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IC
Moore s Law
Scalingnm

WaferDevice

PizzaIC
IC

681218

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00.611.1Furnace33.1
Plasma33.3PVD7IC
00.10.52
wet bench833.2
CVD4Dry Etcher
6Polish5
Photolithography11.2Ion Implant

201112

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ASMCentrotherm
Keith HsuCarsten WinterJ. J LinPaxon ChenJenson ChenSteffen Wiebicke
Yachun ChenJack WangChung LinVic HsiehOxford InstrumentsFrancis
ChewEmberton Robert

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20119

20119

NDL

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20119

CMP

CMP
CMP

20119

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20119

Axcelis Tech.

20119

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(02)2705-5066

iii

0.1

0.2

0.2.1

0.2.2

0.3

11

11

0.4

12

0.5

23

0.6

29

33

Diffusion

35

Furnace

36

1.1.1

37

1.1.2

42

1.1.3

Recipe

55

1.1.4

59

1.1

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1.2

Ion Implant

68

1.2.1

69

1.2.2

74

1.2.3

90

1.2.4

93

1.2.5

95

1.2.6

97

Wet Bench
2.1

103

104

2.1.1

105

2.1.2

107

2.1.3

108

110

2.2.1

Organic Contamination

110

2.2.2

112

2.2.3

112

2.2.4

115

118

2.3.1

118

2.3.2

119

Wet Bench

122

2.4.1

Wet Bench

122

2.4.2

Wet Bench

128

2.4.3

129

133

2.2

2.3

2.4

vi

101

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Thin Films
3.1

135

Plasma

136

3.1.1

136

3.1.2

RF Generator

146

3.2

Chemical Vapor Deposition, CVD 148


3.2.0

148

3.2.1

PECVD

148

3.2.2

ALDMBEMOCVD

155

Physical Vapor Deposition, PVD

182

3.3.1

182

3.3.2

185

3.3.3

187

195

Dry Etcher

197

198

4.0.1

Dry Etcher

198

4.0.2

Design Factors

199

200

4.1.1

Reactive Ion Etcher, RIE

200

4.1.2

Triode RIE

202

4.1.3

Magnetically Enhance RIE, MERIE

203

4.1.4

High Density Plasma Reactors

204

4.1.5

Magnetic Multipole Confinement, MMC 205

4.1.6

Inductive Couple Plasma, ICP

206

4.1.7

Electron Cyclotron Resonance, ECR

212

4.1.8

Helicon Wave Plasma Source, HWP

214

3.3

4.0

4.1

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4.2

218

4.3

End Point Detectors

219

4.4

Dry Etching Processes

221

4.4.1

222

4.4.2

222

4.4.3

224

4.4.4

232

250

250

Photolithography

253

5.1

254

5.2

Track system : Coater / Developer

255

5.2.1

Coater

256

5.2.2

Developer

262

Exposure System

264

5.3.1

Optical Lithography

265

5.3.2

E-beam Lithography

268

274

5.4.1

Immersion Lithography

275

5.4.2

Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography

277

5.4.3

Multi-Beam Lithography

279

280

282

Polishing

283

284

4.5

5.3

5.4

5.5

6.1
viii

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6.2

Chemical Mechanical Polishing, CMP 286


6.2.1

286

6.2.2

288

6.2.3

291

6.2.4

292

6.3

299

6.4

302

6.5

306

307

IC

311

CMOS Process Flow

312

FEOL

312

BEOL

323

CMOS

329

329

C-V curve

337

338

341

8.1

342

8.2

342

8.2.1

342

8.2.2

343

8.2.3

Oscilloscope

351

8.2.4

359

360

7.1

7.2

8.3

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8.3.1

Power Supply

360

8.3.2

Temperature Controller

361

8.3.3

Servo and Stepping Motor

365

8.3.4

Mass Flow Controller, MFC

368

8.3.5

Solenoid Valve

370

8.3.6

Sensor

372

8.3.7

PLC

377

382

383

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0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6

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0.1

0.1

SiH 4NH 3B 2H 6PH 3Cl 2


H 2SO 4HFHCLNH 4OHH 2O 2

Standard Operation Procedure, SOP

1. Manufacture Execution
System, MES

2. InterlockBy-pass
3. P e r s o n a l
Protection Tool, PPT
4. Process Chamber
ChamberSOP
Cycle Pump Purge

5.

