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A STUDY OF THE PRESENT OPHTHALMIC INDUSTRY AND TRENDS

A BRIEF STUDY OF THE CUSTOMER PREFERNCE FOR THE OPHTHALMIC WEARS AMONG STUDENTS AT SACRED HEART COLLEGE, ERNAKULAM.

A Dissertation Submitted to the Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of

MASTER DEGREE OF COMMERCE By GOPIKA.G Reg. No. 160617 Under the guidance of Mrs. Sangeetha K.G.

DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE SACRED HEART COLLEGE THEVARA, KOCHI-682013, 2009-2011

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that the project entitled A study of the present ophthalmic industry and trends- A brief study of the customer preference for the ophthalmic wears among students at sacred heart college, Ernakulam submitted in partial fulfillment of the degree of M.com at Sacred heart College, Thevara as prescribed by M.G.University by Gopika G, Registration Number: 160617 is a bona fide work carried out by her under the of guidance Mrs. Sangeetha K.G.

Mrs. SANGEETHA KG SOJAN (Project guide) (Head of the Dept) 2 Prof. T S

Place: Thevara Date: 31.03.2011


Phone: 0484-2663208, fax: 0484-2663813, E-mail:shoffice@sancharnet.in website- www.shcollege.ac.in

DECLARATION
I hereby declare that this project work titled A study of the present ophthalmic industry and trends- a brief study of the customer preference for the ophthalmic wears among students at sacred heart college, Ernakulam is a record of original work done by me under the supervision and guidance of Mrs.Sangeetha K.G., Lecturer, Sacred Heart College, Thevara in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the award of The Degree of Master of Commerce from M.G.University and that this project work has not formed the basis for the award of any degree/Diploma/ Associate ship/ Fellowship or similar title to any candidate of any other university. Moreover, I also agree that the undertaken work will be published only with the due consent of the guide, Sacred Heart College and M.G University.

Thevara 313.32011

GOPIKA G.

AKNOWLEDGEMENT
Knowledge is in the end based on acknowledgement.

I take this opportunity to place on record my sincere gratitude and great appreciation to my college Sacred Heart College, Thevara and the principal Rev.Fr. Prasant Palakkappillil C.M.I. for giving me a chance to work on this project. I thankfully acknowledge my gratitude to Miss Sangeetha K.G. for her valuable guidance, feedback and scrutiny throughout the project. I am extremely grateful to Prof T.S.Sojan for providing me the honor of carrying out the project, which helped me to put my learning into experience. The project could not be a realization if not supported by Mr. Mohan Kumar, Managing Partner of M/s Royal Distributors, who has 15 years of expertise in ophthalmic industry and market. I would like to express my special gratitude and thanks to industry persons for giving me such attention and time. I express my deep sense of gratitude to my parents for their interest, help and encouragement to do this work successfully. Nothing would be possible and worth without the grace of God, the Almighty. I bow before him.

Thevara 31.3.2011 GOPIKA G.

CONTENTS

Sl. No. * * * 1 2 3

CHAPTERS ACKNOWLEDGEMENT LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES INTRODUCTION LITERATURE REVIEW OVERVIEW OF THE OPHTHALMIC INDUSTRY

PAGE NO.

1 12 34

ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS

64

105

6 7

BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX

113

LIST OF TABLES

Table No
3.1 3.2 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 4.8 4.9 4.10 4.11 4.12 4.13

Title Comparative study of eye wears on the basis of different factors Comparative study of eye wears on the basis of preference of customers Classification of customers on the basis of age Classification according to sex Classification according to preference of eye wear Distribution on the basis of respondents consultation before selecting an eye wear Distribution according to the purpose of eye wears Distribution according to retailer preference Distribution according to purchase intervals of customers for eyewear for glass Distribution according to purchase intervals of customers for frames Distribution according to purchase intervals of customers for contact lens Distribution according to brand preference Distribution according to price range preferred by customers Distribution according to adaptation to changes Distribution according to pricing Distribution according to familiarity to vision correction treatments Distribution according to the familiarity towards the modern vision correction technologies Distribution on the basis of factors influencing buying decision- safety factor Distribution on the basis of factors influencing buying decision-comfort Distribution on the basis of factors influencing buying decision-Necessity Distribution on the basis of factors

Page No.
56 58 65 67 68 70 72 74 76 78 80 82 84 86 87 89 90

4.14.1 4.14.2 4.14.3 4.14.4

91 92 93 94 7

LIST OF FIGURES

Table No

Title

Page No.

2.1 2.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7.1 4.7.2 4.7.3 4.8 4.9 4.11 4.14 4.16 4.17

Factors influencing buying decision Purchasing Decision diagram Classification according to preference of eye wear Distribution on the basis of respondents consultation before selecting an eye wear Distribution according to the purpose of eye wears Distribution according to retailer preference Distribution according to purchase intervals of customers for eyewear for glass Distribution according to purchase intervals of customers for frames Distribution according to purchase intervals of customers for contact lens Distribution according to brand preference Distribution according to price range preferred by customers Distribution according to pricing Distribution on the basis selection criteria Factors influencing buying decision Distribution on the basis of interchangeability of eye wear

16 33 69 71 73 75 77 78 81 83 85 88 96 98 100

CHAPTER I
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INTRODUCTION

CHAPTER I

INTRODUCTION

The universe is really wonderful but if we cannot see that nothing worth in it. The physical capacity to realize the objects with our eyes is the

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greatest gift of God, The Almighty. Eyes are the most important aperture for any human being and they are the most vulnerable part too. Protection of our eyes is one of the most important things that human beings should follow. After a certain age every living person suffers from visionary problems, but till that time they must take care of the eyes to feel the beauty of this world. This is a brief study about the ophthalmic wears being used by the new generation. Everyones eyes are different in color, the way they work and how well they see. Sometimes all the parts of the eye may not work together the way they should. From the early ages itself, human beings invented several remedies varying from the meditations, natural correction methods to the modern vision correction technologies like laser treatments, cataract surgery, implantation of contact lenses etc. It is estimated that approximately 28% of the population in India requires some sort of vision correction. This makes the market size for any type of lens a whopping 310 million individuals. Among these eye protection methods the two most important and widely used tools are spectacles and contact lenses. Glass spectacles have been used by the people for a long period of time, whereas the contact lenses are a new invention.

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Glasses are the most common vision aid for correcting eyesight, due to the low cost, ease of use, safety and suitability for severe refractive errors and other health conditions. Glasses are also suitable for people of all ages. Contact lenses are small visual devices made with curved pieces of plastic shaped in a way to conform directly to the wearers eye. Apart from these corrective measures, contact lenses can also be used for cosmetic and therapeutic reasons. Nowadays the use of ophthalmic wear, especially the spectacles and contact lenses is very common among people, especially new generation. The causes and consequences are many, to put it briefly, continuous usage of computers, Television and other visual media at present have highly influenced among the new generation. The new trend in this field has a major influence on the young generation. Both spectacles and

contact lenses provide excellent protection to the eyes from infections, dirt and several other diseases. Eyeglasses and contact lenses are sometimes complementary and sometimes mutual exclusive. When it comes to vision correction, they can be both competent. But they do have different purposes from a different functionality point of view. For instance, sports men would like contact lenses for their convenience. Yet there are some other factors that can be taken into account, such as beauty, comfort, value and so forth. Customers
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always want to maximize the rate between these factors against money. It is hard to say which option is better than the other universally. The comparison between eyeglasses and contact lenses is muck like the comparison between an apple and an orange. For cosmetic reason or natural look, people can choose contact lenses. Contacts now come in various colors that can best match with personal dresses and skin. Colored contact lenses can enhance, completely change or brighten ones natural eye color, flattering different tastes for various individuals. When it comes to the functionality of vision correction, contact lenses are favored by some people because they do not want other people to know they have vision problems. For some other people who are unaware of such an external device, eyeglasses are ok. In fact, many designer eyeglasses are widely used to get extremely fashionable look. Eyeglasses can absolutely enhance ones beauty or handsome. One point is worthy of consideration that choosing eyeglasses should take into account the wearers face shape. The basic criterion is that the shapes of glass frame and face should be nearly opposite, where extinctive statement is available. Comfort is another way to compare eyeglasses and contact lenses. In general, eyeglasses are more comfortable than contact lenses, because the latter directly fits over the eyeballs. Contact lenses can be quite
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uncomfortable for long time use. The eyes must maintain normal moisture all the time. Wearing contact lenses can easily cause dry eye, especially when the wearers do not blink the eyes regularly. Long term of computer work is such a condition, during which dry eye and discomfort are very common. The best clarity and consistency are found in contact lenses. Eyeglasses are situated away from the eyes whereas contact lenses sit directly on the eyes. Unlike eyeglasses, contact lenses do not move around, and the distance between contact and eye remains a constant as well as the clarity of your sight. Eyeglasses also have a tendency to get dirty and scratched, which also impairs your vision. There are several other factors which differentiate eye glasses and contact lenses that will be discussed through the study.

1.1 OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY

The study is conducted to accomplish the following objectives:


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The foremost aim to know the preference of the students in selecting their ophthalmic wear.

To know the attitude of students towards a particular brand

To know the factors affecting their buying decision. To measure the satisfaction level of the consumers To evaluate the knowledge of new technologies in this field and also modern vision correction methods available To measure the frequency of purchase

1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM College student is such a special group that they may pay more attention to innovation and changes on what they wear and dress. Accordingly, eyeglasses and contact lenses for college students are usually manufactured in the newest fashion trend with the latest materials in the industry. They also have preference of their product on the basis of many factors like price, quality, and comfort and so on. The aim of the present study is to analyze the consumer preference for spectacles and contact lenses by conducting a comparative study among the both. The study is based on the differences existing between the two correction methods; spectacles and contact lens.
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1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY

More than 50 percent of computer users experience eyestrain, headaches, blurred vision and other visual symptoms related to sustained use of the computer. Most young people watch TV for more than an hour a day. Moreover they spend hours in front of the computer. Other than computers and television, electronic media like mobile phones also influenced the increased usage of correction tools. The young generation specifically those under the age group of 18-22 are the main users. Apart from the vision correction, they use these mediums as a part of trend and fashion. This has been supported by the substantial evidence from the retailers.

