her peers and knows a lot about classmates and their parents and relatives. also sprang from English culture. and Ring0 Starr who. enterprise. reigned 1837-1901). resulted in the formation of such traits as prudence. 1999). who have been satisfying fans throughout the world for nearly forty years. Queen Victoria (1819-1901. initiative. which has been dispersed all over the globe and become the current lingua franca of the international community. industrious. The paradoxes of the English character encompass a blend of conformity and individualism. and they may resort to friendly hand touches and shoulder pats. The English Britain. they are fond of sports. and practical.Among them were not only famous explorers and navigators such as James Cook (1728-1779) but also notorious pirates. Strongly adhering to their national traditions. John Lennon. The personal space between interacting students may be very small. A centuries-long involvement in commerce. as the Beatles. casual in clothing. musicians Sir Paul McCartney. Another legendary group. they are relatively firm advocates of a strong family. the Rolling Stones. physician Edward Jenner (1749-1823). created a furor in the musical world of the 1960s and 1970s. The English are proud of the dramatist and poet William Shakespeare (1564-1616). Secondary and university students feel rather comfortable working in groups and assisting each other in certain academic tasks. 1996). Territoriality is not a matter of such importance for Spanish students as for students from German and American cultures. fueled by a puritanical style of life. simplicity and snobbery (Sarakuev and Krysko. and adore humor. naturalist Charles Darwin (1809-1882).

The tutor renders academic assistance to the student and provides him or her with the knowledge and skills about the world and how to function successfully in an interdependent society (Dzurinsky. printing. failure to keep pace with Western arms technology exposed China to greater European influence and hampered efforts to bar imports of opium. Field independent and industrious. geography. astronomy.1415926 and 3. and are susceptible to interruptions. which had damaged the society and drained wealth overseas. the existing close pedagogical ties between students and faculty are maintained through tutorials. the ancient Chinese maintained extensive economic and sociocultural relations with Korea. Famous thinkers such as Confucius and Lao-tzu have made an impact not only on Chinese culture but also on world civilization. They tend to be monochronically minded. Under the Northern Sung Dynasty. and Arabia. and Zhou dynasties (from the twenty-first century B.c. facilitated by paper money and credit notes. but not to the degree that Germans do. The Xia. 1998). guf-tpowder. In the early 188Os. In the Opium War (1839-1842). A golden age of poetry bequeathed valuable works to later generations (Tu Fu. Japan. and medicine. 1999). As low-context people. India. Shang. Brilliantly well developed technologically and culturally. China expanded trade opportunities and had to cede Hong Kong (Famighetti. commercial and industrial expansion continued. Li Po. 1999a). Zhang Heng of the Han Dynasty invented the seismograph. they need additional information and detailed background data in communication. English students have a strong tradition of hard work. At the university level.) furthered the development of a slave society in China. A considerable number of educational institutions keep to their long-established traditions. School and university students spend a lot of time playing sports. The peculiarities of sociopolitical and sociocultural development have considerably affected the shaping of Chinese national character and psy- .1415927. papermaking. can intensely concentrate on an activity. a system in which each student has a mandatory consultant (tutor) among the faculty. They invented the magnetic compass. and the abacus. They compartmentalize their personal relationships. 712-770. they persistently carry out their academic responsibilities feeling more comfortable in individualistic environments. the English have a high masculinity rating (Hofstede. under Britain's influence. Persia.74 Chapter Two Like other English-speaking cultures. Landscape painting flourished. Great achievements were made in mathematics. and Zu Chong calculated the value of pi to be between 3. 701-762). The Chinese Chinese culture has had a long history of development.

schools for girls have rapidly increased in China. such as Buddhism. 2001. Such schools provide girls with different types (public. private. they have obtained such distinctive features as unpretentiousness.Culture and Cultural Differences 75 chology. Yiru. 2001). 3 Girls’ Middle School in Shanghai (Ross. The ideas of Confucianism have also influenced the formation of Chinese character. and the Labor Law (Tianbi. various religions. Buddhism was introduced in the sixth century A. Taoism. 1996). have left imprints in people’s lifestyles and ways of thinking (Sarakuev and Krysko. the All-China Women’s Organization was founded in 1949.2000.) of education (Ross. 2001). 2001). Islam. Family is an important and valued asset in Chinese culture. Facing serious problems of overpopulation.D. including the All-China Students’ Federation (McGeveran. Despite the existing socioeconomic problems in the country and difficulties in the system of education such as lack of financial resources and gender imbalance among school students (Zaihui and Jianfeng. Seeking to preserve the country from foreign influence. the Law on Security of the Disabled. in . a trend reflecting the plurality of China’s schooling. From 1192 till 1867. moderation. 2001). Likewise. Especially favorable contacts were established with the Dutch. persistence. Catholicism. Since the 1990s. the Education Law. Japan was dominated by a feudal system highly influenced by powerful local noble families and their samurai warrior retainers (Famighetti. and committed to. To protect women’s educational and personal rights. the Japanese have had trade relations with the West since the sixteenth century. the Chinese prefer working collectively and tend to help each other in difficult circumstances. Industriousness. the Chinese central and local governments are doing much to promote better schooling and child development. One such institution with a good reputation is No. 2001). The same year. the overall opinion of a group. Chinese influence was strong. China has promulgated the Law to Prevent Juvenile Crime. With different degrees of intensity. Since the early 1980s. who marked their four hundred years of relations with Japanese culture on April 19. etc. The Portuguese came there in the mid-sixteenth century and tried to convert the Japanese to Christianity. the All-China Youth Federation was organized. Dependent on. and Protestantism. and a capability of enjoying life and being satisfied with very little. the Law concerning Mother and Infant Care. vocational. China was compelled to implement family planning to control population growth. As a result. self-control. The Japanese In the early days of Japanese culture. patience. endurance. 1999). and composure-all these features may be ranked among the first on the list.

KGhei. steadfast in difficulties. The mother remains the first and most charitable teacher for a Japanese child. and they need concrete directions about what should be done and to what extent. Dzurinsky (1999a) says that in contemporary Japanese culture the pedagogical functions of the family and the school are being reconsidered. Contemporary Japanese are well organized and respect authority figures: managers. some local nobles allowed the Dutch to return on the condition that they confined themselves to commercial activities and did not attempt to foist their religion on the Japanese. Japanese students attend seriously to their academic responsibilities. They prefer being called upon rather than challenging ideas and teachers. 1990. They are industrious.76 Chapter Two 1639 the Japanese called a halt to foreign influences. educators are seeking to develop different forms of home schooling. persistent in attaining work and life objectives. Hofstede (1998) reckons Japan to be the most masculine culture in the world. Some Japanese adhere to the cult of ancestors and possess a sense of ethnic exclusiveness of being Japanese. the elderly. teachers. Lack of fertile land. 2000). This trait reveals itself both in the homeland and in alien societies where they organize ethnic enclaves (Sarakuev and Krysko. Industrious and hardworking. Adhering to certain well-established social etiquettes and conventions. Summary This chapter has sought to depict some speculations on the nature of culture and to outline some socioculturaland ethnopsychological features of . everyone stays informed about other people in an organization or educational institution (Hall and Hall. difficult climatic conditions. and there is a growing tendency to increase the role of the school. 1996). Worried about the decreasing role of the family. 2001. self-disciplined. 2001). Despite these changes. Taichi. persistent. Teachers and educators are respected people in Japanese educational institutions. they are customarily group oriented and do everything possible to be useful to group members. Despite the closure of borders. It was only in 1854 that the Japanese opened their borders to foreign trade with the West (Roon. Parents are anxious to become active participants in school life and “never cast doubt on teacher’s opinion in the student’s presence” (130). the family remains a special asset in Japanese culture in general and in the sphere of education in particular. and a relatively secluded development from the outer world until the middle of the nineteenth century had a significant impact on coining the national distinctive features of the Japanese. The Japanese are a high-context society. for information flows freely and from all sides.

The limited space has made it possible to examine only a small number of groups. including among others the sociohistorical. The dimensions examined here are only some of many possible approaches. Note 1. ethnic. and religious. German. and Hispanic Americans. Jewish.Culture and Cultural Differences 77 different groups. Chinese. I have also sought to present some information on the Dutch. Spanish. ethnic mosaic and briefly portrayed the specific features of Anglo-Saxon. This knowledge will broaden educators' knowledge and improve their pedagogical expertise. Interested readers may consult numerous reference books and Internet sites for information on other groups. To acquire more pedagogical insights into the ethnic and cultural diversity of their classes. and Chuvashes. and Japanese cultures and the ways the teacher-student and school-home relationships are developing in these societies. Sobornost is a special condition of a person's soul. linguistic. This chapter has attempted to inquire into cultural peculiarities and educational traditions of different ethnic groups. Bashkirs. . I have also offered some reflections on the essential cultural and cognitive traits of ethnic Russians. English. Native. sociogeographic. Mari. I have depicted the U. The chapter has demonstrated that culture is multifaceted and can be approached from many perspectives. On the basis of scientific literature and personal observations. African. educators need to maintain close contact with their local communities and their students' families. French. This condition incorporates the idea of the unity of community and a touch of national instinct and a mystic inclination to one's native group. Ukrainians. having in mind that a multiethnic Russia might be little known to the teaching and learning public at large. Asian. This knowledge base can provide educators the necessary pedagogical insights on how to deal with students from various racial and ethnic groups. sociocultural. Tatars.S.

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The need for developing proper contents and strategies of multicultural education arose considerably after the civil rights movement led by African Americans in the United States. and (3) ethnic communities control schools and that textbooks reflect the diversity of peoples in the United 79 . and freedom for every member of the society. religious. (2) schools hire more nonwhite teachers and administrators so that their children would have more successful role models.3 The Nature of Multicultural Education This chapter examines a number of issues related to multicultural education as a concept and an educational trend. regardless of ethnic. 1994). cultures. History and Some Underlying Principles Multicultural education ideas emerged in the West out of the desire to establish justice. and class background. The civil rights moment in the United States had a tremendous impact on educational institutions as ethnic groups (first African Americans and then others) demanded that (1) educational institutions’ curricula reflect their histories. equality. A Brief Historical Survey The civil rights leaders of the 1960s and 1970s used the Western ideals of freedom and democracy to justify and legitimize their push for structural inclusion and the end of institutionalized discrimination and racism (Banks. and perspectives. It focuses on some of the underlying principles of multicultural education and educational institutions that can provide such an education and some general strategies for implementing multicultural education. racial.

For example.80 Chapter Three States. later. gender. Other marginalized groups (the elderly. In the 1970s. The Netherlands’ educators have also painstakingly blazed a trail to multicultural education. the integration of the issues of ethnic and language diversity into school curricula has followed a painstaking path from assimilation to integration and to cultural pluralism. and provide better study of the language and milieu of the mainstream society (Lynch. 2001a). respect ethnic and racial peculiarities of minorities. the later equally varied religious overlay. the disabled. 1994. American feminists demanded (1)revisions of textbooks to include more material about women’s role and share in the development of the nation and the world and (2) the hiring of more women for administrative positions in educational institutions. Banks. and gay rights advocates) articulated their grievances and demanded that institutions be reformed to meet their needs and rights. In the United Kingdom. the Indonesians and Surinamese in the Netherlands. and the Aborigines in Australia joined the struggle and demanded that institutions become more responsive to their needs (Lynch. religion. 1986). terms such as ”cultural pluralism” and ”diversity” began to appear in the pedagogical literature. three major contextual influences promoted an educational response to cultural pluralism in Europe: the early patchwork settlement of Europe by different linguistic and ethnic groups. People of Asian origin in Britain. the focus was shifted from multiethnic to multicultural education. The women’s rights movement also emerged in the United States and other countries. Historically. In the early 1960s. European education policy makers gradually came to believe that proper multicultural-intercultural education should promote the teaching of the native language and culture of the country of origin. The endeavors moved slowly because Dutch policymakers and pedagogues delayed in defining the key concepts of . Multicultural education in the United Kingdom proved as difficult in terms of theoretical exploration as in practical policies (Craft. the 1975 Education for All Handicapped Children Act required that students with disabilities be placed in the least restricted environment. 1986). First came a multiethnic education approach in which the contributions of various ethnic groups were integrated into the curriculum. and other dimensions were added to the multicultural education concept. and economic factors. At least two factors contributed to the rise of multiethnic and. Inspired by the civil rights movement. multicultural education: an increase of racial and ethnic consciousness and a more critical analysis of educational problems. Changes occurred in Western European countries. ethnic and cultural revitalization movements began to increase in other countries. 1986. The word ”mainstreaming” came into use (Banks. exceptionality. 2001a).

In New Zealand powerful social influences and calls for greater awareness of cultural diversity in the curriculum became common in the 1980s. Malaysia. and this immigration was the proximate cause behind the development of policies of multiculturalism. has been. nevertheless. in 1981. Indonesia. Laos. Lebanon. Vietnam. the amount of time devoted to intercultural education was limited (Hooghoff. In the early 2000s. ethnic and racial diversity in Australia was represented by people from Bangladesh. In the 1970s multiculturalism and multicultural education issues began to penetrate into Australian educational institutions. some slight peculiarities. considerable efforts were made to encompass the issues of language and ethnic diversity in schools. In the other schools. had a personal or family interest in a language other than English and in a culture outside the British tradition. Thailand. 1986). bilingual or multilingual education was a more common approach than multicultural education. For example. 1991). holidays. Until the mid-l980s. Turkey. 2000). but these historical changes have. India. Sri Lanka. such as the organizing of cultural events. Pakistan. Singapore. 3.In the 1990s the demand for intercultural education was low in schools unaffected by the influx of various ethnic groups in the past years. In 1983. One of the main principles of the country’s curriculum framework adopted in 1993 was to recognize the multicultural nature of the New Zealand society and take this into consideration in curriculum content (McGee. 1995). located in a vast Eurasian territory. the Philippines. The term “culture” had been relegated to the activities of the ministry of culture. since ancient times. relations between Aborigines and non-Aboriginal Australians continued to command the attention of people concerned with the issues of multiculturalism (Laine and Sutton. ethnically and culturally pluralistic but structurally and educationally monolithic.The Nature of Multicultural Education 81 culture and in preparing guidelines for multicultural activities for teachers who had to deal with pupils from various ethnic and cultural groups and with different levels of acculturation (Eldering. or one-quarter of the Australian population. In the 1980s and 1990s. 1996). Multicultural policies did not come about initially because of Aboriginal demands but rather because of the influx of immigrants. The Russian educational tradition placed a primary emphasis on knowing another language in order to understand another culture. Russia. and Oceania (Polynesian Islanders of various origins) (Bullivant. New Zealand (Maoris). As in the Netherlands. the concept of culture was for many years a forgotten legacy in Russian society. Fiji.75 million people. and more cultural and linguistic rights were obtained by the Maori (Snook. 1995). . Australia is no different from other Western countries in the way multicultural education has evolved historically.

Neither has there been any reorganization similar to the multicultural reform movement in the United States. Romania. It is only since Gorbachev’s perestroika that the concept of multicultural education has come into use and the notion of culture has penetrated into pedagogy on theoretical and practical levels. a closely related issue. Germany. Methodology Methodologically.The idea of multiculturalism and multicultural education. All these and other forms of diversity. a growing awareness of the need for multicultural and intercultural education has been identified in Albania. All people. As for global or international education. 1998a. It is my . regardless of ethnic or cultural background. Luxembourg. exceptionality. 1999). and human rights. Lebanon. Sierra Leone. the term ”culturological approach has come into existence. the ideas of multiculturalism and multicultural education are gaining momentum very rapidly. The many reforms that have occurred in Russia within the last two decades have brought some changes in attaining equal and equitable education for all ethnic and cultural groups. and Sweden. Italy. Bulgaria. Austria. One of my fundamental assumptions is that the idea of multiculturalism and multicultural education in Russia has always been present on many levels of education to some extent. Indonesia. There are countries (such as Belarus. race. But until the mid-1980s there was an apparent cultural and national bias toward anything foreign. Latvia. freedom. have been separately considered in Russia’s educational system. language. multicultural education is determined by the intrinsic fundamentals of democracy. social class and the like. Israel. b). of course. yet responses from them did not indicate a need for intercultural relations in the curriculum (Tye. but has never been articulated in terms of culture and as a concept. in most cases. Any praising of anything foreign was often treated as a hostile trend and labeled as a ”lack of patriotism. both multicultural and cross-cultural (global) contexts (Sinagatullin. Denmark. the necessity of internationalizing educational matters was officially accepted in the former Soviet Union. should have equal rights to quality education and access to learn more about the native and national cultures as well as cultures and values outside national borders. and Singapore) that are marked by ethnic tension.82 Chapter Three and celebrations. is relatively new in Russia. Burundi. Along with the notions of multicultural and global education.” Even though relatively slow practical progress in multicultural education is observed in countries other than Anglo-Saxon. incorporating a whole range of issues such as ethnicity. Poland. In twenty-first-century Russia. embracing. India. gender. most of the time quite successfully.

This new century requires that we pay special attention to developing in students corresponding attitudes and values in order (1) to restore the fundamental humanistic characteristics that have been lost in the previous century. despite rapid technological developments and a fast move of humanity to novel technological explorations. a decrease and erosion of such characteristic features as humanism. and (2) to meet the demands of the new epoch. As the aims of both can hardly be fully attained in the contemporary. the goals of multicultural education will remain important in human society for many years to come. Each individual is required to become a diligent citizen both of her nation-state and the entire world as well as to foster the welfare of the home society and all humanity. He considers that this education incorporates at least three things: an idea. The philosophy that “We may sacrifice our ethnic and cultural identity for the grandeur of the nation” is irrelevant and inappropriate in multiculturally oriented schools and societies. changing world. The previous two decades have witnessed a rapid collapse of morality across continents. Accents must be shifted to each personality without exception. Still another underlying principle holds that the school. Both striking ethnocentrism and a complete loss of ethnic and cultural identities are incompatible with the true principles of multicultural education. the government and the overall sociocultural and socioeconomic infrastructure of a given society should work for the benefits of each child and student. and a process. finally. The present-day. culture. empathy.The Nature of Multicultural Education 83 opinion that multicultural education is bound to further promote one fundamental issue: to resolve the contradiction between the ever growing attempts of ethnic and cultural groups to preserve and sustain their identities and the continual attempts of people to strive for mutual understanding and unification within the international community. and. Multicultural education is an idea stating that all students. ultimately must be an era of humanistic spiritual breakthroughs. race. love for neighbors. a reform movement. the development of his or her humanistic characteristics. regardless of their gender. and a positive attitude toward alien lifestyles and viewpoints. Not a single child or teenager should be forgotten by educators or local and federal authorities. social class. ethnicity. It is reasonable to accept what Banks (2001a) says is the essence of multicultural education. multicultural . religion. Another methodological prerequisite rests on the assumption that multicultural education should foster each student’s personality formation and growth. allegedly child-centered paradigm must be replaced by a multicultural education that is truly childcentered. as to a most costly and treasured possession and invaluable priority both within the school and larger community. the school district. or exceptionality. which. As a reform movement. should have an equal opportunity to learn at school.

both racial and ethnic diversity are important variables that need to be considered in educational institutions. terminology can become a problem in European research because in Europe differences in culture are mostly emphasized in terms of language and religion rather than ethnicity and race. Troyna and Edwards (cited in Eldering. socioeconomic condition. considered a minority in Canada. the diversity variables analyzed in the first chapter may be understood and treated differently in different societies. in Canada and the United States. Russia has pervasive and pronounced differencesbetween rural and urban cultural strata. in the United States. Canada. and women have an inferior legal status. this term emphasizes mainly the cultural deviation from the majority in terms of race. The Islamic religious code is the law of the land. whereas in Russia racial diversity is not so marked.84 Chapter Three education involves changes in the total school (and is not limited only to curriculum change) so that all children have an equal chance to experience school success. In Russia. another reality is extremely important in educational institutions: the differences between urban and rural populations. ethnicity. In Western societies. language. From a methodological perspective. In other cases. and other dimensions. and northern European countries. history. where Muslims constitute 100 percent of the population. religious life is often opposed to secular life and religious ideology to atheistic or materialistic ideology. Immigrants of German origin. resulting in restricted access for rural students to informational and cultural assets and in differences in academic achievement between rural and urban graduates. since they do not have a low socioeconomic position there (Eldering. Chinese groups are considered minorities both in Canada and the United States but not in the Netherlands. 1996) state that the specific U. The terminology used in describing a society’s objective reality is often ideologically colored and influenced by history and policy. religion. A major goal of such education is improving academic achievement. There is no constitution and no par- . religion is opposed to ancient paganism. addressing the requirements of rural education is a prime objective in Russia’s educational institutions. In addition to common problems related to many issues of diversity. may or may not be called a minority in the United States depending on personal opinion. Their degree of importance depends on numerous factors related to a society’s ideology. Unlike the United States. For example. In theocratic societies. educational policy. The term ”minority” refers to groups with a low socioeconomic position in the Netherlands. or behavior. One such country is Saudi Arabia.S. people not only accept the canons of a given religion but also live this religion. where religion is a way of life. 1996). Multicultural education is also a continuing process whose idealized goals will never be fully realized. values. Alcohol and public entertainment are restricted.

although a consultative council was established by the king in 1993 (McGeveran. and teacher-community relationships. Other modes of life and beliefs are considered alien. Currently the central focus in multiculturalism is on the overall. the quality of multicultural education depends on the teacher’s initiative and enthusiasm. This is done frequently by secondary math and science teachers (Banks. because much of the debate on the entire phenomenon of multiculturalism has been centered mainly on the eradication of racism and/or the recognition and affirmation of cultural plurality (Bonnett. As Islam totally permeates people’s mentality and all sides of daily life. anything related to religious diversity or the religious versus the secular virtually does not exist in Saudi Arabia. or residence (rural versus urban) but with ethnic or racial issues. Teachers who cannot easily see how course content is related to cultural and normative issues will easily dismiss multicultural education with the argument that it is not relevant to their discipline. and linguistic diversity. racial. educators and scholars tend to associate it not with differences in ability. gender. This approach is problematic for several reasons.” states Eldering (1996). Especially strong emphasis in multicultural education has been placed on racism-related issues.The Nature of Multicultural Education 85 liament. Misconceptions The following misconceptions and shortcomings occur in dealing with multicultural education: The need for multicultural education is conventionally associated only with societies containing ethnic. When the notion of cultural group is mentioned. there is no opposition to it in the home country. A big gap exists between theoretical foundation (what is said and conceptualized) and practice (what is really done). The issues of teacher education for a definite multicultural setting. Consequently. 2000). ”generalized” school-community environment: teacher-student. teacher-parent. and people pursuing other supernatural or materialistic ideologies are referred to as infidels. 2001a). in the sense that teachers only react to interethnic or multicultural incidents or conflicts in their classroom” (326). 2002). Multicultural education is often associated with educational problems rather than educational objectives. ”Multicultural education. In most of the cases. “is more often a reactive education. requiring defi- . social class. religion. as well as education.

Many human achievements that had been long ago gained by the Chinese were later forgotten in China itself and "reinvented" in Europe after a considerable time. Banks (1997) states: When I asked one school administrator what efforts were being taken to implement multicultural education in his school district. the term "education" encompasses (1)a process and result of teaching. (4) Education." Implicitly. It is as if teachers are empowered. and (5) an entity meaning one wholeness. In Eastern European and Russian educational traditions. where successive dynasties could negate and reject achievements of preceding dynasties and generations." "industry. History also recognizes that some societies have developed in cyclic ways. add-on subject that might be studied at least once during a student's school career. is often ignored. . to be universally competent pedagogues and relearn on the spot how to interact efficiently with students from various cultural groups. such as improving the students' reading scores. According to the American educational tradition. . To denote a process of teaching. (3) a result of a prolonged learning (at an educational institution). (2) a process and result of learning. In this respect. because any activity of educating inevitably entails discipline. he told me that the district had 'done' multicultural education last year and that it was now initiating other reforms. In most cases. on the whole. it would be worthwhile to draw some distinction between education." and "agriculture. that is. on both continents history has developed in a linear way. and Upbringing Prior to discussing further issues. (4)any growth in knowledge. multicultural education is perceived not as an ongoing process but as a separate. but he also did not understand that it could help raise the students' reading scores. similar to that of "medicine. the term "pedagogy" is also used. by their expertise and by the very nature of their profession. of multicultural education. the notion of education has historically encompassed the same characteristic features. pedagogy.86 Chapter Three nite multicultural approaches. only the idea of upbringing has received greater emphasis in education . the term contains the idea of child-rearing. One such society was ancient China. Evidence indicates that certain periods in America and Europe were marked by so-called individual periods in the development of educational canons. what has been gained by ancestors has not been forgotten by descendants. and upbringing. attitudes. Pedagogy. and skills development. This administrator not only misunderstood the nature . given that.

Gradually pedagogy began to encompass two main ideas: teaching (didactics) and upbringing. Fundamentals of Multicultural Education This section will further examine the nature of multicultural education with a special emphasis on factors that necessitate such education. The ever growing migration adds to demographic change. Certain points surrounding the factors were analyzed in the first chapter. and the difference between folk pedagogy. northern European countries) greatly increases their racial and ethnic diversity. Below are brief remarks on the most important causal categories. Arutunian. Moreover.This approach to pedagogics with its well-defined. twofold segments is less noticeable in Western Europe and least noticeable in North America. and Susokolov (1999) describe three types of migration: (1) pendulumlike (a regular shift from one place to another and back for employment. Drobidzeva. or other purposes) and seasonal (a temporary move . in Russia the notion of pedagogy with the twofold subdivisions (teaching and upbringing) has taken a deeper root. The growing number of people of Asian. education. Along with the development of the general notion of education. where the notion of education has survived and begun to take on approximately the same dimensions as in the United States. Australia. the Russian tradition witnessed the development of another salient category called "pedagogics" (as a science) and "pedagogy" (as both a science and a process). pedagogy contains an even more distinctly pronounced idea of promoting better upbringing. and multicultural education. African. ethnopedagogy.The Nature of Multicultural Education 87 than in the United States and Canada. Any textbook used in teacher training colleges and universities is subdivided into two salient parts: the theory of teaching and the theory of upbringing. vertical and horizontal layers. approaches to multicultural education. Changing demographics. dimensions of multicultural education. and South and Central American origin in the host countries (Canada. the United States. The idea of personality formation and the development of a diligent and patriotic citizen emerges with a new content into the forefront of the educational system of a post-Communist Russia. in the recent educational revival in Russia. Factors Necessitating Multiculfural Education There are a number of factors necessitating and stimulating the growth of multicultural education. Unlike Western Europe.

Drobidzeva. Ethnocentrism may transcend the boundaries of a moderate ethnic revitalization movement and become a cause of interethnic tension and conflicts. from popular culture to high culture. cuts through not only economic but also religious. or between two two-parent families one of which is black. Himmelfarb (1999) postulates that: An American might now say. knowledge. ethnic. and Susokoev (1999) contend that there have been six types of in- . there is more in common between two church-going families one of which is working class. The divide between the rich and the poor. This is especially important where the notion of democracy and freedom must constitute both the means and the aims of education. 2002b). and practices ranging from private morality to public policy. and sexual lines. beliefs.88 Chapter Three from one region into another). (2) vertical (migration related to an increase or decrease of residential status. a move from a rural area to an urban center) and horizontal (a move to an equal-status area). such polarization is ”more divisive than the class polarization that Karl Marx saw as the crucial fact of life under capitalism” (188). and (3) internal (a change of residence within one nationstate) and external (a move from one country to another). It is because their identity is defined primarily by moral and cultural values that many inner-city black parents send their children to Catholic schools. But it has larger ramifications and affects attitudes. not because they themselves are Catholic (they often are not) but because they want their children to have a more rigorous education in a more disciplined environment than is available in the public school. lncreasing polarization of human societies. A growing awareness that the attitudes. Arutunian. for example. than between two working-class families only one of which is church-going. than between two black families only one of which has two parents. gay marriage. and skills constituting multicultural education are indispensable in keeping societies democratic andfree (Banks. As Himmelfarb notes. political. (116-17) The polarization is most conspicuous in the issues of abortion. which societies confront today. The negative aftereffects of polarization affect educational institutions in both economically advanced and developing countries. The rise of ethnocentrism. and school vouchers. racial.

(4) institutionalized conflicts (a form of an unarmed conflict when constitutional and juridical institutions contradict each other.2001. urban and rural education. "Swollen" ethnocentrism is often intertwined with religious centrism. which have witnessed tremendous socioeconomic cataclysms over the past decade: (1) regional wars (in Karabakh and Chechnya). (3) unarmed conflicts (over a hundred in the postSoviet setting). ranging from ideological and political to religious and ethnocentric.The Nature of Multicultural Education a9 terethnic conflicts in postSoviet geographic areas. as in the continuous conflicts in the Middle East between the Jews and the Arabs. Bashkortostan. Such was the case in the early 1990s. hunger strikes. Estonia. Sakha. and (6) ideological conflicts. Growing numbers o children with physical and mental or cognitive f disabilities. and civil disobedience). Fiji. and Tuva). . (5) manifesting conflicts (demonstrations. which took away thousands of innocent lives. there is a growing birthrate of "weak" children.. Growing domestic and international terrorism aroused by different factors. paralleled with a mass increase of atheists throughout the world (see chapter 1). in most Asian. Federated States of Micronesia). consequently. Lithuania. easily yielding to conventional ailments. That made the attacks far bloodier than the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor when 2. The September 1 attacks were followed by bioterrorism in 1 the form of the spread of anthrax by mail. and Latin American countries as well as island states (e. (2) short-term armed clashes (the Ossetian-Ingush. Exceptional children need subsequent care and educational approaches in both mainstream and special classrooms. Religious changes.388 perished on December 7.g. Fergana. Growing differences between urban and rural cultures and. these traits are noticeable in Russia and Newly Independent States (with the probable exception of the Baltic countries. Osh. Marshall Islands. and Latvia). and Sumgait conflicts). All the world remembers the mind-numbing terrorist attacks in the United States on September 11. 1941. strikes. African. As was noted. shown in the growing religious denominations and growing conversion of atheists into believers (as in Russia and the Newly Independent States). In addition to children with clear-cut handicaps. when certain institutional discrepancies occurred between the Federal Center and the autonomous republics of Tatarstan.

cultural. and social-class equity. for instance. similar to the events in Kosovo and Afghanistan. decades-long misunderstandings in Northern Ireland and the Basque region in Spain. As the fifth dimension. necessitates the infusion of ethnic and cultural content into the subject area instruction. its implicit norms and values. gender. Banks says that one of the prime focuses must be on the school’s hidden curriculum. has as its goal facilitating the academic achievement of students from different racial. relates to the extent to which educators help learners to understand and determine the influence of cultural assumptions. The knowledge construction process. and cultural groups. that of the European Americans or the Lakota Sioux?” ”Who was moving west?” “How might a Lakota Sioux historian describe this period in US. Similar questions may be posed concerning the “opening” of other parts of the world by the Europeans. Prejudice reduction. and music. This hidden or latent curriculum represents a . language arts. not to mention the continuous.history?’’ “What are other ways of thinking about and describing the westward movement?” (21). content integration. conveys an idea that teachers are required to help students develop positive and tolerant attitudes toward different ethnic. The opportunities to integrate multicultural content are not equal in different subject areas: in social studies. the school should be thought of as a social system. In the didactic process. perspectives. whereas there are fewer opportunities for the sciences and mathematics. racial. “Whose point of view or perspective does this concept reflect. and a change strategy that reforms the total school environment must be formulated and initiated. Evidence shows that neglecting this important dimension may entail disastrous consequences. the third dimension. and biases on the ways knowledge is constructed within a subject area. racial. the teacher can ask the students. Banks defines an empowering school culture and social structure. and social-class groups. the fourth dimension. there are ample opportunities for the inclusion of ethnic and cultural content. Banks indicates that this strategy includes using a variety of teaching styles and approaches congruent with learning styles of children from various ethnic and cultural groups. The first dimension. An equity pedagogy. such topics as the westward movement in America. the second dimension. 2001a). Banks points out that students can examine the knowledge construction process while studying. All members of the school staff are required to participate in creating a school culture that empowers students from diverse backgrounds and promotes gender.90 Chapter Three Dimensions Multicultural education is characterized by several dimensions that can be used as a guide by practicing educators (Banks. To implement multicultural education successfully.

and practices and may vary in different schools and larger settings. multicultural education may incorporate a concrete diversity variable (or variables) in a particular school. (2) basic. a school for children with mental retardation). (3) vital for majority and minority students. such as regional and federal educational strata. and students from various religious. in still another school. involved in a multicultural teaching-learning process. as well as to establish closer relationships with parents. communicating to students the school's attitudes to a whole range of problems.The Nature of Multicultural Education 91 powerful part of the school culture. From a horizontal perspective. (4) pervasive in the overall schooling process. These dimensions are relevant for consideration both on the level of a separate school and on broader levels. programs. state. on teaching children with alternative health (it may be. it represents an integral component of education. including how the school views them as human beings and its attitudes toward males. or larger sociogeographical area. in another institution. the state and country. do not view knowledge as neutral or apolitical. given that the general idea firmly remains intact-creating equal opportunities and quality education for all students. which Ovando (1998b) summarizes as follows. Horizontal versus Vertical Outlook Multicultural education embodies a great variety of approaches. A rural school may be concerned with a problem of quality education and equal informational and computational opportunities for all students. racial. multicultural education can consist of several enlarging layers making a conelike framework. For instance. a classroom or a school can be viewed as a bottom or immediate layer. along with other disciplines. the district the school is located in. females. as a larger layer. as still . cultural. for example. Nieto (1996)identifies seven key characteristics of multicultural education within contemporary society. and ethnic groups. Schools located in impoverished and disease-stricken settings require more emphasis on helping children from poor families and children suffering from various contagious and chronic diseases. (6) an ongoing and dynamic process. district. because both students and teachers. teachers may place a greater emphasis on ethnic issues. country. in regions plagued with HIV/AIDS. because. exceptional students. In one school. From a vertical perspective. on bilingual education. and (7) critical pedagogy. (5) an education aiming at social justice. In this sense. Multicultural education is (1)antiracist (it does not gloss over the presence of racism but addresses it). educators and other school personnel need to employ special pedagogical and psychological approaches toward students infected with the deadly virus.

Despite the fact that both groups often share common ground on a wide range of pedagogical issues.” ”district layer. whereas a school located in the same metro area may be concerned with a concrete bilingual program. Banks (1997) indicates that educational equality is that ideal (similar to liberty and justice) toward which people work but never attain. and urban-rural groups dispersed unevenly throughout the country (such as Canada. a metropolitan area may be concerned with a multicultural-education-for-all program. with ethnic. Challenges and problems will continuously emerge in the teaching-learning process and in attaining educational equality and equity. for example. the multicultural goals of a particular school may coincide with those of other layers in the hierarchy. . the twenty-first century both offers novel and unexpected challenges and makes alterations to the already existing multicultural problems. educators are required to mobilize their creative efforts to address emerging problems. school district. and country may be developed in congruence with commonly designed national objectives. the multicultural initiatives of the school. Brazil. because. such categories as racism. we can say the ”school layer. and China). and immigrant groups. and values that are needed to participate in the mainstream culture. the United States. Consequently. In this conelike structure. assimilationists contend that education must help students from ethnic and cultural minority groups acquire knowledge. For instance. cultural. India. that all students have access to quality and equitable education and be able to function effectively in an interdependent world. Both in Western and other societies. Multiculturalists require that education in an ethnically and culturally diverse society promote cultural pluralism and social equality. the multicultural goals and objectives of a particular school may not coincide with the overall multicultural strategy of a larger layer.” etc. In both cases. For example. In pluralistic societies.92 Chapter Three larger layers. Approaches to Multicultural Education The two previous decades have witnessed a struggle of two pervasive groups in the matters of education in a multicultural society: assimilationists and multiculturalists. sexism. skills. they are reluctant to support efforts to construct an education grounded on an equal and unbiased basis for all ethnic. A multicultural-for-all approach can be applied on all levels. however. racial. Assimilationists are not against integrating a multicultural content into the curriculum. and discrimination against people with disabilities will exist to a certain extent no matter how hard people work to do away with these problems. in relatively monoethnic and socioeconomically prosperous countries. such as Japan and Holland. in addition to implementing the overall educational objectives.” ”state layer.

or collective equality approaches. language. there are different conceptions. Within achievement approaches. Multicultural education under this approach is aimed at removing these disadvantages. strategies. this approach may also be designed for all pupils irrespective of ethnic/cultural origin and be based on multicultural courses. as well as students of color and women. two conceptions are singled out: cultural deprivation and cultural difference paradigms. and gender groups as well as toward their own group. and Sleeter and Grant (as cited in Grant and Gomez. and paradigms. achievement. enrichment. Within each of these approaches. the curriculum content. which enables learners to pursue activities and take civic actions related to the concepts and issues they have studied. multicultural education can follow the disadvantage. Eldering (1996) holds that multicultural education can be limited to pupils from ethnic/cultural groups (a particularist approach) or can be directed at all pupils (a universalistic approach). Intergroup education approaches are designed to foster the development of students’ more positive attitudes toward people from different racial. According to the disadvantage approach. and (4) the social action approach. students from ethnic/cultural groups have educational disadvantages that pupils from the majority group do not. (3) the transformative approach. (2) the additive approach. Eldering (1996). events. or changes in. and cultural needs of ethnic/cultural groups. Achievement approaches aim at increasing the academic achievement of low-income and disabled students.The Nature ofMulticultura1 Education 93 Among the many interpretations of multicultural education. and problems from different ethnic and cultural perspectives. entailing changes in the curriculum to enable students to view concepts. but in the 1970s and 1980s it was seriously challenged by the cultural difference paradigm. Monocultural courses are designed to address the ethnic. Multicultural courses are . Curriculum reform approaches require additions to. presupposing an addition of cultural content and concepts to the curriculum without changing its basic purposes and structure. in which the content of ethnic and cultural groups is linked mostly to celebrations and holidays. this chapter will further examine the approaches given by Banks (1994). The enrichment approach is aimed at pupils from specific ethnic/cultural groups and is based on monocultural courses. which are not mutually exclusive. According to the position of minority cultures in the curriculum and the attention drawn to individual and collective inequality. Banks conceptualizes four approaches in dealing with curriculum reform: (1) the contribution approach. bicultural competence. Banks (1994) identifies three major groups of approaches: curriculum reform. cultural. 2001). Banks holds that the cultural deprivation paradigm dominated the discussion of the education of people of color and lower-class students in the1960s. and intergroup education.

regardless of ethnic/cultural background. involves students’ active and democratic decision making. or a minor adaptation of. it exists only as an addition to. Based on students’ learning styles. Sleeter and Grant (cited in Grant and Gomez. the fifth approach promotes social and structural pluralism. The first approach fits students into the existing social structure and culture. In the fourth approach. prepares educators to make both the formal and informal curriculum developmentally appropriate and culturally authentic. Oftentimes.94 Chapter Three intended for all pupils. (2) human relations. in practice. Summarizing the approaches to multicultural education. The first one assumes the equal rights of the diverse ethnic/cultural groups in society. multicultural education is usually aimed at pupils from ethnic/cultural groups. (3) single-group studies. teaching methods. Multicultural education for all students is often limited to ideological discourse. . aimed at promoting social equality and cultural pluralism. and communities. curriculum is organized around the contributions and perspectives of different cultural groups. and supports the idea that effective classroom management is based on a teacher’s knowledge of self. The second is intended to make the entire school system (not just the curriculum but also the staff. The collective equality approach emphasizes the collective equality of groups or cultures rather than the equality of individuals. Extending the previous approaches and supporting education for everyone. and (5) education that is multicultural and social reconstructionist. the regular curriculum. The third approach is based on a separate teaching of knowledge about a particular group both to its members and to others. Two subapproaches can be distinguished within this paradigm. this approach accommodates exceptional or culturally different students by using strategies and culturally relevant materials that otherwise may be used in a pull-out program for students with special needs. (4)multicultural education. Eldering assumes that multicultural education tends to ”lean toward assimilation rather than toward cultural pluralism” (1996: 322). and representative bodies) more multicultural. The bicultural competence approach is mainly intended to make pupils from ethnic/cultural groups competent in two cultures. Eldering contends that. 2001) posit five approaches: (1) teaching the exceptional and culturally different. students and their families. The second approach aims at assimilating individual students into the dominant verbal and practical activities of the classroom and encourages instruction that includes collaborative and cooperative learning among students. Proponents of this approach also advocate the staffing of schools with a diverse population and encourage both the maintenance of students’ native languages and multicultural acquisition for all students.

N. 1999). has over centuries been a focus of conceptualization and implementation on the other side of the Gulf Stream. Folk pedagogy. Tolstoy. especially in the Russian educational tradition. Komensky. folk pedagogy cannot be ignored. Volkov (1999) suggests that ethnopedagogy studies the empirical . Volkov. democratic. Akhiyarov. Pestalozzi. Akhiyarov postulates that the advantages of folk pedagogy over the artificially created. Yakovlev and G. and V. and (3) is based not on the knowledge base of individual pedagogues but on the qualities peculiar to all human society. Folk pedagogy (1)aims at developing a personality on the basis of ideas of kindness. this chapter will inquire into another triad: folk pedagogy. 2000). and human relations. and Chuvash educators I. (2) is based on complete properties of man and fully reflects the essence of man. Folk pedagogy represents a complex of interrelated notions. 2000) subdivides folk pedagogy into the following facets. ethnopedagogy. with a notion of pedagogy as an amalgam of teaching and upbringing. deeds. because ignoring the traditions of folk pedagogy leads to the decline of society and humanity (Volkov. Bashkir scholar K. H. and viewpoints. A.The Nature of Multicultural Education 95 Folk Pedagogy. L. Noykov. The idea of ethnopedagogy has been a focus of research in Russia since the early twentieth century. Ethnopedagogy. Ushinsky. The idea of folk pedagogy. and humanistic pedagogy. Russian educators and scholars K. and dying educational systems lie in the fact that folk pedagogy (1)leads a human being along the main road of universal values. Sukhomlinsky. As a life-conformable. Czech pedagogue Y. and Multicultural Education Keeping in mind the different viewpoints and approaches on the notions of education. (3) is continually being developed. Vinogradov (cited in Akhiyarov. folk pedagogy has led humanity through the steps of growth. we can name the Swiss educator J. and truth. and multicultural education. and upbringing across cultures. ideas. N. Scrupulously guarding the sparks of intellectual and moral wisdom and transmitting to successive generations the achievements of human thought. emerging. Ethnopedagogy is a science that inquires into the realms of folk pedagogy. and (4) is a self-governing system. Multicultural education is closely related to folk pedagogy and ethnopedagogy. nature-conformable. has been developed and perfected along with the development of humanity. as well as habits and techniques of education. D. Bulgarian adept P. which are common to all peoples (Akhiyarov. (2) encompasses a clear methodological basis. A. a most ancient phenomenon of human culture. pedagogy. Among the most renowned Eurasian scholars who have contributed and advanced the ideas of folk pedagogy. S. beauty.