6.

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7.

8.

9. 2 4 V D C
110VAC220VAC

10.

10mA20mA
30mA40-50mA
11.

0.2
0.2.1

0.1

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0.1

0.1ABEA
B
DANGERBWARNINGC
CAUTIONDE

0.2

0.2

0.3

0.3


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0.4

0.4

0.5

0.5

0.6
X-Rays

0.6

0.7

0.7

0.8

0.8

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0.9

0.9

0.10

0.10

0.11

0.11

0.12

30cm

0.12

0.13

0.13

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0.2.2

Personal Protection Tool, PPT

0.14
X-Ray

0.14

0.15

0.15

0.16

C l 2 B 2H 6 W F 6

0.16

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0.3

Sensor
CPU
RAMROM
Actuator
0.17

L
sol

IN

(OUT)

CPU

INPUT

OUTPUT

0.17

Regulator System

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Event Control SystemFollow Up System

Process ControlSequence Control


Motion Control

Regulator System

26

Event Control System

PCWindows

Follow Up System

Close Loop Control


SensorReal Time
Feedback

0.18

X-Y table

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Motion
Controller

Driver

Motor

0.18

0.19

X-Y table

Motion
Controller

Driver

Motor

0.19

Open Loop Control

Actuator

0.20

10

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Motion
Controller

Driver

Motor

0.20

Actuator

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CPU

0.21

ADC
0.21
DAC

DAC

ADC

0.21

0.4
0.22

12

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0.22

0.23
Load/Unload Port Module
Transfer ModuleProcess Module
Circulation ModuleDrain ModuleExhaust
Module

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0.23

Load/Unload Port Module

0.23
Load/Unload Port Module
Fab68
1225CasetteLot
8 Pod; 12 Foup

PickIndexerPlace

Unload Port
14

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Module

LoadlockMainframe
Transfer ModuleLoadlock

Pick
IndexerPlace

0.24
Robot

Indexer

0.24

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Transfer Module
0.25CVD
PVDCluster
Mainframe Process
ChamberLoadlockAligner
Cool Down ChamberTransfer Chamber
Robot
Platform

Stage
OperatorRecipeMapping
Slit Valve

Transfer ChamberSlit Valve


Slit Valve
AlignerSlit Valve

Slit Valve
Process Chamber
Cool Down
Chamber
Loadlock
Cluster

16

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0.25

Transfer Module0.26
Robot
Aligner
Cool DownSlit Valve
Interlock

0.26

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Process Module

0.27Cluster

Single Wafer

0.27Cluster

0.28
Process ChamberMainframe
Process ChamberSlit
ValveProcess
ChamberSlit
Valve
Process Chamber
18

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RFBais
Process
ChamberProcess
Chamber

RF

0.28

0.29
Robot

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RF

0.29

Circulation Module

0.30

(1)Pump

(2)Filter
(3)
Heat Exchanger
SiO 2
Lots

0.30
20

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0.31

Heat Exchanger

Hcat
exchanger

pump

0.31

0.32

18

PCW

0.32

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Drain ModuleExhaust Module

Drain
ModuleExhaust Module

0.33
Pump
Local Scrubber

Central Scrubber
General
Exhaust

local scrubber

central scrubber

0.33

H 2SO 4HCLH 3PO 4NH 4OH

0.34
Wet Scrubber
PH

22

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wet scrubbqer

0.34

Drain ModuleExhaust Module

HF

0.5
24

Function
BlockSchematic
0.35 CVD0.36

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0.35CVD

0.36

0.40

24

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0.37

0.37

0.38

GS1c13A24V/13.0AS-320-24

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DC24V
PC24
NC24FU14cFU15c2A
PC241NC2414.1A
4.1A41A4
1A0.39
3.3C3
3C

0.38

26

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0.39

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AND gate

AND gate

OR gate

OR gate

NOT AND gate

NOT OR gate

NOT gate

28

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SCR

Traic

PNP

NPN

0.40

0.6
SemiconductorConductor
InsulatorDopant
DopingConductivity
0.1
Compound Semiconductor
Light Emitting Diode, LED
Solar cellIntegrated Circuit, IC
Si
Silicon WaferSubstrateGe

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DeviceSi
1. Si25%
Ge
2. 1414938.5

