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In what situation do you think the direct and indirect strategies would be benefit for teaching grammar in elementary class (create the stages)! Answer: I think The first thing we should do when start teaching a preschool or elementary school ESL class is to figure out how to organize our class. For the younger students we'll want to change our activities every five to ten minutes because they have shorter attention spans. If we don't change our activities, they'll soon start losing interest. As we get towards the higher elementary grades, we can expand the time we spend per activity. The best way to gauge this is to pay attention to our class for the first few days to see what length of time works the best for them. Additionally, try to have everything ready to go before the students enter the classroom. That way we can go from activity to activity with minimal downtime. This is essential as we can lose control of the class if we do not keep them occupied. Perhaps the most important thing we can do with our students is to nurture them everyday. For each child in our class, find something we like about him or her and be sure to tell him or her. Be encouraging, patient and kind while playing games and participating in activities and they'll like us as a teacher and a person which will in turn help them get excited about our class and what we have for them to do everyday. Using games to teach grammar can be both fun and rewarding for us and our students. Just remember to keep them engaged and make sure that you're games are truly teaching the skill at hand and we'll soon have a class full of students who get excited about learning grammar.

2. what is the most effective strategy do you think will be meaningful for language instruction? Explain in detail!


I think the most effective strategy that will be meaningful for language instruction is Culture load. Why? Because the learners have to know the words within linguistic and cultural settings, never the same in any two cultures. They have to learn the words in English as well as the cultural background that gives the words their English meaning. Not only that, in culture load, Teachers are expected interaction with students to occur in a classroom. This would include when to speak, when to stay silent, when to raise hands and when to write. English learners should learn behavioral norms independently at classroom. If teachers want to learn the subject easily, they should treat English learners with respect, not judgment, and try to build personal relationships with students, their families and communities. By demonstrating respect for students, teachers allow a door of trust to open that can serve to further deepen a nurturing teacher-student relationship. I think the teachers also should find other effective strategy. Like teachers should check for understanding of expectation, instruction and relevant vocabulary before students begin a task. It eases the students to learn new vocabulary and they can help each other with instruction and understanding. Teacher should employ good questioning technique by asking a question, allowing ample and wait time and then calling on someone. This should cause students to pay attention.

3. How do you classified and differentiate between LLS (Language Learning Strategy) and EP? discuss and justified them (chapter 3)

Answer: The present study explored the use of language learning strategies as an important factor in the success of ESL (English as a Second Language) or EFL (English as a Foreign Language) students. The scarcity of research on the language learning strategies (LLS) of Chinese students in an international context has encouraged the researcher to investigate the current use of language learning strategies among Chinese undergraduate students at an international university. With a large population of Chinese undergraduate students, Assumption University of Thailand was chosen as the place to carry out this study.

Many studies show the relationship between language learning strategies and language proficiency, and MacIntyre (1994) further emphasized that strategy use results from and leads to increased proficiency. Strategies are the causes and the outcomes of improved language proficiency. In Osanais (2000) study of 147 foreign students in universities in the United States, he found self-rating proficiency was significantly correlated with the use of language learning strategies. According to the above review of literature, it appears that learners with higher proficiency use language-learning strategies more often than those with lower proficiency.

4. Describe and giving samples of memory, cognitive, and metacognitive strategies! Answer: Memory Strategies (such as grouping, imagery, rhyming, moving physically, and reviewing in a structured way) o Monitor Your Comprehension It is possible to remember and complete retain only those ideas which we have understood correctly. So, look for way to monitor how well we have comprehended an idea. Always find logic behind ideas that occur to us. If we find the logic, we will be able to reconstruct the idea, even if we can't recall it immediately. o Think in Colors, Shapes and Pictures While learning, use colors to highlight important information. Take the help of shapes such as boxes, circles and flow charts to organize the important ideas. also, it is a known fact that concrete images are a lot each to remember in comparison to abstracts ideas. Therefore, pictures serve as one of the best instructional aids and memory strategies. Cognitive strategy Such as repetition and using mechanical means to study medical terminology. They have to remember or memorize vocabulary. By doing this they can know new vocabularies and they can speak fluently. Metacognitive Strategies To control an evaluate ones own learning, search for practice opportunities and plan for learning tasks. They learn by self reflection.

5. Compare and contrast the development of ELS in China and Indonesia! Answer: English Learning in Indonesia: The instructional characteristics can be identified through the "instructional" goals to be reached in language teaching (TIU = Tujuan Instruksional khusus and TIK = Tujuan Instruksional Khusus). "Instructed teachers" prefer to work with "instructed students", and usually instructed students are dependent passive and - of course - not autonomous, whereas good and successful learners are those reaching the autonomous stage of learners. One means to help learners become autonomous is by equipping them with learning strategies and training them to be able to use the appropriate strategies in solving language tasks. Learners should have a great repertoire of learning strategies. And the latest developments in cognitive psychology suggested, that we should not concentrate only on the cognitive competence, but also on the meta-cognitive and social / affective competencies.

English Learning Strategy in China: Since six decade of 20th century, with the development of cognitive psycholinguistics, applied linguistics and cognitive linguistics, the research on the second language acquisition developed rapidly: emphasizing on the general rules of the language learning process and the effects of language learning process and learning achievements to the learners individual characteristics on the language learning strategy research. So the language learning strategy training gradually becomes the one of popular ways of cultivating the learning ability both in China and abroad. The dominant strategy here is metacognitive strategies because most of adult learners tend to use social strategy (try to understand by themselves).