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experience of ethnic groups in educating and rearing children and the influence of moral, ethical, and aesthetic attitudes on indigenous values of family, kin, tribe, and nation. Ethnopedagogy explains folk pedagogy and suggests ways to use it in the contemporary era as well as collects and investigates the historical experience of different ethnic and cultural groups. Volkov postulates that this science examines and inquires into: the main pedagogical concepts of an ethnic group (child-rearing, selfeducation, admonishing, teaching, and reeducation) a child both as an object and a subject of education functions of education (preparation for work, development of moral and volitional features, intelligence, care for health, a sense of love of the beautiful) factors of education (nature, game, language, traditions, environment, arts, religion, an ideal model-a personality symbol, event symbol, and idea symbol) methods of education (explanation, persuasion, exercise, advice, suggestion, request, hint, vow, promise, sermon, repentance, interdiction, and punishment) means of education (proverbs, tales, riddles, legends, myths, traditions, etc.) organization of education The objectives and principles of folk pedagogy and ethnopedagogy are potentially embedded in the entire spectrum of ideas, objectives, and principles of multicultural education. One of the primary goals of multicultural education is to explore and analyze folk pedagogical traditions and learning styles of different ethnic groups. In other cases, multicultural education uses the outcomes of ethnopedagogical research-onducted in different societies and ethnic collectives-to address the diversity of students. Ethnopedagogy as a concrete science is related to multicultural education as a part to a whole.

Diversity of School Environments and General Strategies of Multicultural Education
Before examining possible multicultural strategies and approaches, it is reasonable to examine the diversity textures of different school environments. From the perspectives of this investigation, it is possible to subdi-

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vide contemporary secondary schools into at least six types.

Institutions with monoethnic (monolingual)student populations.Such educational institutions may be located in ethnically and linguistically homogeneous societies and settings and can contain both talented and low-achieving students, students from both wealthy and low-income families, students with different religious beliefs, as well as students with alternative behavior and health. Students in such schools may include children from the dominant culture, such as AngloSaxon students in the United States and Australia or students of Russia ethnic backgrounds in the Russian Federation, and children from minority cultures who do not possess the official or dominant language. Such schools may be located in both urban and rural settings.

Institutions with multiethnic (multilingual) learning groups. Schools of
this type may function in ethnically heterogeneous nations (Russia, the United States, Afghanistan) as well as in relatively homogeneous nations (Japan, Greece). Such institutions may encompass students from different ethnic, cultural, immigrant, achievement, social-class, religious, and exceptional groups and may be located, depending on the country, in either urban or rural areas. These two types of educational institutions are common in many contemporary societies. In addition, there are elementary and secondary schools (or single classes within a school) oriented, owing to circumstances, toward realizing specific objectives related to a particular type of diversity, such as language, ethnicity, exceptionality, religion, academic capabilities, socioeconomic dimensions, or demands of a rural situation. Such orientations may concern one or more schools within a school district. Educational institutions under consideration can be classified as follows:

Institutionsfor exceptional students and students with learning and behavioral problems. Despite a widespread trend to include exceptional children in mainstream classes, some children need additional and special nurturing and must be placed in special schools. There are a variety of special institutions, ranging from schools for pupils suffering from learning and behavioral problems to institutions for the profoundly handicapped. These institutions are usually attended by children of different ethnic, racial, language, social class, and religious groups from neighboring communities as well as remote locales. Among such schools that I have visited during my professional career, De Splitsing, a school for "difficult" students in the town of Emmen, the Netherlands, made an especially deep impression on

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me. I have never seen such a favorable pedagogical and psychological climate between the educators and their exceptional students as I happened to witness in De Splitsing. Teacher-student interaction rests on the principle of tolerance and mutual understanding. The school implements an educational project for early and very early school leavers who suffer from learning and behavioral problems. A n essential goal is to guide young people back into regular education by means of help, relief, supervision, and education. Should this not appear feasible, the educators guide the students in the direction of the labor market. De Splitsing cooperates with the Youth-WorkGuarantee Organization, the Center for Professional Orientation and Professional Practice, and other job centers.

Institutionsfor gifted children. Elite schools and classes are set up to educate children with special cognitive and intellectual abilities who outstrip their counterparts in academic and creative performance. Globally, there was great emphasis on investigating the phenomenon of giftedness from the 1960s through the 1980s.U.S. educators, for example, inspired by the government, intensified the investigation of this phenomenon in the early 1960s to use the intellectual potential of the youth for the nation’s further progress. After Americans were staggered by the successful launching of the first Russian Sputnik in 1957 and the first manned spaceship in 1961, the following joke became popular: “We should immediately study physics and mathematics, otherwise we shall all have to learn the Russian language” (Asmolov and Yagodin, 1992). Concerning elite educational institutions, scientists and educators across the world are not unanimous. On the one hand, organizing such schools is complimented; on the other, others argue that placing talented learners into elitist environments violates the rules of educational and personal equality and equity.

Urban and rural institutions. The first chapter examined the advantages and disadvantages of rural and urban schools as well as rural and urban cultures. The conclusion was reached that the strategies of rural and urban education and rural and urban residents’ lifestyles vary more or less distinctly. Below, this chapter presents a possible typology of Russia’s schools, keeping in mind that these characteristics may be familiar to, and arouse the interest of, educators in the United States and other countries. Rural schools of Russia can be classified according to the following criteria:

- Separate/joint functioning. There are rural schools proper and

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schools attached to other institutions-kindergartens, agrarian technical schools, art schools, and the like-forming a joint educational institution.
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Staff sufficiency. Some rural schools are well staffed and do not lack teachers. Others, especially in remote regions, experience teacher shortages. Monocultural/multicultural enrollment. Many schools are attended by monocultural (monolingual) students. In multiethnic settings, children from diverse cultures sit in one class. content. The majority of rural schools offer the standard curriculum content. Other schools, located in regions with dense farming communities, organize agrarian classes. Still others infuse the curriculum with religious content. Religion-oriented schools are quite new, and fairly rare, entities for contemporary Russia. Some rural priests open tiny religious schools in their own houses. Financing. The overwhelming majority of rural schools are financed from the state budget and completely depend on it. Some schools build their own budget in addition to the state-provided funds and are proud to be known as financially independent institutions. rural Russia are public, state-funded educational institutions. Private schools, as new entities, are not numerous. Some parents venture to home school their children and decide that the advantages of such an approach outweigh the disadvantages.

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- Curriculum

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- Public/private. Standard elementary and secondary schools in

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School district inclusion. Some schools enroll children only from the village where the school is located. This is the case if a village is a rather large settlement and located far from other populated areas. Other schools enroll boys and girls from neighboring rural communities as well. Settled-permanent /nomadic-mobile. The existence of mobile schools in Russia’s Siberian and eastern regions as well as in other countries prompts people to call standard schools ”settled.” the country, some rural schools are located in island settlements. Mainland residents often call these institutions l5nsular schools.” Conversely, people inhabiting island villages are accustomed to

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- Mainland/island location. In the northern and eastern parts of

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labeling schools located in continental Russia as mainland schools or ”schools on the big land.”

Institutions with a bilingual-bicultural learning public. Such institutions function in the countries represented by (1) majority (numerically large) and minority (numericallysmall) segments of population such as the United States, Russia, Romania, and Sweden (for example, by Hispanics in America, Chuvashes in Russia, Hungarians in Romania, and Finnish in Sweden) and (2) two or more ethnic (racial) groups whose languages have more or less equal status in the nation (Canada, Switzerland). Like any other elementary through secondary schools, educational institutions with bilingual student populations may encompass students from different social class, gender, religious, academic achievement, and exceptionality groups and be located both in urban and rural areas. For example, in Russia, such schools function mainly in rural areas with stable, ethnically homogeneous, non-Russian populations. In urban centers, which in Russia tend to contain ethnically heterogeneous students, bilingual schools are organized according to special programs designed for educating students of non-Russian descent who are enrolled in such schools from the nearest community, as well as from remote areas. The next chapter will be devoted totally to the issues of bilingual education with a multicultural perspective.

General Strategies Further considerations rest on an important premise about the impossibility of designing an ideal multicultural approach capable of fitting each educational institution in all societies, even though some basic multicultural content, approaches, and strategies may be relevant in all classrooms across all cultures. Basing our inquiry on the conceptual frameworks presented in the previous section and having in mind the specificity of different types of educational institutions, we can move to supporting two major approaches in multicultural education: the universalistic (multicultural-education-for-all) approach, aimed at addressing members of all ethnic, linguistic, gender, social class, and exceptionality groups in a given academic group (classroom, school, etc.); and the particularistic approach, also directed at meeting the needs of all students but primarily those of a particular ethnic or cultural group in specific circumstances, that is, in a specifically organized environment (in a bilingual school, a school for exceptional students, a rural institution, etc.).

Nevertheless. In such institutions. a positive and tolerant attitude toward other cultures. exceptionality. The teaching staff and other school personnel need to change their attitude toward the children with handicaps. who has . require special treatment. students with covert and relatively overt signs of mental retardation often sit in one mainstream class. for using public transportation. especially in rural areas. religion. Other students should find themselves in a prestigious position helping physically impaired children in the school. and computers. on this basis. reduced prices for meals. and lifestyles become major objectives in educating students in such institutions. Children with physical handicaps (but who are mentally normal). and developing. This task entails a wide range of strenuous efforts on the part of the teacher. The lack of specialists capable of diagnosing and treating such children aggravates the situation. and Central and South American countries. mainstreamed with normal children. and for buying necessary textbooks. the physically impaired children would be crucially motivated to interact with their mainstream peers and feel full members of both the school community and a wider society. religions. Students with cognitive disabilities (but who are able to study in a standard school) also need delicate nurturing. a multicultural-education-for-allapproach can be appropriate. Schools represented by multiethnic and multilingual student populations also require a universalistic or multicultural-education-for-allapproach. Other diversity variables such as gender issues. Students from low-income families and immigrant minority groups need the school and district authorities to offer them definite favorable terms-for example. learning aids. Learning to view the surrounding reality from the perspectives of other cultures.The Nature of Multicultural Education 101 Multicultural-Education-for-All Approach In schools with monoethnic-monolingual student populations. and elsewhere. community. for it is virtually impossible to place all students showing minor signs of mental and learning retardation in special schools. In many Asian. African. educators are morally obliged to work with students with psychological problems in mainstream conditions. social class. a greater emphasis should be placed on studying the cultures of racial and ethnic groups residing in neighboring communities and larger sociogeographiclayers. Infusing the didactic process with global knowledge and universal values becomes another important goal. and age also represent a focus of prime attention. comparing alien viewpoints with their own. In return. given that special attention needs to be drawn to the cultures of various ethnolinguistic groups represented in the classroom.

and restaurants) where their cultural groups assemble at an appointed time. or the Finnish culture studies in Sweden’s schools that include Finnish student populations. depending on the form and degree of the children’s handicaps. phenylketonuria. It becomes important for them to participate in activities with hearing children from different ethnic and cultural groups. Educators working with exceptional students are expected to consider their ethnic and cultural interests with a greater attention. circles. in spite of medical progress. and a right to develop his or her potential. different courses may be designed for representatives of definite ethnic groups within the school-for example. a right to dignity. Hearing-impaired children have to learn to lip-read and to use sign language. follow clothing fashions. In addition to these objectives. and societies as well as various extracurricular activities. religious. Students would be interested to attend various clubs.102 Chapter Three to be knowledgeable about the essence. a small number of children are born blind or deaf. Visually impaired children also require special educational strategies. with disorders such as Down’s syndrome. other issues of diversity-gender. with missing or deformed limbs. Education of Excqtional Children with a Multicultural Perspective Unfortunately. to adapt and adjust to novel surroundings. historical background. Development of positive attitudes toward other lifestyles and customs remains an important task in multiethnic collectives. cafes. and enthusiasm than those working with normal students. scope. and parents that each child and teenager with exceptionalities has purpose. Evidence indicates that hearing-impaired children are rather friendly and make up strong informal groups of their own. When the goals are set for creating a multicultural curriculum. and qualified teaching and working personnel. social class. With the consent of students and parents. programs may contain courses for certain ethnic. Children who are blind from birth have fewer psychological problems be- . the German language courses in Holland’s schools with a relatively large number of German-born students. and folk pedagogical traditions of the students from different ethnic backgrounds. educators. and galactosemia. Education of exceptional students requires alternative educational programs. Interethnic interactions among them are stable and unstrained. These days there is a growing and unanimous understanding among governments. and prefer frequenting some favorite places (parks. or gender groups. his or her own distinctive personality. with hereditary HIV infections. absolute intrinsic worth. in addition to the formal pedagogical and correctional strategies designed for exceptional students. exceptionalityrequire equal attention.

every parent goes through a period of guilt and self-recrimination (Roll-Pettersson. tactile. Using the phrase ’/normalchild” might also be hurtful to children with exceptionalities. an average child gets perhaps halfway.” etc.The Nature of Multicultural Education 103 cause they live in an alternative. Many children and adults suffering from physiological problems succeed in creative and professional activities. A large number of cases are due to unknown causes. for . 2001). who was formerly stricken with poliomyelitis. Such words additionally draw a child’s attention to his or her disabilities and.” ”invalid. medical personnel. light-free world. certain illnesses (such as German measles) and biological accidents during pregnancy. 1 More difficult is the case with children suffering from cognitive and mental ailments. Dmitriyev (1999)cautions educators against using the wrong terminology while interacting with exceptional students and their colleagues in the presence of students. a child’s brain injury while being born. We all change. Educators should avoid using phrases that equate students with their physical and mental condition (”blind. and sense analyzers. such are the blind musicians Stevie Wonder of the United States and Salavat Nizamutdinov and Diana Gurtskaya of Russia. it is necessary to note that individual human capacity cannot be measured at each given moment. and society.” “fool.” ”neurotic. Better support is needed for families having children with cognitive disabilities. One of the greatest presidents of the United States. educators may say a “child with alternative eyesight. An intelligent child climbs high.” “confined to a wheelchair.” etc. Some parents with such children pass through phases as in the adaptation-mouming model. while a child with retardation is able to reach the first or second rung. Franklin Delano Roosevelt.” ”idiot.” “deaf.” ”crippled. Educators are required to possess pedagogical tolerance and understanding in dealing with mentally retarded children and their parents. while a child whose eyesight failed later in life has myriad memory pictures. a great number of exceptional children change dramatically with time and join the ranks of the mainstream society. In this situation. have a psychologically negative affect on personality formation. Broadribb and Lee (1973) conceptualize a child’s mental development as a ladder to be climbed. while others experience incidents and events that they perceive as critical and difficult. For example. Meanwhile. overuse of medicine.).” a ”child with alternative hearing abilities. especially at a younger age. ”but it is the same ladder for all” (216). equaling or even surpassing their peers who do not have such problems. etc. each time. Mental retardation may be caused by hereditary factors. Instead. parents. led the country in difficult times of depression and World War 1 and was elected to a fourth term in 1944. Owing to efforts of educators. It is important for educators to provide blind students with abilities to understand and see the surrounding reality through hearing.

Russia. a small town in northern Bashkortostan. experts in gifted education. which I have recently visited. In addition to the subject areas offered in all Russian secondary schools.104 Chapter Three this statement implicitly reminds them of the existence of abnormal children. Little. Many questions arise in this situation. individual success. some secondary schools in Russia. psychologists.2001. and professional orientation. Newly organized classes have special programs and sustain close linkages with higher institutions. is located in Yanaul. 2001). who represent a special category of children with alternative mental and physical health. Educational institutions should collaborate on behalf of gifted children with disabilities. ensure full accountability for the accomplishment of the mission and objectives of student education. open gymnasium and lyceum classes for high-achieving and talented girls and boys. Within a certain period of time schools with such classes may become institutions enjoying full rights of gymnasia and lyceums. it becomes necessary to provide assistance and care from central and local governments. parents. and promote the development of each student’s talent through collaboration with families. There are relatively few institutions for educating talented and gifted students. Russian literature. Calling negative attention to some ethnic and racial features will be twice as hurtful for exceptional children as for their mainstream peers. physics. biology. and faculty of higher institutions who guarantee highest expectations. well-behaved. what about the students in the remaining classes? Do they feel psychological discomfort interacting with their talented and prosperous . Selective processes often occur within a school environment where academically advanced learners are placed in separate classes. Education o Gifted Children with a Multicultural Perspective f The goal of reaching the ethnocultural needs of all students is also important in the education of gifted children with a multicultural perspective. a gymnasium or lyceum is a secondary educational institution that provides a higher level of education). To accept the challenges of educating such students. and the community (Radaszewski-Byrne. These courses are taught by visiting professors from higher pedagogical institutions. the curriculum of the academically advanced classes in this gymnasium includes advanced-level courses in mathematics. The qualified teaching staff put into practice effective instructional methods. chemistry. and high-achieving students in the specially selected classes. hoping to advance their educational status to gymnasium or lyceum levels (in Russia. For example. teacher training institutions. One such gymnasium. among whom they number themselves. and foreign languages. medical personnel. If all goes well with talented.

Investigating differences in attitudes toward classroom activities among rural and urban/suburban gifted students. Congo. and other countries. A teacher working with gifted children is required to work closely with their parents in developing and fostering the creative potential embedded in gifted children (Haensly. Dimensions of preferred learning activities for all students included factors interpretable as learning through verbal interaction. Russia. Gifted students showed much greater preference for learning styles related to interpersonal verbal exchange and autonomous (individual) learning. For example. the fate of peasantry. the overall category of rural education has emerged out of historical necessity. Ermolaev (1991) notes: The fate and future of the land that feeds us all. In a sense. enhancing the agrarian-sectoreconomy. and learning by doing. with a specific urban-rural milieu. Chan investigated the learning styles of 398 gifted and nongifted Chinese secondary students. India. learning by role-playing. Rural education has always played a significant role in ameliorating the life of rural communities. It is important to know that gifted children’s learning styles may differ from those of nongifted children. China. and Gable (2001) noticed that rural elementary students found their classrooms less interesting and challenging but more frequently enjoyable than their urban and suburban peers. Brazil. with all the subsequent consequences (Sinagatullin. Rural middle school students reported less challenge and less enjoyment than their suburban counterparts. Gentry. 2001a). and they will probably torture educators’ minds in the years to come. as shown in Chan’s (2001) study. Rural Education with a Multicultural Perspective Rural schools require rural education strategies with multicultural perspectives. Japan. It has been so in the United States. Rizza. The term ”rural education” cannot be categorically opposed to urban education. It was also noticed that gifted rural students might have different attitudes toward various aspects of schooling than their urban and suburban counterparts.The Nature of Multicultural Education 105 peers? Do they consider themselves as belonging to a ”low academic layer”? Is such stratification beneficial for personality development of both elite and conventional groups of students? These and similar questions have been on the agenda for decades. Senegal. 2001). Costa Rica. in Russia. because in both urban and rural schools educators use virtually the same curricula and programs. and establishingan atmosphere of mutual understanding between different ethnic and cultural groups. villages and the rate and quality of social development depend on our long- . it is abundantly clear to any insightful citizen that the decline of a rural school at a particular village leads to the decline of the village itself.

’‘unrefined. if we close this sequence of interconnected chain. successfully functioning in certain countries.’’backward.” and “backward” in the minds of some urban students and even teachers. Urban schools. and entertainment infrastructures. Rural teachers are often compelled to teach a variety of subjects. Rural schools are in a favorable position for a number of reasons. Parent participation in school life and activities is easier to obtain. Educators are challenged by the possibility of organizing a variety of extracurricular activities. and universities may be plagued by cases of drug addiction. Rural children and teenagers are traditionally more diligent and industrious and possess higher moral and physical characteristics. or.’and ’forsaken’as synonyms for ’rural’. venereal diseases.’ ’civil. (14) The word ”rural” is often associated with the notions “uncultured. The advantages of urban schools can be attributed to their closeness to the overall cultural. Our computers listed ’provincial. Herzog and Pittman (1995) say (as cited in Sinagatullin.106 Chapter Three suffering rural schools. when your cursor is on the word ’rural’ and see what you find. for teachers are relatively close to parents.At the same time. such connotations have a way of becoming the norm. the prosperity. such as the United States.” ”illiterate. Over time. juvenile delinquency. build mixed-age groups of pupils. on the contrary. (38-39) The list of similar quotes can be longer. greater individual attention can be paid to each learner.’ and ’cultured’. colleges.’ ’uncultured. For ‘urban.’ ’hinterland. This chapter will briefly examine some pluses and minuses of rural and urban education. Regarding the United States. . biased attitudes toward rural reality are global and surface even in societies with less pronounced rural/urban differences.’ the thesaurus listed ’civic. and. organized crime and violence. teenage pregnancy. rural schools typically experience teacher shortages and information deficiency and lack sufficient funding. emphasizing that both rural and urban educational institutions undoubtedly reflect and shape the economic and sociocultural infrastructure of local communities and whole societies. Sadly. informational. and solve a lot of out-of-school problems. 2001a): Click on your thesaurus. as well as access (not always!) to a better formal education that can be acquired by a persistent and hardworking student. lastly. The disadvantages of urban education can be attributed to all the existing negative factors common to metropolitan areas. the poverty and backwardness of our nation also depend on rural schools. Busing. is only a dream in others. As schools and classes are normally small. The whole range of rural/urban diversity overtly and covertly affects educational issues. parental abuse.

but in some countries rural educators confront problems that their urban counterparts do not. at certain periods of time. These differences may not be antagonistic on the sociocultural level. and Safford (2000) contend: The larger a school is. Therefore. McClelland. most people seem attracted to the idea of bigness-a big football team. a big choir. In fact. A teacher‘s professional duty and the so-called inner call should . In addition to a multicultural-education-for-all approach that can be implemented in a standard rural school. The number of deprived children from impoverished single-parent families is growing rapidly. the problems rural educators encounter have much in common in different parts of the world. (2) possess a specific knowledge base. language. Despite some differences on the socioeconomic and ethnogeographic levels. for financial reasons. Finally. A rural education that is multicultural should consider the peculiarities of rural culture and lifestyles. gender. and (3) have professional skills necessary to effectively teach and rear rural children. 2001a): A positive attitude toward working and living in a rural setting. and what may be applicable and considered a norm in most rural schools may not be applicable. rural schools necessitate that teachers (1)have a positive attitude and strive for the values concerned with rural education and rural settings. Cushner. religion. and socioeconomic aspects of rural life. an objective that requires taking into consideration rural diversity and rural culture. to a significant extent. educating rural students is the realization of one of the important objectives of multicultural education. Some students are not doing well in school attendance and completion. specific sides of the mentality of people working on the land. (15) In a modern. in some other rural institutions. In the domain of attitudes. and school dropouts. the accents can change their places. which in many contemporary societies differ much from urban diversity and urban culture. the consolidation of small schools is a major trend in the United States. considered in countries with more or less marked rural-urban diversity.” Nevertheless.The Nature of Multicultural Education 107 different forms of mysticism and false religions. rapidly changing world. the foregoing recommendations for educating rural students may be. a big building. in addition to other diversity variables (ethnicity. exceptionality). the more impersonal it becomes. Urban schools are normally large institutions. the less chance there is for the school to become a community and more students will ”fall through the cracks. rural teachers are required to add to their professional expertise the following characteristics (Sinagatullin. a big band.

108 Chapter Three constantly summon him or her to settle in the countryside and contribute to enhancing rural education and sociocultural life. Rural teachers are expected to be proud of being a part of the prestigious teaching profession and of doing a noble job in the countryside. A good understanding of the concept of pluralism in human society. the role of the rural school in bettering the sociocultural atmosphere in the rural setting-all these factors add to teacher efficacy and ameliorate teacher-parent and teacher-community relationships. An understanding of the concept of democracy and how to apply it in rural schooling. movie houses. the concept of what a good community is and how to strengthen it. rural teachers must possess a specific knowledge base to better teach and interact in the school and the immediate community (Sinagatullin. Teachers and students must come to realize that human diversity is a normal part of sociocultural life. With the changing structure comes a novel undertaking for rural teachers: they must help young people perceive and interpret human behaviors and social situations from different cultural and ethnic viewpoints. Knowing the rural community’s ethnic and cultural structure. bookstores. Most of the recreational and sports institutions (museums. Any urban student can enjoy any of these ”luxuries. Respecting the historical heritage as well as increasing the contemporary welfare of the local community is another important mission of a rural educator. 2001a). supplementary knowledge base about the country and the world and its multicultural makeup in addition to basic professional erudition. and knowledge about. Many educators are inclined to underestimate democratic principles. clubs for children and teenagers. This objective becomes extremely important in Russia and other formerly autocratic countries. international youth organizations. whereas others go overboard in putting them into practice in the classroom and teacherparent relations. the rural community. and sports arenas) are located in metropolitan areas. Because of growing migration.” This is not an easy task for a rural . fitness centers. libraries. In addition to basic curriculum knowledge. a task that is equally important for any multicultural teacher. An expanded. the ethnic structure of rural settings is becoming increasingly a mosaic. Acquaintance with. socioeconomic problems.

Unlike their individualistically minded urban counterparts. They also help each other in everyday life. rural students are usually good collectivists and do not shy away from physical labor. as a valuable-and. and cultural heritage. skillfully switch from one grade level to the other. Despite access to computers and related technology. and direction than their urban peers. pose a real challenge to teachers. or return to. Rural students are often deprived of visiting such institutions. Both teachers. value their ethnicity.The Nature of Multicultural Education 109 student. especially newcomers. the more they are likely to stay in. A rural teacher must use and benefit from the positive factors of the school and rural infrastructure. Different-age rural classes. the teacher is also expected to ask an older student to render academic assistance to a younger one. The attitudes and knowledge components are linked to and affect the skills‘ component of teachers’ professional competency (Sinagatullin. because villages have very few such ”splendors” or none at all. if a class consists of one first. which are traditionally organized at the elementary level. and farmland.and two second-grade students. and respect teachers. and students should thoroughly learn about the rural community and its ethnocultural heritage. customs. during the lesson. The rural teacher is also required to possess necessary skills. For example. the teacher needs to be prepared to teach each grade and. language. their native place and take over their parents’ professional activity. a rural teacher. The more students understand their community and its needs. A rural educator must inspire students with love for the native land and indigenous culture. in small classes. the only-source of information in an impoverished educational setting. teachers are required to more frequently change from one task to another and pay more individual attention to each learner. When needed. sustain native cultural traditions. For instance. often. information. rural students depend more on teachers for knowledge. should be much more knowledgeable about the world than his or her urban counterpart. 2001a). An observant teacher should take into consideration and make use of these and other favorable factors in child-rearing practices A rural teacher is expected to design and implement required techniques and strategies in working in small and mixed-age classes. Therefore. It is commonly known that most rural residents remain patriots of their culture. consisting of three to five students. .

which. and global (international. cross-cultural) education. A multicultural teacher is confronted with an eternal objective of the unending integration of the multicultural with the global. Sustaining rural education and rural communities in good order must be a sacred goal for contemporary policymakers. This objective embodies great challenges and opportunities for curriculum makers and educators committed to multicultural. and growth of children with alternative health. Since the mid-l980s. socioeconomic polarization. Other important variables such as religion. social class. governments. is often erroneously associated solely with race. exceptionality. a search for the golden mean between the national and the international. This chapter has sought to show some dimensions and approaches to multicultural education and has come to the conclusion that existing approaches do not yet effectively foster major goals and principles of quality and unbiased education for every student. the multicultural and the global is a prime goal of multicultural education. Summary This portion of the book has been devoted to some questions related to the nature of multicultural education. the concepts of multicultural education have been making a corresponding impact on Russian education. intercultural. rise of ethnocentrism. an ideal harmony between the multicultural and the global will never be reached. and gender are usually inexcusably thrown overboard. It is transparently clear that rural communities and the rural school contain many important values that will keep individual societies and the entire world strong and prospering in the years to come. the national and the global. is called by one phrase: multicultural education. The categories of the multicultural and the global should be incorporated within one overarching continuum. and language. changes in urban and rural styles of life. Multicultural education. This state of affairs should be changed if we want to create a multicultural education that addresses all students and all their needs and problems. In multicultural education.110 Chapter Three In the twenty-first century. ethnicity. from Canada to New Zealand. the idea of multiethnic. multicultural. a land with a unique human diversity. Initiated by the civil rights movement in the United States. From a methodological perspective. An education that is multi- . the national and the universal. education in rural areas offers a real challenge to a thinking multicultural teacher. and intercultural education spread into many countries. necessitated by changing demographics. in this investigation. and educators. the indigenous and the cross-cultural.

As this is a salient issue and requires a deeper analysis. more space will be devoted to the discussion of this phenomenon. The former is aimed at meeting the ethnocultural needs of all students and can be used in any standard monoethnic or multiethnic school. etc. two major approaches to multiculturalize the curriculum are used: multicultural-education-for-all and particularistic. .The Nature of Multicultural Education 111 cultural is expected to utilize the rich arsenal of folk pedagogical traditions of different cultures and the results of ethnopedagogical inquiry. such as schools for exceptional students.” “bilingual education with a multicultural perspective. schools or classes for gifted learners. The ideas of multicultural education can be realized in both standard and special schools (or classes).” etc. is directed at fulfilling the expectations and demands of a particular group. also aimed at addressing the ethnocultural needs of all students. An education that is organized in such specific environments is called ”education of exceptional students with a multicultural perspective. In educational practice. The pages to follow will focus on bilingual education from a multicultural perspective. The latter.

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language learning and teaching. Wei. The Notion o Bilingualism f Many attempts to characterize or define this phenomenon have been undertaken by scholars and researchers in the fields of linguistics. Mackey. Even though bilingualism has been widely and exhaustively investigated and discussed. 2000. Implementing bilingual education that also incorporates a parallel study of the minority and majority cultures provides an essential framework for effective implementation of the ideas of multicultural education and is an important part and a strong beginning of multicultural education. Ozerk. 2001). psychology. 1995. the significance of bilingualism is growing rapidly. 2000. This chapter begins by focusing on bilingualism. Meisel. 1977. Zakiryanov. 1992. bilingual.4 BiIinguaI Education with a Multicultural Perspective In stable ethnic and language minority communities. Romaine. it is easier to implement the ideas of multicultural education through bilingual education. with different degrees of proficiency. Bilingualism as a Sociolinguistic Phenomenon It is estimated that half of the world’s population is. 113 . 2000. Bilingualism is associated with bilingual education as multiculturalism is related to multicultural education. myriad puzzles are still unsolved (Lambert. and language planning. As the population in most of the countries is becoming more bilingual and multicultural.

but an individual characteristic that may exist to degrees varying from minimal competency to complete mastery of more than one language” (Hornby. There are quite a lot of people from minority language groups who cannot read or write in their native and second languages but who are very fluent in oral language skills (listening and speaking) in both languages. As far as the degree of proficiency is concerned. ”Bilingualism is not a phenomenon of language. Language is an essential part of human culture. “Bilingualism is not an all-or-none property. and language use is part of human behavior. it is easy to come to the conclusion that not many people exposed to two languages are fully proficient in all four skills in both languages. There are reasons for these and other attitudes toward bilingualism and related issues. In most cases. If we consider only school graduates’ dual-language competence in defining bilingualism. one for educational purposes and another encompassing all the common people. Bilingualism is the ”possession of two languages or a literary language and its dialect” (Prokhorov. (2) the role and place of parents or a parent in the development of a person’s ability to express himself or herself verbally. and approaches in dealing with bilingualism using definitions that best suit their fields of inquiry and research aims. scholarly approaches to bilingualism are centered around three controversial issues: (1)the degree of an individual’s proficiency in both or one of two languages. Hamers and Blanc (2000) distinguish between bilingualism and bilinguality. The notion of bilingualism refers to the state of a linguistic community. 1989: 138). reading.114 Chapter Four Bilingualism is ”complete mastery of two languages without interference” (Oestreicher. Because bilingualism is a multidimensional and interdisciplinary phenomenon. A state of dual language usage is far from being readily accessible to investigation and research. 1974: 9). speaking. there should be two definitions. 2000: 26). The stumbling block is the very word ”proficient. it is a characteristic of its use” (Mackey. Bilinguality represents the psychological state of a person who has access to more than one linguistic code. it is unrealistic to say that a bilingual person must always be proficient in two languages. criteria. experts from different academic fields bring different assumptions. and writing).” If this notion refers to all language skills (listening. and (3) the possibility of considering a person bilingual if he or she possesses two varieties of the same language. 1977 3). Hoffman (1991) admits .

but when talking among themselves they speak a Christian Arabic dialect (Ferguson. but they are not even slightly proficient in their native language. Third. within a school context. it is necessary to strive to develop strong skills in both the first and second languages (Collier. can use a local dialect of his or her native language with family and community members and the literary version of the language in commu- . it becomes important to encourage the strong definition of bilingual proficiency. Second. read. the nonfluent second-language user may be a more typical. A rural schoolteacher. if not ideal. To reach a deep level of proficiency in English as a second language. and Arizona are competent in English and Spanish. For example. bettering. Being bilingual always means becoming bilingual. some Buryat.Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 115 that the definition of bilingualism as an individual’s proficient possession of two languages “expresses a perfectionalist and maximalist view”(21). Kalmyk. for example. regions of the world nonfluent bilinguals outnumber fluent ones. It so happens that most individuals in any society use. the term ”diglossia” is often used in scientific literature. at least two varieties of a language. not just being a ready-made (static) two-language holder. In many. if not most. (When two varieties of a language exist sideby-side throughout the community. nor write in their indigenous languages. 1998~). and Yakut young people possess Russian and a foreign language that is included in all school curricula. Referring to public school programs in the United States. rather than maximal and static. However. it is also important to reach a sufficient level of proficiency in the first language. when talking in a mixed group. it is better to consider minimal and developmental. in Baghdad the Christian Arabs speak the general Baghdad dialect. in Russia. A large number of people in the world do not speak the mother tongue at all. understand. For example. New Mexico. 2000). Regarding the degree of proficiency. the two languages a person possesses need not necessarily be inherited from parents or a parent. representative of bilinguals (Segalowitzand Gatbonton. but they are proficient in some other two languages. but they neither speak. In this respect. Some Native Americans born and raised in the urban areas of Florida. with various degrees of acceptance and competence.) Admitting the contrary viewpoint is simultaneously acknowledging the fact that all or almost all people in the world are bilingual. that is. a person possessing two varieties of the same language can hardly be considered bilingual. Even the best dual-language users are in the process of maintaining. Collier maintains that all of them are directed to developing full proficiency in English. characteristics of an individual. 1977). with each having a definite role to play. or losing their skills in the use of one or both of the two languages. Muslim Arabic.

and even grammatically. lexically. is represented in many coun- . for instance. speaking. immigrants who used two or more varieties of their native language formerly kept apart may obtain a ”new” native language represented by these intervening varieties. Any researcher writing a scholarly manuscript must use the scientific style of language. At the same time. this definition is minimalistic with respect both to the degree of proficiency in two languages and to the number of language skills. Since the majority of the elites and the majority of common people rarely interacted with each other. and their linguistic repertoires were too narrow to permit widespread societal bilingualism to develop. For example. such as rapid social change. and widespread abandonment of previous norms before building new ones. and situations where bilingualism obtains whereas diglossia is generally absent (Fishman. Only some of the possible classificationsare presented here. Oflcial/oflcial-unoflcial. This concept of being bilingual excludes proficiency in all skills. Hence. social unrest. reading. in pre-World War I European countries where the elites used to speak French or some other fashionable language for their intragroup purposes. disturbed by the massive dislocation of norms and values in host societies. This new language is formed under strong influence of the former varieties on each other phonetically. Bilingualism without diglossia occurs under the influence of different sociocultural and economic circumstances.Official bilingualism. which may differ significantly from the style used by the same researcher in everyday communication.116 Chapter Four nicating with students and colleagues. There are situations in which diglossia obtains whereas bilingualism is generally absent. It is my opinion that a bilingual is one who possesses oral language (listening and speaking) or more skills in one language. Diglossia without bilingualism was present. For example. Wei (2000) differentiatesbetween thirty-seven varieties of bilinguals. which is likely to be a person’s native or first language or the dominant language in a society. semantically. they did not represent a single speech community. whereas the masses spoke the national language. or writing) in any other language to an minimally adequate degree. Thus. and one or more skills (listening. Typology of bilingualism Bilingualism can be classified according to a wide range of criteria. 2000). it reflects the developmental spirit of being bilingual. immigrants gradually start using this ”generalized” language as well as the language of the host society. such as German in Germany or Russian in Russia. which does not coincide with the actual distribution of bilingualism. and the dominant language is not necessarily a person’s native language.

One of the best examples in this regard is probably the Russian aristocracy of the nineteenth century. A state of possessing an unofficial language in addition to fluency in an official language can be referred to as official-unofficial bilingualism. VoZuntaryJorced. For example. Folk bilinguals often come from a linguistic minority. we deal with a majorital-minorital bilingualism. and sometimes from oppressed linguistic majorities (in Third World countries). but some people are forced to learn a second language for economic. we deal with a minoritalmajorital bilingualism. in Russia. the Republic of Chad. citizen of European descent can speak the language of a Native American ethnic group. 2002).S. Haitian Creole and French. Hindi and English (associate official). Malagasy and French (McGeveran. Ireland. Finnish and Swedish. for example. India. Minority-mujoritylmujority-minority. Most adults and children from aristocratic families learned and used French in addition to Russian. In these newly formed states. the ability of any non-Russian citizen of the former Soviet Socialist Republics to possess both the native language and Russian can be referred to as official-unofficial bilingualism. as was the case in the late nineteenth century when Native American children attending boarding schools specially designed . For instance. with French and Arabic. FoWeZitist.Kenya. Many people decide to learn a second language voluntarily. immediately turned into an unofficial vehicle of communication. or when a UK citizen of Anglo-Saxon origin can converse in Hindi or Urdu. Finland. educational. the term "national-Russian bilingualism'' is frequently used to describe this type of bilingualism (Zakiryanov. In this context. When an ethnic minority member possesses the language of a majority population or a language widely spoken in the country (not necessarily official). English and Irish (Gaelic). when a U. in turn. or prestige reasons. whereas elite bilinguals are usually highly educated.Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 117 tries. 1992). Swahili and English. and some part of their education may be in foreign languages. Today. If a representative of a majority ethnic group is able to communicate in the language of some minority culture. Haiti. Among them are Canada with French and English as official languages. and Madagascar. It is the main type of bilingualism in many European countries. which they may use nationally (Skutnabb-Kangas. the term "forced" refers primarily to a person's inner intentions. 1981). the language of the indigenous nations automatically became the sole official language. an individual is unlikely to be constrained to learn another language by physical force or against his or her will. This is a case in point. Russian.

there is a noticeable distinction between urban and rural bilingualism in terms of language proficiency. when a person of Chinese ethnic background who lives in the United States is proficient in English and Spanish but cannot converse in Chinese. Inherited bilingualism is transmitted to children in ethnically diverse families. InternaZ/internaZ-external. An individual can learn two languages either simultaneously or sequentially. the person’s ability may be considered internal bilingualism. 1973). . For example. School bilingualism is the result of learning a foreign language at school by formal teaching. Inherited/inherited-achieved/achieved. when one language of a bilingual child is parental. a sizable number of ethnic minority members are more proficient in their indigenous languages and less fluent in mainstream Russian. We deal with internal-external bilingualism when an individual possesses a foreign language in addition to the first language. In some countries. When a person possesses any two languages spoken within the boundaries of one and the same state (country). in the course of everyday life. There may be inherited-achieved or partially inherited bilingualism. in some remote parts of rural Russia. Cultural bilingualism largely coincides with school bilingualism.118 Chapter Four for them were forced to learn and use exclusively English. Skutnabb-Kangas (1981) holds that the term ”natural bilingualism” is used in reference to people who have learned two languages without formal teaching. In urban areas.This is a widely used subdivision of bilingualism showing the manner of the development of dual language quality in a person. the reverse is true. RuraZ/urban. and so on” (95-96). this is a case of achieved bilingualism. The use of their native tongue was forbidden under threat of corporal punishment (Fuch and Havinghurst. travel. We deal with achieved bilingualism when a person possesses two languages that have not been inherited from either parent. the other is acquired elsewhere. NaturaZ/school/culturaZ. some minority members are stronger in Russian and less competent in their native tongue. from both parents. SimuZtaneous/sequential. For example. only this term is more often used to refer to adults learning a “foreign language for reasons of work. A child inherits both parental languages either simultaneously or sequentially.