3. Energy Gap, Eg1.12eV0.66eV

4. Oxygen
Silicon Dioxide, SiO 2
77.1Complementary Metal-OxideSemiconductor, CMOS7.2CMOS
SiO 2
Reliability
GeO 2GeO 2

5. 3900 cm 2/v-s
1450 cm2/v-s
Magnesium,MgZinc,ZnCadium,Cd
Boron,BAluminum,AlGallium,GaIndium,In
Carbon,CSilicon,SiGermanium,GeTin,SnLead,Pb
Nitrogen,NPhosphorus,PArsenic,AsAntimony,Sb
Sulfur,SSelenium,SeTellurium,Te

0.1

Integrated Circuit, ICIC


IC0.41
ICIC
PerformanceReliabilityYield

30

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Feature Size
Critical Dimension, CD
Channel Length, L0.42
Scaling
SpeedProcess
Technology Node
ICCDCD
Moore
s LawGordon MooreIntel
Generation0.72
0.2
Vin

IC

Vss

NMOS

Vdd

PMOS
Vout

Sead
Ingot

WAT

0.41IC

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0.42MOSFET
Generation

1992

1995

1997

1999

2002

2005

2007

2010

CD

0.5m

0.35m

0.25m

0.18m

0.13m

90nm

65nm

45nm

0.2CD

Scaling
1. Idsat
2.
3.
4. WaferChipDie

5. Ioff
6.

Gate oxideDielectric constant, k


RC delay

0.3
6''

8''

12''

18''

150mm 200mm 300mm 450mm

0.3

32

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0-1
Clean Room
Class XClass X
ft 3 0.5 m
ParticleXClass 1Class 100
Defect Density, DD
cm 2, cm -2DD
Poisson Model0-2Y
%Dcm 2Acm 20-2

Wafer

0-1

Y=exp-DA

0-2

Operator

1. Kilian 2006

2. Dan Necsulescu 2003

3. 1997

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(02)2705-5066

4. 2001
5. 2001
6.
7. H. Xiao, Introduction to Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology ,
Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2001.
8. M. Quirk and J. Serda, Semiconductor Manufacturing Technology ,
Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2001.
9. J. D. Plummer, M.D. Deal and P.B. Gruffin, Silicon VLSI TechologyFundamental, Practice and Modeling, Prentice Hall, New Jersey, 2000.
10. CMOS

11. VLSI

34

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A
Abnormal Signal
121
Abrasive299
Absorption153, 223
Acceleration Column82
Acquire352, 356
Activation48, 315
Active Area51, 314
Actuator8, 10, 11, 365
Adhesion312, 321
Adhesion Layer324, 325, 327
Air Actuated Valve41
Aligner16, 17, 268, 269,
271
Alkali Metal Ions330
Aluminum, Al183, 284

Arc Chamber76, 77
Arc Slit79
Arcing63, 87
Argon, Ar188
Arrhenius Equation
224
Arsenic, As315
Asbestos40
Aspect Ratio183, 193, 245
Aspect-Ratio Dependent Etching, ARDE
230
Astigmatism272
Atmospheric Pressure, AP37, 42
Atmospheric, Atm137
Atomic Layer Deposition, ALD
148, 155
Auto Turning363

Amorphous50, 240, 249, 329


Amorphous Silicon, a-Si50
Analog Digital Convert, ADC
12
Angle85, 225
Anisotropic200, 223, 232,
319
Anisotropic Etching200
Anneal36, 47, 56, 57,
100, 315, 317, 320, 333
Annealing36, 47
Aperture81, 267, 273, 274

Back End of Line, BEOL51,


312
Bafe36
Barrier Layer70, 284,
324, 325, 327
Base Pressure58, 188
Batch Type123, 126
Bellows97, 98
Binding Energy225
Bird's Beak52
Blowup86

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Bombardment71, 138, 154, 202,