1.4 METHODOLOGY Primary and Secondary data was collected for the purpose of this study:

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1.5.1 Primary Data The objectives of the study and informational inputs necessitated the collection of primary data. It was collected from the customers under the age group of 18-22, by way of a questionnaire method. The questionnaires were given to the students of Sacred Heart College, Thevara, Ernakulam. To provide substantial evidence to the results certain details were collected from the retailers by way of Questionnaires and personal interviews from the retailers and dealers. Information from the distributors was also collected for more authenticity.

1.5.2 Secondary information. The sources of information like websites, magazines, and newspapers were used to get the data needed for furnishing the requirements of information regarding the overview of the industry, leading brands, history and structure of the industry, growth in this sector etc.

1.5.3 Sample Design The study was based on the sampling method. In this method the investigator selects a unit from the population which has typical
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characteristics of the whole population. Convenience Sampling technique was been used for collecting information.

1.5.4 Sample size The sample size was taken as 50 which represent the whole population.

1.5.5 Hypothesis The chi square test was used in this study for studying the level of satisfaction in relation to the age of customers. For this purpose the hypothesis were set as follows: Age and customer satisfaction for retailer services H0: There is no significant relation between age and retailer satisfaction of customers H1: There is significant relation between age and retailer satisfaction of customers 1.5.6 Statistical Methods The following methods have been used for the analysis:

Chi- square Weighted average


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Ratios

1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY The limitations projected in this study are: 1. The study is limited to the users of the eyewear within the limits of Sacred Heart College, Ernakulam.
2. The study was not free from the inherent limitations of sampling

technique.
3. The study considers only the students who are mainly dependent on their

parents or guardian. So, their decision may be subjective or biased. 4. There was a limitation of time.
5. This study was not able to cover all the areas of the ophthalmic industry.

1.6 CHAPTER SCHEME

Sl. No.

CHAPTERS

Page No.

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INTRODUCTION-1.1 OBJECTIVES 1.2 STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM 1.3 SCOPE OF THE STUDY 1-11 1.4 METHODOLOGY 1.5 LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY 1.6 CHAPTER SCHEME

2 3 4

LITERATURE REVIEW OVERVIEW OF THE OPHTHALMIC INDUSTRY ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS

12 34 64

5 6 7

FINDINGS & RECOMMENDATIONS BIBLIOGRAPHY APPENDIX

105 113

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CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

CHAPTER II

LITERATURE REVIEW

2.1 CUSTOMER

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A customer refers to an individual or household that purchases and services within the economy. It derives from the word custom meaning habit. Customers are the targets of all business activities, small or large, short term or long term. When the means of transportation were not developed marketing of goods was confined to the basic needs of the mankind i.e. food, clothing and shelter. The world has become smaller place and the market all over are dumped with wide variety and superseding quality of goods. Now the customer has become the deciding factor about the establishment or devastation of any organization.

2.2 CUSTOMER BEHAVIOR The aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy target customers needs and wants. The field of consumer behavior studies how individuals, groups and organizations select, buy, use and dispose of goods, services, ideas or experiences to satisfy the needs and desires. The term consumer behavior is a subset of human behavior. However, it does not mean all human behavior is oriented towards consumption. In the words of Glenn Wilters, human behavior refers to the total process by which individuals interact with their environment. According to Boone & Kurtz, Co0nsumer behavior is the

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outcome of both individual and environmental influences. To be specific, consumer behavior refers to the act of consuming a product or service. Consumer behavior is an integral part of human behavior and cannot be separated from it. It studies characteristics of individual consumers such as demographics and behavioral variables in an attempt to understand people's wants. It also tries to assess influences on the consumer from groups such as family, friends, reference groups, and society in general. The process whereby individuals decide whether, what, when, how and from whom to purchase goods and services. Consumer behavior is influenced by a variety of factors: 1. Economic 2. Psychological 3. Sociological; and 4. Anthropological When a customer is in the process of taking decisions, all these factors are prone to work simultaneously and influence his behavior.

2.3 MAJOR FACTORS INFLUENCING THE BUYER BEHAVIOR

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Consumer behavior is defined as all psychological, social & physical behavior of potential customers as they become aware of, evaluate, purchase, consume, & tell others about product & services.

Each element in this definition is important. Consumer behavior involves both individual (psychological)

processes & group (social processes).

Consumer behavior is reflected from awareness right through postpurchase evaluation indicating satisfaction or non-satisfaction, from purchases

Consumer

behavior

includes

communication,

purchasing

&

consumption behavior

Consumer behavior is basically social in nature. Hence social environment plays an important role in shaping buyer behavior.

Consumer behavior includes both consumer & business buyer behavior. An understanding of the buyer behavior is essential in marketing

planning & programmes. The major factors influencing the consumer behavior are as follows:

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Fig 2.1 FIGURE SHOWING FACTORS INFLUENCING BUYRES BEHAVIOR

Source: Internet
CULTURAL FACTORS

Cultural factors exert the broadest and deepest influence on consumer behavior. The roles played by the buyers culture, sub culture and social class are particularly important. In a diversified country like India cultural factors exert the broadest and deepest influence on consumer behavior; we will look at the role played by the buyers culture, subculture, and social class.

Culture
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Culture is the most fundamental determinant of a persons wants and behavior. The growing child acquires a set of values, perceptions, preferences, and behavior through his or hr family or other key institutions. Culture is the most basic cause of a persons wants and behavior. Every group or society has a culture, and cultural influences on buying behavior may vary greatly from country to country. Sub culture Sub-culture includes nationalities, religions, racial groups, and geographical regions. Many sub-cultures make up important market segments, and marketers often design marketing programs tailored to their needs. Social class Social classes are relatively homogenous and enduring divisions in a society, which are hierarchically ordered and whose members share similar values, interests, and behavior. Social classes do not reflect income alone but also other indicators such as occupation, education, and area of residence. Every society possesses some form of social class which is important to the marketers because the buying behavior of people in a given social class is similar. In this way marketing activities could be tailored according to different social classes. Here we should
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note that social class is not only determined by income but there are various other factors as well such as: wealth, education, occupation etc.

SOCIAL FACTORS

Social factors also impact the buying behavior of consumers. The important social factors are: reference groups, family, role and status.

Reference Groups A Persons reference groups consist of all the groups that have a direct or indirect influence on the persons attitudes or behavior. Groups having direct influence on a person are called membership groups. Reference groups have potential in forming a person attitude or behavior. The impact of reference groups varies across products and brands. For example if the product is visible such as dress, shoes, car etc then the influence of reference groups will be high. Reference groups also include opinion leader (a person who influences other because of his special skill, knowledge or other characteristics). Family The family is the most important consumer buying organization in society, and has been researched extensively. Family members constitute
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the most influential primary reference group. If the buying decision of a particular product is influenced by wife then the marketers will try to target the women in their advertisement. Here we should note that buying roles change with change in consumer lifestyles. Roles and Statuses A persons position in each group that he participates throughout his life family, clubs, and organizations can be defined in terms of role and status. A role consist of activities that a person is expected to perform. Each role carries a status. Marketers are aware of the status symbol potential of products and brands. For example a woman is working in an organization as finance manager. Now she is playing two roles, one of finance manager and other of mother. Therefore her buying decisions will be influenced by her role and status.

PERSONAL FACTORS

A buyers decisions are also influenced by personal characteristics. These include the buyers age & stage in the life cycle, occupation, economic circumstances, lifestyle, personality & self concept. E.g.: people with different occupation will have different choice of products /services.
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Age People buy different goods & services over their lifetime. They eat baby food in the early years, most foods in the growing & mature years & special diets in the later years. Peoples taste in clothes, furniture & recreation is also age related. Occupation A persons occupation also influences his or her consumption pattern. Marketers try to identify the occupational groups that have above average interest in their products and services. A company can even specialize its products for certain occupational groups. Economic Circumstances Product choices are greatly affected by ones economic circumstances. Economic stability consist of their spend-able income (its level, stability and time pattern), saving and assets (including the percentage that is liquid), debts, borrowing power, attitude toward spending versus saving. Lifestyle People coming from the same subculture, social class & occupation may lead quite different lifestyles. A persons lifestyles the persons pattern of

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living in the world as expressed in the persons activities, interests & opinions. Personality and self concept Each person has a distinct personality that influences his or her buying behavior. By personality, we mean a persons distinguishing

psychological characteristics that lead to relatively consistent and enduring responses to his or her environment. Personality can be a useful variable in analyzing consumer behavior, provided that personality type can be classified accurately and that strong correlations exist between certain personality types and product or brand choices.

PSYCHOLOGICAL FACTORS

A persons buying choices are influenced by four major psychological factors-motivations, perception, learning, beliefs and attitudes.

Motivation A person has many needs at any given time. A need becomes motive when it is aroused to a sufficient level of intensity. Motivational researchers hold that each product is capable of arousing a unique set of motive in consumers.
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Perception Perception is the process by which an individual selects, organizes, & interprets information inputs to create a meaningful picture of the world. A motivated person is ready to act. How the motivated person actually acts is influenced by his or her perception of the situation.

Learning

When people act they learn. Learning involves changes in an individuals behavior arising from experience. Learning theory teaches marketers that they can build up demand for a product by associating it with strong drives, using motivating cues and providing positive reinforcement. Attitudes & Belief A belief is a descriptive thought that a person holds about something. Through doing & learning, people acquire beliefs & attitudes. These in turn influence their buying behavior. Particularly important to global marketers is the fact that buyers often hold distinct disbeliefs about brands or products based on their country of origin. An attitude is persons enduring favorable or unfavorable evaluations, emotional feelings, and action tendencies towards some object or idea. People have attitude toward almost everything: religion, politics, clothes, music, food etc.
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2.4 BUYING MOTIVES According to William J Stanton, A motive can be defined as a drive or urge for which an individual seeks satisfaction. It becomes a buying motive when an individual seeks satisfaction through the purchase of something. Characteristics of Buying Motive

There is a process by which individual decides whether, what, when, from whom, where & how much to buy.

It comprises of mental and physical activities of a consumer. Individual behavior is also influenced by internal and external factors. There is drastic change in the attitude and behavior of consumer.