People who can understand. after settling in the host country. Proficient/nonproficient. Late bilingualism is always sequential. Many rural-born adult bilinguals. and possibly read. A considerable number of bilinguals in the world use one of the two languages for religious purposes.Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 119 EarZy/late. Receptive/productive. earth-bound objectives can be referred to as secular bilingualism. at the same time.A bilingual person can be proficient in both languages (balanced maximal proficiency). both the mother tongue and Russianthe weakest point is their pronunciation habits in the second language. those who can talk. 1992). As far as proficiency is concerned. by inheriting the parental minority language and achieving fluency. One can become bilingual at a very early age-for example. the Tatars who were converted to Christianity have been using Russian for both secular and religious purposes (for reading the Bible and performing other sacred duties and obligations) and Tatar only for secular purposes. There can be early simultaneous and early sequential bilingualism. in both languages are called productive or active bilinguals (Dopke. Secular-reZigiouslsecuZar. Among non-Russian citizens of Russia-who are mostly bilingual. a great number of Tatars in Russia were baptized after the Kazan Khanat on the Volga River fell to Russia in 1552. have an accent that is extremely difficult and often impossible to eradicate.Characterizingbilingualism from such a perspective is reasonably logical. Their ability to possess two languages for materialistic. For example. and probably write. in the majority language (or inheriting two parental languages in a linguistically heterogeneous family). . A considerable number of immigrants of the first generation become late bilinguals. because they learn or have to learn-for various reasons-a host language at a later age. before that.Since those times.Another person can grow into a bilingual at a later age having been exposed. nonproficient in both languages (balanced minimal proficiency). the minority language are called receptive or passive bilinguals. only to one language. Other duallanguage speakers use both languages for purposes not related to belief in a supreme being. and proficient in one language and nonproficient in the other (dominant proficiency in one of the two languages). at least three types of bilingual individuals may be identified. even those who have moved and lived in urban areas for a long time and frequently conversed with people of Russian descent. possessing with varying competence.

In other cases. in Russia. For example. The major factors leading to language loss in this part of the world are economic and cultural. become monolingual. bilingualism is often a transitional state between monolingualism in the indigenous language and monolingualism in the language of wider communication” (77). within the last thirty to fifty years. many children and teenagers of local ethnic origin began to exclusively use their mother tongue without referring to the former mainstream Russian. For example. some Bashkir children who move permanently to areas with a large Tatar population fail to maintain the Bashkir language and gradually shift to fully using Tatar. over 50 percent of the Selkups claim Russian as their mother tongue (Kazakevitch. it is worthwhile to remember Ruiz’s (1995) prophetic statement: ”For minority communities. many representatives of Evenki. A bilingual individual may use two languages all her life without full loss of any of the two. or become trilingual. “1ose”one of the languages and shift into a new type of bilingualism. bilingualism may be subject to the following changes: both languages may undergo definite changes. Saomi. In this respect. Portuguese. except for Spanish. In this respect. they shift into another state of bilingualism requiring them to use Tatar and Russian. Almost all languages. English. After the former Soviet republics became self-governing countries. And finally. 1996). Itelmen. an individual can increase or decrease proficiency in one of the two languages or in one of the languages. Dutch. A linguistic change of this kind often occurs during the school years. are exposed to these two factors (Lizarralde. French. minority members speaking the native and mainstream languages can lose their native language and drift to functioning totally in the mainstream language. A bilingual may lose one of the two languages and acquire. instead of their former bilingual state when they used Bashkir and Russian. 2001).120 Chapter Four Consequences o Bilingualism f A particular bilingual person may maintain her state of being bilingual. For example. For instance. A person competent in two codes of communicationmay gradually become monolingual. a person competent in two systems of spoken and written discourse can become trilingual or quadrilingual if he starts to converse naturally or begins learning intentionally any third or fourth language. instead. Khanti. Nogai. and Selkup nationalities have lost their mother tongues and shifted to fully using Russian. In so doing. On the social level. A great number of people from these ethnic groups have adopted Russian as their native language. an individual may lose the mainstream language and return to fully using the mother tongue when a society gains independence. another language. and Kechua. Language loss is especially fast in South America. one language .

A creole language contains the qualities of something like ”bilingualism within one language” or ”woven bilingualism. After Christopher Columbus opened a new continent for Europeans and many Spaniards began to settle on new lands. and lexically. and bilingual education that are used in the countries where different languages are used. Appel and Muysken (1987) state that a ”creole language is a language that emerged when the pidgin had acquired native speakers”( 175). Kodron (cited in Lynch. Language policies have been an important means through which many countries have attempted to respond to linguistic and ethnic diversity. or a new language can be formed from the contact of the existing two languages. then gradually Spanish replaced Native Americans’ indigenous languages. language education. staying bilingual for some period of time. 1972). English borrowed many words from French when French was the official language in England (Raskin. language planning. Many changes may occur in terms of vocabulary.One of the two languages may endure greater changes. such as a creole language. grammatically. In a situation of dual-language contact. Both languages may undergo certain changes phonetically.Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 121 may replace the other. West Africa. In the same manner. most Native Americans in Central and South America began to acquire Spanish. This section will deal with language policies. Portuguese replaced most of the indigenous languages in the territory of modern Brazil. 1986) differentiates six patterns of such responses: Neglect of the language and culture of the minority group in formal schooling ( e. For instance. The Politics and Models of Bilingual Education There are many written and unwritten approaches to language use.. and on some of the islands of the Indian Ocean. For example. Language Policies A language policy normally is part of a country’s bigger policy. . One of the two languages may completely replace the other. Frisian in Germany). a new. has borrowed phonetic characteristics from the Dagestanian languages spoken around it. blended language can emerge.” Creole languages predominantly exist in the Caribbean.g. and models of bilingual education. language rights. whereas the other may be subject to slight linguistic alterations. which belongs to the Iranian group of languages. the Ossetic language.

. 2000).. the United Kingdom urgently needs a national policy framework designed to promote appropriate language policies that could ensure that the linguistic needs of all children are met (Lamb..g.g. Bilingual instruction throughout the school life of the child and sometimes an opportunity to sit for several national qualifications or an international qualification (e. and through them. Welsh in the United Kingdom).g. but another national language (or languages) is a compulsory first foreign language. the Francophone minority in Canada is guaranteed the right not to assimilate and the right to maintain difference. Realization of the territorial principle in countries with more than one national language (e. For example. As with language policies. play an invaluable role in supporting and maintaining linguistic and cultural diversity. but with lip-service to culture and opportunity to use school premises on a paid or unpaid basis for voluntary instruction (e.g. Bilingual instruction up to a certain age limit. For example. The most important factor for the maintenance of languages is their intergenerational transmission. language rights often exist as a component of other. as well as in UNESCO and international schools). Kurdish in Germany). larger rights. Many contemporary nation-states need effective support from govemmental and educational structures in conceptualizing and implementing language policies. Skutnabb-Kangas contends: . Differential treatment of school and home language. Language policy is closely related to the notion of language rights. the regionally dominant language is taught in school. In addition to entitling citizens to federal government services. According to this principle. The United States has tended to resist such nonassimilationist policies (Crawford. with the school language gradually taking over and the home language relegated to an inferior position (e. Canada provides indigenous and immigrant minorities with subsidies for linguistic maintenance. Language Rights.. especially educational language rights. biological diversity (Skutnabb-Kangas. Italian in French schools).122 Chapter Four Neglect of language as part of the normal school system. The language rights of linguistic minorities and indigenous peoples. in European schools. Switzerland and Belgium). with home language sometimes being dealt with as an extended foreign language or used for a few hours a week (e.g. 2001a). 2000)..

that is. and today languages are dying faster than ever before in human history.” As language and culture are thoroughly intertwined. The Situation with Languages Other than English until the 1960s. 90 percent of world’s oral languages may be dead or moribund. As more children get access to formal education. Maryland. Ohio.Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 123 If children do not get the opportunity to learn their parents’ idiom fully and properly so that they become at least as proficient as their parents. Illinois. non-English-language or bilingual instruction was provided in some form in some public schools. students who are monolingual in the home language or possess some English proficiency but are still more fluent in their home language were referred to as limited-English-proficient students. and Washington. Some language minority students are fluent both in their native language and in English. other languages were used as languages of instruction in U. Polish and Italian in Wisconsin. Iowa. schools. 1998a). A new influx of immigrants between 1900 and 1910 added to this push for English- . This term has recently been criticized for its negative connotations. in a hundred years‘ time. there were increasing demands for the assimilation of all immigrants into one linguistic and cultural lot. during the second half of the nineteenth century. contrary to commonly held current beliefs in the United States. Swedish.S. During the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. Missouri. the language cannot survive. French in Louisiana. Minnesota. It has been argued that the use of the term ”limited” concentrates on what children cannot do rather than what they can do and that it implies a bias against non-English-speakers as being less able in using English than English-speakers. Skutnabb-Kangas acknowledges that. and Oregon. Many educators have begun to use the more neutral term “English-language learner. Indiana. Norwegian. and Danish in Wisconsin. German was taught in Pennsylvania. no longer learned by children. Nebraska. For example. In the late nineteenth century. language minority students are almost by definition also culture minority students (Ovando. For example. (404) Skutnabb-Kangas(2001b)maintains that basic linguistic human rights for maintenance of linguistic diversity are not protected by the present provisions in human rights law. 1998a). and Spanish in the Southwest (Collier. Colorado. An individual who came from a home where a language other than English is spoken is referred to as a ”language minority person (student)” in the United States. North and South Dakota. This large language minority segment of American society includes a wide range of patterns of language proficiency. Nebraska. much of the language learning that happened earlier in the community must happen in schools. Dutch in Michigan. Until recently. Czech in Texas.

Congress voted to limit title VII support to transitional bilingual programs. The development of a bilingual model in Florida was only one of the factors that ignited bilingual education at that time.S. and bilingual education programs ceased to exist in U. English Only fervor developed in the period of increasing linguistic and cultural diversity and increasing anxiety about demographic change.S. Signed into law by President Lyndon B. By the mid-1970s. I. Funded by the Ford Foundation. This step was the beginning of the English Only movement. public schools until the mid-1960s (Collier. Considering these and other concerns. Crawford. the large majority of which were Spanish-English programs. Johnson. The successful implementation of this program led to the establishment of other bilingual schools in Florida and other states. second-generation immigrants stopped using their indigenous languages. Schools began to “Americanize“ immigrants. The other two factors were a rise of Hispanic political influence and the civil rights struggle (Collier. Two years later. 1998a. 2000. in 1978 the U. restrictive immigration laws were created against Europeans and Asians. In the late 1960s bilingual education was practiced in thirteen states in fifty-six locally initiated programs.The first federal Bilingual Education Act (BEA) was enacted in 1968. Hayakawa helped to found an advocacy group. 1998a. 2001). U. Because of the decrease of immigrants. The first new bilingual program in f the United States was begun at the Coral Way Elementary School in Dade County. Griego-Jones. it might promote the development of Quebec-style separatism within the country.S. Florida.S. Nativist lobbies began agitating for strict quotas on legal entrants (Collier. 1998a). English. The English Only Movement and English Plus. the first political backlash was generated against bilingual education. 1998a). Some people warned that if bilingual education promoted minority languages and cultures. the English Only policy is gaining momentum in U. Ruiz.Despite the increasing multilingual population in schools and efforts to further promote the ideas of bilingual and multicultural education. A New Infrux o Bilingual Instruction. 2001. the act became title VII of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (Crawford. Hayakawa proposed a constitutional amendment declaring the English language the official language of the country.124 Chapter Four dominant homogeneity. Following Florida’s example. . In 1981 Senator s. schools (Roy-Campbell. This movement had negative political effects on the overall picture of bilingual education in the United States. 1995a). Collier. to conduct a campaign for official English and against bilingualism in public life. In the 1920s. Texas began to use some bilingual instruction in schools. in 1963. the school designed a model that used Spanish to teach Cuban children. 1995).

which provided federal money for the expansion of foreign-language teaching. 1998a). 1998a). Second. the role of English in globalization and intercultural communication tends to mean that English dominates other languages (Phillipson. But from a humanistic perspective. schools. . schools continue to encourage the loss of a natural resource that new immigrants bring to the United States. by insisting on the exclusive use of English. 2000).Despite certain resistance to Western agendas and to learning English as a foreign language in Asian. the issues surrounding foreign languages and foreign language teaching have always represented a weak point in U. In the context under discussion. Foreign-Language Teaching and Learning.Bilingual Educafion with a Mulficulfural Perspective 125 While the English Only movement was under way. the government must promote learning languages other than English through programs oriented toward developmental bilingual education (Collier. bilingualism is not considered a problematic issue but a resource that can help the United States progress on the national and international levels.S. it is timely to remember what Archer (1958) said concerning learning foreign languages. First. which is traditionally offered for two or three years. “enriches the study of all other subjects and contributes to better understanding of other peoples’’ (125). and for national security purposes. Infusing the educational process with a foreign language and foreign culture may also significantly contribute to both human rights and citizenship education (Byram and Guilherme. According to this policy. Most of the bilingual programs are based on transitional bilingual education. As the world becomes more interdependent. Many newcomers who enter school do not have access to classes taught in their indigenous languages. After this period students normally function exclusively in English (Collier. that is. did not resolve two conflicting philosophies that persist to this day. the government has recognized the need to develop foreign-language instruction for improving relations with other countries. ”The study of a foreign language. This step. even though English is an international language permitting people communicate cross-culturally. African. 2000).” he notes. however. One attempt to attend to these issues was made by the National Defense Education Act of 1958. for economic development. Foreign language is a strong medium for promoting multicultural awareness (Martin. and Latin American countries. the ability to communicate with people in other countries requires the use of another language. Unlike the situation in European countries and Russia. 2001). its opponents rallied around a campaign known as English Plus. the language of a host society. The Cold War mentality of that period and the launching of the first satellite by the Soviet Union in 1957 increased the need for the United States to compete for international status and power.

Also called maintenance or late-exit bilingual education. Each bilingual program or model includes numerous other variations. which is English for many language minority students. and many names have been given to different programs in bilingual/ESL (English as a second language) education. 1998a). The majority language is introduced in grade 2 or 3. in the 1970sand 1980s. Instruction in two languages is provided either throughout students’ school career or for as many years as the school can afford. This model was developed in Canada in the 1960s and was designed for majority language students to receive their education through both English and French from kindergarten through grade 12. Basically. In the United States. 1998a): (1)the continued development of students’ native language. Two-Way Bilingual Education. Transitionalbilingual programs provide students with instruction in their native language in all subject areas along with instruction in English.126 Chapter Four Models of Bilingual Education Bilingual programs take on different forms across the United States (Griego-Jones. according to which 90 percent of the school day (for kindergarten and the first grade) is in the minority language. and the time using this language increases until the . and (3) instruction in the content area using both first and second languages. (2) acquisition of the second language. 2001). 1998a). requires that speakers of both languages be placed together in a bilingual class to learn each other’s language and work academically in both languages. Developmental Bilingual Education. Transitional Bilingual Education. One form of maintenance bilingual programs is called early total immersion or the 90-10 model. The students’ indigenous language is used for instruction until they have acquired a certain level of English proficiency. also called bilingual immersion or dual-language education. In practice. transitional bilingual education was the main model for bilingual schooling in the 1970s and 1980s. a bilingual program is one that includes the following characteristics (Ovando. At this time they are moved from bilingual programs into monolingual. Two-way bilingual education. English-only classrooms. For example. the large majority of such programs were for grades K-5 or grades K-6 and were not continued at the middle or high school levels (Collier. transitional bilingual programs are generally perceived as remedial and as another form of segregated education that has had limited success in advancing academic achievement (Collier. developmental bilingual education provides students with content-area instruction in both English and their native language.

called the 50-50 model. Kenneth. most expensive and least effective form of ESL is the ESL pullout program. entails and involves studying cultures and historical heritages of other peoples as well as the overall issues of global education. presupposes the use of half of the instructional time in English and the other half in the minority language for grades K-12. Another form is called the ESL content program. 2000). recognizing that both English and academic content should be taught together. The most implemented and. teach English and also some subject areas in English. Another form. which. For example. McClelland. Bilingual Education Including a Foreign Language. and Safford. . 1998c. 1998b. especially in California and Texas. 1998a). in addition to using Dutch as a language of instruction. intentionally and unintentionally. Ovando. In both forms. 1988a). This content model becomes very effective when delivered by a specialist in second-language acquisition who clearly has both the English language and content objectives in each lesson (Collier. I was amazed at how proficient some Dutch students were in English and how they could use this language in studying different subject areas. ESL and ESOL. Some students assume that the language they learn represents a problem to be remedied. Students lose time from the full curriculum and have no access to primarylanguage schooling to keep up with academic advancement at each grade while learning English. Second-language acquisition. Research on bilingual education and secondlanguage instruction over the last three decades indicates the following: Second-languageacquisition cannot and should not stand apart from learning the culture of the people natively speaking the second language (Collier. the percentage of instruction in each language is planned and the principle of maintaining separation of languages is observed (Collier. This model is gaining popularity. There are also bilingual programs that incorporate a foreign language as a medium of learning and subject area instruction. ESL or ESOL (English for Speakers of Other Languages) programs provide learners with access to the academic curriculum taught from a second-language perspective.Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 127 curriculum is taught equally in both languages by grade 4 or 5. such dual-language instruction is practiced in the Netherlands in some high schools and universities. As an important part of all bilingual programs. Second-LanguageLearning. at the same time.

1991). 1983. 1994). This . often. If a student is a slow speaker in the first language. As was mentioned. speaking. some of the people from non-Russian nationalities of Russia have been marginalized or ostracized. and writing skills in the first language may be transferred into learning the second language (Sinagatullin. a student who can concentrate attentively while listening to a speech in the native language will likely be able to attentively focus on a speech in the second language.Some students who receive greater access to or start learning a second language at a later age often retain the accent in the second language for a long period. The one area where older learners do not have an early advantage over young learners is pronunciation (Collier. 199813). Contrary to the popular myth that young children always learn a second language faster than adults. 1995a). he or she will likely speak in the same manner in the second language. older children and adults. Some early learners of a second language tend to construct the second language on the basis of formerly learned experience. Early childhood is not always the ideal time to start learning a second language. of some grammar mistakes for the rest of their lives. acquire cognitively demanding aspects of the second language faster than younger children. within the last two to three decades. some rural-born citizens of Russia (despite their prolonged stay in urban centers and regular practice in Russian) are unable to get rid of their accent and.128 Chapter Four Listening. A Glance at Russia: A Language Policy for Students from Non-Russian Ethnic Backgrounds There has been no ample evidence that. and many errors of second-language acquisition are often of the same type that committed during the acquisition of the first language (McKeon. A strong area of influence of the first language on the second is pronunciation (Collier. reading. whose proficiency in the first language is more fully developed and who are more mature cognitively. For example. But there is something wrong going on as far as the entire ”language atmosphere” is concerned. Crawford. Older second-language learners also possess better memory-storage abilities and better abilities to weave together the systems of meaning in the first and second languages (Vygotsky. 1998b).

As this term is frequently used in Western countries and elsewhere and is not usually associated with bias.’’ notes the great Russian scholar Ushinsky (1954). I mean the numerical aspect of the notion of minority. both the native tongue and Russian and may be considered bilingual. the term ”minority” is very seldom used in Russian with reference to people from non-Russian ethnic and language groups. As was mentioned in chapter 1. In all the cases. and Ekaterinburg. Russia includes twenty-one autonomous republics. Having this mosaic picture in mind. The most multiethnic republic is considered the Republic of Bashkortostan. it will never be able to revert to its use again” (290). Although the phenomenon of language loss is not acute in Russia and some other countries.This means that language is not merely a universal vehicle of communication between people but also a means of preserving and transforming culture from one generation to another. even if located in areas with a largely Russian population. and concentrate on some essentials that are necessary for language teachers who are expected to encourage and foster this language policy. Unfortunately. I sometimes use this term with reference to both Russia and other multiethnic countries. one can only agree that the problem of bilingualism and related questions are considerably important in the territory of Russia . but if it is deprived of its native language. with different degrees of competence. and accumulated knowledge. ”the nation disappears too.Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 129 chapter will examine the entire language situation in Russia’s bilingual areas. ”When the native language ceases to exist. Nizhny Novgorod. depict the contours of a three-language policy that is conceptualized and implemented in ethnic-minority settings. the threat to linguistic resources is recognized as a worldwide crisis (Crawford. Language reflects a people’s heritage. not all the existing languages in the world will be preserved in the future. Historically dominant cities such as Moscow. Saint Petersburg. 199513). A nation deprived of ethnic values can reestablish them. which has more than ten nationalities. Some of them boast three to five or even more minority ethnic groups. the most important means of human interaction and of uniting people into one ethnic group. The Language Situation Language is an essential component of culture. Bilingualism is densely represented in Russia’s multiethnic and multicultural areas. have been becoming more and more multiethnic and multicultural within the last fifteen to twenty years. Ethnic minority (alsolanguage minority) individuals in Russia possess. historical experience. portray how language subjects are taught in bilingual schools.

and write in a foreign language as required by the school curriculum. Language revitalization-the imbuing of an already existing language with new life and vitality-should not be confused with the phenomenon of language revival and language reversal. On the other hand. It is important to understand that the cause of preservation. The weakest point of students’ language abilities-both in their native language and in Russian-are habits of writing. language and culture become unsurpassed and matchless symbols for certain members of minority societies.130 Chapter Four where a lot of ethnic groups are intertwined in geographic. and sociocultural relations. The absence of adequate pedagogical and societal support results in worsening language norms and language culture. Language revival denotes the bringing of a dead language back to life. and historical traditions and are shifting exclusively into using the Russian language. Some bilingual school graduates do not have good command of their mother tongue. speak. read. The situation with foreign languages is still worse in rural schools. national culture. What characteristic traits are increasing with languages in Russia? What is the real language atmosphere in Russia’s multicultural regions like? In the twenty-first century. a great number of non-Russian young people are losing touch with their mother tongue. sometimes promotes the rise and strengthening of ethnocentric intentions. In revitalizing and restoring the national heritage. Only some of the young girls and boys who receive the secondary school certificate can comprehend. a reverse process-revitalization of the native language and culture-is also on the increase.” For example. Language Literacy and Language Proficiency In the autonomous republics and other territories represented by ethnic and language minority populations. my interviews of 164 ethnic minority university students in Russia indicate that only 51 respondents can read and write in their mother tongue and only 38 students can recollect a minimum number of facts from their ethnic historical heritage. On the other hand. often emerging as a reaction to suppression of culture and language. the ethnic minorities’ language literacy and the quality of language instruction in schools leave much to be desired. socioeconomic. at least two tendencies are observed in this respect. protection. regional. rural . and federal authorities. this deviation is often referred to as ”self-hatred. Language reversal concentrates on cases when a language moves back into use. On the one hand. and development of language as an important vehicle of communication should not be the responsibility only of linguists and language teachers but also of local. This tendency. According to Russian sociologists. Most minority graduates who finish rural schools cannot speak Russian fluently.

as Russia has improved economic contacts with Turkey. After the revolution. culture. Historically. Russia hardly has ethnic and language minority citizens with zero knowledge of the Russian language. and Arabic have increasingly penetrated into school curricula. and (4) ”monolingual” schools attended by children of Russian origin only. and Arabic countries. it had been taught in all of Russia’s Muslim areas. for example. owing to close social and professional contacts with members of a certain non-Russian ethnic groups or to parental influence . (2) “mixed bilingual” schools where learners of more than one minority nationality sit in class. and national roots. The refugees who now return from the Newly Independent States mainly are people of Russian nationality who do not need to be specially taught Russian to join the mainstream culture. On the other hand. Spanish is mostly taught in larger metropolitan centers. All these returnees are fluent in Russian. French. many citizens of Russian descent are monolingual with the exception of those ethnic Russians who. Within the last decade. converse in Russian and are bilingual to varying degrees. As for Arabic. try to ignore and consequently get rid of their native language. mostly in the form of optional courses (Sinagatullin. the modem territory of Russia has been an ancestral land to all the people from non-Russian ethnic backgrounds who have interacted with each other using mainstream Russian. middle-aged. German.Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 131 bilingual students’ proficiency in their native language is generally superior to that of their urban counterparts. using it in school practice and everyday communication from childhood. Consequently. almost all non-Russian young. under the influence of various circumstances. because in rural settings children have greater opportunities to use their native language in everyday communication. in some regions Turkish. The exception is a growing number of urban youths who. Throughout Russia four foreign languages are mainly taught in secondary schools: English. but until the 1930s writing in the native languages of Muslim ethnic groups was based on the Arabic script. and Spanish. Therefore. there are four types of schools (or classes) in Russia: (1)“pure bilingual” schools in which representatives of only one non-Russian ethnic group study (such schools are mostly located in rural areas). and elderly people can. instruction in Arabic was banned. the United States. (3) “bilingual-monolingual” schools attended by children from one or more non-Russian ethnic groups as well as children of Russian descent who are traditionally monolingual. 2002). because Russian was the official language in those republics throughout the Soviet Union’s existence. to a certain extent. China. According to the bilinguallmonolingual criterion. Ethnic minority citizens learn Russian as a second language in a natural way. before the 1917 October Revolution. Chinese. Russia does not experience a problem with immigration to the same degree as.

The nation cannot do without such a federal course with reference to the ethnic minority population that constitutes around one-fifth of Russia’s entire population. geographic. the need for such a policy is twice as great. (2) the second language (Russian) represents a mighty means of socioeco- . It has come to understand that this nationwide language crusade should involve not only the languages spoken within the borders of Russia but also those spoken outside Russia. that is. According to this policy. (1)the indigenous language stands as a means of ethnic unity and verbal communication. It means that school districts and educational institutions understand that not a single language of the three mentioned should be dropped from the curriculum while teaching ethnic minority students. This unwritten policy on language literacy has been important in a multilingual Russia. Russian. this language policy has traditionally favorably addressed the ethnolinguistic and cultural needs of minority members of the society. Russia (and formerly the Soviet Union) has come to understand the need for an equitable language policy on the federal level for the children of non-Russian ethnic groups. and one (or more) foreign languages. In the specific multicultural. and economic conditions under which the minority communities live. This policy must be applied to all non-Russian students who are tomorrow’s brains and a large part of the nation’s workforce. Today. when Russia looks forward to establishing a common socioeconomic area within the country and entering the European and world economic markets. languages related to international interests. There is no document adopted on the federal level where this policy is written. This language policy for ethnic minorities is part of the country’s overall policy toward non-Russian citizens. managed to learn the language of another ethnic minority group.132 Chapter Four (in ethnically mixed families). a vehicle of economic and cultural contacts within the area where the ethnic community is located. each pupil from a non-Russian language background is expected to be taught and be proficient in at least three languages: the student’s mother tongue. The Language Policy Since the 1920s. but it is being designed and implemented in all autonomous republics and national regions. The realistic socioeconomic and ethnic picture of present-day Russia does not permit labeling this policy as a ”bilingual policy” or even the ”politics of bilingual education” because it deals with more than two languages and is designed to address both domestic and international perspectives. Even though the entire language situation and the quality of language acquisition in multiethnic settings have a wide range of problems.

Also. much has already been done in implementing this three-language paradigm in schools with students from non-Russian ethnic backgrounds. Therefore. television. Although the English language classes are rather expensive. many people in English-speaking countries might be unaware that for some of young people in Russia and other countries. people are . English-Russian dictionaries and English language study books with all the supplementary materials are quickly sold out in Russia’s bookstores. For Russian citizens. There has been no reason for selecting a second official language. English. English is spoken as the official language. receptive and productive proficiency in English offers an opportunity for socioeconomic success. which has long held an international status. In a huge country such as Russia. especially the American version. English transcends Russia’s borders through the mass media of movies. For this reason.Each is expected to foster the development of mutual understanding and help solve vital and novel problems human societies face nowadays. journals. it has become easier for Russian teachers and students (as well as people of all walks of life) to communicate with people from other countries. Russian-language proficiency is and will remain valuable for all ethnic-minority members (Formanovskaya. secondary. and higher schools. along with Russian. magazines. is of primary importance to most people in Russia. in others it is a second unofficial tongue. and (3) the foreign language (or languages). It is a historical reality. With the era of democratic changes. as well as a tool for economic linkages with other countries. is a vehicle of communication and consolidation on the global level. books. music and through economic channels.Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 133 nomic and cultural interactions and a means of unity and interethnic communication across the country (the Russian Federation). English. As a foreign language. with so many ethnic communities. English is a means of communication both with foreign visitors to Russia and with other people outside Russia’s borders. 1988). Some Americans might be unaware that their native language has gradually gained the status of number-one language in the world. Languagepolicy makers and curriculum designers as well as language teachers also understand that this policy should concern minority students of Russia at an early age. In many countries. Each of the three languages is bound to play its role and promote its own level of communication. Russian has been a dominant language in the territory of Russia for centuries. either in the home country or abroad or on both sides of the border. Even though it is not easy to design and implement this policy with reference to all minority members at once and throughout Russia. is becoming a dominant language among other foreign languages taught in elementary.

For example. Florida.What is required of the language teacher who. Professional Competency of the Teacher The language teacher has a great responsibility for implementing bilingual education programs and for implementing the ideas and concepts of language policies in bilingual and multilingual societies. in the Republic of Tatarstan. but also people of Anglo-Saxon origin are expected to be proficient in Spanish. However. Tatar is rapidly becoming a business language. Today. Spanish is a second unofficial language. the ability to converse both in English and Spanish in the socioeconomic sphere becomes a cultural and economic asset with an international perspective (Fradd. For a person of Russian descent. There are similar situations in other autonomous republics of Russia and in other countries. the status of the Tatar language is constantly growing as the language of the media and everyday communication. This means that proficiency in it is becoming an asset to a growing number of young businessmen of Russian ethnic background who inhabit Tatarstan. For example. in metropolitan Miami. It means that not only are Hispanics required to be proficient in mainstream English. in some republics with a high percentage of minority members. Despite the impact of English on Russia’s educational institutions. it is becoming impossible to avoid one omnipresent truth the issues of language learning and language use are becoming more and more related to workforce development and economic globalization. Language Expertise The language teacher is required to be proficient in and able to teach both the native language of students and the mainstream language. it becomes important from sociocultural and economic perspectives for people of Russian nationality to possess the language of non-Russian people. with English being the dominant and official means of communication. As . and universities. is obliged to provide the essentials of a bilingual education with a multicultural perspective? This section will discuss some requirements for the teacher who is responsible for working with language minority students and promoting developmental bilingual education. along with other teaching personnel. More importantly. instruction in other foreign languages is encouraged in schools. 1996). As Spanish grows rapidly as a business language. learning a minority language has always been considered optional. colleges.134 Chapter Four motivated to attend them.

on a much broader and deeper level. at a minimum. Schools that implement bilingual education programs can benefit from hiring teachers who are able to teach both target languages. This broad language qualification of one teacher cannot be limited exclusively to dual-language proficiency. both in the United States and in many other countries. The ability to instruct Tatar students in three languages enables a language teacher. Analysis of the pedagogical experience of the philological faculty graduates has provided some remarkable insights. having combined several tiny classes. and either English or German. The teacher educators proceeded from the assumption that the philological faculty graduates would be able to teach all three languages simultaneously to the same students in rural schools and classes with Tatar-language minority students. Russian. and at least one foreign language. Classes in such schools are sometimes so small that teachers are constrained to conduct lessons in one mixed-age class. one of the three languages in required circumstances. It stands to reason that in such learning environments it is not beneficial for one small bilingual school to hire two language teachers. One such program was designed and implemented in the 1990s in the Birsk State Pedagogical Institute’s Philological Faculty (a faculty in Russia is equivalent to a university’s college in the United States). Some small rural schools. Such dual-language preparedness is preferable to other forms where each language is taught by a separate language teacher in small and rural schools with language minority student populations. The reader knows from the previous discussion that the language policy implemented in Russia’s bilingual and multicultural settings requires that each child from minority language background learn the native language. have no parallel classes. as well as more easily and efficiently: .Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 135 language minority students need positive role models. it is important that teachers with such dual-language qualifications be native speakers of the minority students’ language. some of Russia’s colleges and higher pedagogical institutions integrate their curricula with programs aimed at preparing language teachers capable of teaching all three languages. one for teaching the students’ native tongue and the other for teaching the mainstream language. apart from this ideal scheme. Keeping in mind this three-language policy. This dual preparedness is ideal not only in schools providing transitional or developmental bilingual education but also in educational institutions implementing two-way bilingual education. The students graduating from the philological faculty were prepared to teach their native language (Tatar). the young graduates could also teach two of these three languages or. In other cases. Russian.

to carry out the positive transfer of a student's past linguistic experience into the learning process of another language. For example. Also. Similar sounds. and correctly assess each learner's academic achievement in all three languages. This technique develops. lexical. broadens." as absolutely new phonological entities. Russian culture. this Turkic language and the geographically remote English language have quite a lot of common features. to resort to the technique of positive transfer from the Tatar language into teaching English. Strange as it may seem. grammar. the English "brick house" and "straw roof" are kirpich yort and solam toba in Tatar. because the Tatar language has similar. to effectively develop students' positive attitude toward alien cultures. and stylistic elements in any two or all three languages. It is easier. the adjectivized noun is a widely used grammatical phenomenon. and historical heritage. For instance. In both English and Tatar. religion. grammar patterns. there is no need to begin teaching the English vowel sound [ae]. and the culture of the relevant foreign language. to prevent the negative transfer (or interference) from one language into the process of acquiring another. as in "ham" or "hundred. In both languages the attributes in these phrases are expressed by adjectivized nouns. accurately evaluate." or the consonant [h]. Some common language and speech errors that are very difficult to eradicate are the consequences of negative interference from a language a student had been exposed . For example. almost identical sounds. to effectively develop students' positive attitude toward their own culture. in all these cases. or vocabulary items in two or more languages need not be attended to very scrupulously if a teacher uses a positive transfer technique from one language into the learning of another. to help students comparatively analyze phonetic. to more easily infuse the educational process with a wide range of multicultural and global knowledge. to regularly observe. and enhances students' linguistic thinking. there are a lot of possibilities to use this technique while teaching English as a foreign language to Tatar students.136 Chapter Four to integrate the educational process with knowledge about the native culture of Tatar students. as in "can" or "ban. language. the category of gender is not represented grammatically in either Tatar or English.

Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 137 to earlier. 2000). The main source of such incorrect verbal utterances is the negative interference of stable habits from either Tatar or Russian. despite the negative tendencies related to the loss of biodiversity. As human societies progress. and bilingualism will persist as long as this multicultural and multilingual world exists (Wei. and knowledge. culture. that is. one thing is worth remembering: in the course of the development of human societies. Like any teacher committed to the ideas of multicultural education. Xing. and global content. Tibet. For example. Russian and Tatar are synthetic languages. if not prevented at early stages of instruction of certain patterns. In implementing bilingual programs. prepositions. cultural. Multicultural and Global Expertise A multicultural education requires the language teacher to possess. and the cross-cultural knowledge base. Educators and education policy makers in many countries have come to understand the necessity of integrating bilingual programs with ethnic. psychological. Tatar students learning English commit many mistakes in the usage of prepositions and tense forms. Evidence indicates that such an understanding is gaining momentum not only in the United States and other English-speaking countries but also in other parts of the world. and infuse the pedagogical process with. while in English there are more than ten tense forms. China (Qingxia and Yan. These and other disparities lead to mistakes. However. with time become habitual. 2001)) especially in its most remote and mountainous region. Bilingualism is shaped in different ways owing to a variety of historical. the mainstream culture. where bilingual programs incorporate the study of Tibetan and Chinese (Nima. and what is expressed in these two languages by means of case and conjugation endings is denoted in English with the help of word order. it is essential for a multiculturally and globally minded teacher to facilitate students’ understanding of the fact that being bilingual is not a static state. knowledge about the minority culture. or from both languages. economic. more and more people will become bilingual. multicultural. Traditionally. and other factors. most of which. political. For example. 2001). . through language. people’s attitudes toward bilingualism will also change. 2001. environmental. and other grammatical or syntactical means. language. only three grammatical tenses are found in Tatar and Russian. the language teacher is expected to provide students with effective culture instruction through his or her subject. linguistic. such an understanding is growing in the largest and one of the most culturally diverse countries in the world.

The underlying motivation for establishing bilingual programs is not only linguistic but also political. rural/urban. On the individual and societal levels. natural/school/cultural. Community plays an exceptionally important role in learning and sustaining the indigenous language of bilingual children.inherited/ inherited-achieved/achieved. and sociocultural. early/late. two-way bilingual education. This chapter has sought to briefly show some of the approaches to language learning as well as some trends in bilingual education in the United States from the early days of the nation’s history until the contemporary epoch. bilingual and multicultural education. bilingualism can undergo various changes. folk/elitist.138 Chapter Four Communal Concerns A teacher responsible for implementing bilingual education with a multicultural perspective should take into consideration the cultural life of the outside community to which bilingual children belong. developmental bilingual education. receptive/productive. and secular-religious/secular. simultaneouslsequential. Bilingualism can be categorized into officiallofficial-unofficial. The bilingual education implemented in the United States takes on different forms and may be subdivided into transitional bilingual education. The reader has also learned how competent the teacher is required to be in order to work in a contemporary bilingual classroom. The opinion of community members is also important in designing and implementing language policies. minority-majority/majority-minority. Accord- . internal/internal-external. proficient/nonproficient. Summary The chapter has drawn the reader’s attention to the issues of bilingualism. as well as ESL and ESOL as important parts of many bilingual programs. Language policies and language rights are often intertwined with larger policies on the sociocultural and socioeconomic levels. in a multicultural Russia. socioeconomic. and politics of bilingual education and the language policy that is implemented in Russia’s bilingual and multicultural settings. voluntary/forced. Integration of the teaching process with communal culture must become a common task of school and school district staffs as well as of local legislative and executive authorities. language policy. a bigger language policy concerning three languages is being actualized with reference to students from non-Russian ethnolinguistic backgrounds. bilingualism is represented as a salient part of the categories of multiculturalism. In the context under analysis. On the other side of the Atlantic.

is in line with both home and foreign interests of Russia. .Bilingual Education with a Multicultural Perspective 139 ing to this policy. An ideal bilingual program requires the language teacher to be proficient in both the native language of minority students and the mainstream language. the chapter has provided some recommendations on the professional competency of the teacher responsible for implementing bilingual education with a multicultural perspective. and at least one foreign language. And finally. and to possess global literacy and competency. which is difficult to implement. ethnic minority pupils are expected to learn and use three languages: their mother tongue. Such a threefold language policy. to be knowledgeable in minority students’ and mainstream culture. Russian.

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physics. neighborhood and community studies. 2000. 2001. all areas with which I have expertise. national and world culture. and the sciences. In this book. In the educational systems of some countries. chemistry. I will use the term ”social studies” to describe the disciplines that are taught in Russia’s schools and that are similar to those included in social studies in the United States. Humanities in Russia also include languages and literature. sociology. psychology. Educators have hardly ever agreed on a common definition and goals of social studies education. biology. national and world geography. zoology. health. 2001). The social studies curriculum reflects major sociopolitical. Multicultural Concerns in Social Studies Education Traditionally. culture and society. Howard. others 141 . and music education. such as mathematics. this chapter will concentrate on social studies. social studies includes national and world history. elementary. etc. Parker. approximately equivalent to those of social studies in the United States. This is not to suggest that multicultural practice cannot be extended to other disciplines. etc. anthropology.and secondary-school subject areas are traditionally subdivided into the humanitarian disciplines. It means that languages and literature (traditionally included under the humanitarian subject areas in Russia) will be intentionally excluded here. such as Russia and the Newly Independent States. and ethnocultural developments in the home society and the world (Zevin.5 Making the Curriculum Multicultural Among the many subject areas included in the curriculum. political studies. Some educators argue that social studies education should transmit knowledge about the past (didactic goals). socioeconomic.

and future-related to human behavior (Zevin.142 Chapter Five maintain that the information must be digested. community. and the government). loyal. and affective) grow out of daily school practices as well as disputes about educational theory and philosophy. and constructing knowledge. Dominated by history and geography subject areas. or became problems for. people of color. reflective. and low-income people were mostly invisible in social studies curricula. developing. and events. A Short Historical Survey Banks (2001b)describes five major periods in the development of social studies education in the United States. and still others want social studies to serve as an agent of social change and citizenship education (affective goals). as well as of the entire United States and the world. The struggles. and programs. Social studies may include virtually any topic-past. The traditional. (2) the foundations and principles of democracy. textbooks. (4) basic human institutions (the family. 2000). by developing attitudes and values. as well as on the research. a country that has been experiencing great changes in the development of humanitarian or social studies education within the last several decades. (3) the laws and government of the community. religion. Banks points out that this revolution had significant influence on social studies curriculum development and on textbook writing. victories. the newcomers. and applied in order to be useful (reflective goals). places. The second period-the era of the social studies revolution in the 1960s and 1970s-had mixed results. students should know the following topics: (1)the history. Schools normally approach the existing goals of social studies by three subgoals: by transmitting. social studies education placed an emphasis on developing patriotic. These dimensions (didactic. and writing of so- . and nation. geography. hopes. and by developing skills. 2001). period extended from the time when the National Council for the Social Studies was founded in 1921 until the 1960s. and voices of groups such as women. (6) current events in the home country and the world. analyzed. in the elementary. For example. and culture of their neighborhood. economy. we will briefly trace the historical development of social studies education in the United States and compare it to that of Russia. and unquestioning citizens and memorizing isolated facts about people. teaching. and (7) gender issues (Parker. U. African Americans and Latinos appeared in traditional social studies curricula largely in the contexts in which they interacted with. education. or prerevolutionary. (5) human-environmental interaction. state.S. Native Americans appeared in textbooks either as impeding the spread of European civilization to the west or as "good" Indians. First. present.and middle-grade levels. and home state. For example. allies to Europeans.

manuals. especially history. from the 1980s till the 1990s. from the mid-1950s until the mid-l980s. is characterized by diverse and conflicting trends in the social studies. when an emphasis in studying national history and other humanitarian subject areas was placed on developing patriotic attitudes. However. For example. The fourth period. marked by the resurgence of history and the rise of multiculturalism. The period prior to the 1917 revolution may be called a classic time of national Russian patriotism. is characterized by a materialization of the communist ideology. As was mentioned previously. The fourth period. The third period. the quest for standards during the 1990s. is characterized by the efforts to establish national standards in the subject areas taught in the nation’s schools. which contain ten thematic strands. the social studies subject areas. either theoretically or empirically. marked an era of the development of reflective citizens for a democratic society. These efforts yielded mixed results. Two major developments-the resurgence of what is called the ”back to the basics” movement and inconsistency with the emphasis on factual history-were visible trends during this period. was marked by a milder actualization of the leading communistic ideology in the sphere of social studies education. but reforms failed to become institutionalized on a large scale. and narod (people as a whole). The third period. from the mid-1980s until the mid-1990s. discrimination against women. Orthodox Christianity. National autonomous republics were founded within Russia’s borders to meet the interests of non-Russian ethnic groups. until the mid-l980s. the 1970s and 1980s. The second period. it is also possible to subdivide the development of social studies education into five relatively conventional periods. have not evoked much discussion within the profession and have had little irifluence on practice. influenced by the social reform and civil rights movements. Learning values was based on the realization of the national idea made up of an amalgamated triad: a belief in the czar. The fifth period.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 143 cia1 studies literatures by scholars and university professors. lasting from 1917till the mid-l950s. Textbooks. To become effective citizens. the concept of culture had not been sufficiently explored. saw a rapid . the standards developed by the National Council for the Social Studies. and reference literature used in any educational institutions in teaching social studies subject areas were methodologically based on the canons of communistic ideology. any divergences from the Marxist-Leninist line were considered a mistake. As far as Russia is concerned. it was necessary to learn how to apply social science knowledge to the solution of social problems such as racial discrimination. and improvement or protection of the environment. were at the forefront in this effort.

university faculty. and skills needed to successfully function within their own microculture. This period may be called "transitional. knowledge. in general. which began in the mid-l990s.144 Chapter Five shift in the transformation of social studies education-as well in the whole system of national education-into a democratic path. attitudes. reflects integral sociopolitical. it was extremely difficult to adequately react to. conceptualize. but both in the whole educational system and in social studies education. and ethnocultural developments on the national and international levels. is characterized by democracy moving into wider segments of life. Apparently. Even though democracy is a "hard nut" for many people. The current period." because many values in the educational structure were not stable: the nation had already transcended the boundaries of communism but had not yet reached democracy. A major goal of multicultural social studies education is to help students acquire attitudes. Another. digest. and the global community. It was noted earlier that. the aims and goals directed at infusing social studies education with a multicultural context coincide with those of multicultural education that incorporates broader issues and subject areas. in both secondary and higher educational institutions. socioeconomic. knowledge. mainstream culture. Social studies education is being enriched by novel ideas and approaches. the ideas of multiculturalism and multicultural education had been present implicitly long before the time of the Gorbachev perestroika. and pedagogues whose creative activity falls in the late twentieth and early twenty-first centuries. However. Most frustrated and concerned in the 1990s were teachers of history and political studies. Goals of a Multicultural Social Studies Education The social studies curriculum. the goals and approaches put forward in social studies lessons are realized through a definite number of subject areas built on relatively concrete methodological and theoretical bases for the development of an arsenal of values. During this period of political and ideological fermentation. closely related goal involves developing active and reflective citizens of a nation-state. in such a huge multiethnic nation-state as Russia. they began to be articulated only from the mid-1980s. and reflect divergent emerging ideas in schools and universities. rapidly changing epoch requires that we . In addition to preparing reflective citizens for decision making and citizen action. written by a younger generation of scholars. as well as active participants in improving socioeconomic and cultural life of the whole planet. and are being. the contemporary. and corresponding skills. New textbooks and didactic materials have been. the learning public came to understand the essence of democratic principles.