206, 225

217, 277
Channel31, 45, 72, 85, 319

Boron Penetration317, 320

Channel Length31, 45

Boron, B315, 317

Channeling Effect72

Bosch Process238, 239

Charge Neutralization System

Boundary Layer107, 168


Bowing181

75, 86
Chemical Amplification Resist, CAR

Break Through233
Breakdown96, 139

256
Chemical Beam Expitaxy

Buffer Oxide Etchant, BOE

162
Chemical Mechanical Polishing, CMP

116
Bunch83, 84

283, 284, 286, 312

Burn Box40

Chemical Vapor Deposition, CVD


135, 136, 148

Chilled DIW111

Capacitive Coupling Effect


210

Chip32
Chlorine, Cl331

Capacitive-Coupling Plasma
201, 202

Circulation Module13, 20,


124

Caro's Acid-H2SO4111

Citric Acid298

Carrier46, 91, 131, 132, 155,

Clean Room33

160, 175, 286, 318, 333

Close Loop Control9

Carrier Gas46, 131, 132, 155,


160, 175

Cluster16, 18, 129, 151, 189,


248

Cassette150, 190

Cluster Chamber189

CCD164, 178, 181, 221

Cluster Tool151

Central Scrubber

CMOS Process Flow

22

311, 312

Cerium (IV) Oxide299


Chamber2, 16, 18, 19,

CMP Post Clean


294

76, 77, 85, 96, 97, 129, 130, 136,

Coater253, 255, 256

143, 147, 150, 174, 189, 190, 195,

Cold Wall Chamber174

384

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Collection Optics277

Crucible182

Collimator193

Cryo pump162

Collision136, 215

C-V curve329,

Colloidal Silica299

337

Complementary Metal-Oxide-

Semiconductor, CMOS
30

Dangling Bonds48, 336

Concave181

Dark SpaceSheath144

Condense51, 277

DC Acceleration82

Condenser Optics277

Deal Triangle334, 335

Conditioner292

Deep Buried Layer75, 91

Conductance92

Deep Reactive Ion Etch, DRIE

Conductivity29, 68, 208


Conductivity of AC Plasma
208

222, 237
Deep Ultraviolet Light, DUV
265

Conductor29

Deep Well75

Contact115, 243, 268, 271,

Defect33, 47, 57, 87, 108

323, 324, 325, 379


Contact Aligner268,
271
Contact Hole115, 243

Defect Density, DD33


Dehydration Bake257
Deionized Water, DIW332
Deposition36, 37, 49, 51, 58,

Contact Resistance115

117, 135, 136, 148, 155, 182, 196,

Controller10, 11, 41, 88, 200,

216, 313, 316, 321, 368

342, 361, 362, 365, 367, 368, 377

Deprotonation295

Conversion Factor, C.F.369

Depth of Focus, DOF266

Convex181

Derjaguin-Landau-Verwey-Overbeek,

Cool Down16, 17

DLVO294

Cool Down Chamber16

Desorption153, 223

Copper, Cu284, 325

Develop253, 255, 262, 263, 264

Corrosion248, 304

Developer253, 255, 262

Critical Dimension, CD31,

Device30, 104, 106, 126, 221,

107

307, 382

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DI Water Vaporizer

Dopant Ion76
Dopant Prole72

161
Die32, 53, 54, 198, 217, 218,
222, 233, 240, 323, 325, 329, 332
Dielectric32, 53, 54, 198, 217,
218, 222, 233, 240, 323, 325, 329,
332

Doping29, 236
Dose Controller88
Double Pattern274
Drain13, 22, 23, 45, 75, 91, 92,
124, 318, 319, 320