2.5 IMPORTANT BUYING MOTIVES Human behavior is fundamentally related to instincts. It is these instincts which make a person behave differently at different times. The appropriate motive must be crystallized if the marketing program is to be effective and appropriate in terms of product features and advertising strategy. All these motives are not equally forceful. Here we describe only important buying motives:

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2.5.1 Freedom from fear and danger: Fear is a negative motive but is a very powerful one. The most basic instinct of a human being is self-preservation. Fear is a very powerful and compelling force in human affair. The marketing man must ascertain the possible fear of death, fear of loss and fear for the future, fear can sell anything like hair oil through fear of getting bald. 2.5.2 Desire for economy: Persons desire money to satisfy their other desires. The businessman wants money to make more profits or lower costs. The manufacturers make purchase of high priced heavy machinery to lower down their cost of production and thereby increase profits. In the same way every customer likes his moneys worth. 2.5.3 Vanity: Women spend much time, thought and money on their personal appearance like cosmetics, hairdo and new styles. Hence vanity is a powerful motive in the hands of the marketing man being the safest appeal that may be used. 2.5.4 Appreciation: Everybody desires to be appreciated and

complimented. He likes to be recognized as an important person.

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Because of this human in trait, it may be useful to use indirect method in place of direct methods that might prove offensive. 2.5.5 Fashion: It is the desire of everyone to imitate what others are doing. This may also be called imitation motive. It is closely linked with pride or desire for importance. This motive can be well exploited by the marketer. 2.5.6 Possession: The instincts of possession or a desire to call things as mine leads persons to hoard and collect things. Some persons collect postage stamps and old coins. 2.5.7 Sex or romance: Fancy clothes, cosmetics, perfumes, etc. are in great demand on account of the instinct of sex or a desire to attract the opposite sex. It is no wonder why this instinct is very often used by marketing men. 2.5.8 Love of others: This motive plays an important part when parents purchase all kinds of things for their children like toy, fancy garments and other presents, may go in for life insurance to make provision for their future. A bachelor going to marry will purchase numerous domestic articles. Therefore, this particular motive is as

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time described as that of home building. This instinct is also related to comfort and convenience motive. 2.5.9 Health or physical well-being: Many persons purchase health foods, vitamin tablets and patent medicines to maintain their health and physique well-being. 2.5.10Comfort and convenience: Most people dont like to exert much. Hence this motive may be well exploited by the marketing particularly for selling luxury items like motor, cars, sofa sets, furniture, vacuum cleaners, washing machine, television sets, etc. The sale of air conditioners and water coolers, fans is motivated in summer by this motive for comfort.

2.6 TYPES OF BUYING BEHAVIOR Buying Decision differs from person to person. Deepening upon the need of the person, the decision gets change; Even if the product is small. There are different factors which influences the nature of buying. Hence

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buying decision has been classified into four different categories such as Complex buying behavior, Dissonance Reducing buying behavior, Habitual buying behavior and Variety seeking buying behavior. These are classified depending upon the degree of involvement and degree of difference among brands.

2.6.1 Complex Buying behavior: This situation involves the high level of involvement from consumers and the same with the difference among brands. These cases arise when the product is of high price, risky, high for servicing, and so on. For Ex: Buying a laptop/Car. Here the product is expensive and there is a significant difference among the brands.

2.6.2 Dissonance reducing behavior: This involves high involvement of the buyer but a less significance difference among the brands. For ex: Buying an Air Conditioner. Here the product is highly priced but almost all every brand gives the same features.
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Sometimes this may involve the post purchase dissonance behavior. Here the consumer looks at the disadvantages of the product after purchase. 2.6.3. Habitual Buying Behavior: Here there will not be any kind of involvement from the consumer. Here the purchase happens depending upon the Brand familiarity. Here the consumer involvement is low and less differences among brands. This happens based on the habits of buying. For Ex: Buying of a liquid soap. Most of the people prefer Dettol because of the brand. But there are other products like Lifebuoy with less significant difference.

2.6.4. Variety Seeking Buying Behavior: Here the consumer involvement is low but there will be significant difference among brands. For Ex: Biscuits, when we buy a biscuit we do not know the taste hence after consumption only we can tell that whether to go for the brand or not for the next time. Here the companies try to change the nature to Habitual Buying behavior by different strategies. Sometimes this depends upon the retailers too. Hence these are the four types of buying

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behavior where the consumer behaves and company tries to modify it depending upon the need. 2.7 BUYING DECISION PROCESS All consumer decisions do not always include all stages, determined by the degree of complexity. The different stages of decision making process are as follows: 2.7.1. Problem Recognition: (Awareness of Need)-Consumer recognizes a problem or need. The need can be triggered by internal stimuli when one of the persons normal needs rises to a level high enough to become a drive. Hunger-Food. A need can also be triggered by external stimuli (such as advertisement). The buying process starts with need arousal. A need can be activated through internal or external stimuli. A need can also be aroused by an external stimulus such as sight of a new thing in a shop while purchasing other things. There is twofold significance of need arousal stage to a marketing man. First the marketer must identify the drive that might actually or potentially connect to the product class or brand and make the buyer feel that the product can satisfy the drive, he feels, and
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It also helps recognize that the need levels for the product fluctuate over time and are triggered by different cues. The marketer can arrange cues to conform better to the natural rhythms and timing of need arousal.
2.7.2

Information Search

After need arousal, the consumer tries to solve it and gathers the sources and information about the product. Depending upon the intensity of need, it produces two states of individual. The first state is called heightened attention when the consumer becomes more receptive to the information regarding the item he needs. If a consumer needs to purchase a television, he will pay mere attention to TV ads and the remarks made by friends and associates about TVs. If need is more intense, the individual enters a state of active information search and he tries to collect more information about the product, its key attributes, qualities of various brands and about the outlets where they are available. There are four consumer information sources: (i) (ii) (iii) Personal sources (family, friends, neighbors etc.) Commercial sources (advertisements, salesmen, and dealers). Public sources (mass media, consumer-rating organizations).

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(iv)

Experiential sources (handling, examining, using the product).

Identifying the information sources and their respective roles and importance calls for interviewing consumers about the sources of information and can use the findings to plan its advertisements.
2.7.3

Evaluation of Alternatives

Having collected the information, the consumer clarifies and evaluates the alternatives. There is, unfortunately no simple and single evaluation process used by all consumers or even by one consumer in all buying situations. The most current process of evaluation is to judge the product largely on a conscious and rational basis. Various considerations form the part of judgment such as product attributes, importance, weights, brand image, utility function for each attribute, and attitude etc. After evaluation of various alternatives, he takes the decision to buy. The consumer uses information to evaluate alternative brand choices.
2.7.4

Purchase Decision

Evaluation behavior leads the consumer to form a ranked set of preferences. Normally a consumer buys the article, he or she likes most but there are three more important consideration for taking the buying decision: (a)
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attitude of other such as of wife, relatives, and friends, (b) anticipated situational factors as expected family income, expected total cost of the product and the expected benefits of the product; (c) unanticipated situational factors as looks or manner of the salesman or the way business is carried on.
2.7.5

Post-Purchase Evaluation

After buying and trying the product, the consumer will feel some level of satisfaction or dissatisfaction and level of satisfaction depends very much on the expectation and the products perceived performance. If the product matches up to his expectations, the consumer is satisfied; if it exceeds, he is highly satisfied; and if it falls short of expectations, he is dissatisfied.

BUYING DECISION PROCESS

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Fig 2.2

Source: Internet 2.8 CUSTOMER SATISFACTION Satisfaction derived by the customer from the product they purchased is to be measured. This will enable the marketer to change themselves as per the requirements of customers. Satisfaction is a persons feelings of pleasure or disappointment resulting from comparing a products perceived performance in relation to his or her expectations. If the performance falls short of expectations, the customer is dissatisfied. If the performance matches the expectations, the customer is satisfied and if the performance exceeds expectations, the customer is highly satisfied or delighted.

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CHAPTER III

OVERVIEW OF THE OPHTHALMIC INDUSTRY

CHAPTER III

3.1 OVERVIEW OF THE OPHTHALMIC INDUSTRY


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It is estimated that approximately 28% of the population in India requires some sort of vision correction. This makes the market size for any type of lens a whopping 310 million individuals. The organized sector (including organized sector imports) accounts for a mere 16-18% of this market. This means, a mere 50 million people use either of the lenses offered by the organized sector. In the eyewear industry, it is estimated that 35 per cent of Indias population, i.e. approximately 350 million people, are in need of vision correction, which may be done by surgery, laser therapy, spectacles or contact lenses. However, only about 25% of people have their vision corrected i.e. 87.5 million people. Approximately 94 per cent of these wear spectacles, 6% wear contact lenses and 2.5% wear both. The eyewear industry is broadly divided into three categories: eyewear

(Sunglasses/Frames), vision care (Contact lenses) and others. The Indian markets account for about 1% of the worlds consumption. Spectacles and sunglasses are used by over 1/3rd of Indias population & a wide range is available to cater to the vanity of the consumers. With the increase in the level of the self-awareness among the consumers, the emphasis is more on the look of the glasses and the image the customer

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seeks to create. There has been a noticeable shift in consumer purchases for eyewear from form and function to form and fashion. The first segment, i.e. over Rs 1,000 a pair, is the premium segment and is placed at a sales turnover of about Rs 100 crore. Taking an average price of approximately Rs 1,500 per pair, this works out to a market size of about 6,50,000 pairs/year. Ray Ban, Safilo, Luxottica, Baush & Lomb, Johnson & Johnson and Color soft, are the organized companies in the eyewear/eye-care industry in India who manufacturer or import premium eyecare products into India. In the second segment, i.e. retail prices under Rs 1,000 a pair we have several local brands. Lately the bulk of this segment has been taken over by frames & sunglasses from Taiwan, China, and Hong Kong. In past few years, the awareness of consumer towards branded eyewear products and eye care has been increasing and people are ready to spend on premium brands. In fact sunglasses are now being looked at, more as a fashion device rather than a protective device with the entry of international brands like Ray Ban, Benetton, Gucci, and Police etc. The major factor driving the growth of the market is the rising awareness about the importance of detecting ophthalmic diseases early, the
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availability of effective diagnostic tools and an increase in the use of visual media. Despite the economic crisis, the eyewear market in India as a whole displayed healthy growth in volume sales in 2009, while growth in its value sales slowed marginally relative to 2008. Coming back to industry statistics, a majority of the organized sector vision care patients, almost 98%, prefer to use spectacle lenses. Since lenses are normally bought in pairs it translates to 98 million spectacle lenses sold every year. Leading global players or manufacturers (also called the Lens Casters) are Essilor, Ziess, and Hoya etc. with Essilor being a clear market leader. 3.2 HISTORY OF SPECTACLES An Italian physicist named Salvino degli Armati probably invented eyeglasses in around 1285. He shared the design of his new device with an Italian monk, Allesandro Della Spina, who made public the invention and is often given credit for inventing eyeglasses. In the 14th century, Venetian craftsmen known for their work in glass were making "disks for the eyes." The finely ground glass disks were given the name lenses by the Italians because of their similarity in shape to lentil beans. For hundreds of years thereafter, lenses were called glass lentils. The earliest lenses were convex (they bulged outward in the middle and aided
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people who were far-sighted). Wearing spectacles become common. By the fifteenth century, eye-glasses had found their way to China. In 1451 Nicholas of Cusa (1401-1464) in Germany invented eyeglasses to correct near-sightedness using concave lenses. Rather than bulging in the middle like convex lenses, concave lenses are thinner at the center and thicker at the ends. 3.3 EYEGLASS FRAMES Early eyeglasses had glass lenses mounted on heavy frames of wood, lead or copper. Natural materials of leather, bone and horn were later used. In the early seventeenth century, lighter frames of steel were developed. Tortoise shell frames came into use in the eighteenth century. In 1746 a French optician named Thomin invented actual eyeglass frames that could be placed over the ears and nose. The need for eyeglasses is determined by the shape and condition of the eye itself. If the eyeball is too shallow, the image passing through the lens focuses behind the retina. When the eye is too deep, the image focuses in front of the retina. When the eye looses its elasticity it tends to focus the