Stepping into the new century. Only this (along with similar multicultural competencies)will enable young people to be ready for life in the new era. Rapid growth in technology and communication helps people interact with any part of the world from any spot.” ”European alcoholism. it is unwise to say. and solved only by global initiatives and global participation. Today. competency in culture and related issues and sociohistorical. seeking methods to combat smoking and alcohol and drug addiction.” ”AfricanAIDS. for example. and technological competency. humanity faces serious problems: establishing a stable peace on earth. despite their temporary predominance in one single society or sociogeographic area. Not only nations but also individuals have become interdependent and interactive with each other (Levashov.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 145 place a special emphasis on transnational or global education. students’ cultural interests. 2002. ethnic. finding solutions to the increasing socioeconomic polarization of human society-these and other related problems can be conceptualized. multicultural education must transcend the boundaries of the nation and educate students for global cultural literacy and competency. Kollontay. Competency in the Area of Culture Studies. 2002). and cultural groups.” ”Antarctic ozone layer. A new century is witnessing a rapid approach of a global society.” or “We live far from sub-saharan Africa. providing efforts at combating HIV/AIDS. cancer.” ”Californianair pollution. a global village. attended to.” or ”Australian cancer. but is not limited to. seeking answers to environmental issues such as the greenhouse effect and global warming. sociogeographical. and HIV/AIDS is not yet urgent in our culture. Multicultural competency includes. In light of this. sociological. and their participation in organizations . combating ethnocentrism and religious centrism. the so-called new world order that is preparing novel challenges and opportunities for human beings. unified efforts.” All these disasters and pestilences. and other deadly diseases. Multicultural Competency of a Social Studies Teacher Multicultural social studies education requires that the teacher be multiculturally competent in the corresponding subject area. Such competency encompasses considering such aspects as the notion of culture and surrounding issues. “Water pollution is not a problem in our country. Our rivers and lakes are clean and teeming with trout and other fishes. have global implications and require transnational. therefore.” ”Brazilian deforestation.” Today it becomes abundantly clear that there is no ”Asian greenhouse effect. by common efforts of all racial. let us attend to more immediate problems.

146 Chapter Five such as social clubs. there are Spanish people who are rather territorial and try to maintain distance while communicating with others. A teacher competent in culture studies is expected to know that cultural peculiarities of some minority students often prevent them from progressing equally with the mainstream part of the group. For instance. hobby circles. many African American and Hispanic students labeled mentally retarded function normally and are considered quite normal in their homes and communities. sororities. students from low-income and single-parent families. A similar social mismatch manifests itself in other countries. These rural students. allow exceptions. Other criteria-such as gender. so that they are considered slow learners or even mentally retarded in this social system. for different reasons. uncertainty avoidance. different from their previous rural school and community settings. fraternities. with students from urban and rural areas. These criteria. communication. male and female students. For example. but among this ethnicity there are people who. 2001a). power distance. many minority students from rural schools in Russia who move to urban high schools or enter urban colleges and universities find themselves in new social surroundings. The phenomenon of culture. Conversely. whereas in other social systems-for example. are not so territorial and are more inclined to proximity-indifferent interactions. Such competency also represents a level of knowledge and skills enabling a social studies teacher to multiculturally evaluate and ameliorate a given learning environment by teaching and interacting with children from various ethnic. For instance. Boys are more often classified as mentally retarded than are girls (Banks. space. The word "culture" may be applied to a whole historical period of human existence (Paleolithic culture). with children with alternative physical and mental abilities. which are traditionally referred to to characterize a whole ethnic group. as well as with talented and low-achieving students. although it is generally accepted that the Spanish have a close personal distance while interacting with their interlocutors. and specific religious groups (Buddhist culture). is multifaceted and can be approached from different angles. and religious groups. linguistic. Such cases provide a basis for some scholars to consider the phenomenon of mental retardation as a social category. as noted earlier. etc. time-are applicable to this phenomenon to differentiate people from various racial and ethnic backgrounds. are often labeled as nonactive learners because of their passive participation . life of certain ethnic groups (Norwegian culture). having moved to urban institutions to continue their secondary or higher education. life in vast geographical areas (European culture). being territorial is spoken of as a characteristic of all Germans. in home and ethnic community environments-these children may be considered normal or even gifted.

Ramirez and Castafieda (1974) maintain that. Vygotsky. The former are more interested in individualistic conceptions. whereas female students are more interested in the issues of the motivation of learning and methods of teaching. in similar circumstances. bizarre topics as UFO sightings. but practical. whereas the latter tend to prefer society. as well as on the grounds of their being shy and modest while interacting with faculty and other adults. male freshmen and sophomores tend to believe mainly in documented knowledge and information and are less attracted by such odd issues. are more absorbed by such metaphysical. especially Bashkir and Tatar students.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 147 in classroom discussion and social activities. women find personalized and generalized knowledge more appealing than abstract knowledge. The course on general psychology also differently attracts male and female students’ attention.” the idea that extraterrestrial aliens are living . and other psychologists. These predispositions. conclusions. Gilligan (1982) discovered that sensitivity to the needs of neighbors and caring are prevailing values among women. My observations among the students. a competent social studies educator should know that the ways of learning.and group-oriented conceptions proposed by Fromm. Concerning gender issues. aged twenty to twenty-two. Male students tend to come to generalized and holistic conclusions concerning psychological categories. male students find more appealing the sections of the science that deal with principles and content of teaching. Interestingly. I have noticed that. For example. Erickson. the ”Philadelphia experiment. such as those offered in Freud’s and Adler’s theories. Female students of the same age. but they are too shy to fully express themselves within larger multiethnic and mainstream groups. existence of life in other dimensions and of such prehistoric creatures as the Loch Ness monster. metaphysical and supernatural ideas may be differently approached by male and female students of different ages. thinking. while studying didactics. whereas men are characterized as rather objective and individualistic. The majority of them are talented and industrious learners among their ethnic peers. generally. disappearance of planes and vessels in the Bermuda Triangle and the Great Lakes area. and knowing of male and female students may differ to some extent regarding specific phenomena. of the Moscow Pedagogical State University and Birsk State Pedagogical Institute permit certain interesting observations regarding male and female students’ attitudes to various types of knowledge and values related to the basic curriculum. unusual for students from Russian ethnic backgrounds. Investigating some female microcultures in the United States. can be attributed to the peculiar cultural traits of the students from non-Russian ethnic backgrounds. female learners like to be engaged predominantly in detailed analysis and come to smaller. people’s abduction by humanoids.

and Britney Spears. Princess Diana. particularly beauties. and modes of interethnic interaction. both male and female students tend to believe presumably in documented. Peter the Great. Russia. and stars. Irish. a Dutch navigator. handsome. the Philippine islands were visited and explored by Ferdinand Magellan. Robert La Salle. recall. such as Hercules. Portuguese. it is customary to view historical events predominantly from a Eurocentric perspective. For example. Tom Cruise. Canada. Henry Hudson. Both sexes seem to be delighted to learn. the Siberian region was explored by ethnic Russians. Julius Caesar. Walt Disney. It concerns pre-service students’ reflective attitudes toward the information depicting celebrities and famous people. Closer to graduate years. their indigenous customs and habits. Australia was discovered by James Cook. and northern European countries contain a huge amount of information about the discovery of the non-European part of the world by European explorers and navigators. Julia Roberts. and hear more about similar characters.148 Chapter Five among human beings. the modern territory of the republic of Nauru was discovered by the British. Clara Barton. and French pioneers. Sociohistorical Competency. and robust male heroes. the territory of the Seychelles was explored by France in . the textbooks on history and various reference literature published in the United States. as well as famous male pop groups. beauties. In the Anglo-European and Eurasian educational traditions. brave. Sociohistoricalcompetency requires that the social studies teacher know about different ethnic and cultural groups’ historical developments and historical heritages. Female heroes. New Zealand was first sighted by Abel Tasman. Mother Theresa. scientifically proven information and knowledge. Queen Victoria. the territory of Papua New Guinea was first visited and explored by Europeans in the fifteenth century.Marilyn Monroe. Natalie Goncharova (Pushkin‘s wife. both mythical and real. British. such as Cleopatra. A considerable number of female students manifest a psychological uneasiness and a kind of jealousy when famous women. folk pedagogy heritages. Mikhail Gorbachev. etc. Thomas Jefferson. are given special attention by the teaching personnel or depicted in the subject-area content. For example. and Leonard0 de Caprio. While touching upon famous. Samuel de Champlain. neither male nor female students show any hint of psychological discomfort or envious feeling. who is considered to have been Moscow’s most beautiful woman in the 1820s). One more interesting paradox has been discovered. and other Spanish. while males remain equally delighted. raise quite opposite reactions among Russian female students. it is stated that North America was opened by Columbus and later explored by Jacques Cartier.

D. it is important to view minority cultures from the dominant-culture perspective and the majority culture from minority-culture perspectives. This important objective is closely related to knowledge-construction issues. it becomes vital to teach students to view sociohistorical events from the perspectives of various ethnolinguistic and cultural groups.2001). they are also ”newcomers. 2001. It is important to underline. But the Maori themselves are not native to the islands either. not for Yakuts. In an education oriented to multicultural standards and norms. they had discovered and explored the islands much earlier than the first Europeans.. 2000). the Maori. Abel Janszoon Tasman. the Cape of Good Hope was settled by the Dutch in the early seventeenth century. as in the previous example with the Russians. and later the British captain James Cook explored the coasts in 1769-1770 (McGeveran.Making the CurriculumMulticultural 149 the same century. educators need to help students view the coming of Europeans as a meeting of two worlds: the world of the native people. .”The Maori. it is imperative that teachers use information from a wide array of social sciences and historical research and approach different events and topics from different perspectives. that is. Teaching in a Maori-English bilingual classroom in New Zealand. that the Maori were already there when the Europeans came. In societies where majority and minority (or numerically large and small) segments of racial. and the territory of Tonga was first visited and explored by the Dutch (McGeveran. had reached the territory of New Zealand before and during the fourteenth century A. and that of Europeans. For example. a Polynesian group from the eastern Pacific. The first European to sight New Zealand.2002). ethnic. For example. the Bill of Rights can be viewed not just as laws but also as social values. was not allowed to land. From a historical and wide sociocultural perspective. the Buddha’s sermons can be discussed not only from religious but also from philosophical perspectives. Yakut students as well as students of other ethnic origin inhabiting the Yakut Autonomous Republic need to understand one delicate and simple truth: the Russians opened the Yakut lands in Siberia for Russians and other peoples of the territory of Russia. that the Europeans opened the modern territory of New Zealand predominantly for Europeans. or language groups are present. while teaching in a Yakut-Russian bilingual classroom in the Siberian part of Russia. teachers are required to show the Russians’ and Yakuts’ dislocation on the Yakut Autonomous Republic area from the perspectives of both Russians’ eastward movement and the migratory processes of the Yakuts before Russians had come to Siberia. and the notion of nationalism can be studied not only from a short-range (nineteenthcentury)but also from a long-range historical perspective (Zevin. Sri Lanka was explored by the Portuguese. because the latter had already opened and explored these lands for themselves long time ago.

Henry Ford's commercial development of the automobile in the United States (1903 and onward). Among the greatest events of the previous century. the women's liberation movement in America and Europe in the 1960s. (3) comparing various accounts. technology. Famighetti. the breakup of the Soviet Union and the end of the Cold War era in the 1990s. the discovery of penicillin by Alexander Fleming in 1928. Nelson Mandela's becoming president of South Africa in 1994 in economy. the worldwide triumph of the Beatle. photographs. A multicultural teacher. one can name (Young. the birth of Israel in 1948. Premier Piotr Stolypin's initiative to reform the Russian economy in 1906-1911.. an old picture can help children make required comparisonswith the present and put historical periods in sequence. particularly those including people. (4) taking the perspective of people in the past. that century witnessed numerous interesting events and undertakings. enjoy working with pictures. In this respect. 1997. and (5) connecting various pieces of information into coherent explanations (Barton. a "picture can be worth a thousand words-and maybe a lot more" (278). 2001). Students.150 Chapter Five In teaching historical content. as well as regressive and intriguing. 2001): in the sociopolitical sphere: the Russian Revolution of 1917. (mid-1960s-1970s). From a historical perspective. 1999. the twentieth century was especially turbulent. McGeveran. the successful experiment in uranium fission in 1942 (Eurico Fermi and Leo Szilard). (2) gathering information from various sources and evaluating their reliability and authenticity. Remembering renowned. progressive and epoch-making. it is essential to engage students in authentic problem solving.As Barton notes. and science development: the formulation of the relativity theory by Albert Einstein in 1905. especially in elementary grades. skilled at infusing the curriculum with global knowledge and information. Authentic instruction involves learners in the process of analyzing historical information and knowledge and may involve (1) formulating questions on historical topics. the arrival of the com- . and family pictures becomes a prime objective. Some of them involved virtually all of humanity. Mahatma Gandhi's historic campaign of nonviolence and civil disobedience leading to India's independence from Britain in 1947. cannot avoid mentioning the greatest historical events that occurred in different cultures. the reformation and modernization ("Westernization") of Turkey led by Kemal Atatiirk (1923-1938). including in the teaching process visual and audiovisual material such as historical films. For example. history-making personalities and their creative foundation will be equally interesting and useful.

and Ilya Ehrenburg (Russia). Garth Brooks. Clark Gable. Ludmila Zikina. Hungary). and Creedence Clearwater Revival (U. Elizabeth Taylor. Sweden). Michael Uljanov. the first manned spaceship (1961). James Watson. the determination of the molecular structure of DNA in 1951 (Francis Crick. Mikhail Sholokhov. Marilyn Monroe. Patsy Cline. and Maurice Wilkins).Osip Mandelstam. 1997. Karl Mannheim (sociologist and historian. Lubov Orlova. Albert0 Moravia and Giuseppe di Lampedusa (Italy). McGeveran.Ferenc Molniir (Hungary).S. Albert Camus (France). Elvis Presley. JeanPaul Belmondo. Ella Fitzgerald. and Catherine Deneuve (France). Clint Eastwood. the launching by the USSR of the first artificial satellite (1957). Rod Stewart. UK). Jean Marais. and Harrison Ford (U. and Alla Pugacheva (Russia) . Amoz Tutuola (Nigeria).S.S. scholars. Igor Iljinsky. Madonna. and social scientists: U. Gunnar Myrdal (social scientist. Edith Piaf and Charles Aznavour (France). William Somerset Maugham and Thomas Stearns Eliot (UK). The twentieth century witnessed the creative and professional contribution of a great number of people. Some of the individuals mentioned here are continuing to make invaluable contributions to the development of humanity in the twenty-first century. 2001. Alain Delon. Christina Stead and Patrick White (Australia) movie stars: Charlie Chaplin. Armen Dzigarkhanian.Vladimir Nabokov and Joseph Brodsky (Russia-U. Audrey Hepburn.the stepping of the first men (Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin) on the moon in 1969).). Jos6 Ortega y Gasset (philosopher.2002): educators. philosopher Benedetto Croce and educator Maria Montessori (Italy).Making the Curriculum Multicultural 151 puter age.). Russia). Spain) writers: Eugene ONeill and William Saroyan (U. Boris Pasternak. Robert Mitchum. Viacheslav Tikhonov. Ernst Junger (Germany). Sir Elton John (UK). Fiodor Shaliapin. Mishima Yukio (Japan). Arnold Toynbee (historian. Leo Vygotsky (pedagogue and psychologist.). Rabindranath Tagore (India). educators Nicholas Butler and John Dewey. and Ludmila Gurchenko (Russia) singers and musicians: Frank Sinatra. Octavio Paz (Mexico).S. Par Lagerkvist (Sweden). and the first woman in space (1963). Leonid Utesov. John Wayne.). Pablo Neruda and Gabriela Mistral (Chile). Sigrid Undset (Norway). The young learning public would be curious to learn about (Young.S. Barbara Brilska (Poland).

and Michael Jordan (basketball) (US. UK). and Lidiya Skoblikova (speed skating)(Russia). which involved 61 countries and killed an estimated 55 million soldiers and civilians the assassination of President John Kennedy of the United States (1962) the US. Paul Litjens (field hockey. Muhammad Ali (boxing). Russia (1918) the sinking of the British liner Titanic (1912) the Great Depression in the United States and European countries in the 1930s World War I1 (1939-1945). Toni Sailer (skiing. McGeveran. Brazil). Germany). Gillis Grafstrom.). Sonja Henie (figure skating. Joe DiMaggio (baseball). Boris Mikhaylov and Evgeny Firsov (ice hockey). and Arne Borg (swimming) (Sweden). Japan). Pel6 (soccer.152 Chapter Five dancers: expressive dancer Isadora Duncan and jazz dancer Bob Fosse (US. Rod Laver (swimming. in which over 8 million lives were lost the assassination of Czar Nicholas I1 and his family in Ekaterinburg. Larisa Latynina and Olga Korbut (gymnastics). Austria). Kenneth MacMillan (UK). Russians Maya Plesetskaya (prima ballerina) and Rudolf Nureyev (premier danseur) sports figures: Paavo Nurmi (distance running) and Clas Thunberg (speed skating) (Finland). the Netherlands).Gary Kasparov (chess).). Irina Rodnina (figure skating). 1997. 1999. Ulrich Salchow (figure skating). Norway). presence in the Vietnam War (1964-1976) Russia’s presence in the Afghanistan war (1979-1989) the assassination of Prime Minister Indira Gandhi of India by Sikh extremist bodyguards (1984) the Chernobyl catastrophe in Ukraine (1986) . Jose R. Capablanca (chess. Cuba). Katarina Witt (figure skating) and Christ1Cranz (skiing) (Germany). 2001): World War I (1914-1918). Australia) The preceding century also witnessed disasters with calamitous and ruinous consequences (Young.Jesse Owens (track and field). Famighetti. Bobby Fisher (chess). Mary Wigman (modern dancer. Pat McKay (karate. Phil Esposito and Wayne Gretzky (ice hockey). Yashiro Yamishita (judo.

the Middle East. and the Balkans the sinking of Russia’s Kursk submarine in 2000 A skillful history or other social studies teacher will selectively include these and similar materials and data in discussing a corresponding theme in a particular classroom. while analyzing Brazilian culture. This bronze statue of the sun god Hellos was worked on for twelve years in the third century B. the teacher cannot avoid reminding students of PelC. or the fame Russia’s ice hockey players had and still have in the world. For example. This huge temple was built about 550 B. This marble tomb. The only surviving ancient wonder located at Gaza on the west bank of the Nile River above Cairo.C. was begun in honor of a non-Hellenic goddess It who later became identified with the Greek goddess of the same name. They were laid out on a brick terrace 400 feet square and 75 feet above the ground. and Mycerimus were often grouped as the first wonder. 3. The lighthouse was designed about 270 B. 2.C. 5.” was built in what is now southeastern Turkey by Artemisia for her husband. Cheops. by the Greek architect Sostratos. The Colossus of Rhodes. Spain. The Mausoleum at Halicarnassus. The Hanging Gardens of Babylon. Reminding students of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World will inevitably arouse their curiosity about the ancient Greek and Roman cultures. India. the United States. interracial. 4. 1999): 1. Russia’s twentieth century history will not be complete without mentioning Valentina Tereshkova. one of the greatest soccer players of the previous century.C. and interreligious conflicts in the United Kingdom. who revolutionized the car industry by using the assembly-line method to build cars. 6 . it would be worthwhile for an American teacher to remember. The Pyramids of Egypt.by the sculptor Chares. Chephren. It was probably 120 feet high. in discussing the history of the United States. the source of the word ”mausoleum. The Temple of Artemis (Diana) at Ephesus. Among the pyramids. These wonders are the following (Famighetti.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 153 numerous interethnic. Henry Ford. Mausolus. the first woman to go into space. Estimates of its height range from 200 to 600 feet. among other famous personalities. The Pharos (Lighthouse) of Alexandria. king of Garia in .

or religion. This statue of the king of gods. ethnic. Amerindians. Chief religious denominations include Roman Catholicism. who died in 353 B. and other domains of life). and cultural groups. The Canadian population of over 30 million is 77 percent urban and 23 percent rural. reputedly 40 feet high. McGeveran. and the full participation of all citizens. the world’s second-largest country. Even though Canada’s approach to multiculturalism is often praised by the UNESCO World Commission on Culture and Development. In 1971. Canada. major facts about different cultures of the world (population. Through its multiculturalism policy. 2002. includes fertile plains suitable for agriculture. Sociogeographicalcompetency embodies a level of professional mastery that is necessary for a geography teacher to integrate the teaching process with information about the geographical location of different racial. and others.154 Chapter Five Asia Minor. wilderness forests. in introducing students to contemporary Canadian culture in an American classroom. other Europeans. ethnic and linguistic makeup. governmental policies. mass media. 2000. One such difficulty is the relationships between provincial governments and the aboriginal nations. respect. For instance. The construction was about 135 feet high. The multiculturalism policy affirms that Canada recognizes and values its rich ethnic and racial diversity. was made by Phidias and placed in the great temple of Zeus in the sacred grove of Olympia about 457 B. lakes and rivers. and Anglicanism. 2001): Diversity and multiculturalism are the keynote of Canadian culture ranging from its geographical configuration to the lifestyles of different ethnic groups. the United Church. Sociogeographical Competency. the multicultural teacher can enrich their knowledge with the following information (Saarinen and Rybkina. vast mountain ranges. The Statue of Zeus (Jupiter) at Olympia. education.C. arts. The government passed the Employment Equity Act in 1986 and the Canadian Multicultural Act in 1988. race. French. economy and workforce. 7. mostly Asian. the government intends to help build a more inclusive society based on equality. language. regardless of ethnic origin. contemporary migration patterns. and arctic tundra in the far east. surpassed only by the Russian Federation. Malloy. Ethnic groups include descendants from the British Isles. the country is experiencing considerable difficulties in paving the way to multiculturalism.C. Canada became the first country in the world to adopt a multicultural policy. which are not always fa- .

The renewed version of the federal government’s multicultural program works toward three main goals: identity (fostering a society in which people of all backgrounds feel a sense of belonging and attachment to Canada). Diversity is recognized as an asset in the domestic and emerging global economy. weekly. The Academy of Canadian Cinema and Television has a special Gemini Award. and reflect the contributions from. had an extensive theatrical release. Nino Ricci won the Governor General’s Award for his novel The f Lives o the Saints. monthly. Such television programs as North o 60. people of diverse cultural backgrounds. which honors excellence in mainstream television programming that best reflects the country’s cultural diversity. Numerous cable companies transmit programs in a variety of languages on community channels.000 in 1996.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 155 vorable. and moviemakers from diverse communities articulate a new definition and cultural model of Canadian culture. Double Happiness.000 in 1978 to 313. and . Portuguese. Artists. civic participation. Arts and cultural institutions serve the needs of. and Ces enfunts d‘ailleurs are examples of this trend. Education in Canada also reflects the diversity of the country. The multicultural and multiracial nature of the nation is reflected through the media. In the print media. the country provides special measures to enhance the vitality and support the development of French and English minority communities. Italian. education pursues two huge goals: providing individuals with opportunities to develop themselves and providing society with the skills it needs to evolve in its best interests. Jasmine. ethnic newspapers flourish across the country. The level of English-Frenchand French-English bilingualism is rising rapidly among Canadians. and quarterly ethnic-language publications. Degrasf si Junior High. As French and English are official languages. diversified. mainly the German. writers. Nine radio stations in five cities devote much of their time to specific ethnic groups. The two languages have equal status in terms of their use in all institutions of the government of Canada. and social justice. and available to children from all ethnic and cultural backgrounds. moviemaker Mina Shum’s Genie Award-winning movie. and Chinese communities. Greek. More and more children are learning French in schools. For example. Comprehensive. the Canada Award/Prix Gemeaux du multiculturalisme. For example. enrollment in French immersion programs rose from 40. For example. Canadian companies recognize the benefits and are drawing on the cultural diversity of the workforce to obtain language and cultural skills necessary to compete in world markets. Ukrainian. in Toronto there are more than one hundred daily.

respecting the cultural diversity and contributions that different people make to its prosperity. Canada has an excellent reputation for compassion for all its citizens and people worldwide. and the rushing into work during the second. plays a substantial role in peacekeeping efforts regionally and internationally. scientific debate and published in some journals and books. warm half of the year. productivity. The country has one of the best health care systems in the world. It is known that climatic and geographic conditions may influence people’s health. religious. spontaneity. and cultural groups in a psychologically unfavorable position among other students. which injure the pride of one ethnic group in the presence of members of other ethnic groups. severe winters added to the development of such national traits as absence of structure. information on these topics should be delivered accurately and diligently so as not to place members of certain racial. articulated in a heated. For example. have expanded and redefined the perception of Canadian culture inside and outside the country. Canada is known as a modern and progressive nation. ethnic. historically. are inadmissible in a multiethnic classroom. students of Russian background who attend class with students of other ethnic and cultural groups would feel extremely uneasy if a teacher. 2000). and has a solid reputation for generosity in providing aid to poorer countries. Such allegations. which can be. Being idle during long. they used to live in a cold climate with long winters during which they did not and could not productively work. Enlightening students with the knowledge about the Seven Natural Wonders of the modern world will be pleasurable for them. Similar statements. by representing the country at the prestigious Venice Biennial. points out that ethnic Russians are not well organized by nature because. These wonders have been widely noted by world travelers during recent centuries (Famighetti. 1999): . Ed Poitras and Stan Douglas. Interesting as it is. consonant with Erikson’s allegation (cited in Kukushin and Stoliarenko. Similar information on various countries will not be superfluous to enriching the multicultural competency of teachers of history and political science. Throughout the world. of course. as well as teachers responsible for culture and language instruction. uneven rhythm of labor activity. are incompatible with the goals and principles of multicultural education.156 Chapter Five Atom Egoyan’s movies have received global acclaim. and development of their ethnopsychological traits and features.

200 miles. Australia. Sociopolitical Competency. 6. surrounded by low mountain ranges whose spurs extend almost to the waterside. Pericutin. Sociopolitical competency represents a level of professional mastery that enables a social studies teacher to provide students with information on the existing sociopolitical situation in the home country and abroad and on the overall political atmosphere in the relations between cultures with different racial. a 343-foot waterfall on the Zambezi River in Africa. and political orientations. whereas the same individuals would be considered white in Puerto Rico. a chain of coral reefs in the Coral Sea. off the eastern coast of Queensland. in the southwestern United States. Two persons with identical physical characteristics (phenotypes) can be classed as members of different races in two different societies. The Grand Canyon. A sociopoliticallycompetent teacher must know that the words "racial" and "ethnic" have been used in different meanings in scientific and popular literature. where hair texture. an exceptionally deep (more than one mile) and extremely beautiful steep-walled chasm in Arizona. and degree of eminence in the community are often at least as important as physical characteristics in determining . Mount Everest. the highest peak in the world. Mexico. 7. Victoria Falls. a spectacular natural phenomenon consisting of rapidly shifting patches and dancing columns of light of various hues. The northern lights. one of the world's youngest volcanoes. 5. religious. ideological. It is the largest known deposit of coral and extends in a northwest direction more than 1. 1989). social status.Race may refer to physical features in a different way. white race. Caucasians who acknowledge some African ancestry are normally considered black in the United States. The harbor at Rio de Janeiro (Brazil). located in the Himalayan range. The canyon is about 217 miles long and up to 18 miles wide. The Great Barrier Reef. ethnolinguistic. Human race. one of the world's most beautiful natural harbors. on the border of Nepal and Tibet. which was discovered in 1943west of Mexico City.Making the CurriculumMulticultural 157 1. The summit was first scaled in 1953. 2. on the border between Zimbabwe and Zambia. 4. 3. German race are the terms that illustrate a variety of meanings of this notion (Feagin.

gender. the home country. a social studies teacher must be aware of what is happening in ”hot sports” in the world. and mixed (Russia. whereas in 2000. narrower approaches have incorporated cultural or nationality features. United Arab Emirates (150.158 Chapter Five a person’s racial group or category. and so-called dualistic (Kuwait. and Kuwait (150.42 per- . Broader definitions have included racial groups. Broadly speaking. only 1. The monarchical branch is represented by absolute (Saudi Arabia). language. 1997).” one may agree with Feagin that this notion has been used both in a broad and a narrow sense.6percent of athletes in the summer Olympics were women. Morocco). in this context. and Estonia (86. and abroad and (2) being competent in conducting sociological surveys to gather necessary data and information.2 males per 100 females). parliamentary (the United Kingdom. political. Japan).3 per 100). 1989). ethnic. The evolution of human history has given rise to two huge and widespread forms of governing: republican and monarchical. Russian politicians and historians traditionally further subdivide these two types of governing.2 males per 100 females).9 per loo). France) types of social organization. the largest proportion of females was in Latvia (85. Athletic female students would be enlightened to know about the growth of women’s participation in different kinds of sports and Olympic games over the previous century.As for the term ”ethnic. The teacher needs to know that the world is rich with different well-established sociopolitical organizations and political parties. Even though interethnic and political conflicts are undesirable. in 1900. sometimes quite unexpectedly. and rural-urban groups in the local community. which will be discussed in the next chapter. (193. For example. For example. one may proceed from an assumption that a racial group is normally distinguished by real or alleged physical characteristics that are subjectively selected (Feagin. parliamentary (Italy). is closely related to ethnographic research.1 per loo). Ukraine (86. in considering gender issues. Conducting sociological research. In Puerto Rico upward social mobility considerably enhances a person’s chance of being ranked as white. Sociological competency includes (1)knowing different statistical information on racial. In this country and most areas of Latin America there is a strong relationship between race and social class (Banks. religious. Statistical information enriches students’ knowledge and ensures their more thorough understanding of the problems under analysis. Sociological Competency. social class. The republican norms of governing can be classed into presidential (the United States). To be sociopolitically competent. they nevertheless occur.5 per 100). students would be interested to learn that in 2000 the largest proportion of males in the world was in Qatar.

keep attendance and achievement records on spreadsheets.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 159 cent were women More women throughout the world receive higher-education. in the United States women earn a greater number of associate. 2001). professional. and Eileen Collins in 1999 became the first woman to command a shuttle (McGeveran. new teachers and educators are expected to be more proficient computer users and Internet guides for their students. The amount of easily available information is growing much more rapidly than ever before. In using the computer to build knowledge. the folk music of this people sounds worse than that of the neighboring people. and master’s degrees than men. It is necessary to avoid wrong comparisons and conclusions based on casual statistical information and casual. In addition to Valentina Tereshkova’s flight into space in 1963.” or ”Figures on the country’s economic development show that this society is unable to organize decent life like the people of that society. In 1999-2000. and communication (Parker.” or ”Our interviewing indicates that the national meals of this people are tastier than the meals of other peoples inhabiting this area.3 percent of all bachelor’s degrees. Sally Ride became the first American woman in space in 1983.” or ”Many respondents think that the language of this ethnic group sounds rougher than that of other ethnic groups. this task is equally important. women earned 60 percent of all associate degrees conferred. In social studies. In the twenty-first century. skills application. 2001). 56. a trend that began in the 1980s. and teach students to perform the same activities (Parker. emotion-based personal observations about specific ethnic and cultural groups: such information may negatively influence the self-esteem and feelings of certain students. computers can contribute to knowledge construction.” or ”To my mind. Shannon Lucid set a record for length of time in space (188 days) in 1996. to say.” or ”This nation is unable to create good movies. and scientific degrees. use various word processing programs. search the Internet for instructional resources. New teachers are expected to load and use curriculum software. and 57. Women’s participation in space exploration is also worth remembering. it is necessary to use electronic databases that are relevant to social education. For a social studies teacher attracted by the ideas of multicultural education. ”Surveys indicate that the representatives of this ethnic group possess higher capacities of long-term and short-term memory. for example.7 percent of all master’s degrees. 2001).” TechnologicaZ Competency. It is wrong. For example.” or “The people of this culture are lazier than the people of that culture. A contemporary teacher is required to be skilled in using computers and related technology. Databases can be purchased on laser videodisks or the smaller CD-ROMs (compact disk-read only memory) . bachelor.

probably. by the media and where the prevailing health system is almost totally biomedical (Cushner. comparing examples. 2000).and long-distance interpersonal communication. may be very sensitive to such issues. an ideal healthy man is portrayed as robust. where the notion of ideal health is influenced. The computer becomes students’ essential asset in short. Within seconds. An Arabian proverb says. interpreting charts. equipped with techniques of physical self-defense.” Evidence shows that different ethnic. ”He who has health. and perceptions about. An ideal woman is depicted as tall.160 Chapter Five and accessed through various online services on the Internet. religious. 2001: 301). educators can seek to meet the following objectives. even the ”president of the United States. In contemporary Western European countries. Canada. the United States. tall. slim. and. and Safford. state. An Understanding o the lmage of a Healthy Person f in Diferent Cultures The state of being healthy is differently perceived across cultures. and different preventive and healing measures. and he who has hope. Being healthy gives us hope and motivates our creative activity. Students who are stout by nature or obese owing to certain diseases may also feel uncomfortable under the pressure of the information about ideal healthy males and females. has hope. Many women feel uncomfortable when they see slender contestants in beauty contests. Pluralistic Approaches in Health Education Health is considered one of the top priorities in human society. I believe . of the decisions they have reached on public problems” (Parker. a child can send an e-mail message to peers in another classroom. the sender can receive a response within a couple of minutes. muscular. Working with diverse students. Using e-mail. and Russia. and model-like. and if a peer is at the computer at that very time and wants to respond. school. and cultural groups may have different orientations to. because this construction concentrates on knowledge-building skills: gathering information. who are normally shorter. This information may be misleading to many students from Asian cultures. being healthy. has everything. McClelland. different attitudes to the causes and nature of diseases. Equally. older women. Use of the computer to practice social studies skills is related to its use in knowledge construction. or country. who naturally gain weight. children can inform anyone. to a large extent. forming and testing hypotheses.

Addressing American culture. This ”muscular image” may provide young men with a general impression that “being healthy and modern” means training in health clubs and wellness centers. The category of beauty is a subtle issue and should be a topic of special discussion. to them. Within . As for a woman’s purely external beauty. one of which is noted by Sapirstein (1955). The category of being physically beautiful. like to look beautiful. uneasy. Many ”queens of the year. As for a man’s analogous characteristics.He confesses that one of the strangest paradoxes related to beautiful women is that they ”find it harder than most others to achieve a satisfying sexual and emotional relationship” (72). it may reveal many paradoxes. In this. A woman’s internal and external beauty is also largely dependent on a particular man’s considerations and speculations concerning a particular woman. except that they are born with a natural beauty.’’ because. a reasonable paradigm change is also needed. and.Making the CurriculumMulticultural 161 that women of different ages. and biased attitudes among a considerable number of women. To young boys from low-income and immigrant families. despite their age and constitution. his overall beauty is also determined by internal and external characteristics and may be revealed by a specific woman’s speculations. the information about robust and muscular men may also impose a false belief and cause bewilderment and helplessness. It is a centuries-old truth that woman’s beauty is revealed both in form (in her physiology) and content (in her soul). but recent immigrants and people from impoverished settings may not have access to them or even want to join them for economic as well as personal and social reasons. requires an accurate approach when discussed in relation to health education in a multicultural classroom. in reality. It is hardly accurate to associate a woman’s attractiveness only with slimness and facial beauty. Stoutness and obesity are traditionally considered undesirable.” Miss Americas. It is abundantly clear that all women. They may t i k of ”being thrown overboard. and Miss Universes and whatnot are annually presented with costly gifts just for their natural beauty. being really hn beautiful means fitting the standards of the contestants in such competitions. pretty. they m e beautiful. should also participate in such competitions. young women in magazines and advertisements. These ”misses” do not do anything of extraordinary benefit to humanity. a very delicate and subtle issue. Acosta-Deprez (2001) indicates that gyms and health clubs are relatively common in the United States. Biased attitudes arise when women see pictures of specially selected. The entire pompous atmosphere of beauty contests and their costly prizes may create uncomfortable. as well as of different physiological structures.

and maintenance therapies. being stout is not criticized or condemned. 1996). often become a topic of discussion and even criticism among middle-aged and older people. a moderately stout person is often considered the image of a healthy human being. and gender groups. Some physiological ailments are caused by traditions and customs fervently pursued by a given group. Represented in all ethnic. investigations undertaken by scientists proved that prolonged use of nas among Iranian and Pakistani teenagers and adults irritates the mouth cavity and causes various ailments. personal assistance.162 Chapter Five some ethnic and cultural groups. on the contrary. such as contagious disease. children and teenagers are stout or obese. a form of anemia that accounts for their dainty look and inability to gain weight. racial. a certain percentage of Cambodians and Lao carry a genetic defect called thalassemia. The phenomenon of obesity and stoutness among the young is occurring in beer-drinking countries. due to ”lack of adequate rehabilitation. The symptoms are similar to that of anemia: fatigue. in large part. attributed to contemporary American lifestyles. as Acosta-Deprez (2001) notes. The very fact that a specific custom or tradition may ultimately result in an ailment is often vaguely perceived. Conversely. including cancer. moderate stoutness is looked at as desirable and praiseworthy. The factors causing children’s stoutness are many and can be. A considerable number of U. A disability can cause secondary health problems. Such is the case with some rural Tatar and Bashkir communities in Russia’s southern Ural Mountains areas. and paleness (Dresser.S. Slim constitutions. Analogous negative effects were caused by chewing the betel nut in India. as well as by a wide range of factors pertaining to the cultural lifestyles of a certain ethnic group. For example. children and adults with physical and mental disabilities need special care. Factors Pertaining to Specific Ethnocultural Lifestyles. As a rule. In their communities. inconsistencies and . a child’s stoutness may be inherited and coupled with the intake of calorie-rich meals and beverages. Disability as a Special State and Factor. Knowledge of the Factors Causing Diferent Ailments and Psychoemotional Imbalances Physiological and psychological ailments children and adults experience may be caused by some common factors. such as Germany. retarded growth. Thalassemia may also be found among some Mediterranean ethnic groups. both men’s and women’s.

and drug addiction. and positive role models. Factors Related to Modern Technology. today. Factors Related to Urban Life. urban residents complain about their health more often than rural and farm residents because of the deteriorating quality of air and drinking water. Despite its positive impact on education. stroke. But it is also true that many of these students are academically gifted and talented. Factors Related to Socioeconomic Problems. I do not accept the assumption that children from low-socioeconomic-status families always and everywhere show poor academic achievement. It is true that children who are most at risk for school failure come from poor families. although their gifts are not immediately revealed by standardized mental ability tests. lack of adult supervision. This is why the weak performance of children from low-income families is often attributed to poverty. This American belief (and. technological progress has brought about numerous problems related to students’ health. Urban communities have a higher percentage of heart diseases. as well as an abundance of continuous stresses and frustrations they encounter. In addition to declining morality. Because of oversights and limitations. Overuse of computers and television entails an increased intellectual load and neuroemotional and . and lack of insurance” (284). further aggravating their primary abnormality. arthritis. not only teenagers but even a great number of elementary school students are affected by overweight in industrialized countries. These risks may be exacerbated when poverty accompanies cultural backgrounds that are not well represented in school practices and expectations. child abuse. Many students from low-income and single-parent families challenge the most dedicated teachers. automatically transferred to the sphere of education. Poverty is often associated with inadequate nutrition and poor health care. emerged from the general concept still rooted in the American character that those successful financially and in rank are successful in all other domains of life. In low-income families. Students from all ethnic and cultural backgrounds use computers and related technology. the risk of falling ill and being disposed to emotional ailments is higher than in families with higher income. children with disabilitiesoften fall prey to various stresses and frustrations. As for the last misfortune. assistance. and obesity. a belief of some representatives of the younger generation in Russia too). but the low achievement of students from wealthy and affluent families is blamed on the school.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 163 inequities in existing programs.

and thriller movies that depict scenes of murder. 1999).” and ”healthy dinner ” are the phrases that we use frequently in the business of living. monsters. religious. beer is a favorite and almost ”national” drink in Germany and the Czech Republic. whereas for people involved in sedentary professions. Also. For instance. whereas. Elementary and secondary school children overdose on horror. ethnically praised practice among rural Bashkirs. eating healthy food is associated with consumption of low-calorie.and calorie-rich food depends on a person’s occupation. where specific alcoholic beverages are considered national drinks. and vitamin-rich products. Kazakhs.” ”healthy meals. sexual abuse. and vampirism. fierce fighting. ”explanations” are not easy. resulting in myriad diseases and other societal disasters. neurasthenia. pornography. Tatars. as are wine in France and some ethnic .. eroticism. this is an easily explainable truth. For example. School medical personnel and educators tend to follow these and similar scientifically proven recommendations. racial. people are advised to reduce or eliminate their consumption of meat products. People whose occupation is based on physical labor usually are not harmed by high fat consumption because they burn a considerable number of calories regularly exercising their muscles. Alcohol consumption is generally considered an evil practice. Knowledge about the Cultural Attitudes toward Food and Dining Practices Health is closely related to the foodways of different ethnic and cultural groups. consumption of fatty meat and fatty soup. According to modem medical research. Uzbeks. action. scientific requirements may not be congruent with some ”healthy food concepts” peculiar to specific cultural. But these modem. In Muslim countries. and family. low-fat. fatty meat and fatty bouillon is believed to offer special strength to men.164 Chapter Five visual tension. In their communities. In other cases. a balanced use (increasing or reducing) of fat. coupled with other problems related to the school environment. Continuous stresses caused by such movies and scenes. and Kirghiz. medical science recommends. giving up smoking and drinking alcoholic beverages. community. consuming great quantities of calorie-rich food is not desirable. and inappropriate behavior (Akhmadullina et al. Fatty pork (or pure fat) is a national food in Ukrainian communities. and ethnic groups. This suggestion is also considered to be a preventive measure against any possible and yet-undiscovered ailment. least recommended by modern medicine. In most cases. in some other societies. ”Healthy food. in addition to certain medical suggestions. emotionally exhaust students and result in emerging various psychic imbalances such as neurosis. is a normal. alien sightings.