Dielectric Constant, k32

Drain Module13, 22, 23, 124

Dielectric Layer Etching

Dresser292

198, 222

Drive-in36, 46, 48

Diffusion35, 36, 42, 43, 45, 68,


107, 211

Driver10, 11, 365, 367, 368


Dry Etching107, 145, 197,

Digital Analog Convert, DAC


12, 377

221
Dry Etching Processes

Digital Signal Processer, DSP

197, 221
Dry Oxidation42

342
Dilute HF314

Dry Pump162, 188, 199

Discharge136, 139, 195, 196,

Dual-Damascene Process

250

326

Dishing303

Dual-Damascene198, 222

Dislocation48, 167

Dummy Load147, 148

Dispersion Relation Formula

217

E-Beam Lithography, EBL

Dissociation136, 138
Dissolved Air Flotation

271
Effusion Cell162

298
Divot236

Elastic136

DIW Rinse Tank123

Electric Double Layer295

Dopant29, 46, 48, 72,

Electrical Parameters and Characteristics


106

76, 315
Dopant Activation
48, 315

Electrochemical Plating
325

386

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Electromagnetic Force80

Extinction Index179

Electromagnetic Lens272

Extraction Electrode75, 79

Electromigration, EM191,

Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography, EUVL

324
Electron Beam Evaporation
182

274
Extreme Ultraviolet, EUV
274, 277

Electron Cyclotron Resonance, ECR

204, 212
Electron Gun, E-Gun185

Faraday Cup88, 89

Electron Optics Slit279

Feedback9, 200

Electrophoresis295

Feed-Through Connectors83

Electrostatic Scanning84

Field Oxide45, 117

Electrostatic Shielding Layer

Filament76

210
Energy Gap, Eg30, 278

Filed Programmable Gate Array, FPGA


342

EPO Signal121

Filter20, 41, 119, 161

Erosion303, 304

Fixed Oxide ChargeQf

Etch Selectivity200, 226

329

Etching Stop Layer51

Flat Band109

Evaporation182

Follow Up System9

Evaporation Source182

Forming Gas48

Event Control System9

Four-Point Probe93

Excimer Laser265

Front End of Line, FEOL51,

Excitation136

312

Excited State138, 139

Fumed Alumina299

Exhaust13, 22, 23, 40,

Fumed Silica299

124, 172, 184, 186, 189, 199


Exhaust Module13, 22, 23,
124
Exposure Chamber277

Function Block23
Furnace35, 36, 100

Exposure System253, 264

Gap Filling193

Extinction Coefcient299

Gas Mixing system175

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(02)2705-5066

Gate32, 43, 45, 51, 53, 55, 75,


87, 91, 92, 100, 104, 106, 184, 186,
191, 232, 234, 285, 315, 316, 317,
318, 319, 329, 337, 342

Heavily Doped50
Helicon Wave Plasma, HWP
204
Helicon Waves215

Gate Oxide, GOX43, 315

Hetroepitaxy166

Gauge58, 164

Hexamethyldisilazane, HMDS

Gaussian Beam271, 273,


279

257
Hg Lamp265

General Exhaust22

High Aspect-Ratio230

Getter331, 332

High Current Ion Implant

Gettering331

75

Global Planalization284
Glow Discharge139
GND348, 359

High Density Plasma, HDP


202
High Efciency Particulate Air

Grain Boundary48, 50
Grain Growth47

98, 99
High Energy Ion Implant

Grain Size322

75

Graphite172, 174

High-k240

Ground Electrode79

Hillock191

Ground State139

Hi-Lo359

Grounding Bars97

Horizontal Flow Design


169

Horizontal Furnace

H2SO42, 22, 109, 110, 111, 118,


119

Hot Carrier91, 333


Hot Carrier Injection333

H3PO422, 117, 118, 314

Hot Electron76, 91, 205

Hard Bake264

Hot-Carrier Effect, HCE

Hard Mask51, 117, 237

318

HCL2, 22, 113, 118

Hydrogen Fluoride, HF297

Heat Exchanger20,

Hydrogen Peroxide, H2O2300

21, 130
Heat Tape51
388

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I
Immersion Lithography
274, 275
Impedance Matching Box
147, 195
Implanter74, 315
Impurity105, 106, 108, 109
In Situ Monitor177
Indexer14, 15, 365
Indium, In30, 68, 76
Inductive Couple Plasma, ICP
204, 206
Inelastic136
Inhibitors228
Injection68, 333
Insulator29, 218, 329
Integrated Circuit, IC29, 30
Inter Layer Dielectric, ILD

Ion Bombardment154,
202, 206, 225
Ion Gauge164
Ion Implant35,
68, 74, 75, 102, 333
Ion Implantation
102, 333
Ion Mass Analyzer75,
80
Ion Range70
Ion Source75, 76
Ion Transition Frequency
142
Ionization136, 138, 190
Ionization efciency164
IPA116, 125, 131, 132
Isotropic107, 223
Isotropic Etching223

53, 323,
332
Inter Metal Dielectric 1, IMD-1
325
Inter Metal Dielectric, IMD

Junction Depth45, 90
Junction Leakage Current
108

54
Interface Trapped ChargeQit
330

Kalium Ion, K330

Interferometer219
Interlock2, 17, 59
Ion Accelerator75, 82
Ion Beam68, 75, 79, 82, 88
Ion Beam Current Control System
75, 88