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image behind the retina. There are a number of different types of vision problems that can be corrected with eyeglasses. These conditions include:

Hyperopia or farsightedness. This condition is caused by a shallow eye-ball. People with farsightedness can see distant objects clearly, but near objects look blurry.

Myopia or nearsightedness. This condition is caused by a deep eyeball. People with nearsightedness can see near objects clearly, but not those far away.

Presbyopia occurs when the lens of the eye loses it elasticity and it can no longer change shape. The condition is usually associated with age and usually becomes evident after age 40. Presbyopia causes people to be somewhat farsighted. Sometimes this is corrected by wearing bifocals (eyeglasses that have a second lens below the top lens). A person with presbyopia can look through the bottom lens while reading and use the top lens for distant objects.

Astigmatism is blurry vision caused by irregular curves in the cornea (the transparent covering of the eye). The irregular curvature makes it impossible for light rays to focus on a single point.

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3.4 TYPES OF EYE GLASSES 3.4.1 Corrective Glasses Corrective lenses are used to correct refractive errors of the eye by modifying the effective focal length of the lens in order to alleviate the effects of conditions such as nearsightedness (myopia), farsightedness (hyperopia) or astigmatism 3.4.2 Safety Glasses Safety glasses are usually made with shatter-resistant plastic lenses to protect the eye from flying debris. Although safety lenses may be constructed from a variety of materials of various impact resistances, certain standards suggest that they maintain a minimum 1 millimeter thickness at the thinnest point, regardless of material. Safety glasses can vary in the level of protection they provide. Some safety glasses are designed to fit over corrective glasses or sunglasses. They may provide less eye protection than goggles or other forms of eye protection, but their light weight increases the likelihood that they will actually be used. Modern safety glasses tend to be given a more stylish design in order to encourage their use. Corrective

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glasses with plastic lenses can be used in place of safety glasses in many environments 3.4.3 Sunglasses Sunglasses may be made with either prescription or non-prescription lenses that are darkened to provide protection against bright visible light and, possibly, ultraviolet (UV) light. Photo chromic lenses, which are photosensitive, darken when struck by UV light. Sunglasses are often worn just for aesthetic purposes, or simply to hide the eyes. Yellow lenses increase color contrast and improve depth perception. They are worn by people driving at dusk, but are detrimental to vision at night. Any tint further reduces incoming light to the retina, and yellow tints also reduce glare-recovery times for night drivers. Brown lenses are common among golfers, but cause color distortion. Blue, purple, and green lenses offer no real benefits to vision enhancement, and are mainly cosmetic. Some sunglasses with interchangeable lenses have optional clear lenses to protect the eyes during low light or night time activities and a colored lens with UV protection for times where sun protection is needed.

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3.4.4 3D Glasses The illusion of three dimensions on a two dimensional surface can be created by providing each eye with different visual information. Classic 3D glasses create the illusion of three dimensions when viewing specially prepared images. The classic 3D glasses have one red lens and one blue or cyan lens. Another kind of 3D glasses uses polarized filters, with one lens polarized vertically and the other horizontally, with the two images required for stereo vision polarized the same way. Polarized 3D glasses allow for color 3D, while the red-blue lenses produce a dull black-and-white picture with red and blue fringes. Both types have been distributed to audiences at 3D movies. 3.4.5 Reading Glasses Magnifying lenses or generic spectacles that are used to treat mild presbyopia and hyperopia can be bought off the shelf. Although such glasses are generally considered safe, an individual prescription, as determined by an ophthalmologist or optometrist and made by a qualified optician, usually results in better visual correction and fewer headaches & visual discomfort.

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3.5 MODERN TECHNOLOGIES As people age, their ability to focus is lessened and many decide to use multiple-focus lenses, which can be bifocal or even trifocal, to cover all the situations in which they use their sight. People who have more than one vision problem often need eyeglasses with multifocal lenses. Traditional multifocal lenses have two or three distinct horizontal viewing areas, each requiring a conscious effort of refocusing. Some modern multifocal lenses, such as progressive lenses (known as "no-line bifocals"), give a smooth transition between these different focal points, unnoticeable by most wearers, while other glasses have lenses specifically intended for use with computer monitors at a fixed distance. People may have several pairs of glasses, one for each task or distance, with specific glasses for reading, computer use, television watching, and writing. Eyeglass lenses are commonly made from plastic, including CR-39 and polycarbonate.
3.5.1

Bifocals. Bifocals are the most common type of multifocal lens. The eyeglass lens is split into two sections; the upper part is for distance vision and the lower part for near vision. They are usually prescribed for people over the age of 40 whose focusing ability has

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declined due to presbyopia. Presbyopia is an age-related change that affects the natural lens in the eye.
3.5.2

Trifocals. Trifocals are simply bifocals with a third section used for people who need help seeing objects that are within an arm's reach. This additional segment is above the bifocal portion of the lens and is used for viewing things in the intermediate zone; for example, looking at a computer screen.

3.5.3

Progressive Lenses. Progressive spectacle lenses are corrective lenses used in eyeglasses to correct presbyopia and other disorders of accommodation. They are characterized by a gradient of increasing lens power, added to the wearer's correction for the other refractive errors. The gradient starts at the wearer's distance prescription, at the top of the lens and reaches a maximum addition power, or the full reading addition, at the bottom of the lens.

3.6 Eyeglass Lens Coatings There are almost as many eyeglass lens coatings as there are types of lenses. They include:
3.6.1

Anti-reflective coating. If glare becomes a problem, consider an anti-reflective coating applied to new eyeglasses. Anti-reflective
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coating will reduce reflections, decrease halos around light, and create a nicer cosmetic appearance.
3.6.2

Scratch-resistant coating and ultraviolet coating. Most eyeglass lenses today have built-in scratch resistant coatings and ultraviolet protection.

3.6.3

Tinted lenses. Sometimes a light or dark hint of color on the eyeglass lens can be beneficial to aid in vision. For example, a yellow tint may increase contrast and a gray tint may not alter color perception with sunglasses. A light tint can also hide the signs of aging around the eyes.

3.6.4

Mirror coatings. If you are looking for a purely cosmetic lens that allows the eyes to be hidden from view, then this is the coating for you. Mirror coatings come in a variety of colors such as silver, gold, and blue.

The following modern eyeglass lenses are lighter, thinner, and more scratch-resistant than glass lenses or the older, common plastic lenses.
3.6.5

Polycarbonate lenses:

These eyeglass lenses are impact-

resistant and are a good choice for people who regularly participate in sporting activities, work in a job environment in
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which their eyeglasses may be easily scratched or broken, and for children who may easily drop and scratch their eyeglasses. Polycarbonate lenses also provide ultraviolet protection.
3.6.6

Trivex lenses:

It is made from a newer plastic with similar

characteristics of polycarbonate lenses. It is lightweight, thin, and impact-resistant and may result in better vision correction than the polycarbonate lenses in some people.
3.6.7

High index plastic lenses: Designed for people who require strong prescriptions, these eyeglass lenses are lighter and thinner than the standard, thick "coke bottle" lenses that may otherwise be needed.

3.6.8

Aspheric lenses: These eyeglass lenses are unlike typical lenses, which are spherical in shape. Aspheric lenses are made up of differing degrees of curvature over its surface, which allows the lens to be thinner and flatter than other lenses. This also creates an eyeglass lens with a much larger usable portion than the standard lens.

3.6.9 Photo chromic lenses Made from either glass or plastic, these eyeglasses change from clear to tinted when exposed to sunlight. This eliminates the need for prescription
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sunglasses. These eyeglass lenses may not darken in a car because the windshield could block the ultraviolet rays from the sun.
3.6.10 Polarized sunglasses

Light reflected from water or a flat surface can cause unwanted glare. Polarized lenses reduce glare and are useful for sports and driving. These lenses may cause the liquid crystal displays on the dashboard of cars to appear invisible. The type of vision problem that you have determines the shape of the eyeglass lens. For example, a lens that is concave, or curves inward, is used to correct nearsightedness, while a lens that is convex, or curves outward, is used to correct farsightedness. To correct astigmatism, which is caused by distortions in the shape of the cornea, a cylinder shaped lens is frequently used. Simply put, the eyeglass lens is a tool you use to focus light appropriately onto your retina.