O’Dea and Caputi found that low SES children were more likely to be overweight and to skip breakfast and less likely to receive weight-control advice. Mien. or demons and magic spells. Most Haitians believe illness is the result of natural and supernatural causes. an evil individual can cause children to fall ill. coining. Popular cures are cupping. they use home remedies and seek prevention and treatment from voodoo priests and priestesses. Knowledge about the Perceptions and Treatment of Diferent Ailments across Cultures People may perceive and cope with different ailments differently. The Chinese use cupping. Haitians believe that through curses. they teach children to avoid unfamiliar places. and magic. gods. ODea and Caputi (2001) recommend that teachers and health educators know and consider such factors as socioeconomic status (SES). The survey results provide some suggestions to help lowSES students avoid eating problems and overweight. gender. young boys must be circumcised on the eighth day. and Braziliansbelieve in Santeria. and body image. Continuous overconsumption of alcohol and becoming an alcoholic is another problem requiring a special discussion. People in these areas do not advocate consumption of alcoholic beverages for health or the development of children and teenagers. Before utilizing medical assistance. weight. Believing that blood is part of the soul and might be used for sorcery against a person. age.126 elementary and secondary students from twelve Australian schools. and using herbal remedies and Tiger Balm for muscular and respiratory symptoms.Many Cubans. which included 1. Cambodians. Therefore. Removing the prepuce is performed both as a religious and . and moxibustion (heating crushed wormwood or other herbs directly on the skin). Lao. but historically and traditionally.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 165 communities in the Caucasian region and vodka in Russia. Physical self-esteem was highest among boys of low SES and lowest among overweight girl students of middle and upper SES. pinching. acupuncture (metal needles inserted into the skin at precise points). In their survey. Many Southeast Asians may also object to having blood tests (Dresser. In addition to the measures that make health and nutrition education more relevant and appropriate. and Vietnamese believe that illness can be the result of an imbalance of hot and cold. Hmong. spells. Other causes of illness are punishment from spirits. but it is necessary to be careful and avoid inadvertently creating body-image concerns where they currently do not appear to exist. they invoke an Orisha (saintlike deity). adults have consumed these drinks as part of their diet. 1996). Haitians are wary of blood tests. When believers become sick. According to Jewish law. For example. Puerto Ricans.

I am only pointing out the difference in attitudes to drug use. Herbal use is also a common practice. But in Holland. across the United States. and spirit. By providing this example. made of chicken. but I do not mean that if drugs are sold openly in one society. Native Americans use a form of sweat lodge for purifying the body. Before entering the traditional health care system. Other people. and bruju (witch) (Dresser.166 Chapter Five cultural rite and as a hygienic procedure. external (on the skin) and internal. Lao. Cambodians. Throughout Russia honey is considered a most effectual and universal remedy. They cure ailments by correcting the imbalance through elimination or addition of heat. Since then. Drug production. and black bile-cold and dry. Their practices in this respect may be called ”bouillon medicine. It is possible to categorize some of the frequently used preventive and healing practices of certain ethnic groups according to their use of certain ”healing substances. treated her with chicken bouillon. is observed among Muslims. people believe in the healing and purifying powers of sweating. In some cultures. For example. cold. phlegmcold and wet. a compassionateand tolerant society. and use are prohibited in almost all cultures. sale. who are . physiological and psychological. many people. it must be a example to follow for other societies. she has believed in bouillon’s majestic powers and has been advising all sick people. and in some there are severe laws against drug cultivation and sale.” Some groups in southeastern Asia (Chinese. 1996). to consume bouillon and soups. a Tatar. performed both with religious and hygienic purposes. including medical personnel. especially those suffering from colds.” For example. curandero (healer).” For example. often made of bent willow branches and shaped like an igloo. Mexicans may employ a wide range of healers: the hierberu (herbalist). This last remedy is never recommended for children. Traditional Mexicans believe that illness is caused by imbalance of the four body humors: blood-hot and wet. They sit on mats or blankets. their practices in balm use may be referred to as “balm medicine. mattria (medium). when my mother. yellow bile-hot and dry. Against colds. ethnic Russians obsessively believe in the healing powers of honey. or wetness. the socalled soft drugs can be bought in drugstores. some Russian people may use small portions of vodka with pepper. honey is recommended for almost all known and unknown diseases. and horsemeat. purteru (midwife).” Bashkirs and Tatars believe in the healing power of bouillon and soup. Attitudes toward drugs and herbs c o n t a m g similar ingredients can differ across cultures. Participants sit inside an enclosed structure. mind. and Vietnamese) often recommend using various balms. It is possible to say that Russians often use “honey medicine. fell seriously ill with dropsy in 1958. In Russian folk-medicine traditions. The same ritual. dryness. beef.

Bad luck omens differ across cultures. In others. homosexual relations are accepted. these symbols are associated with bad luck. beat themselves with a venik (a birch or oak twig). many Chinese people believe that guests should not wear black or white at a wedding. 1996). and they wash and sweat in it every week or even more often. it is undesirable to assign Chinese tourists to rooms with a number four. In Western cultures (mostly . 1999). Red in Chinese culture has a negative connotation and is often associated with death. Wearing white to a wedding in India is believed to bring bad luck. safe sexual relations are facilitated by the use of contraceptives. contraceptive use by men or women. Also. The Chinese tend to shun the number four and the color red. or steam bath. most people steam their bodies to extreme temperatures. almost all families have a banya of their own. Knowledge about Connotations Various Cultures Attach to Particular Symbols and Signs When a person encounters what is considered an omen of bad luck. In banyas. By sweating in the banya. Yet black is not universally a negative wedding color. 2001). sprinkle water over hot rocks. In many countries of Asia. Rural banyas are normally made of wood.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 167 in charge. Physicians do not use red ink in writing prescriptions. In rural areas. many people in Russia also fight their obesity. and drumming (Dresser. Gay and lesbian sexual relations are prohibited in some cultures because of religious or cultural beliefs. Therefore. There are public banyas in every urban settlement in Russia. and teachers do not make corrections in students’ exercise books or write their names in red. Many people across Russia-both ethnic Russians and members of other ethnic groups-also believe in the healing powers of sweating. and even death. They sweat and wash their bodies in the banya. and often plunge into a cold bath or even roll in the snow in wintertime (Kuharets. Both colors have negative connotations. Many urban residents prefer to visit the banya for sweating only. as well abortion. singing. to the wedding couple. the individual’s inner world ”facilitates” the surfacing of psychological imbalances and frustrations. Knowledge about Sexual Relations from the Health Education Perspective In the epoch of rapid spread of AIDS and other sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). and the steam that is formed makes the participants sweat. is against cultural and religious beliefs. only an enemy wears white to a wedding (Dresser. The sweating process is accompanied by praying. In Indian culture. and homosexual men and women are not marginalized.

and their age. exercising can be a powerful tool in reducing stoutness. taking into account their state of health. and infuse the curriculum with health education content taking into account the ethnic. psychologists. teachers of physical education. and the school cafeteria staff. Meals that students consume in school cafeterias must be prepared from ecologically healthy and fresh products. premarital sexual experiences are not praised but they may not be condemned. for another stout student. for one student. ethnic. and religious factors and factors pertaining to students with physical and mental disabilities. in working with the diversity of students. In most Muslim cultures. who are responsible for preparing meals for students and teaching staff. stoutness. it is necessary to know that multicultural pedagogy requires that educators consider individual. religious. He contends that the measures should consider the proper organization of . especially in countries with a warm climate. and cultural diversity of students. Skills of Promoting Preventive and Healthful Measures The whole school atmosphere should be directed to organizing adequate healthful and preventive measures. and height). should be alert to the needs as well as taboos of students from various ethnic. cultural and religious traits. Much depends on the collaboration of educators and teachers with school medical personnel. Food poisoning often occurs in contemporary kindergartens and educational institutions. For example. and universal measures that are necessary for all students irrespective of their ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Obviously. help design and implement preventive measures and health education programs. Cafeteria workers. they are expected to know that Muslim students may not eat pork and are likely to ask for another diet. Medical workers and psychologists are required to monitor each student’s health. For example. excessive exercising can be harmful. Popov (1997)recommends using a system of preventive measures that may be instrumental in any multicultural classroom. Individual approaches are needed in organizing physical training lessons. configuration of their body (slimness. religious. Men and women may not feel emotional and psychological remorse for not being a virgin when they enter marital relations. and the only acceptable physiologically and psychologically healthy relationship between a woman and a man should be in marriage.168 Chapter Five among nonreligious people). and cultural groups. Teachers of physical education need to involve students in various sports activities and physical exercises. a woman is supposed to be a virgin. culturally determined. educators are expected to take into consideration cultural. with the proviso that in each situation.

(2001) recommend changing basic concepts such as the belief concerning the attractiveness of tanned skin and shifting attitudes toward using sunblock and avoiding unnecessary exposure. Livingston et al. and teach self-care skills. water. among both adolescents and young people. Skin cancer is becoming a problem not only in sun-rich geographical regions such as the . flat-footedness. New Age concepts of the mind-body relationship. prevention of contagious diseases (AIDS. etc. and holidays) prevention of students’ academic overload and negative frustration prevention of neuroses and negative behavioral reactions hygienic conditions for using computers and other modern technology prevention of diseases and traumas of students’ motor system (poor posture. The evolving Ntu approach provides therapeutic services and psychoeducational programs that are framed in an Afrocentric understanding of the world. etc. After analyzing sun-protection issues among Australian secondary students. sun. an Afrocentric worldview. it becomes important for teachers and health educators to develop students’ sun-related knowledge.) prevention of drug and alcohol abuse students’ extracurricular and home schedules (the preparation of homework and participation in social activities) students’ nutrition students’ physical toughness (by air. One such method of prevention and healing that is currently gaining ground in the United States is the Ntu approach to health and healing (or Ntu psychotherapy) developed by the Progressive Life Center (PLC). 2001). As the incidence of all skin cancers is increasing in the world.) personal hygiene There are many newly emerging strategies and methods that have proved effective for curing certain ailments. rheumatism. the Ntu approach is based on using ancient Eastern principles of healing. by walking barefoot. Pluralistic in its nature. rickets. promote their cancer awareness. organization of lessons. the flu. school day. and injury).Making the Curriculum Multicultural 169 the teaching process (the duration of the lesson. and methodologies acknowledging the highest expression of human potential (Gregory and Harper. breaks. and school week.

Native American. and Australia but also in areas with less sun exposure. Gypsy. syphilis.” Santrock recommends knowing the following strategies for protecting against STDs. Experts advise that couples who want to start a close relationship should undergo a medical checkup to rule out STDs before they engage in sex. chlamydia. There is every reason to believe that “STDs are being rejuvenated. Parents must understand the importance of being healthy and strive for their children to be healthy. Sadly. In general. whose climate is traditionally considered cold. lnvolving Parents in Health Education In a multicultural classroom there should be a very close relationship between teachers and parents in health education approaches. such as Europe (Hewitt et al. HPV (human papilloma virus).. Most of the territory of the United States is also highly exposed to sun. Hispanic.000 with syphilis. African American. An individual must: know his or her own risk status and that of his or her partner. they are less effective against the spread of herpes. Today it is important for education institutions. all members of an extended family try to participate in educating a child. There is one important law to be known by every human being: Mutual fidelity with your sexual partner or monogamous (husband-wife) fidelity is the only safe way to protect oneself from a sexually transmitted bacteria or virus. In most cases. HIV/AIDS. obtain a medical examination.). parents. practice safe sex. genital herpes. STDs are an increasing health problem. and.170 Chapter Five Middle East. When a family member falls ill or is hospitalized. 2001). happy. It is necessary to know that condoms protect against STDs only partially.000 people are reported with gonorrhea. are highly exposed to sunrays in late spring and summer. all the other family . and medical workers to organize measures to protect the younger generation against STDs such as gonorrhea. North Africa. It is estimated that each year in the United States more than 500. there is no safe sex with an unknown partner. and high achieving academically. around 100. Bashkir. Even the central and southern parts of Russia. etc. and about 4 million with chlamydia (Santrock. they know their children’s health problems much better than the teaching staff and other school personnel. of course. Many people lie about their STD status. 2002). For example. In family-oriented cultures (Chinese. especially among high school and college students.

aged from sixteen to eighteen. I have already offered a number of examples of folk remedies. Teacher requirements for a healthy lifestyle. people throughout the world mobilize their efforts to save the victims and repair the damages. it must become a matter of universal concern. Responding to the question ”Which of the three phenomena-literature. In a mobile world. For example. 46 Tatar. religious. ultimately. Ukrainian. and Mari ethnic backgrounds in equal proportion: 72 students of senior grades. it is worthwhile to acquaint the reader with interesting insights provided by students in responding to an intriguing question included in a survey under the common title ”Do we know ourselves and this multicultural world?” The survey was conducted in Russia among secondary-school graduates. scientifically and medically proven approaches. misunderstandings between parents and teachers may bear ethnic. combating HIV/AIDS must be attended to as an outgrowth of not just cultural but also global change. and cultural tinges. and if an influenza or HN/AIDS epidemic breaks out in one part of the world. cupping. Pluralistic Approaches in Music Education To begin the story. and cultural differences. herbal use. Bashkir.Making the CurriculumMulticultural 171 members want to be with the patient. may be incongruent with the approaches practiced in students’ families and their cultural communities. In many countries of Asia and Central and South America. There is a cogent example to follow: when earthquakes or other natural disasters occur. The sample students included 360 respondents from Russian. Regarding the prevention or treatment of certain ailments and emotional imbalances. In most cases. 52 Bashkir. any contagious disease can spread in no time. . in each ethnic group. and painting-makes the most favorable impact on you and elicits most pleasant and favorable inner impressions and associations with the past and/or present and why? (put in rank order). despite ethnic. based on modern. humanity is a single sociocultural and physiological organism. people use their cultural means of treatment. Using multicultural approaches to health education requires delicate handling on the part of both educators and parents. formal medicine. There are also many cases when. prior to using the services of modern. music. only technology-based medicine and factory-manufactured remedies can prevent or cope with a given disease. It is important to understand that. 44 Ukrainian. Some health topics are best approached not through ethnicity-by-ethnicity analysis but from a global perspective. religious. and other folk remedies and preventive measures prove to be even more effective than remedies and treatment used by formal medicine. Tatar.” 41 Russian.

Thus. I give preference to music. It is different with me. or good or bad groups. immediately occupies my mind. the respo dents provided the following answers (selected responses are presentec Music is a special thing. To explain the reasons for such preferences. I prefer “that good” which any style or group contains. literature and painting are great things. poems . associated with the song. I often sing: in different places and doing different jobs. For me. (a Russian respondent) I have grown up in a surrounding where music and dancing never stopped ringing in my ears. (a Mari respondent) I feel omnipresent. I am unable to explain why it is so: as soon as I catch the sounds of a familiar tune or song. paintings and music-for spiri- . Books are needed for gaining knowledge and enhancing literacy. I myself select ”that good. . I recall my past and want to return to it for at least a couple of minutes. People will agree with me that music is a powerful thing. (a Baskkir respondent) Music influences me more than any other human creation.” a ”needed person” or event. She was like mother. (a Tatar respondent) Many people recollect their past listening to a piece of music. 63 percent the teenagers gave preference to music as a phenomenon making a co siderable impact on their everyday lives as well as their psychological ai emotional state. flying above the earth and seeing a motley. that is why I put it as a first priority. well-designed piece of music. I often recollect the songs that we performed at school during socials and excursions. Of course. I have heard it at home. when comparing these three things. As soon as I recall my previous years in my memory.172 Chapter Five and 45 Mari respondents placed music first in rank. When I buy a new tape with new songs and start listening to it. When I happen to hear an ”old song. (a Ukrainian respondent) I love both to read and enjoy music. I remember my first teacher who taught music herself. breathtaking landscape when I listen to a familiar or new.” Music is more expressive than novels. there is no good or bad style. but. I expect the unknown with each new song. . my being an elementary student. Sometimes I think that my voice sounds better than voices of celebrated stars. for example. In fact. during our relatives’ gatherings and elsewhere.

This chapter will examine three issues surrounding multicultural music education: misconceptions arising in music education. people. may have one music teacher for the whole school or. in their associations with various events. This is true with reference to Russia’s rural elementary schools.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 173 tual growth and spiritual satisfaction. and some pedagogical recommendations that might be helpful in dealing with the diversity of students. elicits a more pleasant aesthetic impressions than reading books and viewing paintings. Many American music educators are struggling for the survival of their programs (Koza. classical. their responses invite contemplation. The capability of music to unify people of various ethnic and cultural backgrounds is often misunderstood among the teaching and learning public at large. Music promotes their aesthetic and spiritual growth and personality development. Smaller schools. the whole globe. created by different peoples inhabiting different countries. In school practice. In senior grades. and places. Most respondents express favorable reflections on music as an important phenomenon in their lives. and reflections on. accepted . if a definite style of music. In European countries and Russia. no specialist at all. First. Misconceptions Several misconceptions hinder the effective integration of music education with multicultural content. the picture is no different. music education is mainly restricted to elementary and middle schools which have specially trained music teachers who conduct music lessons in a number of classes. in my opinion. Only music. content development. especially in rural settings. Acquaintance with various styles and genres created in different cultures may be likened to examining a globe in a geography classroom: one makes a breathtaking journey across the globe wondering at the diversity that is quite near at hand. the idea of the universal is erroneously conceived as unifying all people of all continents. taking the individual away into a vastness. Music. folk music) and to students’ participation in school choirs or brass bands. (a Tutur respondent) Although the respondents were not great in number and represented only a specific ethnogeographical region. One of the misconceptions rests on an ambiguity about whether music contains a universal message. can immediately arouse a person’s most favorable associations with. 2001). In senior grades music education is often restricted to extracurricular activities conducted within different clubs (clubs of modern. For example. the inclusion of music education in the curriculum is largely dependent on the school administration’s prerogative and enthusiasm. sometimes.

and cultural backgrounds. contain a universal message if it transcends the boundaries of the ethnic and the national and becomes a beloved musical piece for a considerable number of people from a broad spectrum of ethnic.174 Chapter Five and loved in the United States and other Western countries. music helps people to transmit feelings to each other. the better is this art represented as an art” (423). Being universal does not always mean addressing the aesthetic and spiritual needs of all human beings without exception. Similarly. In other cases. including music. Like other domains of art. on the average. Art. by means o consciously known external signs. Jeans incorporate a message of universal value not because they satisfy the needs of all people in the world but because they satisfy the demands and tastes of a great number of people (young. Leo Tolstoy (1989) says that by means of any art people transmit to each other their feelings. The greatness of these beverages is in their satisfying the tastes of a considerable majority of the world’s population. Even though tea or coffee is less accepted and consumed in some societies. racial. the very notions ”universal” and “unifying” are subconsciously perceived to have ideological and political content. and old) in many parts of the world. and cassettes) of specific musical creations are sold out in various cultures and different parts of the world is a mighty proof. their ”universal message” in satisfying people’s vital needs is evident. The very fact that the physical carriers (records. but a musical creation as a social construct can become a universal phenomenon and. is a means of communication. The unifying nature of music is revealed in the fact that music can summon people of various backgrounds to listen to a specific composer’s masterpieces or to one beloved piece of music. whereas by means of verbal language they transmit their thoughts. The following assumptions can be offered regarding this misconception. middle-aged. a product of American culture. have become clothing of everyday. a means uniting people within the spectrum of similar feelings. Being universal is often understood as being able to literally unite and bring together people from different continents into one spot to perform beloved songs and fight against specific evils. universal wear for millions of people outside the United States. transmits to other people the feelings . jeans. it is thought that this style or piece of music does not possess a universal message.Tolstoy writes: f The art is a human activity based on the following:one person. ”The stronger is the catching capability of an art. disks. thus. Music can hardly contain a universal message. Tme art can be told from false art by one salient feature: true art is catching. is rejected in other countries. Stating music’s incapability to possess a universal message is like negating the “undying force” and “universality” of such drinks as tea and coffee.

and Tchaikovsky. on the other. such as Beethoven. As the proverb says. orchestral). can offer invaluable insights. In this situation. The idea of natural conversion and transformation of popular musical creations into the category of classical music is vaguely perceived. Traditionally. being performed in movies. music educators. The hackneyed paradigm of idolizing classical music does not truthfully and adequately reflect the musical spirit of the contemporary era. Creedence Clearwater Revival. For example. where music education is conducted from the first through eighth grades. who know the students well. all the spirit of modern music is another misconception in music education. other people become caught up by and go through these feelings. . Mozart. or given piece of music. and the public at large have included in classical music only well-known masterpieces by celebrated composers. A third misconception arises from the assumption that music education should be conducted by specially trained teachers or even professional musicians. reaching the goals of multicultural music education through the professional efforts of one or two music teachers becomes impossible. by doing so. It becomes evident that multicultural music education can and should be implemented by classroom teachers as well. Koza (2001) notes that music experts can experience considerable difficulties in reaching every student. in Russia’s schools.” performed by Rod Stewart. It is reasonable to ground this argument on the fact that schools throughout the world experience a chronic shortage of music experts. It is erroneously assumed that the only worthwhile music styles for use in the curriculum are folk music and classical music. Even though this statement is apparently true in its essence. as can ”Sailing. and Abba or the songs performed by Elvis Presley. Any ethnic piece of music can become classic if it continuously satisfies people’s aesthetic needs. musicologists. and Rod Stewart have undoubtedly become classic.” Denial of the seriousness of modern popular music styles and. the Beatles’ songs ”Yesterday” and ”Let It Be” can be put on this list. The more people participate in communicating by means of a musical style. Pete Seeger. In this respect. the more universal and unifying it becomes. (420) Tolstoy speculates that any art is a means of communication between and among people. on the one hand. Boney M. and classroom teachers. and people’s gatherings and reproduced in different manners (choral.Some songs of the legendary groups such as the Beatles. on the whole. the theater. and lack academic hours for music instruction. accents may change their places. in multicultural music education. ”The proof of the pudding is in the eating.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 175 that he experiences himself. genre. one music teacher sees around four hundred to five hundred students in a week. For example.

“word-bound” enthusiasts think. elementary teacher education institutions provide student teachers with appropriate knowledge and skills to conduct music lessons. Unable to comprehend the meaning of the vocal text.176 Chapter Five Understanding the importance of music instruction from the very start of students’ academic career. They can be motivated to listen only to those musical creations whose lyrics they understand. Finally. and Australian continents. which transmit specific feelings to listeners. African. (2) include music and elements of musical culture of other ethnic and cultural groups residing in the nation-state. I recommend two approaches: the ”conelike” approach (the so-called expanding approach) and the approach based on considering the diversity of musical genres and styles (the genre-diversity approach). they restrict their aesthetic interest to a musical creation to the minimum. According to the first approach. On the other hand. “What‘s the use of listening to this song? I cannot understand it. Today this viewpoint is being spread into the vast territory of the American.3 percent of the number of academic hours allotted to the five-year teacher preparation program. To dispel this misconception. Eurasian. multicultural content should (1)reflect the interests of various ethnic and cultural groups represented in the classroom. Students must be taught that not only the words matter but also the instrumental parts. Content Development Among many objectives and principles promoting improved content in multicultural music education. students must be given sufficient knowledge of music as a domain of art. or 3. it is equally undesirable to introduce students exclusively to their native music. while listening to a piece of music consisting of both instrumental and vocal components. place most emphasis on the vocal side. perceiving music’s essence becomes dependent on whether the listener comprehends the words of the song. and (3) include . A fourth misconception is grounded on the fact that some people. so that they perceive music as a whole. Consequently.” Thus. it is commonly assumed that only musical styles that are created in European and other Western countries are worthy of study. This trend toward ”westernization” and “Europeanization” of children’s musical minds is especially detrimental in music education that is multicultural and social reconstructionist. rejecting other styles as alien and unworthy. as well as music appreciated on a broader societal scale (such as Anglo-Saxon music in the United States or Russian music in the Russian Federation). In Russia the music component of the elementary teacher preparation curriculum incorporates around 250 hours.

characterized by improvised and monotonous singing 6. Folk songs and melodies reflect a people’s aspirations. according to the second approach. sesens. the following salient Bashkir genres may be included (Kashapova. are high-context people. They are also a singing people and sustain their folk musical traditions. has artistic value apart from its religious significance. First. devoted to the fates of various historical characters and heroes 2. We noted earlier that Bashkirs. and customs. the nation-state. Russian. performed by dancers 3. uzlau. An invaluable objective of multicultural music education is integrating the content with folk (country) music and folk genres. and foreign folk music. senlau. ozon kuy. irrespective of who initiated these genres or when. and foreign countries. Including religious music in the curriculum should not be an ambiguous question in school practice. and innermost dreams. the music education in such a classroom may include Bashkir. 1995): 1. Religious music is pleasing to the minds of representatives of particular religious beliefs. and (3) national and international modern music. national variations of guttural singing 4. kubair. expectations. the wedding lamentation 5. one of the ethnic groups inhabiting Russia. 2001). The second approach presupposes integrating the content with different musical genres. kiska kuy. among them. and enriches a child’s overall music education (Koza. their national traditions. many of them accompanying their sacred rituals with instrumental and vocal music. (2) classical genres (instrumental and vocal classical music) by famous national and foreign composers. Following the conelike approach. adherents of the strong family. The world is witnessing a growing number of religious denominations. Bashkir children’s music education should incorporate Bashkir folk genres and styles. a song depicting a significant event . the creative activity of folk singers. multicultural music education may include (1)folk music characteristic of the ethnic groups represented in the classroom. short tunes or melodies. bait. Let us illustrate how multicultural music education can be infused with the folk content in classrooms with a Bashkir student population.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 177 music made outside national borders. For example. The following recommendations illustrate only one possible approach to content development in a classroom that has students from a minority ethnic group. drawling tunes.

transporting merchandise to markets. etc. based on the vocal intoning of the poetic genre In the past. Ceremonial songs are also devoted to certain significant events. such as cattle grazing. formed in 1909. Widespread among Russians are dance songs and tunes. encouraging their tendency to help parents. For example. heard folk tunes and were glad to join adults. Dancing and music were an important part of their lives and religions. These days they may be accompanied by various folk and modern musical instruments. are performed during major holidays and festivals. Folk songs contained not only idyllic melodies but also patriotic words about people and land. A short variation of a dance song is called a chastushka. Second. Third. and weaving activities.178 Chapter Five 7. wedding parties. The Family and Pedagogy society. munadzat. had songs for many occasions. Native Americans. H s itorical songs. it is reasonable to enrich Bashkir children’s multicultural music education with a Russian folk component. songs belonging to these genres were performed without instrumental accompaniment. providing them with insights about the folk genres of peoples living outside Russia’s borders. Children. such as the kuray (an instrument made of raw reed) and the accordion. Bashkir pedagogues excelled in propagating the ideas of folk music and music education. especially in rural communities. are devoted to various events. Folk music that accompanied labor played a significant role in child-rearing practices. sawing. relationships between parents and children. it is necessary to enrich the folk music education of students from Bashkir ethnic backgrounds with a global perspective. who used to be close at hand. The first people to settle the American continent. At family gatherings. ethnic Russians have created a variety of folk music styles. Bashkir students can be introduced to the music styles of the United States. succeeded in propagating the inclusion of music education in the curricula of local Bashkir colleges and gymnasia. Some songs were accompanied by musical instruments. Even today we hear melodic . Very hospitable and cheerful by nature. Sounds of native music-songs and tunes-elicited intelligence and enhanced feeling. ancient musical epics. So-called labor songs remain extremely popular. Many songs have been performed in leisure hours. Folk music was and is an important element of folk pedagogy among Bashkirs. a prayerlike address to God. pre. and holiday celebrations Russians often sing or listen to lyric songs that depict a great variety of earthly occurrences. thus making an impression on children’s development. depicting significant events or periods of Russian history.or postmarital relationships of the man and the woman. Akhiyarov (2000) contends that in Bashkir communities songs and folk tunes have accompanied labor operations. BiZinas.

" "For He's a Jolly Good Fellow" (originally the French "Malbrouk"). Having combined European musical instruments and songs with African rhythm. With the coming of Europeans. "The St. In a similar way. Rock and roll. Handy wrote the most famous blues song of all times. and American music (and to other foreign genres) will inevitably help them appreciate music as an important domain of art and add to their spiritual scope. "When the Saints Go Marching In" is a beautiful jazz creation of African American musicians. it is worthwhile to add to the music content the three most frequently sung songs in English (Young. has also permeated all contemporary cultures. Introducing Bashkir students to Bashkir. Bill Haley. integration of music with other curriculum disciplines. A prime rule in music education is including all children in the teaching process. Country music has spread all over the globe. Having added African rhythm to religious songs. Including all students requires that teachers use an individualized approach. In 1914 W. Louis Blues" (Aitov and Aitova. 1999). and "Auld Lang Syne.Making the Curriculum Multicultural 179 Native American music and see graceful dancing at special festivals. a variety of new genres originated. Buddy Holly. they created spirituals. In the early 1 8 9 0 ~ ~ another style came into being on the Mississippi River Delta-the blues. Russian. Pedagogical Recommendations Creating music education with a multicultural perspective requires the inclusion of all students in the pedagogical process. 1999). "Navajo Melody" appeals not only to guests and tourists visiting Navajo communities (Aitov and Aitova. The great song "Sometimes I Feel Like a Motherless Child is known throughout the world. In introducing students to American music. A number of legendary styles were created by African Americans. Multicultural music education cannot be elective. Chuck Berry. For example. 1997): "Happy Birthday to You. Inclusion. the musicians of New Orleans made a new musical style. C. these masterpieces have become favorite songs not only of people in Anglo-Saxon countries but also of people living in other countries. and effective use of students' extracurricular time. the folk music can be added to the curriculum of classes with other minority groups.but also to people who hear it in other places within and outside the United States' borders. jazz. created and performed by such trailblazers as Little Richard. Some students have natural and well-developed vocal characteristics." Unquestionably. and Elvis Presley. Others can easily develop these characteristics after a series of .The epoch of cowboys generated one of the idyllic modes of musical expression called country music.

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exercises with a music expert’s assistance. Still others will experience great difficulties in singing. This third group should not be subject to criticism and exclusion from whole-class activities such as group singing and choirs. According to official programs of music education, adopted in many countries, acquiring knowledge about musical culture and developing vocal skills and skills of notation are important objectives in elementary and secondary schools. Aliev (2000) formulates similar objectives for Russia’s schools: Music teachers are required to ”develop students’ musical capabilities, singing voice, as well as help them acquire knowledge and skills in the domain of music, including skills of notation’’ (22). In multicultural music education, when the goals is to attain equitable and unbiased music education for all students, it becomes impossible to address the needs and interests of all students if teachers stick strictly to such objectives. Students with alternative mental and physical development, academically low-achieving students, and students from cultures where singing is not highly valued as in Euro-American cultures may not fit the high-level standards required by similar formal programs. In multicultural music education, being musically educated should not necessarily mean being able to skillfully sing and read and play notes. Acquainting students with a variety of musical styles and genres, both native and foreign, and with creative biographies of famous composers, singers, and music critics; inviting professional singers, songwriters, and composers from different ethnic and cultural groups to school; and attending concerts and performances become important parts of multicultural music education. These empowering activities require students to use listening skills. And further, who said that every student should ultimately become a professional musician? The latter objective may be pursued by a talented child who is keenly interested in music and who loves playing some musical instrument. Learning about music by listening, seeing, inquiring, and meeting and interacting with professional performers and music experts is an accessible activity for all students, regardless of their academic achievement, psychological and physiological faculties, cultural and religious background, or age. This active-perception approach, along with other relevant pedagogical strategies, can ensure all students’ inclusion into acquiring the wonderful world of music and musical culture.

Integration. Integrating music with other subject areas is another effective approach in multicultural music education. Introducing music within a larger context has a positive effect on the quality of both subject area and music acquisition. In many cultures music is intertwined with other aspects of life (labor and religious activity, family and extended family

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gatherings, festivals, dancing, and other forms of entertainment). For example, in Russian, Ukrainian, Belorussian, Tatar, and Chuvash communities, holiday gatherings are often accompanied by singing songs and short couplets. Singing plays an important part in Christian public worship. In Russian Orthodox Christianity, singing in holy shrines is not accompanied by musical instruments, whereas in some other Christian denominations, especially in the United States, singing may be accompanied by classical and modern musical instruments. A newcomer visiting an evangelical church in the Unites States may erroneously take the musical part of worship for a rock concert, as I once did. Music is an integral part of the cinematography of India, which is the world’s largest producer of featurelength movies. Integrating music into the social studies curriculum may be an effective technique to make music education more multicultural. For example, while discussing the Second World War in a U.S. secondary school, it might be worth&hile to start a lesson with composer Irving Berlin’s wartime anthem, ”God Bless America,’’ which captures the patriotic spirit of that era. Likewise, while discussing the geographical location, cultural peculiarities, customs, and habits of any given culture, it would be beneficial to incorporate into the lesson short musical interludes created and treasured in that culture. Such pieces of music may include folk styles, music performed by national instruments, and the national anthem. For instance, in introducing U.S. culture to a European audience, it might be of interest for students to listen to a couple of folk (country) songs. In enriching U.S. students’ horizon with information about Scottish culture, it is difficult to avoid mentioning the Scottish national instrument, the bagpipes. Studying Russian culture in an American or European school may be accompanied by listening to the famous Russian song ”Katusha” (a girl’s name). Introducing Bashkir culture to any other ethnic audience can be accompanied by music performed with the the Bashkir instrument the kuray. Favorable conditions for integration arise in language classes. Integrating music into foreign-languageteaching is a common practice in Russia’s educational institutions, and many educators succeed in broadening students’ musical scope by infusing foreign-language lessons with music from other cultures. Among the most successful experts in implementing such approaches is Valerie Aitov, associate professor at the Birsk Pedagogical Institute, Bashkortostan, Russia. While teaching English to secondary and higher students from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds, Aitov acquaints them with British and American music styles and genres. Many school and institute graduates whom he taught English are able to perform at least a dozen songs from British and American folk and modern repertoires. His book From Indians to “Titanic,” in which he

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offers folk and modern popular songs as well as creative biographies of British and American musicians, has become a best-seller among students from different age groups. Music can be integrated in science and mathematics teaching (Goldberg, 2001). For example, it is possible to introduce the study of acoustics through demonstrating musical instruments. Goldberg says that there are many Native American song collections, such as Songs $Earth, Water, Fire, and Sky, that relate specifically to nature and earth. There are also many songs in popular music about nature and science. The relationship between music and math may begin to be understood by listening to some music. This is how Goldberg explains this phenomenon:
Take reggae, for example. Notice the recurring patterns on the part of the instruments. Are the patterns of equal length? Or, sing a familiar folk song such as 0, Susanna, and discuss the mathematical relationship between the verse and the chorus. Are they the same length? If not, how would you describe the difference?Is the chorus the same as, or longer or shorter than, the verse? Is it half as long as the verse? A third longer? How does Old MacDonald convey addition and the song BINGO convey subtraction?. . . All the activities just described provide students with real-life (and familiar) applications of particular mathematical concepts. Students begin to associate numbers, lines, shapes, patterns, and the like to real situations. (150).

Making Use of Extracurricular Time. Benefiting from using extracurricular time for music education is one more important task for an insightful teacher. Among the many teachers whom I know personally, Venera Timiryanova, an elementary Mari-born teacher from Birsk, is one of the most skillful experts in using extracurricular time for multicultural music instruction, thus adding to the scanty academic load designated for music education. Normally, her elementary classes include Bashkir, Russian, Tatar, Mari, Chuvash, and Ukrainian students. Annually, one of her extracurricular activities is devoted to the kuray that Bashkirs have used as a solo and ensemble instrument for more than a thousand years. The students come to learn that famous Bashkir kuraists of the past (Baik [1710-18141, I. Mirzakaev [1780-18771, G. Arginbaev [1856-19211, Y. Isanbaev [1891-19431) were marvellous improvisators. She likes to provide students with an episode from Isanbaev’s life. In 1925 Isanbaev was invited to Paris as a guest performer. When the Bashkir kuraist appeared on the stage, he, literally in front of the audience, made a kuray from a raw reed and performed several beautiful melodies. The French audience was amazed and wondered how a person could produce such nice tunes manipulating a piece of reed. When Isanbaev finished playing, a Frenchwoman stepped up on the stage and pre-

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sented the Bashkir musician with her personal golden ring. She put it on his finger herself. During the same activity, the multiethnic class enjoys listening to a number of Bashkir melodies performed by older boys. They traditionally sing such Bashkir melodies as "Old Baik," "Rural Song," and "The Urals." The kuray is an old and widely used musical instrument; nevertheless, many students from non-Bashkir background know very little about it and are amazed at the enormous possibilities of this stalk of reed (Sinagatullin, 2001b). In another activity Mari music accompanies the Mari folk game Pampalche and is a salient part of the whole activity. Venera Timiryanova's students like to play this interesting musical game, which can take different forms in different grades. The main characters in it are Pampalche, a charming girl, heroine of the Mari fairy tales; Salika, her sister; Koksha, a clever and very strong boy; Varash, a wicked kidnapper; and a group of children. The game is played as follows (Sinagatullin, 2001b):
In the game, in a spacious room (or an open field), a group of children play different games to the accompaniment of Mari music. Pampalche and Salika appear and join the children. Suddenly Varash emerges and kidnaps Pampalche. Salika calls to the kids for help. All children call: "Koksha-savior, Koksha-savior, come and help us!"Koksha appears, wearing the Mari national attire, singing a song, and leading a group of strong boys. After children tell Koksha what has happened to Pampalche, Koksha promises to rescue her. "To save beautiful Pampalche," says Koksha, "I need five boys. I will organize several contests among all the boys and select five of the bravest and most robust fellows." So he does. "Varash is afraid not only of human strength but also of nice melodies," says Koksha. The whole group of children continues performing Mari folk songs. To the accompaniment of the songs, Koksha and the selected five fellows save Pampalche from the hands of Varash. (29)

Summary
The preceding pages have concentrated on how to effectively create a multicultural curriculum and have examined this objective with respect to social studies, health, and music education. The social studies curriculum, reflecting a wide range of cultural, socioeconomic, and humanitarian issues, is a sigruficant part of the school curriculum. Passing through several historical stages of development, the social studies curriculum has undergone considerable changes in the United States, as well as in other countries, such as Russia, where the curriculum changes have largely depended on socioeconomic and cultural changes. Multicultural

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social studies education requires the teacher to possess a certain level of cultural, sociohistorical, sociogeographical, sociopolitical, sociological, and technological competency. Teachers of history need to possess sociohistorical expertise and mastery, but a corresponding level of mastery will also be necessary for a geography or culture studies teacher. Any level of additional multicultural and global competency is important for a teacher of any subject. Because health is one of the top priorities of human existence and good health is a springboard for fruitful creative and professional activity, health education should stand at the center of any contemporary educational institution. Making health education multicultural means ensuring students’ understanding of the image of a healthy person in different societies, providing them with the knowledge of what causes disease and how people from different cultural backgrounds perceive and treat various diseases, as well as with the skills to undertake preventive measures. Pluralistic approaches in music education make it incumbent upon teachers to think deeply over misconceptions hindering the process of teaching musical culture, to build a relevant content that can address the aesthetic and cultural needs of all children, and design and put into effect relevant pedagogical strategies. In contemporary, music-deficit schooling, it becomes important to integrate music into other subject areas. The following section of the book will be concerned with the multicultural expertise of the teacher whose professional career is related to working in a culturally pluralistic classroom.

and other issues and is continually changing. economic. Migration adds 185 . and dispositions toward teaching and interaction with the diversity of students. I take attitude also as a category depicting the degree of a teacher’s understanding and readiness to make the pedagogical process more multiculturally centered and productive. but also social. age. or community and who wants to address the growing diversity of students. knowledge. classroom. gender. ethnic. in schools where the multicultural-education-for-all approach is most suitable.6 Multicultural Competency of the Teacher The issues examined below should be read as pedagogical recommendations to teachers and educators who work in multiethnic and multilingual schools or classrooms. as it is often understood. Attitude Attitude is an important salient part of any multicultural teacher’s professional expertise. As noted earlier. residence (rural or urban). that is. The teacher’s multicultural competency may include at least three components: attitudes. The recommendations may also be useful to any educator who works or plans to work in any other type of school. political. and skills. ways of thinking. human diversity incorporates not only racial. In this study. A Positive Attitude to Diversity A multicultural teacher is required to understand that human diversity is an omnipresent phenomenon that has existed since the birth of the human race. exceptionality. and language differences. The phenomenon of attitude is most closely associated with a teacher’s feelings.