Landau Damping216, 217


Laser Endpoint Detection
219, 220
Latch-Up91
Lattice Mismatch166, 181

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Left Hand Polarization, LHP

Main Etch233
Main Panel120

213
LEVEL355

Mainframe15, 16, 18

Light Source Chamber277

Manual Valve41

Lightly Doped Drain Implant

Manufacture Execution System, MES

75

2, 381

Lightly Doped Drain, LDD


75, 91, 318

Mapping16
Marangoni131, 132,

Linear Accelerator83
Liner Oxide313
Lithography, Litho107

133
Mask51, 52, 108, 117, 237, 274,
313

Load Cell342

Masking Layer51

Load Lock Chamber

Maskless Lithography274
Mass Flow Controller, MFC

190
Load/Unload Port Module
13, 14, 124
LOCal Oxidation of Silicon, LOCOS

41, 342, 368


Mass Spectrometer95
Match Box150, 208
Matching NetworkMatching Box

45
Local Panel121
Local Scrubber22
Lorentz Force203
Low Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition,
LPCVD37
Low-k Material240,
284

143
Mean Free Path, MFP137,
188
Mechanical Clamp218
Mechanical Pump
188
Mechanical Scanning84,

Low-Pressure Chemical Vapor Deposition,


LPCVD312

85
Medium Current Ion Implant
75

Metal Comtamination104,

Magnetic Multipole Confinement


204, 205, 211

105
Metal Gate285

Magnetically Enhance RIE, MERIE


202, 203

Metal Impurity108
Metal-Ions106

390

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Metal Oxide Semiconductor

Nitride, Si3N451
Nitrogen, N2

284
Metallization182, 187, 312

Normal Close321

Metal-Organic CVD, MOCVD

Normal Signal121

148, 167
Metalorganic Vapor Phase Epitaxy, MOVPE

Nucleate48
Numerical Aperture, NA267

167

Micro-Loading Effect229
Micro-Roughness106

Ohmic Heating209

Microtrench Etch

Open Loop Control10

Migration235

Operator16, 33

Mobile Ionic ChargeQm

Optical Encoder365
Optical Lithography265

329
Molecular Adhesion294
Molecular Beam Epitaxy

Optical Spectrometer
219, 221
Orbital Polisher288

148
Molybdenum, Mo183
Monolayer160
Moore's Law199, 312
Motion Control9
Multi-Beam Lithography

Organic105, 106, 110, 113,


148, 160, 167, 298
Organic Complexing Agent
298
Organic Contamination110
Oscillation141, 165, 180

274, 279
Multiple Pattern274

N
Native Oxide
106, 109, 110, 112, 114, 115, 190,
233, 238
Neutralization75, 86, 331

Oscilloscope351
Over Etch227, 245
Oxalic Acid298
Oxidation36, 42, 44, 45, 55, 56,
117, 312, 314, 316, 339
Oxide Trapped ChargeQot
329

NH4Cl109

Oxygen30

NH 4 OH2, 22, 113, 296, 297,

Ozone Generator161

307, 332
Nitric Acid115, 116

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Physical Vapor Deposition, PVD

Pad Oxide52, 236, 312, 313,


314

136, 182
Pick14, 15
Piezoelectric183

Paddle36, 59

Piping96

Parameter56, 58, 106


Particle33, 39, 41,
58, 59, 85, 97, 104, 105, 106, 108,
109, 113, 193, 204, 305, 332
Particle Contamination85
Particle Filter41
Passivation117, 328,
329, 332, 333
Pattern107, 108, 180, 274
Pattern Defect108
Pattern Transfer107
Pellicle278

Place14, 15
Planck's Equation
178
Planetary Heating System
171
Plant365
Plasma51, 76, 117, 135, 136,
139, 140, 141, 148, 149, 161, 188,
190, 195, 196, 199, 201, 202, 204,
206, 207, 208, 214, 243, 249, 250,
333
Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor

Performance30
Permanent Magnet Type, PM
365
Permeability of Medium
208
Personal Protection Tool, PPT
2, 7

Deposition, PECVD
51
Plasma Etching333
Plasma Frequency208
Platen288
Platform16
P-N JunctionPN46

Phase Velocity217

Pneumatic Valve371

Phosphorous, P315
Phosphosilicate Glass, PSG
323

Poisson Model33
Polish Head286
Poly-Silicon Gate316,

Photo Switch342
Photolithography, Photo107,
253
Photoresist, PR256, 284
Photoresist Etchback284