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3.7 HISTORY OF CONTACT LENSES A contact lens is a corrective, cosmetic, or therapeutic lens usually placed on the cornea of the eye. Leonardo Da Vinci is credited with describing and sketching the first ideas for contact lenses in 1508, but it was more than 300 years later before contact lenses were actually fabricated and worn on the eye. Rigid ones were produced and marketed first. Modern soft contact lenses were invented by the Czech chemist Otto Wichterle and his assistant Drahoslav Lim, who also invented the first gel used for their production. Some soft contact lenses are tinted a faint blue to make them more visible when immersed in cleaning and storage solutions. Some cosmetic lenses are deliberately colored to alter the appearance of the eye. Some lenses now have a UV protection surface treatment to reduce UV damage to the eye's natural lens 3.8 TYPES OF CONTACT LENSES Soft contact lenses are lenses made of hydrophilic (water-loving) plastics that absorb liquids. When these materials soak up liquids, they become soft and mold to fit the eyeball. Soft lenses can correct many visual problems.
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They are quite different from gas permeable lenses. The different types of soft contact lenses are as follows: 3.8.1 Daily-wear soft lenses Daily -wear soft lenses are the most comfortable, and your eyes will adjust to wearing them in less time than with hard contact lenses. Dailywear lenses must be removed, cleaned and stored every day.

3.8.2 Disposable contact lenses Disposable contact lenses are lenses which are designed to be replaced on a regular basis, usually daily, bi-weekly or monthly. The more often a lens is replaced, the less the lens will become deposited with proteins and oils. Many of the problems that contact lens wearers experienced when contact lenses were replaced on an annual or two yearly bases are seldom seen nowadays. Disposable contact lenses are therefore a healthier alternative. Daily disposable contact lenses are a great option for people who only want to wear their contact lenses a few times per week.

3.8.3 Leave-in (extended wear) contact lenses Leave-in contact lenses are designed to be worn continuously for 30 days and nights and then replaced with a new contact lens. They offer the
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ultimate in convenience, since they usually don't need removing or mechanically cleaning. Other advantages include being able to see without struggling to find your glasses if you get up in the night, or not having to worry about removing lenses with dirty hands if you go camping. You also won't need to remember to carry bottles of solutions around with you if you go out with friends and end up staying out the night!

3.8.4 Toric Contact Lenses Toric contact lenses are made from the same materials as regular ("spherical") contact lenses, Toric lenses have two powers in them, created with curvatures at different angles (one for astigmatism, the other for either myopia or hyperopia ). There's also a mechanism to keep the contact lens relatively stable on the eye when you blink.

3.8.5 Gas permeable contact lenses Gas permeable contact lenses are usually used for the correction of moderate levels of astigmatism. They provide excellent clarity of vision; especially in cases where the astigmatism is irregular .They require a longer period of adaptation than soft lenses. Gas permeable contact
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lenses offer excellent long-term corneal health since they allow almost as much oxygen to pass through to the cornea as without a lens on the eye. Many of the problems associated with the reduced oxygen flow through the old-style "hard lenses" are seldom seen nowadays due to the developments in these modern gas permeable materials. 3.8.6 Cosmetic contact Lenses A cosmetic contact lens is designed to change the appearance of the eye. These lenses may also correct the vision, but some blurring or obstruction of vision may occur as a result of the color or design. These types of lenses tend to cause mild irritation on insertion, but after accustoming to the lenses, the eyes are typically well tolerated. As with any contact lens, cosmetic lenses carry risks of mild and serious complications, including ocular redness, irritation, and infection. All individuals who decide to wear cosmetic lenses should check with an eye care provider prior to first use, and periodically over long term use in order to avoid potentially blinding complications.

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Therapeutic contact lenses Soft lenses are often used in the treatment and management of nonrefractive disorders of the eye. A bandage contact lens protects an injured or diseased cornea from the constant rubbing of blinking eyelids thereby allowing it to heal. Prosthetic contact lens These contact lenses are used in patients with corneal disfigurations. MAJOR BRANDS In terms of supply, the leading companies in the spectacles sector include Essilor Sola Optical Norville Carrera These companies supply all the major opticians, either under their own name and/or for sale under the retailers' own labels. Most also have links with various designer labels to produce frames under names such as:

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Gucci Prada D&G Dkny Ray Ban etc These companies produce both lenses and frames for spectacles made to prescription. The spectacle frame sector is more fragmented with a large number of smaller suppliers also active in the market. In the contact lens sector, fashion is not a particular issue as lenses are not visible to others and so there are just a small number of manufacturers in this sector who supply opticians under their own names and for retailers' own labels. The key suppliers are: Bausch and Lomb Ciba Vision (Focus) Johnson and Johnson Vistakom (Acuvue, Surevue) Hydron Sauflon; and Wesley-Jessen.

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The new 30-day extended wear lenses, introduced in late 1999, are supplied by Bausch and Lomb (PureVision) and Ciba Vision (Night and Day). The contact lens care sector is also supplied by some of the contact lens suppliers such as Bausch and Lomb (Renu, Elite, and Boston Advance) Ciba Vision (AOSept, Solo-care, and 10:10) Sauflon as well as Allergan (Oxysept, Totalcare) Alcon Most also supply some of their products to retailers for sale as own-label products and so the market is relatively concentrated despite an apparently high level of own-label activity. Companies including Allergan, Bausch and Lomb, Sauflon and Ciba Vision all supply to retailers such as Boots, Dollond and Aitchison, Vision Express, Tesco and SpecSavers. 3.11 RETAILER MARKET AND PLAYERS The major national players in the market are GKB opticals, Lawrence & Mayo, Titan Eye +, Vision Express-a joint venture between Reliance Retail and Pearle Europe, offering international designs and optical

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skills. When considering the Ernakulam City, there are several major retailer giants like:Lens and Frames Lawrence and Mayo Kurians Optics Titan etc . Even then most of the customers depend on the other shops may be because of the price or other related factors. The preference of retail outlets is based on the factors like the price, quality of products, after sale service etc. 3.12 A COMPARATIVE STUDY These days, spectacles are more than just functional aids for correcting vision. Increasingly, they are being regarded as accessories to complement ones fashion style. Spectacles are convenient as they are easy to put on or remove. Relatively fuss-free, they are easy to clean and can be rather durable. However, if you often take part in sporting activities, wearing spectacles might be a little interfering. An accident during such activities,

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especially contact sports, can cause spectacles to shatter, resulting in serious eye injury. Contact lenses are useful in the correction of Anisometropia where the power of each eye is very different. If you mind the weight of spectacles or the marks that spectacles sometimes leave on the face, contact lenses are a good alternative to consider. Contact lenses have the advantage of giving the wearer good peripheral vision, making them a convenient alternative for those active in sports and games. Many people also feel more attractive when they wear contact lenses instead of spectacles. However, contact lenses need regular and thorough cleaning. They should not be worn for long periods or overnight. Wearers are also at an increased risk of eye infection if they do not care for their lenses properly. It is not advisable for children to wear contact lenses as they are less likely to be able to take care of them properly. Table No. 3.1 COMPARITIVE STUDY OF THE EYE WEARS BASIS Problems Usage time CONTACT LENS Dry eyes, cornea and eyelid related problems Up to 14 hours when using SPECTACLES No known problems No limit
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daily disposable contact Types lens Corrective, Cosmetic, XChrom, Soflens, Hard lens, Therapeutic Corrective, Sunglasses, 3D Glasses, Reading Glasses, Bifocals, Progressive, Inventor Definition Otto Wichterle and his assistant Drahoslav Lm A contact lens is a corrective, cosmetic, or therapeutic lens usually placed on the cornea of the eye. Bioptics Salvino D'Armate Glasses or spectacles are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, normally for vision correction, eye protection, or for protection from UV Cost Starting at $18 and going up to $250. Rates vary depending on the eye condition (corrective lens) and package you opt for (monthly, weekly, daily disposable) rays Starting at $70 and going up to $200 depending on your eye problems and store

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Storage

A flat, dual case with circular sections for each lens

Rectangular case. Modern glasses sometimes come in cylindrical cases. Lenses need to be wiped clean every so often to get rid of the dirt and other particles

Usage & Care

Needs to be submerged in lens care solution when not in use and needs to be replaced periodically

Source: Ophthalmic journals Table No. 3.2 UTILITY COMPARISON OF THE EYE WEARS Eyeglasses The distance between your eye and the lens sometimes creates distortion. Poor peripheral (side) vision. Constant awareness of frame and lens edge, as well as reflections off Contact Lenses Worn right on the eye, for more natural vision. Your entire field of view is in focus. With contacts, no annoying obstructions or reflections are in

the backside of the lens. view. Uncomfortable weight on your face No weight and resulting discomfort. and ears. Periodic need for tightening or other adjustment. No frame constantly slipping down your nose.

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Glasses fog up with changes in temperature. Glasses are a distraction during games and sports. Fashionable and inexpensive nonprescription sunglasses are not an option if you wear eyeglasses. Glasses need to complement your outfit. For instance, casual frames may not suit evening attire. Or colors may clash. Eyeglasses are annoying to wear in rain or snow. Glasses are an unnatural, distracting barrier between your eyes and the world. Source: Retailers interview (Analysis)

Contacts don't fog up. No distractions, which makes contact lenses a favorite among athletes. A whole wardrobe of fashionable, functional, affordable sunglasses is available to contact lens wearers. Contacts match everything you wear. Contact lenses won't collect precipitation and blur your vision. Contacts don't detract from your natural appearance; they let people see your eyes.

3.13 VISION CORRECTION METHODS Today, many different options exist to help the majority of people who wear glasses or contact lenses reduce or eliminate their dependence on their corrective lenses. In almost all cases, refractive surgery is elective and cosmetic.

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Vision correction surgery can benefit people with myopia, hyperopia and astigmatism, and in the future, presbyopia.

Vision correction surgery modifies the cornea and/or the lens in order to focus light on the back of the eye without the need for corrective lenses.

Vision correction surgery will usually not benefit people with presbyopia In presbyopia, the lens loses its ability to change shape and thus focus the eye on objects up close

Today, various options in vision correction surgery include the following:

3.13.1 Laser-Assisted In Situ Keratomileusis (LASIK) LASIK eye surgery involves lasering under the surface of the cornea. A very thin superficial layer of the cornea (approximately the thickness of a human hair and a quarter of the cornea's thickness) is cut and lifted. After the exposed tissue is lasered the flap is repositioned and remains in place by natural suction. The flap remains joined to the cornea, like a hinge, enabling it to be replaced in exactly the same position, minimizing the healing process. The benefits of LASIK vision correction include a pain free

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recovery, quick restoration of eyesight and better results for severe short sight. The inner eye is not pierced and stitches are not required. 3.13.2 Laser Epithelial Keratomileusis (LASEK) With LASEK eye surgery, also known as Epiflap LASEK, is similar to LASIK, except that the surgeon cuts a flap in the epithelium only. Because the LASEK technique preserves most of the epithelium, recovery time is much improved over standard PRK (where the epithelium is removed) and discomfort is greatly reduced.

