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) Discuss the ways in which clinicians’ values affect clinical encounters Clinician’s values affect clinical encounters because each clinican has their own set of values that they grew up with in their families and the values of their cultures. These values have the effect of forming pre-determined expectations of patients and their cultures during clinical encounters. Often times these values can clash with the values of their patient.s Clinicians also gain values from the cultural backgrounds of their work environment. The individual healthcare workers and clinicians must be able to manage these differences and resolve them personally in order for the needs of the patients to be addressed. Chapter 6 Notes. Values have a major role in forming our expectiations about what experiences mean and in constructing evaluations of them. linked to your value orientation: expectations of how you and others should behave your sense of what those behaviors should mean, your evaluation of the behaviors themselves are linked with your value orientation. People experience conflict in values when they operate in systems that include contradictory values or elements from multiple systems. Contradictions exist in almost all systems. Consequences of value conflicts becaome obvious when cultures come into contact and the individuals must resolve these conflicts to lead meaningful lives. Health care is an arena in which even within the same cultural group values can come into conflict. In clinical settings, there are three general sets of cultural backgrounds present: 1.) the clinician 2.) those of the clinet 3.) those of the healthcare institution or system that defines the setting. One way to think about the various systems in contact: Vantage Vantage- any participant in an interaction operates from a specific, individual, multilayered vantage. Success depends on accommodating different vantages. Clinician Values part of socialization any health care provider undergoes during profession training: socialization into the values of a specific profession. each profession: web of rituals values, behavioural norms, aesthetic foundations, and social hierarchies. As clinician is further trained, generally adopts much of the normative behavior and values associated with that profession. clinican also brings his/her own web of cultural influunces into the setting with the client cannot avoid some unconscious emotional responses that include evaluative judgements. Can interfere with our professional assessment. Adopting ethnographic mindset in healthcare- must engage self monitoring especially when dealing with peole from unfamiliar backgrounds. difference between cogniative or profession or analytical understanding in a situation and emotion or subjective understanding. Goal of profession must be to accept this difference and manage it.

developing this capacity for self control is one of principal advantages of education of human difference and ethnographic training. .

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