Conversely. The few people who left the country in Soviet times were mostly dissidents opposing official policy. the whole class and school atmosphere should address the requirements of this goal. gunfighting in America and vodka guzzling in Russia are equally highly exaggerated categories. Teachers should also recognize that their work is a most significant activity capable of helping reform the curriculum and the entire educational environment. Alexander Solzhenitsyn’s case is probably a classic example in this respect. full of wealthy people living in spacious homes. Prior to emigrating from their native countries. An Understanding of the Importance of School Reform Movement It is important to understand that multicultural education is an educational reform movement aimed at reorganizing schools and other educational institutions so that pupils from all racial. and imagine the American society as consisting of gunfighters and fat people.186 Chapter Six significantly to this change. most people have only a slight notion of the host society’s culture. also only a small number of people crossed the Soviet Union’s borders for good. For instance. Increasing numbers of people from various ethnic and cultural backgrounds change residences within one country or move into other countries. and gender groups will have equal opportunities to learn (Banks. toward parents who may have different expectations of. people immigrating to the United States normally consider it a perfect country. educators need to have positive and tolerant attitudes toward alien values. Others envision this country through the contents of books and movies. In comparison to the United States. prior to democratic changes. 2001a). few people from other countries used to immigrate to Russia. cultural. cultures. certain people who have never been to Russia visualize Russians as drinking vodka and all the country as covered with snow. toward children with alternative health. schooling and teacher-parent relations. Working with the diversity of students. Therefore. As for emigration from the country. and standards of life. shown throughout the world. ethnic. and attitudes toward. Undoubtedly. The multicultural teacher is expected to: be an active participant in promoting culturally responsible and responsive formal and informal curricula be skillful in using and benefiting from the positive factors of diversity in educating children be able to promote mutually favorable teacher-parent and schoolcommunity relationships .

Hawaii. Like an athlete who consciously or subconsciously fears losing professional shape and strength and feels a need for recurrent physical training. such as California. and attitudes so that they can successfully function in a pluralistic society elaborate and foster effective professional orientation of students contribute to educating students for global literacy and competency Striving to Enhance the Multicultural and Global Horizon The pedagogical profession requires that each teacher continually widen and deepen his or her professional mastery. the ideas of multicultural education are included only in a limited number of school districts as well as universities that help organize in-service teacher education. teachers. and local school districts. and bilingual areas by the most enthusiastic members of in-service teacher training . as in the United States. pedagogical institutions (colleges. predominantly in multilingual. and like a musician who feels uneasy without regularly playing the piano or violin. Oklahoma. and school administrators with necessary knowledge and skills at regular intervals. multiethnic. in Russia. a multicultural teacher should feel an inner need for a regular enhancement of his or her multicultural knowledge base and professional skills that are necessary to effectively interact with the diversity of pupils. and universities). as well as national and world cultures. skills. teaching mainstream language and culture. and Florida. Formal In-Service Teacher Education. In-service teacher education programs provide educators. We will focus on a few of the most important methods. in Russia the overall ideas of multicultural education are implemented. programs of teaching native language and culture. Arizona. Texas. Such programs function in all countries. On the other side of the Atlantic. such ideas are conceptualized and implemented in in-service teacher education programs mostly in the states with visible ethnic and linguistic minority populations. There are many ways to achieve in-service professional growth.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 187 possess and enrich required professional knowledge and skills to cope with the diversity of students be able to facilitate students’ knowledge. Unfortunately. New Mexico. On a larger scale. Even though professional development curricula in multiethnic and bilingual settings contain bilingual-education programs. institutes. in-service teacher training programs are designed and implemented by special regional or republic-level in-service teacher training institutions (in most parts of the country they are called ”institutes of education development”).

viewing how other teachers motivate children to learn. and classrooms. and multicultural education are conceptualized and implemented in a limited number of school districts. Gaining from the Colleagues’ Professional Experience. multiculturalism. schools in remote rural settings. an insightful teacher-intending to work toward attaining equal and equitable education for all-can also gain experience from visiting any teachers. select means of teaching. lyceums. Sinagatullin. Udmurtia. as well as how they use computers and other technology help motivate teachers and promote their professional and personality growth. Any teacher. gymnasia.188 Chapter Six staffs. use the needed content. and Yakutia. the chapter will further focus on the professional activities my Russian colleagues and I are organizing according to the plan of the pedagogical center School-College-Institute that was set up in Bashkortostan in 1997 (Usmanov. and evaluate and assess learners. especially at the start of his or her career. strives for pupils to achieve academically. and Bayanova. Tatarstan. schools or classes for gifted children. we can name Bashkortostan. teach. experienced or inexperienced. and cares especially for children with disabilities and children from impoverished settings. Buryatia. Teachers can benefit from visiting not only standard schools where orientation on multicultural education is realized but also schools for children with alternative mental and physical health. the Chuvash Republic. schools. and those in inner-city areas.A prime goal of a multicultural teacher. tries to use elements of an individualized approach to children from different cultural backgrounds. articulate lesson objectives. As the ideas of diversity. and institutes) located in four regions of . Mari El. Among the regions and republics infusing teacher professional development programs with a multicultural/bilingual content. is to benefit from seeing and learning from other teachers’ lessons and modes of teacher-student interaction in implementing multicultural strategies. Seeing how people of the same profession conduct lessons and interact with children and parents from different racial and cultural backgrounds. 1999). This complex now encompasses over twenty educational institutions (elementary and secondary schools. Teachers can learn about their colleagues’ pedagogical experience by participating in teachers’ conferences and workshops where participants can share insights on problems related to the teaching profession. Visiting peers‘ classrooms and extracurricular activities in the school and elsewhere and learning from them is an important approach to enhance one’s pedagogical expertise. even in the countries with pronounced ethnic and cultural diversity. To support such important work for teacher growth. pedagogical colleges. whether or not they are advocates of multicultural curricula.

One lesson. was conducted in the gymnasium at Yanaul. or AIDS. Ukrainian. For two days teachers from different ethnic (Russian. Each year more people die from smokingrelated diseases than from drug abuse. and meetings devoted to the issues of multicultural education. and people inhabiting all climatic zones get ”hooked by this drug.” organized in the town of Birsk. Tatar. Using pictorial . the conference participants concluded that working in a culturally pluralistic classroom. and learning styles and dispositions. R. Analyzing the lessons. a town located in northern Bashkortostan. Mari. also organized under the auspices of the pedagogical center. attracted most attention among the participants. the workshop “The Innovative Development of the School” for schoolteachers and principals. The student and teacher population of the town of Yanaul and the Yanaul school district is ethnically diverse and consists of people of Russian. computer rooms. Tatar. the efficacy of using a required instructional style depends. shared pedagogical insights on myriad problems regarding subject area instruction and classroom management. Another event. The teacher. The teachers also made reports on their topics of investigation. Udmurt. The participants also noted that teacher training institutions should place special emphasis on preparing teachers with bilingual and bicultural qualifications to address the needs of rural communities with non-Russian ethnic groups. devoted to the prevention of smoking.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 189 Bashkortostan and helps organize for rural and urban teachers regional and local conferences. and Udmurt) and religious (Christian. Muslim. made a particularly strong impression on the teachers. She was right to call smoking the most widespread example of drug dependency in the world. ”Enhancing the Teaching Process in the Multicultural Setting. started the lesson by pointing out that smoking is a global problem that has crept into all cultures and societies. laboratories. Most of the teachers responsible for delivering ”open” lessons and activities demonstrated novel techniques and strategies of teaching and classroom control while working with diverse students. so-called hidden curriculum. among other things. and visited school museums. One such conference. cultural. and musical culture. Bashkir. People of all racial. young and old. on the teacher’s expertise and skills and on how well the teacher knows students’ individual. The participants also agreed to further shape and implement the ideas of multicultural and global education taking into consideration the diversity of students in each individual school. workshops. homicide. foreign languages. poor and rich. ethnic and cultural groups. Uzbekova. the Russian language. Mari. and Ukrainian descent. and atheist) backgrounds were busy visiting and analyzing lessons in mathematics. and sporting centers. Bashkir. L. both men and women. and that schools should do more to multiculturalize the symbolic.

0 percent to 22. Meanwhile. from 1985 to 1999. two to four times the risk of sudden cardiac death.9 percent within the same period. which is a mixture of the smoke exhaled by smokers and that coming from burning cigarette ends. The spirit of the lesson touched all who were present. social class. Providing statistical data. then into the bloodstream and the brain. and examples the teacher demonstrated were pertinent models for colleagues to follow in their efforts to infuse a health education lesson with multicultural and global content. Uzbekova pointed out that.5 percent and from 40. In 1985.38. She also stated that smoking is extremely harmful for women.0 percent. People began to understand the deadly harm smoking brings to their health. age. in addition to the suffering caused by direct smoking. more female smokers. the number had decreased to 27. Young children are especially sensitive to secondhand smoke. The teacher provided both national and global information on the harmful consequences of smoking. smoking among high school graduates across the United States increased by 2. the smoking rate has decreased. smokers harm surrounding people from secondhand smoke. the teacher explained to the pupils that nicotine powerfully affects the central nervous system and the brain. I myself never heard or read anything so articulate. For instance. and an even greater risk of lung cancer. nicotine goes into the lungs. in the United States. Young girls and boys have a higher risk for early death from smoking. do not spare anyone. Self-Education. Throughout the world.9 percent of Anglo Americans smoked. in 1999. With reference to African Americans and Hispanics. she underlined that. Consequences of heavy smoking. in urban areas there are more smokers. in some countries.190 Chapter Six aids. After each inhalation. Medical workers and psychologists underline that quitting smoking is a more difficult task for females than for males. and eye-opening regarding smoking and its aftereffects as the information. or gender.0 percent to 22. respectively. For . The teacher pointed out that a relatively large number of young people start smoking in elementary school. approaches.6 percent. and admonitions that the teacher delivered to the elementary students and the educators who came to evaluate the lesson. Nothing will help teachers sustain and increase their pedagogical mastery if they do not continually enhance their skills. the rate decreased from 38. The techniques. knowledge. and especially for young girls who will soon become mothers. Smokers have more than twice the risk of heart attack. like those of H V infection. reI gardless of race. and more young smokers (who start smoking at earlier ages) than in rural regions. the smoking rate among different ethnic and racial groups decreased noticeably. expressive. ethnicity.

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teachers committed to multicultural education this task is equally important. Every teacher holding a university diploma understands that preservice education is a basic and invaluable tool. But it is also understandable that the knowledge and information acquired in the preservice period cannot last long, because pedagogical and psychological sciences are advancing and being enriched, especially in this new century, by novel ideas, information, and approaches. So are instructional techniques, methods, and strategies. Knowledge and information about the world-an invaluable component of a teacher’s expertise-is also changing extremely fast. Therefore teachers must regularly enrich their global knowledge through mass media and other sources. Being knowledgeable about the world and knowing how to sustain and renew global competency and literacy are sacred tasks for a multicultural teacher. An effective way of learning about human diversity is seeing the world. Seeing places and learning how people from different racial, ethnic, and cultural backgrounds organize their lives; learning more about alien cultures, their customs, traditions, and historical heritages; learning about the ways different cultures cope with the issues of education and how they use folk pedagogical traditions; getting acquainted with other educators and proponents of multicultural and global education; collecting and enriching the personal didactic arsenal (with video, audio, and pictorial aids, books, etc.) for future use in the classroom-all these and other activities must become part of a teacher’s self-education program. Sadly, not all educators can afford such explorations. In most countries, teachers’ salaries leave much to be desired. Participating in teacher exchange and international grant programs goes only a little way toward the objective of globalizing teachers’ knowledge. It is high time that governments and high-ranking educational authorities draw special attention to these and corresponding problems related to the teaching profession.

Knowledge Base It is said that knowledge can move mountains. Sterne (cited in Prochnow and Prochnow, 1964) wrote, ”Nothing in this life, after health and virtue, is more estimable than knowledge” (397). Teachers with a multicultural orientation are in a more difficult position than teachers who simply implement the requirements of a standard mainstream curriculum. First, multicultural teachers need, like any teachers, to possess, sustain, and refresh subject area content and global knowledge; second, they have to gain, digest, and process more knowledge on the diversity of classroom students and of humanity; and third, they must construct and ”adjust”

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knowledge and information to provide students with equitable and equal opportunities for school success, regardless of their ethnic and cultural characteristics. A multicultural teacher is expected to possess the following knowledge base.

Knowledge about Ethnic, National, and Global Values
Possessing knowledge about ethnic, national, and global values and virtues, as well as about attitudes, values, and customary qualities distinguished among gender, age, social class, rural and urban, and other cultural groups is an integral component of a multicultural teacher's expertise. One can frequently encounter the notion of core or dominant values-that is, primary standards and principles promoted by a particular culture-and peripheral, subsidiary, or variant values, or priorities that are of relatively less importance. The characteristic features of values are not written on walls and mirrors so that a person can look at them in the morning, "refresh their essence" in memory, and plunge into "fulfilling their regulations." The survey conducted by Schwartz and Bardi (2001) shows that, despite salient and compelling differences in the values priorities of various groups, there is a surprisingly widespread consensus regarding the hierarchical order of values that are important for an average human being. Among the ten value types (achievement, conformity, benevolence, hedonism, power, self-direction, security, stimulation, tradition, and universalism) selected by the authors, a sample from thirteen countries put benevolence, self-direction, and universalism as most important; power, tradition, and stimulation values as least important; and security, conformity, achievement, and hedonism in between. On the basis of their study, Schwartz and Bardi come to the conclusion that there is a common pancultural baseline of value priorities, that is, there is a striking level of agreement across cultures regarding the relative importance of various types of values. This pancultural values hierarchy can be understood as reflecting adaptive functions of values in addressing three requirements of societal functioning (in order of importance): "cooperative and supportive primary relations, productive and innovative task performance, and gratification of self-oriented needs and desires"( 287). It is reasonable to assume that values are deeply rooted, dynamic principles monitoring a person's behavior, lifestyle, and modes of interaction, irrespective of continually emerging specific situations. They are deeply embedded because a person often subconsciously materializes their nature and essence in verbal and professional behavior. They are dynamic because any person in a normal human environment, especially a multiculturally minded educator, regularly grows in knowledge and skills,

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continually opening the realms of the unknown in the outer world. Values are those standards and virtues to which people should attain to be good human beings, good members of the community, nation-state, and global society. Attaining and becoming such a person is a matter of extreme difficulty. If this task were not difficult, human society would have long ago reached an ideal state of development and prosperity. The value system of an ethnic group often represents an amalgam of ethnic and acquired features. From an ethnopsychological perspective, the value system is traditionally reflected in the mentality and national character of an ethnic group. Chapter 2 examined the ethnocultural characteristics of a number of groups. The picture may be enriched by a brief reference to several other ethnic groups (Sarakuev and Krysko, 1996; Arutunian, Drobidzeva, and Susokolov, 1999; Kukushin and Stoliarenko, 2000). Arabs traditionally value patience and are religious, resourceful, ingenious, and communicative. Turks value tolerance and are religious, capable of endurance, and unpretentious. Lithuanians value honesty and are optimistic and industrious. (Lithuanian youth are considered more independent from their families than the young people from other Newly Independent States.) Belorussians are capable of great endurance, unpretentious in any circumstances, emotional, and try to avoid conflicts. Uzbeks respect family and extended family values and the elderly and are strong patriots of their ancestral land. Yakuts value unpretentiousness, are capable of enduring cold and hunger, and are physically strong by nature. Chechens value honor, respect the elderly, possess decision-making skills, are capable of great endurance, and are attached to their kindred ties. Georgians value and respect valor, friendship, and the elderly and are hospitable and proud of the people who work on their homeland. Azerbaijanis have a special respect for the elderly and are rather emotional and communicative. Armenians respect family values and the elderly, easily build business contacts with members of other ethnic groups, and are generous and hospitable.

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Religious groups, which may encompass members of various racial, ethnic, and language groups, pursue definite sets of spiritual and ritualistic values. For example, there is no unanimous mutual understanding in evaluating biblical values and truths among Christian denominations, even though all members believe that Jesus Christ will return in the endtimes and judge people according to their deeds. The greatest priorities for a Christian are to love God and to love one’s neighbor. Among the core sacramental and cultural rituals of Christianity are baptism, repentance, and marriage. The core value and the first pillar of Islam is the confession of faith that reads, “I bear witness that there is no god but God, and Muhammad is the prophet of God.” Based on the first pillar, other pillars encompass ritual prayer, almsgiving, fasting during the month of Ramadan, and a pilgrimage to Mecca. Buddhists consider life to be a miserable human state; in it and behind it, there is no ultimate reality. According to Buddhist teaching, the life of a human being is a chain of sufferings conditioned by her or his striving to live and survive. Buddhists’ value system necessitates resorting to right thoughts, words, meditation, and deeds, which are indispensable for ending the cycle of suffering, birth, and rebirth and reaching a state of absolute blessedness, Nirvana. Hindus, adherents of Hinduism, pursue polytheism. They value and believe in the existence of one divine principle; the many gods are only aspects of that unity. In all its forms, life is an aspect of the divine, but life appears as a separation from this divine, a meaningless cycle of birth and rebirth (samSara), determined by the purity or impurity of past deeds (karma). For Hindus, the aim is to improve one’s karma or escape samsara by pure thought, acts, and/or devotion. They also value and revere various spirits and sacred animals, such as the cow and the ape (Kukushin and Stoliarenko, 2000; McGeveran, 2001). The values and cultural ethos of urban and rural residents are characterized, on the average, by certain distinctive features, as we saw previously. For example, urban residents tend to be more individualistic, more pragmatically oriented, less tolerant and patient, and have less respect for family values. Rural residents are likely to be more collectivistic and more tolerant and patient, to respect family values, the elderly and the land they live in and work on, and not to shun physical labor. Today, people are participants in a pluralistic democracy. Teachers are required to provide students with values and civic virtues necessary for personal liberty (Gaudiani, 1991), for decision making and social action in a global community. Such values, virtues, and qualities as respect and love for parents and homeland, honesty, kindness, empathy, industriousness, good health, justice, mercy, and self-discipline are respected and appreciated in all cultures. Also, we need to discover modern values and virtues for a globally interdependent world by studying different cul-

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tures. Gaudiani suggests that the study of strengths and virtues of different cultures could reveal each society’s contribution to a global culture where the individual and the community are both valued. All cultures have something to teach and something to learn from. By studying various cultures and discovering commonly shared, distinct, and developed values, it is possible to identify the virtues most likely to assure that pluralistically democratic societies create a quality life for human society. Values can be taught, untaught, and changed. There are extremes when an individual ventures to substitute a set of values for diametrically opposite beliefs and virtues. We mentioned earlier the conversion of thousands of Russia’s former atheists (communists)to Christianity, Islam, and other religions. Several years ago I spoke to a Polish citizen, a former zealous communist, who adopted Catholicism in 1997. ”Did you experience any psychological difficulties when you decided to become a believer?“ I asked this man, who was nearing his pension age. ”I did not,” he responded. ”Even though I might not have been inspired by the Creator, I followed the biblical Saul’s example.” It is necessary to remind the reader that Saul, or Paul, is a biblical person who first fiercely persecuted Christ and his followers and then, after a revelation from God, became a fervent adherent of Christianity. I believed then that the Polish man, who mentioned Saul and who must have known this Bible story well, was honest to me in his confession; but I also believed earlier and believe now that changing one set of values and priorities for another, jumping from one political party to another, can become for some people like changing one pair of gloves for another. It would have been decent if people who change priorities and virtues were always pursuing decent intentions.

Knowledge about the Phenomenon o Diversity f and Surrounding Issues
The first chapter of this book was devoted to various issues and dimensions of human diversity. The conclusion was that human diversity, incorporating social, ethnic, religious, linguistic, age, gender, and ruralurban layers, is a natural process in human history and that the contemporary diverse world is continually and rapidly changing. It is necessary to add, in the context under consideration, that not only does each societal, ethnic, and cultural group have its own diversity infrastructure, but also each individual within a culture is characterized by unique personal diversity. These subdivisions may be called “group (or societal) diversity” and ”individual diversity.” Group diversity is determined by pervasive, most salient characteristics, such as race, ethnicity, religion, and language, according to which human beings are subdivided in societies. For

By referring to a number of fictitious high school students in various cultures. that is. he prefers tea with milk or cream. ethnic. learns French and Spanish. England. muscular. who. He regrets not having . Keenly interested in music. He is a male student and has all the qualities peculiar to his male counterparts. Hindu. In other cases. or language group.196 Chapter Six example. He also knows that some ethnic groups in the Russian Federation. or that Canada consists of people of European. Arthur likes to listen to modem pop music. ranging from ethnicity to the student’s hobbies and choice of future profession. we may note that Singapore is a religiously diverse society. possess their own specific features and traits. or that Canada is a multilingual culture. African. and Moor children. The notion of individual diversity incorporates an idea that each member of a racial. Arthur. thus widening his language culture. a well-built. or this community in Germany includes both Catholics and Muslims. even-tempered English student from Manchester. who has taught him to love this fragrant beverage. in the same manner as most Englishmen and Englishwomen do. Teachers committed to multicultural education are expected to know and take into consideration the entire range of each student’s existing and emerging characteristics. As for beverages. or this community in Sweden encompasses people of both Swedish and Finnish descent. in turn. especially Tatars and Bashkirs. prefer drinking tea with milk or cream. individual culture made up of an amalgam of inherited and acquired features. and other tangible and intangible characteristics. especially performed by Sir Elton John. While staying in the school environment during the first half of the day. who consumes around ten cups of tea a day. These psychological and physiological characteristics differentiate Arthur from his female peers. and Muslim religions. As he goes to the Anglican Church. and Asian origin. I will attempt to show that each student has his or her own. inclinations. Tamil. he belongs to the Christian subculture. he becomes a member of the school subculture that differs from the out-of-school cultural and social stratum. Arthur confesses that it is his grandmother. one can say that Singapore is an ethnically and linguistically pluralistic society. or this class in Sri Lanka consists of children adhering to Buddhist. The combination of group and individual diversity makes each human being unique. or this class in Sri Lanka encompasses Sinhalese. religious. simultaneously ”belongs” to other subcultures determined by the individual’s personal interests. or this professional community in Germany embodies majority and minority people. or this community in Sweden consists of both monolingual and bilingual residents. He is a pizza lover and knows many things about the pizza culture.

Even though Noriko is a high-achieving student and may enter a university. in 2001. the railroad disaster in Gaubati. Noriko feels things very intensely and is empathetically minded. Noriko. Ohio. teachers and health educators recommended that he exercise and use a bike to get to school and back. 2002. John. he feels comfortable in an individualistic learning environment and challenges his teachers with questions regarding the subject areas and global problems.000 people. but his mother keeps telling him that loving music does not necessarily mean playing it or singing. such as the 1995 terrorist attack in Oklahoma City that left 168 people dead. India. and the collision of the Russian TU-154 with a Boeing plane on June 2. which killed over 17. As John started to gain weight. she is keenly interested in how to make the national cuisine still more exotic. the attacks on the World Trade Center in New York. including 52 children. She often remembers her relatives whose parents suffered during the atomic bomb explosions in Hiroshima and is equally sensitive about any other grave misfortunes. If all goes well. He is one of the best soccer players in the school and has won several prizes. As a fervent fan of the Manchester United team. In addition to his daily bike trips. that left 285 passengers dead. He obeyed their request. sharing her novel techniques with her mother and school peers. 1999. which took 71 lives. Like most of his classmates. a favorite pastime. whose parents emigrated from Russia several .and collectivisticallyoriented Japanese student. He prefers wearing fashionable clothes and has an ultramodern haircut. She may be referred to as bilingual because. Inclined to cooking Japanese national meals. in the skies over Germany. She devotes her free time to mastering cooking skills. a group. she looks forward to becoming a cook and offering customers finger-licking meals. Olga. she has reached a certain degree of mastery in using this language. owing to a serious attitude to learning English in school and frequent interactions with English-speakingpeers from other countries. he lives by the interests of his fan peers. highly respects her parents and the elderly and adheres to Shintoism. interacting with people in need. the earthquake in Turkey on September 17.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 197 learned to play some musical instrument. on August 2. a high school student from Cleveland. lives in a spacious two-story house with his parents. each Sunday he makes a bike trip in a nearby park with his girlfriend. which killed thousands of innocent people. Cooking is her hobby. Arthur plans to devote himself to sports and become a soccer player. and the Pentagon in Washington. 1999.

Atheistically minded. a Jewish student. nevertheless. and of the Jaredites who arrived later. His classmates and even teachers consult him on different issues of computing. only recently has he come to learn about the Mormons’ version of peopling the American continent. John strongly believes that any contemporary high school graduate stepping onto an interdependent world must be highly skilled in computer use. until recently.” John is knowledgeable about computers and other technology that is used in his school. excels in all subjects in school.C. John learned about one more version of how America had been peopled in ancient times. He plans to continue his education at a university and become a history teacher. After looking through the Book o Mormon (a book that among the Mormons is f considered holy scripture comparable to the Bible). John has learned from the Book ofMorrnon about an account of the Nephites and Lamanites who had come to the American continent from Jerusalem in 600 B. John did not believe this account. but. they want to make their small contribution to support small private businesses in the United States. especially in social studies. Once she read in a book by the American bible scholar John Hagee that in this valley the final battle of ages. Utah. proficient in Hebrew. Arabic. Whether this might occur or not. He knew about the existence of such a religion with its center in Salt Lake City. she loves Nazareth and the holy land she was born on. Armageddon. America’s biggest homegrown religion. and religious groups in the United States. she prefers urban life. But Sarah wants to be a TV star. A moderate adherent of Judaism. John and Olga stop at a nearby privately owned cafeteria to have a cup of coffee.198 Chapter Six years ago. Even though he has read and heard much about the history and culture of racial. group-oriented. will involve all of the nations in endtimes. John is a high-achieving student. Sarah. he added this religious version about the settling of the Americas to his overall ”knowledge arsenal. ethnic. but. The book states that the Lamanites are the principal ancestors of the American Indians. he had never got closely acquainted with the teachings of this. As Sarah lives just several miles from the Yizreel Valley. Each time after their bike trip. In so doing. born in Nazareth. she knows a lot about its history. John considers that he does not need to learn any foreign language in school because English will help him interact with other individuals cross-culturally. She has learned to play the violin within the last five years. and English. like American celebrities Lucille Ball and Bar- . and her parents predict for her a successful musical career.

Someday she wants to go to Los Angeles and visit Hollywood. He is bilingual and highly respects his parents and relatives. the young cowboy rushes to his father’s farm and attends to numerous cows and sheep. His special love for cattle breeding is almost an obsession. Sarah is fond of viewing American and French movies. suffering from many diseases and missing her classes. collectivistically oriented and polychronically minded. Her favorite movie stars are Sharon Stone. He also prefers very sweet coffee. He loves his village and its people and wants to take root in his ancestral land. a student from Zambia. or a cup of sweet lemonade. Diana has been physically weak. Recently. they could not afford to help their daughter with her health problems. a piece of cake. Rafael. but her favorite movie is Gone with the Wind. which is frequented by movie stars. Rafael has learned from TV that some scientists speculate that the ancient Atlantis civilization might have existed on the territory of modem Peru! This hypothesis has added to his self-esteem and self-respect about his homeland. and . which had long ago culturally surpassed other ancient civilizations in preColumbian America. starring Clark Gable and Vivien Leigh. She adheres to her indigenous beliefs and is the youngest of her five brothers and sisters. As her parents are poor. Diana dates a fellow of English origin.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 199 bara Walters. he considers himself a descendant of the former Inca Empire. Universal Studios. an Amerindian student from a tiny village in Peru. As soon as his classes are over. respects a spirit of collectivism and goes to the Roman Catholic Church. Nevertheless. She looks forward to moving to Haifa after receiving her school certificate. Succeeding in his father’s occupation is his life objective. Johnny Depp. Knowing that his land is legendary. He is a good chess player and annually participates in various chess championships. Since childhood. very communicative and empathetic. Last year he won second place among twenty-four competitors of his age in the regional tournament. As things do not always go quite well in agricultural Peru. loves her parents and other relatives and respects the elderly and her teachers. he hopes to develop some novel ideas of how to advance the cattle-breeding enterprise in his countryDiana. and Hard Rock Cafe on Beverly Boulevard. and Brad Pitt. even though her parents are against her relationship with the young white man. In her leisure hours. Rafael has a sweet tooth and never misses a chance to consume ice cream. she excels in many subject areas.

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is fluent in Spanish, English, and her indigenous language. Several years ago she was struck to find out that over half of all the people who live with HIV/AIDS worldwide live in sub-Saharan Africa. Recent figures showed a progressive increase of HIV/AIDS cases both in Africa and in other continents. Indignant with contemporary medical science and out of pity for the diseased, she has firmly decided to study medicine with the intention of inventing a drug against this global plague. Diana is sure that this is a curable disease, and the hope to help humanity never leaves her, because she keeps remembering how Alexander Fleming discovered penicillin and saved millions of people from deadly diseases. Greg, a communicative and sociable teenager, lives on Grand Bahama Island, speaks Creole, and goes to the Baptist Church. He is proud that it was on San Salvador, one of the Bahamas, that Christopher Columbus set foot on October 12,1492. Greg and his two older brothers have grown up in a single-parent family. He has a great interest in reggae, a musical style originated by Bob Marley, who was born and died in Jamaica.Greg corresponds with some of his friends in Kingston, Jamaica, and Miami, Flbrida, who are fervent enthusiasts of Bob Marley’s creative career. Both Greg and his friends are mesmerized by Bob Marley’s greatest hit, ”No Woman No Cry.”Any person reaching Greg’s answering machine first hears a fragment from this song. Both of Greg’s brothers are taxi drivers and attend to numerous tourists coming to the exotic country from different parts of the world. The driving profession has never attracted Greg. Instead, he has a special liking for two things: the sea and dolphins. He plans to become a trainer of dolphins and work at Dolphin Experience, a leading educational and research facility in the field of marine mammal education and research on the health and maintenance of bottlenose dolphins. This institution is located in the north of Grand Bahama Island. Because he loves dolphins and other sea creatures, Greg does not eat any seafood. He prefers to stop at a local Burger King restaurant and enjoy a delicious and calorie-rich meal. Helen, a student from Germany, is monochronically minded, prefers order in all things and independence in decision making, and adheres to materialistic philosophy and atheism. Unlike her classmates, who are rather casual about clothing, Helen prefers classic styles and wears head gear even in warm weather. She prefers cold water to any other beverage and usually has a substantial breakfast. As she is a vegetarian, she adheres to certain values that

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differ from those of nonvegetarians. For example, she has a special liking for domestic and wild animals and is a proponent of a healthy style of life. She is against such pastimes as visiting parties, bars, and restaurants. When her father and family friends go hunting or fishing, she becomes furious: she refuses to prepare meals from the game and catch they bring home. Helen also prefers classical music to other styles; her favorite composers are Schubert, Mozart, Bach, Beethoven, and Tchaikovsky. Tchaikovsky’s ballet Swan Lake, which she once saw on a Berlin stage, made an incomparably pleasurable impression on her. She is interested in the ancient Greek culture. Although she is from an extremely wealthy family of an automobile mogul and may lead a carefree life, her decision to become an archeologist and learn the Greek language remains firm and unshakable. Helen challenges her geography and history teachers by volunteering questions and amazing them with her brilliant knowledge of ancient cultures. She has already visited Greece with her parents and has been amazed by seeing the Pantheon and various museums. Exploring and opening the unknown about ancient Greece has become her prime objective in life. Averon, a rural-born, collectivistically and polychronically minded Maori student from New Zealand, adheres to his ancestral beliefs. He is a healthy and robust fellow. Talented and hardworking, he excels in mathematics and physics and skillfully operates the computer. He likes to wear blue jeans made by the Levi Strauss company and often wonders how this piece of clothing could become so popular throughout the world. Averon knows that Levi Strauss was a young German who immigrated to San Francisco in 1850 and realized his great idea: he bought a fabric called serge de Nime from France, dyed it blue, and made fashionable pants. Averon likes to watch American westerns, especially with John Wayne starring. He has a special liking for the way this legendary movie star personifies his roles. Averon likes to take care of his younger sister and two younger brothers. He often prepares meals for the young ones and helps his parents in the kitchen when the family and relatives come together on various holidays and festivals. He has inherited his cooking as well as folk pedagogical skills from his mother, grandmother, and numerous relatives. Understanding that the fauna of New Zealand are under threat, he joined the Save the Wildlife school club and does everything possible to make his personal contribution to saving wildlife. He hates the annihilation of mammals, birds, and fish,

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especially endangered and threatened species, by poachers. To protect these species, he is thinking of becoming a professional ranger after finishing school.

Knowledge about Students’ Learning Styles
Evidence indicates that children bring to school a variety of learning styles from their families, kindergartens, and local communities. Learning style may be approached from different perspectives. It is even more difficult to build a relevant typology of learning styles, especially in a contemporary, rapidly changing, and technology-related multicultural society. For example, Cushner (1990) looks at learning style from a psychological viewpoint. In addition to one general approach, predicting behavior as stimulus-response (S-R) model, another approximation suggests the stimulus-organism-response (S-0-R) model. According to this latter model, relationships between stimuli and responses are best predicted from information about the mediating processes that occur within an organism. Proposed as one such mediating process, learning style is seen as ”individual variations in how people perceive, think, solve problems, learn and absorb and retain information and/or skills” (102). Learning style can be looked at through the lens of an experiential learning cycle. Hughes-Weiner (cited in Cushner, 1990)relates the phases of this cycle to learning in an intercultural context. One preferred fashion of learning, concrete experience, refers to the experiences people from different cultures bring from the real world. A second preference, reflective observation, involves perception of, and response to, information. People from different communities and societies are likely to make different assumptions about the world and thereby acquire different bodies of language. Abstract conceptualization, a third preference, includes the formation of concepts and generalizations based on the individual’s inferences regarding distinct pieces of information.Active experimentation, a fourth preference, includes learning through practical manipulation of concrete objects or interaction with people from different cultures. Without claiming a complete coverage of these issues, I will focus further discussion on factors that affect, determine, and sustain students’ reflective choices in a culturally pluralistic classroom.

Social Factors. Social factors, often intertwined with ethnic and cultural ones, tremendously influence the character of individuals’ learning preferences. For example, a sense of collectivism, Russian society’s prevalent feature, which was strengthened during Soviet times, has made a huge impact on classroom practice. Collectivism has a lot of advantages. A sense of collectivism among children working in small groups helps stu-

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dents closely collaborate with each other in solving difficult pedagogical tasks. Advanced students willingly render assistance to slow learners both in and after classes. When a student is stressed or frustrated, peers usually support the ”sufferer” by a word or by just being around.

Cultural Factors. In early studies of human capacity and cognition, references were made to the dependence of cognitive abilities on cultural criteria. This does not, however, seem to be the case. Fundamental capacities of individuals to think and reason are not likely to be affected by cultural differences. Research conducted under culturally appropriate conditions maintains that ”unschooled individuals are capable of rigorous abstract thinking” (Cushner, 1990,109). A sacred goal of striving for knowledge and acquisition of the surrounding reality has been historically pursued by all cultures. In the course of time, different cultural groups, for many reasons, got accustomed to using specific cognitive and learning styles. In so doing, some cultures did stick very close to the rules of nature. For example, Navajo Indians, who have a traditional belief about the role of education and the pursuit of knowledge, often apply holistic approaches toward learning that result in a state of being called hozho (harmony or balance) (Keating, 1996). This approach is related to each of the four cardinal directions, which are symbolic of some major areas of learning. For instance, the north includes concepts such as the importance of respecting and understanding nature; the south is related to the understanding of all essentials of making a living, including elements of law, vocational education, and livestock management; the west is symbolic of understanding the social and emotional skills related to building strong family and interpersonal links; the east symbolizes the need for an orientation to life that includes a spiritual and physical dimension. According to Navajo tradition, a complete person is considered one who can concentrate and converge all these areas of knowledge. In other cultures, observational and interactive learning styles have made a considerable impact on children’s cognitive development. One may refer to the research conducted by John-Steiner (1984) in rural and tribal communities in Arizona and New Mexico. She comes to the conclusion that the Pueblo children she studied excel in observational learning and learning through exploration and social dialogue. They tend to observe adults involved in sequences of activities integrated over time (farming, craft! pottery, and tanning). Children are allowed to take a larger part in performing some of these activities. They are not rebuked for making mistakes, neither are they tied to a specific reward system. It was noticed that Pueblo children, learning from elders, friends, and peers, also prefer learning on their own: examining different objects, taking toys

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apart, roaming the woods, and playing in the fields during summertime. All these playful and exploratory activities develop a sense of wonder and sharpen children’s curiosity. It is also customary in Pueblo communities for children to interact often with the elderly, who verbally teach them some craft or introduce them to the realms of the unknown. The activities and social expectations verbalized by the elders form an ever present framework to young children. And these patterned experiences and words are acquired by children through listening and social dialogue. Learning through listening to, and interaction with, the elderly has also been a common practice in Bashkir communities of Russia, especially in rural areas with a stable ethnic texture and sustained historical traditions (Akhiyarov, 2000). In most Bashkir rural communities, children and teenagers are often reared by wise and experienced elders. Learning by listening and interaction with old men and women, traditionally called “learning by wisdom,” has always made a positive impact on personality formation and promoted the development of a patriotic attitude toward the homeland and its people, as well as toward indigenous customs and traditions. Akhiyarov indicates that a process of ”interaction with an elderly person encompasses a sense of the land’s past that the elderly individual carries within himself” (152). Considering dimensions of culture, students can be subdivided into field dependent (sensitive)and field independent. Field-dependent learners tend to perceive effects of the whole, prefer a personal client-therapist relationship, work cooperatively with others, and like to assist. They are verbally proficient, concerned with the social environment, and are sensitive to support or doubt from others. Field-independent students, on the other hand, are task-centered, more independent of external judgment, skilled in spatial areas such as mathematics and science concepts, and inclined to analyzing parts of the whole and arranging them into a whole. They prefer a formal client-therapist relationship and have a higher regard for working independently and for individual recognition (Halverson, 1979; Cohen, 1994; Slavin, 1995).As already mentioned, students of northern European countries are predominantly field independent, whereas students from Latino, African, and Asian cultures tend to be field sensitive. US. students of European descent are field independent. Conversely, Native Americans, Hispanics, and African Americans are field dependent and prefer a collectivistic working environment. With reference to Russia, a unique socioethnic region, one interim insight will fit the course of inquiry. It rests on the prerequisite about a relatively distinguishable and exposed line of socioeconomic and cultural demarcation that exists between the urban and rural styles of life. Both ethnic Russians and non-Russian children and teenagers in rural areas are more inclined to field-dependent and collectivistic strategies of learning and cognition,

Urban young people. whereas in polychronic communities learners may prefer doing several tasks simultaneously. . In territorial cultures. maintaining susceptibility to interruptions. and Judaism) gradually crystallizes a style of learning that is oriented to the formation of imaginative. where spatial proximity is a matter of minor importance. cooperative styles are often practiced. Whether religious and scientific ways of thinking contradict each other or not must be a special and larger topic of investigation. students prefer individual styles of learning and concentrate on work. Other things being equal. Religion affects cognitive preferences. Islam. Rural students are normally less pragmatically oriented and more dependent on the values of the indigenous culture. are more disposed to collectivistic and field-dependent learning strategies than their urban counterparts.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 205 whereas most urban residents and young people tend to be field independent. For example. rural-born and -raised students in Russia. ultramodern technology. rural students’ learning styles are more influenced by eth uc customs. In high power distance cultures. whereas a learning environment that provides students with empirical. The ambivalent feeling that students in secular institutions experience was discussed in chapter 1. A religion based on a belief in supernatural and heavenly forces (such as Christianity. with reference to the learning public of Russia. Urban/XuraZ Factors. especially in large metropolitan centers. As was mentioned. knowledge and information embedded in the curriculum must be scientifically proven. and cultural reasons. tend to be pragmatically oriented and are less dependent on ethnic values. expectant. earth-bound. modes of national labor management. Urban students’ learning preferences are developed under the influence of a specific multidimensional environment. teacher-initiated learning often occurs. and eschatological mode of thinking. owing to specific social. In monochronic cultures students tend to do one task at a time. economic. realized in Russia’s schools. and styles of social interaction and dialogue. colleges. and materialistic proofs and evidences molds a scientific and materialistic style of cognition. and higher institutions. students themselves may prefer certain learning techniques. ReZigious Factors. in low power distance cultures. students are expectant of how and what the teacher would ask or propose to do. Two salient segments of human society-urban and rural-play a definite role in shaping learning preferences. habits. Therefore. full of speedy life. and hundreds of other emerging factors. in proximity-indifferent societies.e of scientific approach. seems to be not only an ethnic but also an urban-rural issue. the field-dependent/independent issue. according to the didactic princip.

analytically minded individuals are unlikely to be interested in emotional and social topics and more easily find linear and causal-consequential relationships. schools and curriculum experiences exert a significant effect on learning styles. Deeply rooted family practices may be a cause of an emergence of students with relational and analytic learning styles (Hillard. In changing and novel circumstances. where interests of extended families predominate. A rapid increase of computers in schools. Increasing numbers of personal computers have made the learning process easier. analytic learners are likely to emerge from families in which assigned duties are specialized and formally distributed between the members. whereas in individualistic societies of northern Europe. When such a shift occurs. whereas learners with analytic stereotypes. students prefer individual forms of learning to learning in cooperation and in groups. Concentrating on the whole picture rather than on concrete components. are disposed to be field independent. a refocusing and reshaping of the organization of learning and cognitive skills takes place. they have to adapt to the requirements of novel situations. children tend to excel in cooperative learning. In the countries of Central and South America. neighbors.Cohen (1969) maintains that relational learners may come from families where functions are shared between the family members or the members of the extended family (including relatives. and friends). Technological Factors. a student often flexibly rebuilds styles of learning to adapt to change in a new learning environment. Cushner. Family stands as a salient factor in shaping a child’s learning style. focusing on individual parts of a whole rather than on the whole context. homes. Although styles of learning are relatively consistent over time. and (3) get used to utilizing multiple styles of learning. (2) acquire and master another style of learning. with the requirements differing from those peculiar to domestic and communal settings. The infusion of computers and related technology into the pedagogical process has had a significant impact on education.206 Chapter Six Parental Factors. As students from different cultural and ethnic backgrounds come to one classroom. and libraries and access to a variety of television channels have almost turned the printed text into a subordinate medium of information. 1989. Numerous ed- . Academic Factors. Relational and analytic learning modes can also be coined by socialization practices and depend on learners’ individual characteristics. relational learners tend to be field dependent. 1990). Relationally oriented individuals are also more emotional and social in focus and less capable of finding linear relationships. A student may (1) progress in shaping his or her traditional cultural learning style and achieve academically.

the decreasing rate of theater and movie attendance can be attributed. exerting a great effect on the acquisition of knowledge and information about this beautiful planet located within the solar system. technology-based and quickto-access styles of learning are vigorously taking shape. Children and adults with physical and mental disabilities can make use of distance-learning programs. teenagers. to the emergence of numerous and easy-to-access information and movie channels that can satisfy all possible tastes. The answer is not difficult in either cases: one of the reasons that contemporary students read less lies in the fact that modern technology facilitateslearning practices and addresses students’ informational needs. A pragmatically oriented teenager is usually inclined to gain knowledge and skills needed for economic and career opportunities. This pragmatic learning style can be contrasted with a knowledge-oriented style motivated by the value of knowledge itself and the need to broaden knowledge about the world in order to be an educated human being. Much may depend on the individual’s value system. it is not necessary to be proficient in spelling rules. because the computer can correct orthographic errors. For example. similarly. delay answering questions. student-teacher interactions within classroom and school environments still remain the most powerful means of learning and personality development. Technologybased styles are often contrasted to centuries-long and well-proven learning practices based on interaction with the teacher and work with a written text. in large part. in a safe corner of the galaxy Milky Way. Use of a learning style and the quality of acquisition depend on emo- . Modern technology contributes a lot to this live and invaluable teacher-student communication. In spite of the ever growing technological and computational modernization of pedagogical strategies and methods. The question “Why did people stop reading books?” might be likened to the one concerning why people stopped visiting theaters and movie houses. and prefer to be called upon rather than volunteer responses to questions. Conversely. and adults are available on TV programs and video cassettes. Styles of learning also depend on the learner’s inner psychological characteristics. With the impact of new technology on education and everyday life. It is scientifically proven that there are no direct relations between types of character and mental abilities. a melancholic or phlegmatic personality may prefer staying alone and working at a task individually. For a student.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 207 ucational programs for children. a sanguine or choleric child might prefer group work and be quick to respond. Students are free to download ready-made essays and diploma projects through the Internet and to easily translate texts from one language into another. Individual Psychological Factors.