3.13.3 Photorefractive Keratectomy (PRK) PRK is a treatment for shortsight, mild to moderate longsight and astigmatism. The surgeon uses an excimer laser to remove tissue from the surface of the cornea. This removal (or ablation) results in a new shape, thus reducing the vision problem. PRK usually takes less than one minute per eye. 3.13.4 LASIK Wave front Also known as Custom LASIK, Wave front is designed for people suffering corneal aberrations (unusually shaped eyes). These people, who would not achieve a satisfactory result with current lasers may therefore benefit from
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this method, with its ability to reduce abnormal spherical aberrations. It is important to understand that Wave front is relatively new and therefore experimental. Its clinical significance and associated benefits over standard methods remain unconfirmed. Most people with normal eyes and standard prescriptions would not benefit from this experimental treatment and there is no data to support the belief that Wavefront achieves superior satisfaction levels or functional performance. 3.13.5 Implantable Contact Lenses (ICLs) Implanted lenses are used for the correction of more severe levels of shortsight, long-sight and astigmatism. They are similar to a small 'contact lens' which is placed inside the eye instead of sitting on the surface. Benefits include; pain free treatment with rapid visual recovery and very good visual acuity results. The success rate is approximately 95%.

Implanted lenses are now used to treat patients with prescriptions from between -23d to +12d with (+/-) 7d of astigmatism. The treatment is also available for patients who are unsuitable for laser treatment due to corneal thickness or after cataract removal. The treatment is not suitable for people over 60 years of age or anyone developing cataracts. People with high

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glaucoma, recurrent eye infections and other eye diseases may not be suitable.

3.13.6 Cataract Surgery Cataract surgery continues to be one of the most common and successful surgical procedures with high expectations from patients. With advances in technology, small incision surgery has been developed and rehabilitation times have been reduced. Cataracts can now be operated on safely under local anesthetic in a day care or short stay setting.

REFERENCE 1. RETAILERS INTERVIEW AND SURVEY 2. INTERNET 3. OPHTHALMOLOGISTS

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CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS

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CHAPTER IV

ANALYSIS & INTERPRETATIONS


This chapter deals with the analysis of data collected through questionnaires using different statistical tools.

4.1 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO AGE This table shows the distribution of the respondents on the basis of their age. Table 4.1 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO AGE AGE No. OF RESPONDENTS PERCENTAGE
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18 19 20 21 22 TOTAL

10 5 10 12 13 50

20 10 20 24 26 100

Source: Analysis

INFERENCE The above chart shows that among the total 50 respondents, 20% belongs to the age category of 18, 10% belongs to 19, 20% belongs to the age category of 20, 24% to age 21 and 26% to the age group of 22.

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4.2 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO GENDER This table shows the distribution of respondents according gender.

Table 4.2 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO GENDER No. OF RESPONDENTS 20 30 50

SEX MALE FEMALE TOTAL Source: Analysis

PERCENTAGE 40 60 100

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INFERENCE Among the 50 respondents, 40% were male customers and 60% were female customers.

4.3 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PREFERENCE OF

OPHTHALMIC WEARS This table shows the distribution of the customers according to their preference for ophthalmic wear i.e. whether they prefer spectacles or contact lens. This distribution is based on the age factor of the respondents.

Table 4.3 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PREFERENCE OF OPHTHALMIC WEAR

AGE 18

CONTACT SPECTACLES LENS % SPECTACLE 9 1 18

CONTACT LENS % 2
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19 20 21 22 TOTAL Source: Analysis

3 10 10 13 45

2 0 2 0 5

6 20 20 26 90

4 0 4 0 10

Fig 4.3 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PREFERENCE OF OPHTHALMIC WEAR

CLASSIFICATION OF CUSTOMERS ACCORDING TO THEIR PREFERENCE FOR EYEWEAR


14 NO.OF RESPONDENTS 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 18 19 20 AGE 21 22 SPECTACLES

CONTACT LENS

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Source: Analysis

INFERENCE The above chart shows the preference of eyewear among different customers under different age group. Among 50 respondents, 90% respondents prefer spectacles while 10% prefer contact lenses.

4.4 DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF RESPONDENTS

CONSULTATION BEFORE SELECTING AN EYEWEAR This table shows whether the respondents consult an ophthalmologist or an optical technician before selecting their eye wear.

Table 4.5 DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF RESPONDENTS CONSULTATION BEFORE SELECTING AN EYEWEAR

RESPONDENTS OPHTHALMOLOGISTS

OPTICIANS

MALE

15

30

12

79

FEMALE Source: Analysis

25

50

Fig. 4.5 DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF RESPONDENTS CONSULTATION BEFORE SELECTING AN EYEWEAR

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EYE WEAR SELECTION SELECTION METHODOLOGY 30 25 NO.OF RESPONENTS 20 15 10 5 0 OPHTHALMOLOGISTS CONSULT OPTICIANS MALE FEMALE

INFERENCE This chart shows the percentage of people consulting an optician or ophthalmologists before using an eyewear. Of the total respondents, 80% prefer ophthalmologists while 20% prefer opticians. This 80% constitute 30% male and 50% female customers, and the rest 20% includes 12% male and 8% female customers.

4.5 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO THE PURPOSE OF

WEARING EYEWEARS The below table shows whether the customer uses the eye wear for vision correction or as a fashion element.

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Table 4.6 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO THE PURPOSE OF WEARING EYEWEARS

VISION RESPONDENTS CORRECTION MALE FEMALE 19 21

% 38 42

TREND/FASHION 3 7

% 6 14

Source: Analysis

Fig. 4.6 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO THE PURPOSE OF WEARING EYEWEARS

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CLASSIFICATION ON THE BASIS OF PURPOFE OF WEARING EYEWEAR


25

NO.OF RESPONENTS

20

15 M ALE FE MALE 10

0 VISION CORRECTION TREND/FASHION PURPOSE

Source: Analysis INFERENCE

The above chart shows the purpose for which a customer purchases his eyewear. 80% prefer these for vision correction and 20% consider this as a fashion element. Out of this 80%, 38% are male and 42% are female customers, while the 20% includes 6% male and 14% female customers.

4.6 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RETAILER PREFERNCE

This table gives information regarding the different retailers preferred by the customers.
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Table 4.6 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RETAILER PREFERNCE REATILER GRACE LENS & FRAMES LAWRENCE & MAYO KURIAN'S TITAN OTHERS Source: Analysis No. OF RESPONDENTS 1 14 4 5 4 22 PERCENTAGE 2 28 8 10 8 44

Fig. 4.6 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO RETAILER PREFERNCE

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RETAILER CHOICE AMONG STUDENTS

2%

28% GRACE 44% LENS & FRAMES LAWRENCE & MAYO KURIAN'S TITAN OTHERS 8%

8%

10%

Source: Analysis INFERENCE The above pie chart shows the customer preference for retailers when purchasing their eyewear. From the study we can infer that out of the total respondents, 2% prefer Grace Optics, 8% prefer Lawrence & Mayo and Titan, 10% prefer Lens & Frames and 44% of the respondents prefer other small and medium sized dealers.

4.7 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PURCHASE INTERVALS

OF CUSTOMERS
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The below table shows how often the respondents purchase their eyewear i.e. the customers purchase intervals for Spectacle lens Contact lens Spectacle frames

Table 4.7.1 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PURCHASE INTERVALS FOR SPECTACLE LENS/GLASSES No. OF RESPONDENTS ANNUALLY 45 Source: Analysis 30 HALF YEARLY 5

OTHERS 10

Fig. 4.7.1 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PURCHASE INTERVALS FOR SPECTACLE LENS/GLASSES


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PURCHASE INTERVALS OF CUSTOMERS FOR SPECTACLE LENS

22%

ANNUALLY HALF YEARLY 11% 67% OTHE RS

Source: Analysis INFERENCE Out of the total respondents for spectacles, 67% change their lenses annually, 11% prefer to change it half yearly and 22% considers other options like as and when it breaks, quarterly etc.

Table 4.7.2 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PURCHASE INTERVALS FOR


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SPECTACLE FRAMES No. OF RESPONDENTS 18 Source: Analysis Fig. 4.7.2 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PURCHASE INTERVALS FOR SPECTACLE FRAMES
PURCHASE INTERVALS OF CUSTOMERS FOR FRAMES

ANNUALLY 2

HALF YEARLY 12

OTHERS 4

OTHERS 22%

ANNUALLY 11%

ANNUALLY HALF YEARLY OTHERS

Source: Analysis

HALF YEARLY 67%

INFERENCE

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The above chart shows the purchase intervals of spectacle frames among the customers. 64% customers prefer to change it annually, while 27% prefer half yearly and the rest 9% prefer to change when there is a change in fashion or when they finds it irreparable.

Table 4.7.3
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DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PURCHASE INTERVALS FOR CONTACT LENSES

No. OF RESPONDENTS ANNUALLY 5 Source: Analysis 1

HALF YEARLY 2

OTHERS 2

Fig. 4.7.3 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PURCHASE INTERVALS FOR


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CONTACTLENSES

PURCHASE INTERVALS OF CUSTOMERS FOR CONTACT LENS

MONTHLY 20% ANNUALLY 40%

MONTHLY QUARTERLY ANNUALLY

QUARTERLY 40%

Source: Analysis INFERENCE Out of the total contact lens users, 40% prefer to change their lens annually, 40% prefer it to change it quarterly and 20% changes it monthly. No customer prefers disposable lenses.

4.8 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO BRAND PREFERNCE 91

This table gives information regarding the preference for branded eye wears while making their purchase decision. Table 4.8 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO BRAND PREFERNCE

SEX MALE FEMALE

BRANDED UNBRANDED BRANDED UNBRANDED % % 6 5 15 24 12 10 30 48

Source: Analysis

Fig. 4.8 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO BRAND PREFERNCE


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PRE E F RNCE F BRANDE G OR D OODS


30 25 20 30% 15 10 12% 5 0 10% M ALE FE ALE M 48%

Source: Analysis INFERENCE

NO. OF RESPONENTS

BRAN E DD BR AND PR FE E CE E RN

U BR DE N AN D

The above chart shows that most of the respondents prefer unbranded eyewear to branded ones. Only 22% prefer branded items while 78% prefer unbranded eyewear. This may be due to high price for the branded products when compared to unbranded. As our study is confines to students we have consider the income factor too.