317, 319
Polysilicon Gate Implant
75
Polysilicon, Poly-Si50
Polyurethane, PU288

392

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Polyvinyl Alcohol, PVA296


Position366, 367
Position Controller367

377
Projection Aligner 268,
269, 271

Post Exposure Bake262

Projection Optics277

Post-Acceleration82

Projection Range70

Power Supply83, 213, 360

Protonation295

PR Stripping198, 222, 249

Proximity Aligner268,

PR Trimming198, 222, 249

271

Pre-Acceleration82

Pseudomorphic166

Pre-Clean190

Pulse159, 160, 359, 363

Precursor156, 160, 162, 167,

Pump2, 20, 22, 51, 53,

169

55, 57, 58, 59, 119, 121, 130, 137,

Predeposition46

162, 184, 186, 188, 189, 190, 199,

Pressure37, 41, 42, 49, 57, 58,

370

117, 137, 138, 139, 140, 188, 200,

Pumping Speed137

224, 287, 312

Punchthrough75, 91

Pressure Regulator41
Process2, 9, 13, 16, 18, 19, 31,
44, 45, 47, 49, 51, 53, 55, 85, 106,

Punchthrough Implant
75
PVDF Tank129

121, 124, 129, 130, 150, 190, 195,

196, 197, 202, 221, 238, 239, 240,


250, 251, 292, 311, 312, 326, 339,
342
Process Chamber
2, 16, 18, 19, 85, 130, 150, 190
Process Control9

Quadrupole Focusing Lenses


83, 84
Quartz Boat36
Quartz Crystal183
Quartz Tank129

Process Module13,

18
Prole46, 72, 73, 200, 204, 231
Proling TC41
Programmable Automation Controller, PAC
377
Programmable Logic Controller, PLC

Radio Frequency, RF143, 147,


195
Rapid Thermal Anneal, RTA
317, 320
RCA CleanRCA112, 113,

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332

RF Coil174

Reactive Ion Etcher, RIE

RF Generator
143, 146, 147, 148, 150, 195, 199,

200
Reactive Sputtering190
Recipe16, 55, 60, 123,
124, 125, 233

200
RF Linear Accelerator
83

Recovery47

RF Power147, 148, 192,

Recrystallization47

201, 202, 208, 213, 217, 227

Reectance179

RF Power Meter

Reected High Energy Electron Diffraction,

147, 148

RHEED

RIE-Lag230, 231

164

Right Hand Polarization, RHP

Reow48

213

Refractive Index
179, 299

Robot15, 16, 17, 19, 123,


124, 128, 151, 190, 365

Regulator System8, 9

Rotation85

Relay342, 363, 376, 379

Round Beam273

Reliability30, 91, 105

Remote Plasma161, 214, 249


Removing Rate, R. R.285
Request Signal285

Sacrificial Oxide, SAC Oxide


314

Residuals245

Scaling31, 32, 312, 322, 333

Resistance40, 84, 92, 93, 115,

Scan Projection Aligner


269, 271

302, 362
Resistance Coil40
Resistance Temperature Detector, RTD

Scanning Electron Microscope, SEM


53
Scanning System75, 84

362
Resistivity45, 302, 321

Schematic23

Resolution256, 266

SCR29, 342

Resolver365

Scratch305, 306

Resonators83

Screen Oxide74, 314

Retainer Ring286

Scrubber22, 40

Retrograde Well75, 91

Scrubbing296

394

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Secondary Electron, 2nd e-


138, 188
Secondary Ion Mass Spectroscopy, SIMS
94

Silicon Dioxide, SiO230


Silicon Nitride, SiN326
Silicon Wafer29
Silicon, Si42

Secondary ions95

Single Crystal50

Seebeck362

Sintering36, 48

Seed Layer325

Skin Depth208

Selectivity200, 223, 226, 303,

Slit Valve16, 17, 18

319
Self-Aligned244
Self-Bias145

Slurry285, 286, 291, 299


Slurry Supply System
286, 291

Self-Limiting Growth155

Sodium Ion, Na 330

Semiconductor29, 30, 34, 101,

Soft Bake261

102, 196, 218, 282, 284, 308, 329,

Soft Etch190

338

Soft X-rayX277

Sensor8, 9, 45, 60, 198, 342,


362, 365, 369, 372
Sequence Control9
Sequential Linear Polisher
288
Servo Driver368
Servo Motor367