In northern American and northern European elementary and secondary schools. auditory. According to traditional. Asian. through a variety of modes of learning or through the one he is inclined to. . students in the Eastern Hemisphere normally occupy their places at the tables and spend all lessons in the sitting position. Likewise. Most preferred may be sitting. lying. American students’ practice of eating and drinking during academic time may look incompatible with traditional standards of classroom behavior. feeling a sense of responsibility for the results of their education. also may attain subsequent objectives and. Physical position is not the least factor in cognitive activity. or kinesthetic). For a newcomer to the United States. preferences also vary. The greater a student’s interest in a target area of acquisition and the greater his emotional involvement. and African educational institutions. Biological orientations may vary with reference to learning sessions. Some students do it right after classes so as to be free until bedtime. Biophysical Factors.208 Chapter Six tional and motivational factors. Vygotsky (1991) maintained that ”only that knowledge can be inculcated upon a learner that has come through his emotional feelings’’ (14142). probably because most educational institutions function mainly in the first half of the day. succeed in adapting and using adequate techniques to carry out academic tasks. which provides a person with direct insights about print-embedded information and the surrounding world. despite novel surroundings and instructional styles. The teacher will never sit on a table or resort to drinking water or lemonade unless he or she is feeling unwell. As for the time for doing homework. all possible analyzers required by given learning situations. leaving morning and daytime hours to attend to other occupations. seeing a student sitting or lying on the floor during a lesson often causes a certain culture shock. after attending to nonacademic activities after classes. The average student predominantly prefers morning sessions. Others prefer evening sessions. reclining. Also. some give special preference to a concrete analyzer (visual. tactile. Moving within and leaving the classroom may be allowed only by a teacher who is considered an authority figure. students are permitted more casual physical postures than in Latin American. Individual biophysical characteristics may be an important factor in determining a student’s learning preferences. Most preferred among students is visual learning. in varying proportions. the greater the probability of his finding ways to internalize the topic under discussion. strict norms of classroom discipline. Although many learners prefer using. Still others like to concentrate on doing homework and other cognitive activity in the late evening or late night. Other students would rather study in the second half of the day. or even walking. persistent learners.

reducing the impetus of their cognitive intentions. bright or lower light. and Mexican Americans. .Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 209 Environmental Factors. historically proven approaches and methods. Comparing the learning characteristics of three hundred culturally different students in grades 4 to 6. Bright light is necessary for one student. and community members with reference to children and that had been used by their predecessors usually make a considerable impact on children’s personality growth and on shaping their learning styles and cognitive predisposition. Every student has a learning style. inclined to order and structure. Chinese. structure. This observation should be read not as a definition as such but only as a possible logical and interim outcome of the discussion. routine and patterns. and morning sessions. African Americans preferred quiet. and tactile and visual instruction. relatives. casual air of the room-these factors either facilitate or hinder cognitive processes. In sum. learning style can be specified as a purposefully determined and relatively habitual activity (either innately driven or formally acquired or representing a mixture of both). Physical and environmental preferences may be consonant with ethnic and culturally driven attributes. Even though the interior may resemble the Augean stables. 1990) found certain differential preferences in the learning styles of African. The boundaries between learning preferences are thus not clear-cut. mobility. Mexican Americans habitually preferred low light. Another learner. Some students require complete silence. Americans of Greek descent gave preference to variety and mobility. would prefer extreme cleanliness and order in the surroundings. Full silence or moderately noisy atmosphere. variety (rather than routine). Learning preferences can be changed over time or unlearned. Jalali (as cited in Cushner. or folk pedagogical approaches. bright light. the learner may be fully absorbed in productive learning. others prefer keeping their radios tuned to modern music. neatly cleaned or uncleaned room. individual learning predisposition may be both learned and innate. action-oriented instructional techniques. Cultural learning preferences are predominantly learned. Some students may be indifferent to how the room looks. warmth. for another. Greek. aimed at cognizing objective reality in a given learning situation in the formal classroom or elsewhere. Warm conditions may frustrate some students. bright light. and afternoon or evening learning sessions. cool or warm air. overbright light may be irritating. Chinese Americans had a higher regard for sound. The immediate surrounding leaves its imprint on learners’ cognitive preferences. while other learners may prefer such warmth. that are used by parents. Knowledge of the Traditions of Folk Pedagogy The traditional.

Traditionally. generous. proverbs. labor. The role folk songs and melodies play in educating the young is difficult to overestimate. 2000).” Some fairy tales show the privileges of love and strong friendship over hatred and shaky human relations.Among the first tunes a baby hears may be lullabies that are traditionally sung by moth- . As an invaluable phenomenon in child development.who is more known to the world as author of the epoch-making novels A n n a Karenina and W a r and Peace and less known as one of the renowned scholars and educators of his times. Since ancient times.” ”If parents want honest children. in a variety of its branches and ideas. Tolstoy (1989). Means ofFoZk Pedagogy. folk music. (3) human beings are required to be brave. Many fairy tales express the ideas of proverbs such as “A friend in need is a friend indeed. Volkov (1999)points out that folk songs ”depict the external and internal beauty of man” (101) and are assigned to enhance students’ aesthetic growth and other sides of personality development. Conversely. Fairy tales are a widely used means of teaching in various cultures.210 Chapter Six The principles of folk pedagogy of different groups have much in common. sufferings. the arts. They contain ideas that educate children and teenagers as well as older people. parents’ punishments. There is a close interrelation between folk pedagogy and classical scientific pedagogy. and help the poor.” ”Children have more needs of models than of critics. Frequently used among them are fairy tales. writes. and innermost dreams. the former ultimately comes out victorious.folk music reflects a people’s aspirations. This is a theme in many Chechen fairy tales. they should be honest themselves. both forced and free. and anecdotes. fairy tales carry the following overt and covert themes (Volkov.” “Life is in labor. 2000). and kindhearted. absorbs the best traditions of folk pedagogy of different peoples.” ”The love of money and the love of learning seldom meet. ”Children’s games. defend the weak.” ”He who can give has many a neighbor. learning. books. beginning from the sun and the human heart and ending with a grit and a drop of dew-all these educate” (67). riddles.” ”Time discovers truth. people have had a clear understanding that all that surrounds a child has a corresponding educative impact (Kukushin and Stoliarenko. folk pedagogy makes use of the strategic and tactical arsenal of classical pedagogy (Kukushin and Stoliarenko. (2) those who commit evil deeds must be punished accordingly.Expressing similar feelings. Classical pedagogy. life-all educate” (208). Volkov (1999) maintains that ”all the surrounding reality. expectations. 1999): (1)in the struggle between good and evil. Many means of folk pedagogy are used in different cultures. science. because they normally proceed from the overall value patterns characteristic of the whole human race.

Riddles are actively used in various subject areas. they also may be performed by sisters (even brothers). is found in the English proverb ”East or west-home is best. 1999.” Working with riddles helps teachers and parents reveal the degree and level of children’s curiosity. Rodznova. an alien land is as mother-in-law” and with the Ossetin proverb “Homeland is mother. “Oh. Psychologically. The teacher stood aside and watched. a famous oriental folk hero. Proverbs are easy to memorize and always incorporate a ”pedagogical moment-edification” (Volkov. the Russian proverb ”Russian land is mother. gave each a spade. Amazingly. 1999). having crossed his hands behind. relatives. I’ve come here to learn from . A similar idea. and creative thinking and helps develop their analytical thinking. therefore proverbs can serve as empirical indicators of national character” (224). An ancient anecdote on a pedagogical theme tells how Khadsha Nasretdin. Once the teacher took all the pupils into the garden. Each culture boasts at least one bedside song or tune. Short anecdotes can provide students with insights about how to behave and help them arrive at their own solutions in subsequent situations. and psychology (Akhiyarov.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 21 1 ers. depicted by different lexical means in different cultures. and their effect on people’s emotions can be likened to the impact of the Word of God upon a believer (Volkov. an alien land is mother-in-law” almost coincides in form with the Adigey proverb ”Homeland is as mother. my teacher. 1999). grandparents. Nasretdin was a schoolboy. especially in elementary classes. Interestingly. taught a lesson to his teacher. “Why are you not digging?“ asked the teacher. A long time ago. quickness of wit. their tremendous influence can be attributed to the fact that they express common social opinion and incorporate folk philosophy. one and the same idea can be depicted almost by the same verbal forms (symbols) in various cultures (Volkov. 2000). and asked them to dig the ground. sociology. Volkov assumes that ”lullaby pedagogy is the most nature-conformable pedagogy in human history” (89). and friends. The pupils rushed into digging. teachers first should explain the terminology of proverbs that they intend to use in the didactic process. 2000). 1999: 62). the idea ”there is no place like one’s native land” is important among many peoples. approached the teacher. but Nasretdin drove his spade deep into the ground and. an alien side is mother-inlaw” (33). Kukushin and Stoliarenko (2000) define the proverb as a sort of ”ethnostereotype that is sifted by time and deposited in folk memory. As some words used in proverbs are sometimes difficult for children to understand (especially at an elementary stage). observation.For example.” Proverbs encompass a great spiritual power. normally named by one word meaning ”lullaby. Singing lullabies to little ones is considered an element of folk pedagogy among many peoples (Volkov.

Family members have greater opportunities to challenge a child into various types of tasks. Traditionally. verbal mastery. a child is likely to perform an activity more accurately and behave more decently. play. your example. but then looked at the teacher and said. the teacher changed his opinion on how he should teach children to dig as well as other skills. The presence of adults makes a special impact on child behavior: noticing an adult’s presence and attention. Folk pedagogy is also based on making use of f a wide range of factors facilitating children’s cognitive and intellectual development. inclination to certain types of work. formation of curiosity. The family initiates and promotes the growth of personal qualities and skills such as industriousness. essential ideas of preparation for family life. Listening is known to represent an . Hearing Nasretdin. Involving children in work.” answered Nasretdin. Involving children in listening. religion. We want to follow. not from your pupils. Helping children. such as Playing with children. and hunting. development of established norms of hygiene. Older members of a family and extended family members can help organize and participate in play activities. holidays and festive events. elementary skills of counting and measuring. oh. When a child is involved in an activity. Factors o Folk Pedagogy. teacher. Providing children with an example to be imitated. as well as respect for parents and other people. work. In the overwhelming majority of cultures.21 2 Chapter Six you. all the other pupils first burst into laughter. an adult family member can easily help the child to better perform and achieve a result. Watching and monitoring children’s daily duties and responsibilities. Further discussion will focus on such factors as family. we also want to see how we need to operate with a spade while digging.” After this incident. the understanding of what is good and what is bad. cultural rituals. A family adult can easily show or propose a sample of behavior or activity worthy of guidance or imitation. and accumulation and sustenance of family values have been consonant with folk pedagogy and have been a sign of hope for a happy future. the family promotes the use of different methods of pedagogical influence. The family offers a natural caring and supportive environment for child development. nature. the phenomenon of family and its welfare. “Really.

help. by long-range observations and interactions with children. ”If you shoot into the past with a pistol. and Central and South American cultures. Middle Eastern. It is especially useful for young children and teenagers to interact with family and extended-family elders as well as with other older women and men. in . African. the future will shoot at you with a cannon. and white-bearded man. and the trails are not easy to blaze. a Dagestanian poet. and protection. and about what people must beware of and to their wise admonitions and examples. the child is entering an unknown world where he or she is not always welcomed. whitehaired. their wise advice. at the same time. 2001). In many Asian. the old woman. and the nurturing and secure environment they usually create in interacting with children and young people. the old man is symbolized as a wise. people have a special respect for the elderly and their wisdom. children are provided knowledge and wisdom and simultaneously develop important skills of listening comprehension. it is very timely to remember Rasul Gamzatov. Without difficulty. The family is a great source and prime place where intergenerational transmission of values takes place. Tatar children are sure that they can always address any old man or woman for advice. In this respect. who once said. An adult usually prepares a child for listening by telling the child to be attentive and not to digress from the main point. For instance. Old people embody a nation’s past and present. as a kindhearted woman in white shawl. grandparents. an adult family member can draw a child into participating in a dialogue. that there is no present and future without the past. This truth is highly praised among the Dagestanians and Chechens. and ensure the child’s understanding of necessary admonitions. kindhearted. provide the child with insights about the surrounding reality. The family provides an educating environment in which a child becomes an adolescent and prepared to step into a world where the child is awaited.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 21 3 active engagement promoting the acquisition of objective reality.” In the folk traditions of the Tatars. Intergenerational transmission. who understand that old men and women are a live voice of the past in the present. Involving children in social dialogue. Preparing children for life (in a broad sense). and neighbors) play a great role in talent recognition and development. relatives. can provide invaluable information that is needed to open their talent and set the stage to further their effective schooling (Feldhusen. It is especially useful for children to listen to adults’ opinions about some important issues that concern them. Old people (grandparents. By carefully listening to the adult.

000 population. either adopted or biologically related to one of the adults. the divorce rate in the world has risen considerably. the most powerful predictors for ”high” drinking were ”involvement with friends” and ”participation in commercial leisure” (279). Over 12 million American youngsters live below the poverty level (Cushner. poverty in families. even groups using authoritarian parenting (Rudy and Gmsec. Scottish teenagers drink most. Kloep et al. It is estimated that in the United States two-thirds of all the marriages will be disrupted through separation or divorce. The survey results show that parental attention can tremendously help children avoid drinking.214 Chapter Six turn.8-16. the divorce rate in the United States was approximately 1. patters. The family and parents may exercise a considerable positive impact on preventing such negative inclinations as alcohol and drug abuse.000 (McGeveran. in 1932. Over the last two to three decades. Family is a prime cell of society. and Sweden in order to study their reported drinking behaviors and their views on various social aspects of alcohol. These two important characteristic features may be present in all types of cultures. under the influence of these peers. the predictors for ”low” drinking among children were “involvement in activities with parents” and ”parental concerns about drinking. Beyond ethnicity. For instance. is one process that leads to cultural continuity (Schonpflug. (2001) conducted a special investigation with a sample of four thousand rural young people (aged 11. brothers. fairy tales. human society has seen negative changes in family structure. among the young people from the three countries. and Safford.” Interestingly. and an increase in nonformal groups of children that involve other children who. The results also show that. Scotland.5 years) from Norway. in Russia this disaster emerged shortly after the 1990s. Among the causal factors of child homelessness in Russia one can name alcohol or drug abuse of both parents. Another increasingly common family configuration is one in which two persons of the same sex are raising children. may eventually leave their parental environment for the sake of freedom and independence. especially in North America and Europe. Tragically. McClelland. whereas in the first part of the twenty-first century it reached around 5 per 1. . Still another family-related question is growing poverty. and other relatives). riddles. 2001). For example. Favorable conditions for promoting transmission of values in families can be created by warmth and benign ways of thinking among family members.6 per 1. 2001: 871). 2001). 2000). pIay may contain and be related to songs. As a serious activity for preparing children for adult life and labor. One more family-related negative phenomenon requiring attention is homelessness among children. unfavorable psychological atmosphere between parents and other close family members (sisters. dances.

Such has been and is a tradition among all indigenous peoples inhabiting the American . writes (cited in “Great Quotes. is inherent not only in man.” 1997): “Anew education from birth onward must be built up. Vygotsky (1991) maintains: Play.Play is a multidimensional.” writes Volkov (1999). learn to catch live mice. an animal’s baby is also fond of playing. artists. It has been a tradition among many peoples to educate their children to treat the land with reverence to preserve the ecobalance. and creative activity. a dramatization of memories about the beginning of humanity” (133). and find new natural environments quite empowering and productive for self-realization and self-education. a natural peculiarity of human nature. . a southwestern state in the United States.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 21 5 etc. The natural environment makes a tremendous impact on child development. Many students in mobile cultures easily adapt and adjust t a new surroundings. Education must be reconstructed and based on the laws of nature and not on the preconceived notions and prejudices of adult society” (16). etc. with all the flora and fauna included.124. one of the greatest painters in American history (Harris. Equally. is even more amazing than human diversity. . many poets. complex concept. 1993). attracted many artists who came and are still coming there to create masterpieces.). [Play] is the first school of thought for a child. this fact must have some biological sense: play is needed for some purpose and has a special biological designation. . the categories of nature and people are inseparable. and musicians find foreign nature a framework for success. . Play is natural school for an animal. otherwise it could not have existed and been widely used.127) The biodiversity of the natural environment. For example. and the unity of these two categories represents one of the harmonies of life. education. . playing with a ball of thread or a dead mouse brought by an adult cat. (123. 2002). In folk pedagogical traditions of many peoples (Aborigines of Australia. .124). ranging from an infant’s simple exercise to an older child’s participation (Santrock. This biological meaning of play as school and preparation for future activity is fully confirmed by studying human play (p. Native Americans. ”represents a materialization of taledreams. native Africans. ”Play. What may be the most significant contribution to New Mexico art came in the late 1920s in the person of Georgia OKeeffe. kittens. The environment of an alien land may also have an ineffable impact on a student’s learning. despite existing difficulties. the natural beauty of New Mexico. fantasy-dreams. positively affecting child-rearing practices as well as nurturing and enhancing young people’s abilities and skills. Thus. Maria Montessori. myth-wishes. Consequently. one of the greatest pedagogues of all times. The natural environment of the homeland has special power over people.

destruction of frontier forests. The children carefully carry out their duties. it is customary to appoint younger children to attend to young domestic animals. Involving children and teenagers in work related to household and farming ensures a platform for developing their industriousness and businesslike characteristics. Sharing this activity between boys and girls.hydrochlorofluocarbons. In Tatar and Bashkir communities. Attending to cattle and poultry helps develop the children’s sense of responsibility for domestic animals in particular and the animal world in general. methane. Over the twentieth century. children are often involved in col- . parents usually have their youngest son tend a young calf and their youngest daughter. In addition.216 Chapter Six continent. and strengthens their will. India. In recent years. human-made greenhouse gases (chlorofluorocarbons. and Germany (McGeveran. For example. and natural gas) and deforestation. Russia. and sulfur hexafluoride) and several nongreenhouse gases (carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen) and nonmethane volatile organic compounds contribute considerably to the greenhouse effect by producing greenhouse gases. Earth‘s average temperature rose by approximately one degree Fahrenheit and is estimated to rise by two to six degrees over the twenty-first century. Japan. and destruction of animal species. The United States remains the world’s leading producer of carbon dioxide. hydrofluorocarbons. a naturally occurring greenhouse gas. shrinking of surface water supplies. a rush to supermodernization and relentless exploitation of natural resources are destroying the ecosystem. followed by China. and Chuvash rural communities. Especially tragic is the situation in the Amazon basin (Lizarralde. carbon dioxide. most of which have been included in the endangered and threatened categories. poultry. The native tribes of the American continent were surprised by how ruthlessly the Spanish. Today the environmental situation is worsening throughout the world. other cataclysms are taking shape. has been building up in the atmosphere as the result of human activities such as the burning of fossil fuels (coal. Bashkir. oil. such as air pollution. despite the protective environmental legislation endorsed in all the countries of North and South America. from the modern territory of Canada to Chile and Argentina. and nitrous oxide is believed by many scientists to be the major cause of global warming in the 1990s and at the present time. Akhiyarov (2000)contends that ”labor education is a nucleus of folk pedagogy” (158). The greenhouse effect and global warming are knocking at the door. In addition to these abnormalities. Portuguese. perfluorocarbons. increases their solicitude and industriousness. and other European newcomers began to divide the land and intervene in the laws of nature. The increasing buildup of carbon dioxide. Global warming could bring about major changes in natural habitat and crop production. Today.2001). in Tatar. 2001: 232). Khazakh.

charitable. many pagan beliefs and polytheistic religions in the past contained awful rites. fathersin-law looked unfavorably at brides. The first article of the codes contained a decree depicting the outcomes of wrong education. According to Buddhism. as well as basic human assets and values. Volkov equates the document to an ethnopedagogical constitution because it was saturated with a folk pedagogical spirit and contained useful and educational admonitions to children and young people. and short stories. The fundamentals of Islam teach people to be merciful. It was stated in the decree that children did not follow fathers’ moral admonitions. The Khan. Although. who either help adults in the work or gain useful insights just by observing the enterprise and collaborating with adults. But these qualities are determined not only by being religious. in all its forms and dispositions. and sincere. such as sacrifice and blood feud.). gathering the harvest. whom Volkov (1999) ranks as one of the wisest folk educators of his times. preparing hay. parables. parents often come with their children. husbands did not have confidence in wives and wives did not follow husbands’ commands. Christianity places a special emphasis on love for children. The Khan used Yassa to rule and educate his people. Volkov (1999) holds that religion helps to develop a person’s sacred standing and spirituality. younger brothers ignored the words of elder brothers. During umas. Contrasting religion to atheism. ancient paganism has left to the world a great legacy applicable in child-rearing practices. brides did not respect mothers-in- .Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 21 7 lective labor enterprises organized by villagers. etc. Buddha used articulate. collectively organized. The idea of preparing a child for labor activity is imprinted in Mari folk pedagogy. remains a strong factor in folk pedagogical traditions. One such enterprise is the uma (from Tatar: collective work). Both religious and ancient pagan traditions contain huge educational potential. Even Mari lullabies embody a hope that a child will be a future helper of parents (Akhiyarov. it is important to know that religion. 2000). do not concede a privilege to believers. simple language teeming with sayings. and it is unwise to categorically reject all that is associated with religion and paganism. It is worthwhile to remember Genghis Khan (1162-1227). These are the qualities many young people lack today. honest. For a teacher committed to the ideas of multicultural education. created the Yassa. atheists who espouse human rights and democratic principles. according to contemporary understanding. a document consisting of two parts: folk sayings and a code of laws. a Mongol chief who consolidated pagan nomadic tribes into a unified Mongolia and created an empire extending from China to the Adriatic Sea in Europe. disinterested assistance for one family in a specific labor activity (building a house. The very personality of Buddha used to have a considerable effect on the young and the old.

fairs. in the Gathering of Nations. The decree pointed out that people did not possess order. together with adults. Certain communities celebrate their own specific feast days such as San Ildefonso’s Day. and parents. Japanese. at which representatives (dancers and singers) from tribes across North America come together to compete in a three-day festival in April at the . Comanche. committing adultery. The young and the adolescent join the competition. the northern Caucasus. Tatars and Bashkirs have an annual national holiday Sabantuy (from Tatar: plow party). On an appointed day. and using the scattered religious and pagan legacy (or religious and pagan diversity) must be an important task for multiculturally and globally oriented educators. and children get caught up in a vortex of holidaymaking. In some cultures. For example. and the young did not follow elders’ admonitions. especially when the young people themselves participate in the activities. a sabantuy includes Kurask.21 8 Chapter Six law. and harming neighbors. the national wrestling form of the Tatar and Bashkir peoples (wrestling in its many forms exists among Kazakhs. Georgians. Adults. Uzbeks. Tatar and Bashkir children and teenagers are also proud of participating in the annual Fresh Meat Holiday organized in the fall. rural families invite their relatives and friends to help slaughter cattle and prepare meat for winter storage. This holiday. it is customary to invite the young to participate in various cultural rituals. and carnivals make a tremendous impact on children’s imagination and personality development. Native American children and teenagers participate. stealing. Collecting. youth. expressing their joy over the ending of the seasonal sowing and the beginning of the haymaking season. digesting. In the repertoire of events. Young boys and girls observe how people cope with the cattle and are allowed to render feasible assistance to adults. Yakuts. For example. and Corn Dances that are so much a part of the Anasazi Indian culture. The code of laws also forbade lying. enhances children’s deeper understanding of the folk spirit and essence of what working on the land is. curriculum makers. and human relations as well as the relations between children and adults should be changed. children participate in the Harvest. and the winners usually receive a live sheep as a reward. Sabantuy has these days virtually become an intercultural festival and is celebrated not only in Tatarstan and Bashkortostan but also among the corn growers of the Volga basin area. and Siberia. in New Mexico’s Native American communities. common to all rural and urban residents and celebrated with a great enthusiasm. and other Asian ethnic groups). elders did not educate the young. 1993). National holidays. Periodically. festive events. during which villagers perform the Animal Dance and Santa Clara’s Dance (Harris.

Today. extended-family members. Competitions are categorized by the sex and age of the participants. Jingle Dress Dancing. Participation in hunting develops young people’s physical endurance and psychological characteristics and helps adults test them in atypical and extreme conditions. or a bow and arrows (Akhiyarov. Tatar. and in some cases still do. hunting and fishing are major factors of survival. In many cultures. involve the young in hunting. and Traditional Dancing. Developing Students’ Positive Attitude to Native and Global Values To learn about students’ competency in their own native values. I included the question “What are the most important values indicative of your nationality (fill out at least five blanks in rank order)?” as an item in the survey “Do we know ourselves and this multicultural world?” As was stated in the previous chapter. and consider students’ learning styles and cognitive preferences. it becomes important for a multicultural teacher to possess specific pedagogical skills. 2000). Russian. These activities play an invaluable role not only in folk pedagogy proper but also in the formal education process. the student sample of Ukrainian. Bashkir. For example. and other activities related to pursuing animals for food. with women and girls competing in Fancy or Shawl Dancing. organize field trips. fishing. hawks. some fowl. young people begin to feel a sense of togetherness and pride in their indigenous culture and acquire skills of communicating with adults and peers in specific conditions as well as corresponding skills in the activity they share with others. Men vie for recognition in their own major classifications of Grass Dancing. field. for some people in the world. among the 1.080 blanks that 360 re- . Adults taught the young how to pursue game in different periods of the year using natural signs in the forest. and golden eagles) was a widely used practice among Bashkirs. and Mari students included learners from senior grades.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 219 University of New Mexico in Albuquerque. By observing and participating in different cultural rituals. Pedagogical Skills To address the challenges of increasing diversity. adults used to. Fancy Dancing. and mountains. Successful young boys were rewarded with presents such as eggs. requiring teachers to maintain close linkages with parents. teaching children to hunt with the help of hunting birds (falcons. and Traditional Dancing. In reflecting on the survey question. water. and the local community.

These values are extolled in the Holy Bible and the Koran.” ”You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor. For example. Forty-five Russian and 31 Ukrainian respondents concurred that ”collectivism”is a major feature of their indigenous cultures.” ”empathy. but not to the whole people.” ”You shall not steal. Only 20 percent of all responses pertain to specific ethnic and cultural characteristics of the represented nationalities.” ”defending the weak. or anything that is your neighbor’s” (May and Metzger. that is. Kazakh males are especially strong adherents of dzigitlek. and undoubtedly also by Ukrainians. meaning a “diligent fellow. The response might be also true only of specific Mari people and Mari communities. On the whole. or his manservant. to a great extent. Some respondents indicated features that.” ”keeping away from (not stealing) national and other people’s property. the respondents themselves. the oriental category of dzigit can be likened to that of gentleman in Anglo-Saxon culture. 73 percent of the answers to this question contain. the Mari people. Sarakuev and Krysko (1996) indicate that among the former Soviet cultures. That adherence to ancient and pagan traditions is an important element of Mari culture was confirmed by 24 Mari examinees.220 Chapter Six spondents filled out. named “deep religiousness” as a dominant characteristic of Mari culture.” ”You shall not covet your neighbor’s house. or his maidservant. Fourteen Tatar and 15 Bashkir students pointed out ”respect for the elderly” as a national characteristic of their peoples. or his ass. universal idea.” Obviously. or donkey.” “love to parents. the dominant idea of the Russian national psychology embodies primacy of spiritual life over materialism.’’ “You shall not commit adultery. generally: ”love. This response might be true with reference to specific individuals of Russian origin. and the old and to render a helping hand to anyone in need. most of these human categories are congruent with the biblical commandments “Honor your father and your mother. a Russian male student indicated “pertinence to pragmatic (materialistic) values” as a prime value for people of Russian ethnicity. especially the eastern Mari.” ”honesty. Four Bashkir and 2 Tatar students extolled dzigitlek as a top national characteristic feature of their ethnic groups. the young. the weak. or his ox.” “marital fidelity.” ”helping people in need. a Mari female student. The survey outcomes provide evidence that most students are unaware . Another respondent. a global. Derived from the word dzigit.” ”industriousness. These answers or characteristics are. Russians.” dzigitlek symbolizes a brave and honest young man’s readiness to defend women. In a way. Tatars. For example. you shall not covet your neighbor’s wife. are not characteristic of their ethnic group. although religious.” and ”being a good citizen. these characteristics or values may be held by any citizen of the world. tend to adhere to their ancient. Conversely. and Mari. pagan customs and rites. for the most part. 1977). Bashkirs.

Teaching Children to Be Tolerant toward Other Cultures In considering tolerance. different lifestyles and behaviors. common standards of and attitudes to life. These attempts should not be considered as erroneous responses. developing attitudes involves behavior change.” It is necessary to know that cultural differences students possess are not their weak. ”You’ve got a very interesting accent. Their responses to the survey item illustrate their being relatively knowledgeable about global values and their labeling some global values as their people’s indigenous credo. economic. and a high evaluation of. a schoolboy seeing a girl with a number of braids will understand that she has a right to such a hairstyle and will not laugh at . the teacher may say. educators help students study other cultures and support the diverse ethnic and cultural traits that students bring to the classroom from home and community environments. Dmitriyev (1999) assumes there are four stages that students should pass through to become a tolerant member of human society. but their strong. For instance. spiritual.” Instead. It requires time and energy. it involves developing a sense of tolerance and a liberal attitude toward the diversity of students. Nor can it be done within one or two weeks. ”Haven’t you learned yet to speak English?” or “Everybody in America must be proficient in English. and common cultural. alien values and modes of life cannot be developed during one or two lessons or extracurricular activities. especially. Understanding and acceptance of other cultures is the second stage. universal values gives one more piece of evidence that each ethnic group as part of global society carries universal traits. This stage presupposes an admiration for. if there is a Spanish student who speaks English with an accent in an American classroom. The third stage is respecting cultural differences. that we all are and should be “one whole lot. which is closely related to the notion of positive attitude. Learning to be tolerant is the first stage. Predominance of accentuating.Multicultural Competencyof the Teacher 22 1 or only vaguely aware of what the category of value incorporates and what values are characteristic of their indigenous ethnicity. the teacher will injure the pride of this student by saying. consciously or subconsciously. Conversely. Oftentimes. For example. I like it.” Students’ positive attitudes to native and. and psychological needs. they demonstrate the students’ emerging awareness and acceptance of the pertinence of global values to their ethnic characteristics. Tolerance as a phenomenon can be perceived by students as a forced and disappointing necessity. Not only the classroom but the whole school should represent a favorable environment for children’s personality development and the development of their positive attitude to indigenous and global sets of values. points. At this stage.

teachers and educators lack necessary insights. and instructional strategies that could be instrumental in addressing the diversity of students. and stigmatized in some societies. compassion. Rather. introduce a very salient dimension into the entire notion of diversity. ”Are my attitudes toward children from poor families biased?” or ”Do I not have any prejudice toward Hispanics or Native Americans?” Instilling in Students a Positive Attitude toward Increasing and Changing Human Diversity In reading about human diversity in this study. they can provide the students with more knowledge about human diversity. in Russia. These two attributes. working by the trial-and-error method. inviting respected people . For example. Evidence indicates that minority racial. can deepen their knowledge about the country’s legendary past. simple norms of decency and behavior. hardly succeed in providing effective subject area instruction and attitude formation. the fourth stage. and children from low-income and impoverished settings are still marginalized. interacting with students. In ethnically and culturally pluralistic classrooms. presupposes the development of students’ active position: students will not wonder whether or not to interact with counterparts from other ethnic and cultural groups. Marginalized attitudes often occur through the symbolic curriculum. exceptional children. They will ask themselves. ethnocultural customs and traditions of their local communities. There are always many people in the local community and elsewhere who. teaching materials. sensitivity. at this stage. ethnicity. Approving of cultural differences.222 Chapter Six her. teachers need to reexamine and rethink their educational philosophies by displaying sincerity. some teachers use their own knowledge and pedagogy in dealing with students from different ethnocultural backgrounds and. ostracized. increasing and changing. ethnic. it is important to understand that humanity is coping not merely with diversity but with dramatically increasing and changing diversity. responses. what is allowed and what is not in a fragile world-that is. Teachers. and language groups. As the diversity variables (such as race. Educational institutions can benefit from inviting people from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds to participate in class and after-class activities. and understanding to all students and by accepting and being tolerant of a wide variety of views. their own school experiences and careers. and behaviors. Instead. gender) have not been thoroughly investigated theoretically and empirically for educational purposes. should be capable of critically looking at the styles of interactions with children to find out if there are biased and prejudiced attitudes in their own behavior. he will be interested to learn about the origin of the coiffure.

the young and the middle-aged have a special concern for the elderly. (2) instill a sense of pride on the part of students who belong to the same cultural group as the guest. even though it happened in the early 1960s. I remember the teacher’s inviting my father. a veteran of World War 11. and about how he went to war as a soldier and returned as an officer of the Red Army. a villager of Chuvash ethnic background. He told us about rural life and about the pleasant and difficult sides of rural labor. and religious background. was so charming. political. Obviously. I still remember his wrinkled face.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 223 and the elderly to school is a common and worthwhile practice. In the third millennium. and wars. Developing Students’ Empathetic and Compassionate Attitude toward Children with Alternative Health and Living Conditions Developing students’ empathy with people with alternative physical and mental abilities is a prime objective in a multicultural teacher’s work. and easy to talk with that. who really represented a multiethnic and multicultural melting pot-veterans of labor and World War 11. and cultural backgrounds. of any social. a man in his fifties. are homeless and suffer from hunger and deadly diseases. These are people who. people who have experienced natural disasters. and (3) unite more closely the multicultural classroom collective. I myself remember how our elementary teacher used to invite my classmates’ parents. with many social evils loudly exposed. as well as a respectful attitude toward the invaluable humanitarian legacy and wisdom from people from different ethnic. famous sportsmen. whom the teacher invited to address the class. it . and cultural groups represented in the classroom and the community. modest. Interaction with old men and women provides a useful framework for developing a sense of patriotism. This objective parallels another important goal: the teacher is required to teach students to be empathetic and tolerant toward people with alternative conditions of life. The collective farmer. I also remember listening to and interacting with a front-rank collective farmer. peasants. and representatives of the intelligentsia-who used to provide us with breathtaking information about the past and present of a multicultural Russia and about themselves. regional conflicts. for various reasons. painters. In many cultures of Central and South America and Central and Southeastern Asia. I can also see his toil-hardened hands and remember a couple of his country jokes. I still remember some of the stories and admonitions I heard from them. terrorist attacks. about being wounded. religious. social. who told the class about his participation in the war against Nazi Germany. interactions with such people help (1)develop respectful attitudes toward the ethnic. workers.

Empowering students with appropriate attitudes and concerns requires that the school environment and school-family relationships address and facilitate an appropriate and adequate input. socioeconomic. and (4)become caring and contributing members of society. such notorious phrases as “I don’t care. is ’What does a woman want?”’ (cited in Famighetti. a woman wants to be treated with that natural and humane care. On .’’ These and similar verbal expressions are almost identical in meaning in many human cultures. . the continuation of the human race. despite my thirty years of research into the feminine soul. socialization pattern. I think that it must become important for male students to be more sensitive to their female counterparts and their subculture. differences (caused by psychological. Some contemporary male students exhibit rather rough and rigid styles of behavior toward their female peers. and in some instances are becoming more marked. Classroom Management Skills When the task is set on integrating a multicultural content into the curriculum. for example. which I have not been able to answer. younger schoolboys.” “It’s not my business. One often hears. (2) feel other people’s needs as their own. . 39). and other factors) between them still exist. either in the Northern or the Southern Hemisphere. both inside and outside school. as well as how the teacher addresses racial. Probably. that she has not been sufficiently granted yet. 1999. providing that a major biological function. Developing Supportive Attitudes toward Members o the Opposite Sex f Despite the centuries-long mutual existence of men and women. Male students are expected to be constantly aware of the fact that it is the woman who is the most active participant in the continuation of human life. and patterns of ethnic identification. It is vital to provide children with insights about how to genuinely interact with members of the opposite sex. communication styles.224 Chapter Six has become very important for educational institutions to teach students to (1) help the poor and people in need. interactional and relational styles. (3) hear the cries of the mentally and physically impaired who often fall victims to evolution. There is a statement generally attributed to Sigmund Freud: “The great question. nurturing. the quality of classroom management largely depends on how well the teacher knows students’ core values. social class. learning styles and cognitive preferences. as well as attention and nurture. motherly attitude toward. gender. is being carried out.” ”It’s her (his) problem. and disability issues. And certain female students lack a caring.