4.9 ISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PRICE RANGES

PREFERRED BY CUSTOMERS
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This table shows the price range preferred by customers while selecting their eye wear. Table 4.9 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PRICE RANGES PREFERRED BY CUSTOMERS TOTAL FEMALE % 12 46 2 0

PRICE RANGE <1000 1000-5000 5000-10000 >10000

MALE 5 13 2 0

FEMALE 6 23 1 0

TOTAL MALE % 10 26 4 0

Source: Analysis

Fig 4.9 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PRICE RANGES PREFERRED BY CUSTOMERS


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PRICE RANG S PRE E E F RRE BY CUSTOME D RS


25

46%

NO. OF RESPONENTS

20

15

26%

M ALE FE ALE M

10 10% 5 12% 4% 2% 0 <1000 1000-5000 5000-10000 >10000 0%

Source: Analysis INFERENCE

PR ICER GE AN

On the price ranges front, 22% go for a price range of less than 1000, while another 72% prefers to buy eye wears ranging between Rupees 1000 and 5000, only 6% prefers 5000-10000 range and no customer prefer above 10000 ranges. The reason for this may be students are mainly no income or low income group. According to the study, the customers prefer moderately priced articles

4.10 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO ADAPTATION TO

CHANGES

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This table shows whether the customers adapt to the changes in the ophthalmic industry. Table 4.10 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO ADAPTATION TO CHANGES NO.OF RESPONDENTS 34 16

RESPONSE YES NO Source: Analysis INFERENCE

PERCENTAGE 68 32

According to the study, 68% respondents prefer to adapt to the changes in the field like changing fashion trends, new technologies and methods like progressive lens, antiglare technologies etc. while the remaining 32 % prefer to stick on to the present.

4.11 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PRICING

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This table shows the price range preferred by the customers while selecting their eye wear.

Table 4.11 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PRICING RESPONSE REASONABLE EXORBITANT NO.OF RESPONDENTS 40 10 PERCENTAGE 80 20

Source: Analysis

Fig. 4.11

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DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO PRICING


RESPONSE TO PRICE

EXORBITANT 20%

REASONABLE EXORBITANT

REA SONA BLE 80%

Source: Analysis

INFERENCE On the basis of pricing, 80% of the respondents consider these prices charged by the dealers are normal while 20% have the opinion that the prices are exorbitant.

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4.12 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO FAMILIARITY TO VISON CORRECTION TREATMENTS This table shows the familiarity of vision correction methods among customers.

Table 4.12 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO FAMILIARITY TO VISON CORRECTION TREATMENTS RESPONSE FAMILIAR UNFAMILIAR NO.OF RESPONDENTS 39 11 PERCENTAGE 78 22

INFERENCE 78% of the total respondents are familiar with the vision correction treatments like the laser treatments, cataract surgery etc and 22% are not even aware of this.

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4.13

DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO THE FAMILIARITY TOWARDS THE MODERN TECHNOLOGIES IN THE OPHTHALMIC INDUSTRY This table shows whether the technologies in ophthalmic industry are

known among the customers. Table 4.13 DISTRIBUTION ACCORDING TO THE FAMILIARITY TOWARDS THE MODERN TECHNOLOGIES IN THE OPHTHALMIC INDUSTRY NO.OF RESPONDENTS 44 6

RESPONSE FAMILIAR UNFAMILIAR Source: Analysis INFERENCE

PERCENTAGE 88 12

According to this study, 88% of the customers are aware of the new technologies and innovations in the ophthalmic industry like progressive lenses, antiglare technology, disposable contact lens and the like. 22% respondents are unfamiliar to these innovations. So through the study it is evident that there is scope for improvement in this area.

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4.14

DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING SELECTION OF AN EYE WEAR This table shows preference of customers while selecting their eye

wear after considering all the below mentioned factors.

4.14.1 SAFETY The table shows how safety factor has influenced the customer while making their purchase Table 4.14.1 SAFETY CHOICE SPECTACLES CONTACT LENS INFERENCE On the basis of safety 86 of the respondents prefer spectacles while 14% prefer contact lenses. This is because of the fact that people have some allergic problems with contact lenses NO.OF PERCENTAGE RESPONDENTS 43 7 86 14

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4.14.2 COMFORT The table shows how comfort factor has influenced the customer while making their purchase. Table 4.14.2 COMFORT CHOICE SPECTACLES CONTACT LENS NO.OF RESPONDENTS 35 15 PERCENTAGE 70 30

INFERENCE On the basis of the study, 70% of the respondents came to the conclusion that spectacles are comfortable than contact lenses. As the study was conducted among the students, they find it difficult to change the contact lenses all the time and dip it in solutions and all. So they find it much comfortable to carry a spectacle than a contact lens.

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4.14.3 NECESSITY The table shows how necessity factor has influenced the customer while making their purchase. Table 4.14.3 NECESSITY CHOICE NO.OF RESPONDENTS 41 9 PERCENTAGE

SPECTACLES CONTACT LENS

82 18

INFERENCE Among the total respondents, 82% prefer spectacles to contact lenses when considering necessity, while the remaining 18% consider contact lenses as more needy. It is based on the vision correction required. The respondents are of the opinion that contact lenses provide more vision clarity than contact lenses. So the users who require more vision correction prefer contact lens.

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4.14.4 ECONOMY The table shows how economy factor has influenced the customer while making their purchase. Table 4.14.4 ECONOMY CHOICE NO.OF RESPONDENTS 46 4 PERCENTAGE

SPECTACLES CONTACT LENS

92 8

INFERENCE When considering the economy criteria, 92% respondents agreed that spectacles are much economical than contact lenses. But, 8% respondents prefer contact lenses on the basis of economy factor. This may be because of the unavoidable need for contact lenses. On the basis of retailers information also spectacles are found to be cheaper than contact lenses.

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4.14.5 FASHION The table shows how fashion factor has influenced the customer while making their purchase. Table 4.14.5 FASHION CHOICE NO.OF RESPONDENTS 25 25 PERCENTAGE

SPECTACLES CONTACT LENS

50 50

INFERENCE The respondent considers both spectacles and contact lenses as equally fashionable. Retailers have also agreed to this fact as new and variety designer wears are available in spectacles and contact lenses.

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Fig 4.14 DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF FACTORS INFLUENCING SELECTION OF AN EYE WEAR

Distribution on the basis of selection criteria


60 50 no.of respondents 40 30 20 10 0 safety comfort necessity economy fashion factor influencing purchase decision 14% 30% 18% 8% 100% 86% 70% spectacles contact lens 92% 82%

Source: Analysis

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4.15

DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF INTERCHANGABILITY OF EYE WEARS This table shows how often the customers interchange their eye wears. Table 4.15

DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF INTERCHANGABILITY OF EYE WEARS

AGE 18 19 20 21 22 Source: Analysis

NO. OF RESPONDENTS 1 0 2 4 2

% 2 0 4 8 4

Fig. 4.15
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DISTRIBUTION ON THE BASIS OF INTERCHANGABILITY OF EYE WEARS

INTERCHANG ABILITY OF EYEWEAR


4.5 8% 4 NO.OF RESPONENTS 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 2% 1 0.5 0.00% 0 18 19 20 AGE 221 22 NO. OF RE ONE SP NTS 4%

4%

INFERENCE

Among the total 50 respondents, 9 prefer to interchange their eyewears (contact lens and spectacles) which become 18% of the total student population. The reason for such interchanging is fashion, convenience etc.

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4.16 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE BUYING DECISION This table shows the factors influencing the buying decision. Table 4.16 FACTORS INFLUENCING THE BUYING DECISION

PREFEREN CE Weights Convenience Quality Durability Price Trend/fashio n Brand image Status symbol Friends Advertiseme nt w = 45

Ran ki 9 19 18 3 3 5 1 0 0 1

Ran k ii 8 8 17 8 6 6 3 1 1 0

Ran k iii 7 9 9 9 9 6 1 4 1 2

Ran k iv 6 2 1 12 17 5 4 5 4 1

Ran kv 5 5 1 7 8 9 14 2 2 2

Ran k vi 4 1 0 5 3 9 9 5 8 9

Ran Ran k k vii viii 3 2 1 2 1 3 13 13 7 8 2 1 3 2 2 4 4 11 14 9

Ran k ix 1 3 0 2 1 3 1 9 13 18

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PREFERENCE Convenience Quality Durability Price Trend/fashion Brand image Status symbol Friends Advertisement

fw 350 381 292 300 266 218 166 143 135 Fig 4.16

fw/w 7.8 8.5 6.5 6.7 5.9 4.5 3.7 3.2 3

Rank II I IV III V VI VII VIII IX

FACTORS INFLUENCING THE BUYING DECISION

F AC T O R S IN F L U E N C IN G B U YIN G D E C IS IO N
9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0
Co nv en ien ce

1 4 3 5 6 7 8 9

RANK

fw/

Source: Analysis

Pr ice Tr en d/ fa s hio Br n an di ma St ge atu s sy mb ol Fr ien Ad ds ve rti se me nt

Qu a li ty Du rab il it y

F ACT O RS
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INFERENCE The above table shows the ascertainment of the factors influencing buying decision of the customers. It was calculated with the help of the weighted average index method. For this purpose nine weights were assigned. Rank IWeight 9, Rank II- Weight 8, Rank III- Weight 7, Rank IV- Weight 6, Rank V- Weight 5, Rank VI -Weight 4, Rank VII- Weight 3, Rank VIII- Weight 2 and Rank IX- Weight 1.The respondents ranked the factors influencing their buying decision on the basis of their preference. The highest preference was given to quality of the product, second to convenience, third to price, fourth to durability, fifth being the fashion and trend, sixth to brand image of the eye wear, seventh to status symbolization, eighth to the friends and advertisement was ranked the last. So from this survey, it is clear that no much importance is given to the advertisement even if some customers resort to advertisement as a purchasing medium. Therefore it is evident that quality is the first and foremost factor influencing the buying decision.