Solenoid Valve370
Solid Content292
Source45, 75, 76, 78, 92, 176,
182, 202, 204, 206, 214, 250, 277,
319, 320
Source / Drain Implant
92

Shadow Effect73

Source / Drain, S / D45

Shallow Trench Isolation, STI

Source Magnet78

284, 312
Sheath Layer202, 203, 205, 207,
208, 209

Spacer53, 319, 320


Spark Breakdown Voltage
96

Sheet Resistance93, 302

Spike TC41

Shutter163, 182

Spiking190, 192

SiH2Cl2, DCS51

Spin On Glass, SOG284

Silane, SiH450

Sputtering182, 190, 215, 223,

Silicide48, 247, 321, 322


Silicon Carbide, SiC36

225, 321, 333


Square Aperture273

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Stage16, 42, 43,


129, 365

Tetra-Ethyl-Ortho-Silicate, TEOS
53

Standing Wave Effect262


Step and Repeat Projection Aligner, Stepper

Tetramethylammonium Hydroxide, TMAH


263, 281

Thermal Budget148

269

Thermal Diffusion68

Step and Scanner System, Scanner

Thermal Evaporation182
Thermal Expansion Coefcient

269
Step Coverage53, 153, 183,
193

181
Thermal Mismatch166, 167

Stepping Motor365, 366

Thermal Oxidation316, 339

Stigmator272

Thermal Oxide104, 236

Stochastic Heating209

Thermocouple, TC40

Stopping Mechanisms71

Thin Film135, 136, 196

Stress47, 312

Threshold Energy of Ion Sputtering

Substrate29, 46, 72, 104,


118, 136

225
Threshold Voltage, VT330

Supervisor Control and Data Acquisition,


SCADA121

Threshold Voltage Implant Adjustment


75, 91

Suppression Electrode79

Throttle Valve161, 200

Surface Energy48

Through Si Via, TSV

Surface Migration195

238

Surface Mobility154

Throughput107

Susceptor169, 172, 178

Tilt85

Switch342

Titanium Nitride, TiN 190


Titanium, Ti185, 190, 324

Torch45, 60

Tantalum Nitride, TaN325, 327

Track253, 255

Tantalum, Ta183, 325, 327

Transducer147

Target188

Transfer Chamber

Technology Node31
Temperature Controller
342, 361, 362

16, 129, 150, 190


Transfer Module13, 15,
16, 17, 151

396

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Transformer Coupled Plasma, TCP


206
Transistor312
Trap91, 161, 163, 329, 330
Trench First244
TRIAC342
Triple Injector171
Triple Wells75
Tungsten, W183, 284, 324
Turbo Molecule Pump
162

200, 370
Valve Mainfold Box, VMB
119
Van Der Waals Dispersion Force
294
Variable Reluctance Type, VR
365
Variable Shaped Beam
271, 273
Vent176, 177, 190
Vertical Flow Design

Turntable125, 288

U
Ultra-Thin Gate Oxide
106

169
Vertical Furnace36, 37
Via First244
Via-1
326, 327, 328

Ultraviolet Light ,UV265


Undercut107, 222, 223, 228,
232

VLSI34, 46, 68, 101,


102, 196, 282, 339
Void191, 193, 195, 237

Undoped Poly-Silicon, U-Poly

45, 316
Undoped Silicate Glass, USG

Wafer18, 29, 32, 33, 36,


75, 85, 86, 89, 90, 100, 110, 145,

325
Uniformity84, 99, 127, 183,
185, 200, 285, 293, 302

200, 286, 289, 312


Wafer Charging86, 100

Unsaturated Bonds48

Wafer Disk85, 89, 90

Urethane294

Wafer Handling System

V
Vacuum Chuck260, 261,
263, 264
Valve16, 17, 18, 41, 51, 53, 55,
97, 119, 160, 161, 175, 184, 186,

75, 85, 89
Wafer Start110
Water Mark112, 127
Well48, 75, 91, 314, 315, 320
Well Implant91
Wet Chemistry Process

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106
Wet Etching107
Wet Oxidation42, 44, 55,
56
Wet Scrubber22

Y
Yield30, 105

Z
Zeta Potential295

398

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.
., 2011.12

ISBN 978-957-11-6474-8 ()
1.
448.65

100020446

5DE0

Semiconductor Technology - Process and Equipment









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