Morris (1986) maintains that good order in the classroom results from united efforts on the part of students. ”Effective discipline becomes increasingly difficult when one or more of these agents fails to function properly” (135). especially in a culturally pluralistic audience. Also. has a tendency to generalization. a long-term reduction of future occurrences of the behavior. In dealing with classroom management and classroom control. which encompasses primarily the behavioral aspects of children’s interaction with the teacher and peers during the educational process as well as the teacher’s ability to cope with that behavior. teachers. the school milieu. pupils may escape or avoid a punishing situation. Praise also has both favorable and unfavorable characteristics. An integral part of classroom management is classroom control or discipline. in a multicultural classroom punishment is known to have both advantages and disadvantages. when pupils are constantly singled out for punishment. classroom management mastery depends on the entire pedagogical expertise of a multicultural teacher. as ancient as human history. two phenomena. Classroom management includes a variety of activities aimed at creating a productive and favorable learning environment. Praise .Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 225 the whole. Conversely. out-of-schoolcommunity and. This last statement is particularly relevant in working with students from Asian backgrounds: they need to know well what is expected of them. As interesting and motivating as lessons are. perhaps. Although problems in controlling students may be a symptom of a larger problem. and may have a negative influence on the self-concept or perception of the environment (if it is directed at the individual rather than at the behavior). disciplinary problems can and will arise. Problematic aspects of punishment are the following: punishment can lead to aggression. parents. they may be avoided or ridiculed by their classmates. As in any group of students. and administration. These are sensitive variables. the fewer problems may arise with discipline. As Heizman (1983) notes. not only the teacher but also students should know what is required of them in the classroom. (2) help pupils discriminate acceptable from unacceptable behaviors more rapidly. There is a close linkage between classroom control and teaching. the easier may be the process of teaching and learning. And finally. The more the teacher is involved in the active process of teaching and the more students are motivated and actively occupied with cognitive activity. the more able is the teacher in handling discipline. and (3) reduce the possibility that others present will imitate that behavior. In this respect. subjecting a student to a penalty for wrongdoing can (1) bring a rapid halt to an undesirable behavior and. in large part. cannot be avoided: punishment and praise (or reward). in the home or host society.

In a multiethnic and multicultural classroom. and age. It is universally acknowledged that teachers serve as role models. and remembered by students and are often imitated in similar situations and circumstances. religious. It is in this that the uniqueness of the teaching profession lies. and a wide range of continual stresses can cause teacher burnout. wise admonitions. If the student is praised much and often. ways of dressing. often result in teacher stress. What happens between teacher and learner inside and outside the classroom is of such significance that its effect often goes on forever. the teacher’s part in his or her education and development is immediately recalled. experience. Even more exemplary is the teaching profession in cultures where teachers are especially respected. their cognitive and behavioral characteristics and traits. and historical backgrounds. For example. colleagues. and. .226 Chapter Six instills in a student a hope that he or she is behaving decently and correctly and elicits the student’s further motivation to behave or learn better. praise also loses its essence. Teachers are often frustrated owing to lack of knowledge about their students’ cultural. and rarely challenged. in classrooms with students of Asian and Latin American origin. It is advisable: To start out with firm discipline without injuring the ethnic and cultural pride of any pupil. modes of behavior. leave the profession because their state of psychological and physical exhaustion does not permit them to work any longer. humorous stories or anecdotes. manners of behavior elsewhere-all are noticed. as soon as a former student meets or hears of a former teacher. and school administration. gestures. witty phrases. in everyday life. A multicultural teacher may be recommended to pay attention to the following considerations in classroom management. teachers and graduates keep on encountering each other. revered. and their families and communities. heard. One of the miracles of the pedagogical profession is that. frustrating situations may arise more often than in a standard monoethnic classroom. regardless of their professionalism. It is much easier to lighten up than to become more strict when problems start emerging. modes of communication with colleagues. arising in dealing with a single student. or adults in general. parents. parents. the ways teachers behave and interact and their admonitions make a uniquely significant impact on students’ personality development. group of students. These situations. teachers’ techniques and methods of instruction. Some teachers. because many pupils get used to being praised: they start awaiting praise for any minor action and begin behaving and working only for the sake of an expression of approval and admiration from teachers. In any culture.

To be honest and trust all students. when a person is thirsty. students have a tendency to gather empirical evidence and information and do not trust the teacher automatically.” wrote Sorokin. The Russian philosopher Sorokin (1991) referred to love as one of the greatest energies. for instance. In most cases. Lesson Organization Skills A human activity usually consists of at least five objectives. and personal behavioral dispositions. in turn. We put forward a goal of what we plan to do. My experience indicates that in collectively oriented and high-context cultures. who are often less noticed and less loved. ranking with the notions of truth and beauty. community members. Russians. at least five objectives: (1)setting the . ”is a vitamin for the healthy development of a child” (131). Pupils. and (3) to remember and pronounce each student’s name distinctly irrespective of the ethnolinguistic peculiarities of its pronunciation. and discuss by ourselves or with others the result of the activity (whether we have performed the activity effectively or ineffectively). even the teacher’s professional rank and experience are not sufficient to gain pupils’ trust. instead of assertion and punishment. The teacher’s dignity is often obtained from parents. and other teachers indirectly. nurturing attention and favor on low-achieving and ill-behaving children as well as on children with alternative physical and mental abilities. She discovers that she has money to buy liquid and a car to drive to a nearby shop. have more confidence in educators who trust and treat them honestly. Conducting a lesson also includes. academic achievement. Sometimes. but is not limited to. conduct the planned activity. (2) to focus special. select necessary means for materializing the goal. she sets a task to find some water.We are also required to be motivated: there should be a special impetus for us to carry out our plan well. She drives to a shop and buys a bottle of mineral water and satisfies her vital needs. misbehaving and low-achieving children need help and nurturing treatment. “Love. she feels refreshed and fantastic. regardless of their ethnocultural characteristics. For example. after slaking her thirst. through students. Then she discovers that. believe that love is a methodological notion in child-rearing practices. Students’ faith is gained after some period of witnessing the teacher’s work.It becomes important for the teacher (1) to let students know that he or she loves them. Being thirsty highly motivates her to find and drink at least several drops of any beverage.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 227 To love and treat each pupil as being of equal value.

For instance. if necessary. such as the English. the English. explained. In most cases. Open your books to page 88. we shall do exercise 2” is exactly an example not to follow. On the one hand. who usually need to know what. and (5) motivating students’ cognitive activity. The goals for lowachieving students and students outperforming their peers may differ from those designed for all the class. the teacher uses specific means of teaching and instructional styles in order to deliver a required message to students. and Asian ancestry. multiple instructional styles are most suitable in the didactic process. Low-achieving learners need individual care and tolerance on the part of the educator. (4) summing up. (2) selecting necessary means of teaching (an appropriate classroom. knowledge and information. ”Good morning. students of Asian backgrounds. the Dutch) prefer working individually. may perform several activities at a time. Tatars) usually feel comfortable in a cooperative learning environment. Goals. Means of Teaching and the Teaching Process. technical and nontechnical means of teaching. Not only the teacher but also all the students should know what is expected of them. how. are susceptible to interruptions. Germans. children. It is also essential to remember that some German students may prefer working cooperatively. Starting a lesson with the phrase. tend to compartmentalize themselves. and cheerfully share the results of their cognitive activity. Germans. Ukrainians. whereas field-independent and individualistically minded children (Americans of Northern European origin. Monochronically minded students. are easily distracted from the topic under discussion. and are reluctant to share the results of their academic performance. appropriate methods and techniques of instruction. need a more thorough explanation of lesson goals and procedures the teacher is going to undertake. and Norwegians. and to what extent they are required to perform an academic task. Field-sensitive and collectivistically minded learners (Hispanics. Polychronically minded learners. Goals must be declared articulately and. and some Hispanic students may feel comfortable studying individually. While conducting a lesson. such as pupils of Native American. African. computer use makes the . whereas gifted students often need supplementary assignments suiting their level of academic advancement. Use of computers has two sides: positive and negative. assist their peers in solving academic tasks. (3) organizing the process of teaching and assessing.). The contemporary computer-oriented epoch requires teachers to develop students’ skills of using and extracting knowledge and information through computers and related technology.228 Chapter Six goals of the lesson. books and reference literature. etc. Russians.

Fifth. Such tests are not sensitive or concrete enough to guide day-to-day activities. Their use constrains students’ role (because they have no power to shape their own testing experience) and limits parents’ role to that of consumers and recipients of testing information. both at school and at home. overuse of computer technology. and other simple tasks. First. correction. Participation in assessment activities enables pupils to understand their efforts and experiences in a way that is impossible with standardized testing practices. despite the model of the machine. young organism is especially susceptible to overexposure to the computer and TV. Having this information at hand. performance assessment. as well as the TV screen. through the whole educational process. Both teachers and students can generate information that provides accessible and meaningful pictures for parents. A developing. Third. An important part of the educational process is classroom assessment. it will also serve as a springboard for generating new questions. Fourth. On the other. Teachers need to exercise a variety of ways to know their students and be able to gather corroborating evidence and interpret it wisely-that is. parents can become active partners in assessment practices. and group and class discussion. a critical aspect of assessment is professional judgment. standardized tests requiring selection. consider the conditions under which it was gathered as well as the implications for acting on it. They should be encouraged to generate and collect information about their learning activities.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 229 learning process easier. Ellwein creates a vision for ameliorating classroom assessment by changing educators’ attitude primarily to the above-mentioned points. Ellwein (1996) postulates that standardized tests cannot always be a regular and meaningful part of the educational process. Assessment. students must play a much more active role in classroom assessment. Ellwein’s recommendations can be well applied in a multicultural classroom. nor should teachers be easily carried away by such tests working in a culturally pluralistic group. assessment should be undertaken frequently and regularly. A multicultural teacher can use both standardized or external tests and nontest methods such as question-response techniques. to some extent. negatively affects a person’s psychological state and eyesight. In traditional testing practice. values are not readily discussed. . Second. Multicultural teachers should not refuse to use traditional. The evidence the teacher gathers will document the learning process. substitution. parents will better understand how their children’s academic performance compares with what they see at home. parents. assessment practices should include the values component: educators are required to identify and monitor the ways their values influence what and how they assess and consider the values of students.

otherwise students’ attention will be distracted and the essence of all the useful information may be lost. In multicultural education a variety of ways may be used to increase students’ motivation.230 Chapter Six schools.” A mistake most educators make is that they tend to compare and measure children’s current answers against the average level of the performance of the whole class. because he has doubled his scope of geographic knowledge. Motivation of the Teaching Process. a low-achieving student who knows the names of ten countries and their capital cities and can show them on the map learns about ten more countries for a certain lesson. The efficacy of cognitive activity is largely dependent on the degree of motivation that a student possesses to productively carry out a cognitive incentive. The entire favorable academic atmosphere of the school-a warm and respectful attitude of teachers and administra- . it should be a key aspect of each lesson. Following this strategy. but according to the relative level of achievement. This average level often equals the level of an average or even a strong pupil’s achievement. because he already knows thirty-five countries. progress that might be even greater than that of an advanced pupil if the weak student’s progress is analyzed according to the relative-level criterion. Outlining lesson outcomes may include the assessment of students’ overall performance by giving grades and explaining the reasons. It is necessary to draw outcomes before the bell rings. he deserves more praise. the second student has a much better performance level. Lesson Outcomes. explaining the content of homework. For instance. An advanced student from the same class who knows thirty countries also memorizes the location of five more countries for the same lesson. and for this reason. teachers often underestimate or wrongly estimate and evaluate a weak student’s progress. When a student’s present level of achievement in a subject area is compared to the student’s previous level of performance in the same subject area. Discussing two situations with unequal levels of achievement might be helpful. the first learner has made more progress. Vygotsky (1991) maintains that assessing and evaluating students’ responses and academic achievement necessitate that teachers keep in mind two kinds of academic achievement levels: relative and absolute. the current level of advancement is called a ”relative success. As for the absolute criterion. and community from multicultural perspectives. the level of academic achievement of this student is referred to as an ”absolute success. and other necessary procedures and announcements. Even though the motivational objective is mentioned last here.” If a student’s present-day level of achievement is compared with that of the present generalized achievement of the whole class (or the level established by curriculum developers).

the whole situation with the organization of the lesson may differ.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 231 tors to each student as well as mutually favorable relationships between students-may be a prime way to enhance students’ motivation to school success. and motivate learners by using different approaches and techniques to meet the academic and psychological levels of development of each student. one second grader. Only after passing through a student’s feelings will a certain piece of knowledge be effectively acquired. in an elementary class consisting of three students.. For example. the teacher is obliged to adjust to each student’s level of performance and set goals. one student may be extremely talented. Vygotsky (1991)notes: [Elmotional reaction must lie at the core on the educating process. it is important to elicit their emotions. (14142) In small rural classes. . In this case. and one third grader. and a third student may be a low achiever. it is necessary: to treat students on an equal and equitable basis regardless of their ethnocultural characteristics to be tolerant of students’ ethnic and cultural peculiarities and promote a favorable learning environment for each student and the whole class to effectively use required instructional styles and technical and nontechnical means of teaching to favorably address students’ cognitive preferences to respect and expand a variety of cognitive and linguistic strengths that students bring into school from families and communities to effectively use grades as a means of reward and punishment to use and benefit from developing close relationships with parents in discussing academic achievements and solving pedagogical problems In motivating students’ cognitive activity. as mentioned earlier. In this case. . assess knowledge. Among other tasks. a second one on an average level of academic progress. . a rural teacher may simultaneously work with one first grader. select means. Prior to introducing certain knowledge. More difficult is the case when a rural teacher has to work in a small class made up of students of different age groups. the teacher is required to elicit a student’s corresponding emotion and relate this emotion to a novel item of knowledge under consideration. build the teaching process. For example.

(2) contributes to the public virtue and public good. Knowledge is a social construct. Both in teaching and in classroom management. For example. always having in mind students’ ethnic and cultural characteristics and their learning styles and cognitive preferences. there should be a paradigm shift from traditional to multicultural norms of knowledge construction. In the United States. Schools of this type are not uncommon. and values of the peoples and cultures that construct it. Knowledge Construction Knowledge is dynamic and debated among knowledge creators and users. and their achievements from the perspective of the dominant culture and predominantly from Eurocentric perspectives. or strategy is applicable to all cultures. no one technique. 1994). and cultural subdivisions the basic values and religious beliefs of the target group and their connection with those of the majority and other cultural and religious groups the major contributions of the target group to the development of national and global welfare . in rural Eurasia. applies the technique most consistent with a given student’s learning style and behavior at each given moment of the pedagogical process. a shift that considers the peculiarities of a given ethnocultural diversity of learners. An insightful teacher. perspectives. Any fragment of knowledge should be appropriately constructed. method. ethnic. human activities. and to one child in all circumstances. In designing and actualizing the goals and principles of multicultural education. introducing students from a majority culture to a minority culture within a nation-state (like introducing American students of ELIropean origin to Chinese culture or students of Russian descent to Buryat culture) necessitates that the majority culture members learn about: the origin and history of the minority ethnic group and their relation to the majority group and other racial. There is a need for all citizens to have a common core knowledge that (1) reflects cultural democracy and serves the needs of all the people.232 Chapter Six the teacher should keep in mind three separate programs. reference literature. to all children in one classroom. Canada. (3) reflects the experiences of all the nation’s citizens. modern textbooks. it reflects the experiences. and mass media often resort to reflecting historical events. and most Eurasian countries. for example. including Russia. and (4) empowers all people to participate effectively in a democratic society (Banks.

real and live God) and. especially. For instance. deluding weak-charactered and weak-minded people (Egortsev. Therefore. with her followers. and the Czech Republic) secondary and university students’ social development is highly praised. they often change their attitude. information and knowledge should correspond to wellknown facts. and Baltic and Slavic countries (such as Ukraine. Canada. casual acquaintances-all may stand as sources and transmitters of false knowledge and information. But when parents discover that involvement in social and extracurricular activities increases university admission and scholarship opportunities. In the United States. Poland. pretended to be the Messiah (i. and students should be taught how to tell true from false knowledge that corrupts and erodes pupils’ inner psychological world.. and to know that socialization practices are shared differently in different cultural environments. student socialization is related to social education. Young social educators find . The printed text. propagated false knowledge. Dresser (1996) notes that many newly arrived students from Asia to the United States reveal that their parents do not allow them to participate in extracurricular and out-of-school activities: students are expected to come straight home after classes. On a large scale.and university-based social educator preparation programs in Russia. a former Komsomol worker. Russia. Mary Davy Christ. 1997).e. The sect leader. in the 1990s the representatives of the sect the Great White Brotherhood propagated their canons of ”faithful life” in Russia and other Newly Independent States. northern Europe. Belarus. and to possess the skills necessary to do so. Student Socialization A multicultural teacher is expected to understand the importance of socializing students. A huge amount of false knowledge is disseminated through false sects. whereas in some Asian countries educators and. there are college. and people professionally involved in social education are called social educators or social pedagogues. For example. parents may be less interested in children’s social growth.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 233 the linguistic peculiarities of minority groups and their relation to the language of the majority culture the contribution of the majority group to the entire nation-state as well as to the development of the minority group Another goal that arises in constructing knowledge and enriching students’ informational scope is that educators should be careful not to introduce and direct students to false knowledge that “finds niches” in the minds and souls of the contemporary generation. TV and Internet channels.

and adults. yellow. People often work from one set of assumptions. Because of the way in which they are socialized. For instance. Bangladesh. and the Internet used at home. On a narrower scale. a human eye can distinguish more than eight million colors. Socialization is a unique process by which people learn what is required to be successful members of a given group. people receive a lot of information through their senses. Some habits people develop are positive and constructive. A major expression of ethnocentrism is resistance to change. and violet as the major categories. McClelland. Perception and categorization are both cognitive processes shaped by socialization. police stations. oceans. involving the socialization of adults into roles and situations for which they may have been unprepared by previous socialization: marrying. and Safford. or the societal level. taking a new job. McClelland. Responding to different stimuli. It is such a potent and powerful process that people are hardly aware that some other realities could exist (Cushner and Trifonovitch. one pattern of behavior. the institutional level. Tajikistan. the colors span- . green. they organize their world into groups of things sharing similar characteristics and then respond according to that category. Cushner. and (3) adult socialization. these habits of thought and behavior are so much a part of them that they find it very difficult to think that things can be done in any other way. For example. and the peer group. and Safford indicate that: People are creatures of habit who find it difficult to change. and elsewhere and work with children. neighborhood. and many other Asian countries)not as simply different from but beneath their own table manners. involving the school. which hinders a person’s adaptation and understanding of other cultures and ways of life. orange. (2) secondary socialization. and Safford. There is some consensus that socialization processes may occur at three stages of life (Cushner. McClelland. 2000). involving the socialization of young children by families and other early caregivers. pedagogical centers.234 Chapter Six jobs in various educational institutions. television. most Americans will consider eating with the fingers (traditional practice in Uzbekistan. as well as mass media. the process of socialization normally undergoes several manifestations (Cushner. One result of socialization is ethnocentrism: the belief that one’s way is the best one. which people group according to some scheme. Normally. mostly on the spectrum revealing red. blue. 2000): (1) primary socialization. teenagers. (18) Another result of socialization is demonstrated in the way individuals learn to perceive the surrounding reality and categorize information they receive. 1989). whether at the individual level. The color of the sky.” that of grass and leaves as ”green. etc. and seas is traditionally depicted as ”blue. indigo.” But in traditional Japanese language. others are negative and limiting.

The social environment is the key factor in child development. such as family and peer groups. the . church. The issues of child socialization and the critical role of the social environment in child development were scrupulously examined by Vygotsky (1991) He indicates that human behavior is made up of biological and social peculiarities." This may be explained by the fact that. the Japanese have learned to put these particular categories (blue and green) together. stereotypes obtain their power by providing categories that may encode some information so as to help people avoid having to pay attention to all the sensory data available around them. to stereotype girls as weak and passive than to notice that some of them may be stronger than boys. attitudes. historically. As examples of categories of people. and the role of the teacher amounts to controlling this key factor. such as mass media. the workplace. for example. and technology. socialization is limited by the nature of the child as a physical organism (for instance.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 235 ning blue and green wavelengths are referred to by the term oai. The previous chapters have already provided brief accounts on the role of some of these agents in human society and multicultural education. If asked the color of both the sky and the grass. print media. This new system of reactions is totally determined by the social environment in which an organism grows and develops. others. consequently. electronic media. have limits. McClelland. the arts. Negative stereotypes enable people to keep their ethnocentric ideas intact by preventing them from noticing contradictory evidence before their very eyes. Some of the socializing agents. community. Second. But the powers of socialization. Third. an ideal child development process is possible on the basis of an appropriately organized and directed social environment. use technological means to operate from a distance. knowledge. school. The biological factor determines that basis that the human organism is unable to come out of and over which a system of acquired reactions is built. whereas EuroAmericans have grouped them into two. the response will be "oai. as Cushner. and skills through a variety of socializing agents such as family. neighborhood. it is not the case that any child can be taught beyond his or her biological limits). peer group. and Safford maintain. Therefore. It is much easier. sports. as an unending process. while a child can learn any particular pattern of living. It is important for a multicultural teacher to understand that students become socialized and form their cultural identity by acquiring appropriate values. the phenomenon of socialization is never completely finished (a child socialized to some patterns can learn new ones). First. socialization is limited in its powers because people do not remain passive recipients of socialization but always act on that socialization. and. Still another result of socialization is seen in stereotype formation. operate face-to-face.

”Ethnographers try to understand complex settings through the eyes of the observer and the participants’’ (Boyle-Baise. and school district authorities to ameliorate the classroom. and communities where actions and meaning are complex. The overall objective of social education should be directed to moving apart the boundaries of the personal and the limited and to adjusting contacts between a child’s psychological makeup and the extensive spheres of the already accumulated social experience. schools. as well as in the process of improving the school environment. an initial and prime objective in child upbringing and development is solving the entire social problem. 1996: 378). According to Vygotsky. Ethnographic Research A professional ethnographer tries to understand the natural and social environment by collecting information by observation. Summary This chapter has examined the types of multicultural competency needed by a teacher who intends to work with diverse students. and local community environments so as to involve students in various after-class activities. and people look at them differently. Teaching children to conduct ethnographic investigations is considered an important means to elicit their curiosity and motivation (Marcus. to understand the importance of the school reform movement. school. 1998. A multicultural teacher should also use certain skills of ethnographic investigation. and (3) learn about various folk customs and folk pedagogical traditions of the people whose children attend the school. helps educators (1) better understand classrooms. 2000-2001).236 Chapter Six fundamental issues of child development can be solved only after solving the overall social problem. studying maps and artifacts. It may hardly be possible to completely meet this overarching objective in all cultures. (2) discover strengths and perspectives of different sociocultural groups. but it is quite possible for teachers. community. contends Boyle-Baise. and to possess a constantly grow- .The theoretical and practical recommendations offered may be helpful for any teacher who is inspired by the idea of multicultural. intercultural. Such investigation in a culturally pluralistic setting. and international education. school administrators. and taking pictures. a multiculturally minded teacher is required to have a positive attitude to diversity. Carpenter. As far as attitudes are concerned. interviewing. and larger social layer by developing decision-making and social-action skills.

technological. lesson organization. play. (2) diversity and culture. nature. biophysical. These means and factors are used not only in folk pedagogical traditions of many ethnic and cultural groups across the globe but also in classic or formal educational systems. rural. psychological. The arsenal of folk pedagogy includes. such as fairy tales. Family environment.Multicultural Competency of the Teacher 237 ing will for enhancing the multicultural and global horizon (by participating in formal in-service teacher development programs. Folk pedagogy profits from using a plethora of factors facilitating and strengthening child-development processes. folk music. student socialization. but is not limited to. school. to teach them to be tolerant toward alien cultures and lifestyles. and through self-education). cultural. work. academic. national. religion. and larger layers. hunting-all may be included on the list. invaluable means of teaching. With respect to knowledge. religious. and global values. urban. a multicultural educator must also know how to develop learners’ positive attitude to indigenous and global values. riddles. and to develop caring attitudes toward members of the opposite sex. It also is necessary to be skilled in classroom management. to elicit in them a compassionate attitude toward people with alternative health and living conditions. and ethnographic research. knowledge construction. proverbs. and anecdotes. a teacher committed to multicultural ideas needs to possess knowledge about (1)ethnic. learning from other educators’ experience. (3) students’ learning and cognitive preferences that may be affected by social. parental. To address the diversity of students. and environmental factors. . and (4) the folk pedagogical traditions of various ethnic and cultural groups represented in the classroom. to de (elop a positive attitude toward increasing and changing diversity. holidays and ethnocultural rituals and rites.

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The contemporary human world is becoming diverse and continually changing. and technological progress is paralleled by the growth of regressive processes. The important questions that have been raised in this study have made it possible to draw some conclusions on a range of issues. Multicultural education can be implemented both in standard and nonstandard schools.Conclusion This book has focused on some theoretical and practical issues in constructing multicultural education in a diverse society. has spread beyond that country’s borders and is taking hold in the Eurasian continent. anthropological versus nonanthropological. religious. initiated by the civil rights movement in the United States. which in many countries differs distinctly from the urban school (with Russia as a brilliant example). sociocultural. Multicultural education. ethnic. The rural school. approaching it from sociohistorical. individualism versus collectivism. such as schools for exceptional or gifted students. and parents. Growing and changing diversity poses new challenges and opportunities for multicultural teachers. multicultural teachers can apply in their work a criterion-based approach to culture. educational. is another important springboard for implementing multicultural education. Unprecedented humanitarian. including Russia. The schools also reflect the ever growing diversity in human societies. sociogeographic. subjective versus objective. 239 . For example. communication. gender. space. Growing numbers of people from different ethnic and cultural backgrounds are interacting with increased regularity and frequency. educators. Teachers involved in multicultural education are expected to have a good understanding of the larger phenomenon of culture and related issues as well as ethnopsychological and cultural characteristics of their students. education policy makers. power distance. a country with the largest territory in the world. and time criteria. linguistic.

then I will consider that some of the goals put forward in this work are on the way to being met. multicultural social studies education obligates the teacher to possess a required level of sociohistorical. teachers need to ensure students’ understanding of the image of a healthy person in different societies. For example. knowledge. In contemporary. and to integrate music into other subject areas. In creating and implementing a multicultural curriculum. multicultural strategies are realized through the spectrum of bilingual education programs as well as through other approaches to ethnolinguistic diversity. to design and put into effect relevant pedagogical strategies. and further enrich such ideas. it is necessary to consider the nature of each subject area. a multiculturally minded teacher is required to have a positive attitude toward ethnic and cultural diversity. sociogeographical. conceptualize. and skills to favorably address the diversity of students. This book has covered only a small number of topics on diversity. and technological competency. a language teacher is expected (1)to be proficient in and able to teach three languages: the native language of minority students. Ideally. sociopolitical. For example. and to teach students to be tolerant of foreign cultures and lifestyles. pluralistic approaches in music educatim make it incumbent upon teachers to think deeply about misconceptions hindering the process of teaching musical culture. and a foreign language. provide them with the knowledge of how people from different cultural backgrounds perceive and treat various diseases. analyses. globalism. multiculturalism. to build a relevant content that can address the aesthetic and cultural needs of all children. know about students’ learning and cognitive preferences that may be affected and shaped by a wide range of cultural and educational factors.sociological. A teacher of any subject who is committed to multicultural education is expected to have appropriate attitudes. music-deficient schooling. in bilingual settings. The teacher’s professional expertise will be enriched if he or she is knowledgeable about the folk pedagogical traditions of various ethnic and cultural groups represented in the classroom and the local community. . If any of the issues. and (2) to be psychologically and pedagogically prepared to teach culture content through any of the three languages. and ensure the development of skills to undertake preventive measures. In health education. or recommendations happen to inspire educators or readers from other walks of life to further think of.240 Conclusion In some multilingual and bilingual areas of the world. the mainstream language (like English in the United States or Russian in Russia). and multicultural education.

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160-61 Beethoven. 97. 181.45.49.. 193 bilingual education.Index Aborigines of Australia. 177. 72 Buryats. 166 banya.80.57-58 assimilationalists. consequences of. 216. 193 Bach. 6 Birsk Pedagogical institute.117. 126-27. music of. 1 bouillon medicine. nonanthropological criterion. definition of. van. two-way. 181 black English. factors causing. 113-21.209. G.56-57. socioeconomic.194.215 achievement approach. 114. J. Empress. 8. 151 Buddhism. notion of. 204. models of. 165 Brooks.81. mainstream. 170. 163. 181 balm medicine.196. 32. transitional. 73. A. 48. 147.150. 162-64. 21. See multicultural education Adler. 162. 147 African Americans.151 Asian Americans..193 Armenians. 36.. folk music of. 44. 68. developmental. 45. 163. Kemal. 33-36 ailments. 63-64. 120-21. technology-related. 179 1 body language.171. ethnocultural.217 bullfighting.197-98. 163-64 Akhiyarov.175. Billy the Kid.. 126.228 anthropological vs. 164. 113-16. 95 Albanians. 166 Brazilians.43. 18. 51. See also culture Arabs. 179. 126. 151 Alexandra Feodorovna. 179 age periods. 5. L. K. 121-28. 10 blues. 124 bilingualism. urban. 92 Atatiirk.175 beauty. 68. 193 Armstrong. B.218... 126-27 Bilingual Education Act of 1968. 51 biodiversity. 20 Americans.204.150 Azerbaijanis. 20 255 . 164. 37 Belorussians. 51-52.201 bagpipes. 115 Byzantians.162. 7 alcohol consumption.214 Aldrin.201 behavioral approaches. 45. 167 Bashkirs. 177-78 Beatles. typ010g~ 116-19 Of. N.

181 Crazy Horse. 154-56. 8. 102.14548. 100. 21-24. 127 ethnic values. 69 Einstein.151 Diana..68 Cook. 13-16 divorce. high and low.148. 155.194. 10.73 decentralization of schooling.167 Chinese Americans..214. 102-104. 164-65 disability. 95-96. 16-18. education of. 43.43. 102-3 .89.217 Chuvashes.148. 59 drug abuse. 22.149 education. 214 Dostoyevsky. 30.. See classroom management diversity: rural vs. 66-67. 162-63 discipline. 37 college period.195. visually impaired. 192-95 ethnocentric conflicts.20.256 Index Cambodians.101. J. Louisiana French. 29. definition of. Evenki. 10. C. Hawaiian.74-75.121.71.213 Chinese. See also folk Peda~ogy Crusaders.. 18-19.. multicultural education and. 10. 120 exceptional children.. 18 curriculum planning.165 culture. 5 ESL (English as a Second Language). 148 Cochise.65-66. 53 cognitive and mental disability.209 Christian Arabs. 181. multicultural and social reconstructionist. 73. 162.. de. urban. 136 English Only Movement. hearing impaired.228 English language. 10 Cubans. J. cultural rituals. 3949. 7 Cervantes. E. 86-87 education. 53 Creoles. 72 chastity. 51 democracy and Russian education. 14-16 demographic change. 125 environment..190 English (ethnicity). 96. 193. 88-89 ethnopedagogy. 3940.165. 56 country music. attitudes toward. 87-88 Dewey.54. 14-15 Declaration of Independence.Gullah.-G. 115 Christianity.. 44-45. 213 Darwin. 5. 88-89 ethnocentrism. Princess of Wales. 124 English Plus.75. 40-49. English and French in. 148 dining practices. See exceptional children cognitive social approaches. 124 Cortes. 218-19. F.79-80 classroom management. 31 Chechens. 154 Celiics.29.. 43. H. A.51. C.86. 149 Cooper. 56. 148. See age periods Columbus. A. F. 73-74.165. nature of.166.. 15 curriculum reform approach.127 ESOL (Englishfor Speakers of Other Languages). L. 5. 118. 205. 43. 7.166 Canada as multicultural society.. 95-96.200 compartmentalization. 8. 27-28. B. 72 Cosby.121. sociopolitical. criterion-based approach to. 29. See multicultural education Dagestanians. 216 Erikson. 179.72.216 civil rights movement. See multicultural education Eiffel. M. 166 Dutch. 36 Eriksson. 224-27 Cleopatra. ethnic groups in. socioeconomic. 51 Coral Way Elementary School.

E. Islam.8. 210. 28 global education. 58.32.125.214 homosexual relations. J. 7. 120 Ivanov. 26. 5-6.. 170-71 healthy person.T. factors of. 158-59...165 holidays.147 Fromm.71. 219. 100 Fleming. 51 Hinduism.224 Georgians. with monoethnic populations. 204-5 Finns.132 fraternities and sororities. Y.195. 56 James.204. 105 giftedness. 36. 150.235 jazz. See multicultural education Iranians. 26-27 health education: multicultural ap- proaches in.146. 29-32.102. 24. 13 French. for gifted learners.127. urban and rural. G.59 Gamzatov. 194.196 Hispanics. 9696. 210-12 foreign-language teaching/learning. M. 164 field dependent and field independent students. 97-98. 97. 167 honey medicine.43. 162 Irish. 166 human diversity. 7 Isanbaev. See also folk pedagogy homelessness. A.75-76.171. 51 Japanese. 218. J.195 . 65 Jackson. 100 hunting and fishing.69-70 Fresh Meat Holiday. 7.31 Gypsies.54-56.14748. See also folk pedagogy family.. 194.130.50.. 177-79. Wild Bill. learning styles of. S. 36. 144-45 global values. collectivism criterion. 213 Gandhi. 218 Freud.. 98.60.148 Greek Americans.182-83 . 100. 14. See multicultural education Hungarians.91.. 7. 104-5.222 human relations.210..200 folk music. M.228. classical pedagogy and. 68 Gorbachev.. 42.84.194. 216 Goethe. 31. with multiethnic learning public.218. 53 gifted children...217 Italians. means of. 165 Harrison. See also folk pedagogy folk pedagogy. 15.. 80 institutions:for bilingual-bicultural students.100. deterioration of children’s. 98-100 intergroup education approach. 193. K. See also culture Indonesians.147 Gagarin. 209 Greeks. for exceptional students.67-69.Index 257 fairy tales. 179 Jefferson. 31 Itelmens.. 170 Hagia Sofia. See also sexually transmitted diseases Hmong. 160-71. Y . 18. 73 health. 150 gender diversity. See also folk pedagogy fatty food. R. 160-62 Hickok. 212-19.228 Geronimo. See also folk Peda~ogy individualism vs.145.31.50. parental involvement in. 27. image of. education of.209-210. 210.218 Germans.200. 4546. 220-21 global warming. 20-21 Haitians. 212-14. 97. 28-29.228 HIV/AIDS.148 Jesus Christ. 48. M. 7.

148 Makarenko. teaching process at the.209 Mexicans. 132-34.218 Kechua.166 learning style. See also culture McCartney.. 164.258 Jews. 7 Lemon. 229-30. 173.165. 206. N. 202-9.9. See also culture monolingualism. 120 Moors. 122-23 language teacher competency. 85-86 multicultural-education-for-allapproach. principal. 148 Muhammad. 56 music. 73 Mendeleev.70-71 Jordan. 147 Moscow Temple of Christ the Savior. 130-32. 92-94... motivation of students during. popular Kalmyks. Jr. 12. 56 Joseph. 90-91. 177-79. 185-190. Y. relational.129. 53 Judaism.. change. D. 196 Mordva. 8. analytic. 82-85. 12. policies. 130.. 51 Magellan. death. 31-32 Mandela. 150 Maori. assessment in.182-83 Lakota Sioux. 29 . approaches to. reversal. 115 Kazakhs. 31. 79-100. 171. technology-based. misconceptions in. 232-33 knowledge and information explosion. 134-38. 165 middle school period.. 181. 149 Mari.. See age periods Index Lithuanians. knowledge of. 162. 165 migration. 19-20 Mother Theresa. 15 language rights. W. 4647. 200 masculinity/ femininity criterion. 8 kuray. attitudes of. M. 87-89.216. policy in Russia. See age periods Mien. literacy and proficiency. P. 194 multicultural education. 227-28. 14 Milky Way. 71 kolkkozes and sovkkozes. F. 191-219. J.. L. 12. 24-26 Kokhba. methodology of. 120 Kennedy. 148 junior school period. 193 Longfellow. construction Of. factors necessitating. 8 Mormons.. 228. 62 male-female relations. 206.232. 191-92. revival. 229-36 Murphy. multiple.121-22. 206. atmosphere in Russia. 32'90 language(s).64-65. E.205. 19. 101-2 multiculturalists. 230-32. 164 knowledge.. 120 King.. J. 130 language planning. B. 95 Koreans. 92 multicultural teacher.. dimensions of. S. 185.. A.. 8. H. 129-30. contact.189 Marley. goals of.198 Moscow Pedagogical State University. 13. 205 Julius Caesar. 49. M. 59 Mexican Americans. 228-29 Lincoln. 73 lesson.210. 137 Lao. B. folk. 152 Khanti. 24 Komensky. A.. 56 Kirghiz. 43. 207 monochronic and polychronic dimentions. 9-10. f skills o the.. 207 Lebanese.

165 punishment. I. 53 Osceola. 7-9. See also folk pedagogy Navajo. 1 rural life. 228 natural environment. 215-16. 73 Roman Empire. 49-50 native Africans. religious. 22 rural schools. See also disability play. 2034 Puerto Ricans.204. 101. 152. 95 Peter the Great. G. 36 Pueblo. 153 perestroika. 18-21. 12. definition of.. 136-37 Nirvana..216 positive transfer. skills of the. J. See also folk pedagogy Picasso. R.. 228 Nureyev. 23 Norwegians. 161-62 objective vs.59-61. V. 51. 53 Ortiz.215. 18 religious diversity. 22 Rousseau. subjective criterion. 173..228 Native Americans. 178 .179. growth Of. B. See also culture Old Zufii Mission Church. See classroom management Puritans. 148 phenomenological approaches. advantages of. F. 173-75 music education.. 195 particularist approach... E.. 59 pedagogy.8.54. 72 Pizarro.J. 194 Nogai. 45.115. 205. 98-100 rural teacher: attitudes of the.. 88 Polynesian Islanders.148 Putin.. See also rural education Russians (citizens). knowledge of the.82. 18 national character. 59 reggae. 162 Paul (Saul). 75. 109. 182.103 Roosevelt. 20-21. See classroom management preschool period. 214-15. 5. J. S. 19-20 rock and roll. 81 Portuguese. 189. 53 Owens. 30 Pushkin.. 211. in the United States..171.149. T. 19. 179 Rolling Stones.228.52-54. misconceptions in. 8 Roosevelt. 173-76 Napoleon. 87 Pele. See also folk pedagogy psychodynamic theory. F. content of. 181.170. 176-79. in Russia. 108-109. 60 race and racial groups.152 obesity.Index 259 and classic. 54.228 native Asians. 157-58 racial and ethnic diversity. 175. 37 physical disability. 186 Russians (ethnicity). 16 proverbs.. 56 Pakistanis. P. 59. See multicultural education Pavlov. 18. A. 105-110 1 rural English.203 negative transfer.55. 69 rural education. 166. changes in.144 Pestalozzi. 120 nonfarm and farm groups.166.179 prosperity and poverty.. 63.204. universal mesage of. 107-108.. 8-9 Rasputin. J.178. 215. 72 polarization of human societies. 167.11.200 religion.218-19. 136 praise. 7. folk music of. 175. See age period Presley.5. 7-8 racial conflicts.227. 43.

65 Truth. 167 Syrians. See age periods Seowtewa. 154-57. 189-90 Smolny Institute for Noble Girls. 145-48. 56 Tukay. 59. V. 148.181... positive and negative factors of. 22-23 urban-rural population. 21 . organization of.260 Index Sabantuy. 145-60.149 Tatars.54. A. international. L.. 167. 31-32 Sukhomlinsky. 186 Spanish. 193 Turner. A.175. W. sociogeographical competency of. 51 Udmurts. 53 Sequoya.146. 165-67 trilingualism. Chuvash-Russian-Tatar natural. 144-45. 36-37 treatment of diseases across cultures. 59.218...171. 7 second-language learning.95 trait and behavioral approaches. 53 Slovenes. 87 urban life. 15960 socioeconomic changes. See work universalistic approach. R. 7 Tamils. 73 student socialization. 127-28 self-education. culturological competency of. 189. 7 smoking. 17 social studies education. 148.72-73. See multicultural education upbringing. 228 Ulster. 5.. 30-31 social status.. 48 schooling. 8.. 7 uma. 14244 social studies teacher. 24 Starr. 11 Sitting Bull. 61 Turks.6142.216 spirituals. sociological competency of.31. 158-59. proportions of...164. T. A.213. 228 Tchaikovsky. sociopolitical competency of.201 Tecumseh. 8. 179 Sputnik.216. 157-58. 89 thalassemia. G. 53 Saomi. 196 Tasman. 73 Shintoism. history of.170 Shakespeare. 120 senior school period. 120 Scandinavians. 53 Seven Natural Wonders. 48 symbols and signs.. P. 221-22 Tolstoy. 53 terrorism. 189 Ukhsay. 171. Y.. 153-54 sexually transmitted diseases (STDs). 156-57 Seven Wonders of the Ancient World. 17-18 sociopolitical changes.. 14142. 14 Solzhenitsyn. 162 tolerance. 196 singing in Christian public worship. 164. M. 56 Twain. 166-67 Swiss. 218 Sacagawea. S. 233-36 submissiveness to man. 95 Surinamese. 190-91 Selkups. 8.6243. goals of. 65 Ukrainians. 80 sweating. 131 scots. 14-15 schools of Russia. See multicultural education sign language. sociohistorical competency of. technological competency of. 181 single-group studies. 197 Singalese.

. D.95 Uzbekova. I. 31. R.166 Volkov. 72 venik..218 valeological education. 165.149. 167 Victoria. 7 women.. 164.193..lndex 261 urban schools. 73.193. 217-18 Yeltsin. See also folk pedagogy Yakovlev. 59.. 20. L.. 216-17. 42 Wayne. 60 .148 Vietnamese. 201 Welsh. 189 Yassa. 189-190 Uzbeks.147. B. G. 29-30.. G. new era of emancipation of. 95 Yakuts. 26-27 VelAzquez. 150 work.. 115. 32 women’s liberation movement. 95 Vygotsky. 106-7 Ushinsky. Queen. L.218 Yanaul gymnasium. J.151 Washington. K. 151..

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theory.About the Author Ilghiz M. He received his doctorate in pedagogical sciences from Moscow State Pedagogical Sciences and has published over eighty articles on pedagogy. His interests include diversity and global education. Sinagatullin is the department chair of pedagogics. folk pedagogy. 263 . and language policy. He has been a visiting scholar at Kent State University College’s Graduate School of Education. rural education in bilingual settings. and elementary education at Birsk State Pedagogical Institute in Bashkortostan. teacher education in bilingual settings. enthopedagogy and enthnopsychology. Russia.

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