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4.17 SATISFACTION LEVEL OF CUSTOMERS IN RELATION TO AGE DISTRIBUTION This table shows the relationship between age and satisfaction level of customers. Table 4.17
SATISFACTION LEVEL OF CUSTOMERS IN RELATION TO AGE DISTRIBUTION SATISFACTION LEVEL FULLY SATISFIED SATISFIED
2 1 3 6 3 8 4 7 6 10

AGE 18 19 20 21 22 TOTAL

TOTAL
10 5 10 12 13

15

35

50

Source: Analysis Hypothesis The chi square test was used in this study for studying the level of satisfaction in relation to the age of customers. For this purpose the hypothesis were set as follows:

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Age and customer satisfaction for retailer services H0: There is no significant relation between age and retailer satisfaction of customers H1: There is significant relation between age and retailer satisfaction of customers
CHI SQUARE TEST = (O E) 2/E

O 10 8 7 6 6 13

E 10 8 7 3.6 8.4 10.4 (O E) 2/E

(O-E)2 0 0 0 5.76 5.76 6.76

(O-E)2/E 0 0 0 1.6 0.68 0.65 2.93

CHI SQUARE TEST = (O E) 2/E = 2.93 Degree of freedom= (row-1) (column-!) = (5-1) (2-1) =4 Level of Significance = 5% Table value of 4 at 5% level of significance = 9.448
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INFERENCE

Here the calculated value is less than the table value at 5% level of significance. So, the null hypothesis, H0 will be accepted i.e. there is no significant difference between age and satisfaction level of customers.

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CHAPTER V

FINDINGS & SUGGESTIONS

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CHAPTER V

FINDINGS AND SUGGESTIONS

The study was about the satisfaction and preference for the ophthalmic wears and the trends among the students of Sacred Heart College, Thevara between the age group of 18-22 during the period from Dec 2010 to March 2011. For the purpose of the study primary data was collected from 50 customers using a questionnaire and 20 retailers were approached for the purpose of this study.

5.1. FINDINGS

According to the study majority of the respondents prefer spectacles as their eye wear.

Major portion of the respondents consult an ophthalmologist before selecting an eye wear.

80% of the respondents consider the eye wear for the purpose of vision correction while the rest considers it as a fashion element.
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From the study we can infer that out of the total respondents, 2% prefer Grace Optics, 8% prefer Lawrence & Mayo and Titan, 10% prefer Lens & Frames and 44% of the respondents prefer other small and medium sized dealers.

Most of the respondents were of the opinion that they replace their spectacle lens and frames annually while the contact lens users prefer to replace it quarterly.

The analysis shows that only 22% prefer branded items while 78% prefer unbranded eyewear. This may be due to high price for the branded products when compared to unbranded. As our study is confines to students we have consider the income factor too.

According to the study the customers prefer moderately priced eye wear i.e. price ranging between 1000-5000.

The study revealed that most of the respondents prefer to adapt to the changing fashion and technology in the ophthalmic industry, e.g.: Titan Switchers.

Majority of the respondents are of the opinion that they are fairly priced.

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78% of the total respondents are familiar with the vision correction treatments like the laser treatments, cataract surgery etc and 22% are not even aware of this.

Analysis revealed that majority of the customers prefer spectacles over contact lens when considering the factors like safety, comfort, necessity, economy and fashion. But equal importance was given to both the eyewear when considering the fashion element.

There contact lens wearers prefer to wear spectacles interchangeably for comfort.

On the basis of study, the highest preference was given to quality by the customers while making their purchase decision and the second concern is given to convenience. So it is evident that quality is the first and foremost factor influencing the buying decision

The study revealed that most of the customers are satisfied with their retailers.

It was found from the study that the ophthalmic wears are mostly imported from china, Japan, Singapore etc and the

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retailers and dealers does not depend much on the indigenous firms. It was found from the study that the customers are reluctant towards the vision correction treatments due to fear and lack of proper awareness. Most the optical goods like spectacles and contact lens are being imported. After sales service is not given much importance by the customers.

5.2

RECOMMENDATIONS

The ophthalmic industry should try to develop new technologies, product awareness methods explaining the compatibility and convenience to the customers.

There are large markets for contact lens among students because of the fashion element but this market is not properly looked upon. So the industry must consider this fact and provide the customers with products at a reduced cost.

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The customers are just satisfied by the services provided by these retailers. The real fact is that the consumers are not aware of the different types of services offered by different retailers in the industry all over the world e.g. special contact lens which is much popular in foreign countries whereby the customers can find the contact lens matching their cornea.

There are other services also which are attracting and boosting the sales of the business. Retailers should enhance their stores with eye testing facilities from trained optometrists and lens consultants. All ranges of latest merchandise would attract customers who demand exclusivity. For example, Himalaya Optical has also introduced sections dedicated for luxury brands of frames and sunglasses. The stores will also have an exclusive kids section and a dedicated sunglass gallery for customers.

Consumers in metros like Delhi, Mumbai, Bangalore and other IT cities experiment with designs. A store must house all the ranges to fulfill the need of trendy customers especially between the age group 20-28 years.

5.3 CONCLUSION
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In the eyewear industry, it is estimated that 35 per cent of Indias population are in need of vision correction, which may be done by surgery, laser therapy, spectacles or contact lenses. However, only about 25 per cent of people have their vision corrected. Among this approximately 94 per cent of these wear spectacles, 6 per cent wear contact lenses and 2.5 per cent wear both. An analysis of growth factors such as poor eye health, low penetration of contact lens, rise in organized retail industry, increasing awareness and brand consciousness among consumers offer huge opportunity in eyewear segment. Further, there are high margins as in certain products with overall mark ups up to 300 per cent exist between the cost and its retail price. A near stagnant market has been converted into one of the fastest growing industries recording a 20 per cent growth annually. The current size of optical retailing in India is estimated at Rs 2,7003,000 crore, and is projected to grow over Rs 6,000 crore over the next five years. The eyewear market is mainly unorganized with only few organized players present in the market. Most of the stores carry multi-brands; have shop-in-shop formats. The basic requirement for any store depends on many factors like location, store size, business targets etc. On an average for a

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store size of 500-600sq feet would require a minimum investment of 2025 lakh and with few extra services, an extra amount of 5 lakh can be added. On the part of store design, in-store should be adopted seriously by the optical retailer to help the customers to browse the latest merchandise. In past few years, the awareness of consumer towards branded eyewear products is catching up the trend and eye care have been increasing and people are ready to spend on premium brands. There is paradigm shift in consumer purchases for eyewear from form and function to form and fashion. The spectacle market remains highly unbranded only 20 per cent of the market is branded. The key challenges identified in this industry are lack of penetration in rural areas, high import duty and Price gap between branded & unbranded frames. As the government policies become more liberal, aggressive marketing strategies play their part, the market has immense potential to penetrate in different parts of the country. The regulations of food and drug Administration Act of USA has played a great role of quality assurance and their surveillance helps to control the quality of the product among bulk manufacturers for example FDA has 5 quality control offices in China who are the biggest bulk manufacturers. The same methodology can be
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implemented in India through Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS) to control the quality as per international specifications of the products being sold in India

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Books:

1. Gary Armstrong, Michael Harker, Philip Kotler; Marketing: An

Introduction, , Pearson Education Canada.

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2. Kothari C.R.; Research Methodology; Vikas Publishing House (P)

Ltd., New Delhi.


3. Kotler, Kevin Lane Keller, Abraham Koshy, Mithileshwar Jha ;

Marketing Management Philip, Dorling Kindersley Pvt Ltd Publication


4. Leon.G.Schiffman, Leslie Lazar Kanuk; Consumer behavior , Pearson

Prentice Hall

Websites: Wikipedia, educational sites, websites of the ophthalmic dealers, retailers etc were surfed for collecting data.

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APPENDIX

CONSUMERS QUESTIONNAIRE
1. Age: 2. Gender Male 3. Education
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Female

Degree

PG

4. How long have you been using your ophthalmic wear? 5. What is your main item of purchase among the Ophthalmic Wears? Spectacles contact lenses others (specify)..

6. Whom do you consult before choosing your ophthalmic wear? Ophthalmologist optical technicians Dealers

Others (specify). 7. Is your ophthalmic wear advised as a constant wear? Yes No

8. How often do you change your ophthalmic Wear? Monthly half-yearly annually

Others (specify)
9.

From whom do you like to purchase your ophthalmic Wear? Grace Kurians Lens & frames Vithayathil others Lawrence & mayo

10. If your choice is spectacles, then how often do you change your : Spectacle frames
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Half-yearly

annually

others (specify)

Spectacle lens annually others (specify)

Half-yearly

11.Or else, if your choice is contact lenses, then what is your preference for change (tick your choice) Disposable lenses Half-yearly Monthly annually Quarterly others (specify)

12. Is your selection based on any brand? Yes No

13. If yes, then name the brand you are presently using?

14. Do you stick on to your brand? Yes No

15.How much do you spend for your ophthalmic wear? Less than 1000 1000-5000 5000-10000 above 10000

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16.Rank the following attributes based on their influence on your choice. (1 being the highest preference) Ease of use or convenience Quality Durability Price Trend/Fashion Brand image Status symbol Friends Advertisement Others (specify). . . . . . . . . .

17. Choose your satisfactory level regarding the facilities and after sales services provided by the dealers. Fully satisfied satisfied Not satisfied

18. Dou you think that you are charged normally by these dealers? Yes No

19. Are you interested to adapt to the changes in this field? Yes No
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20. Are you familiar with the new technologies in the spectacle and lens field like Progressive lens, frameless, disposable lens, antiglare technologies etc Yes No

21.On the basis of the following features choose your preference ( make a tick mark against your choice) Spectacles Contact lens Safety Comfort Necessity Economy Utility Fashion Lens

22. Do you prefer the eye sight correction technologies to ophthalmic wear? Yes No

23. As a final decision, what will you prefer after considering all the factors? c Spectacles c ontact lens
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RETAILERS QUESTIONNAIRE

1. Which are the main brands in market? 2. Which are main brands in demand?

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3. Which ophthalmic wear is mostly demanded by the customers under the age group of 18-22? 4. Price range of products mostly preferred by the customers under the age group of 18-22? 5. How frequently repeated sales come? 6. The factors influencing the buying decision of the customers under the age of 18-22? 7. Are the articles imported or made indigenously? 8. Reasons for difference in market for spectacles and contact lens? 9. Importance for branded goods among consumers mainly students? 10.How important is after sales service in this industry? 11.Different types of lens coatings available in the industry? 12.Types of contact lens? 13.What are the modern technologies which have brought in a paradigm shift in the ophthalmic industry?
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14.Attitude of customers towards vision treatments?

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