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Introduction – properties of materials and their alloys.

Mechanical properties Stress strain (and pressure) When solid materials are subject to an external force, they set up internal forces which oppose those applied from outside. A material subject to external forces which tend to stretch that material is said to be in tension (intindere) A material subject to forces that tend to squeeze it is said to be in compression (compresiune) In general, mechanical components are subject to rather complex external loads, which have various magnitudes (valori) and directions. As a result, the internal forces which appear are also ok a complex nature. However, a simple case exists when, elongated (bodies which have a dimension which is one order of magnitude or more larger than the other two dimensions) by this, are subject to external loads which act along this larger dimension. In such a case, which it’s called uniaxial loading, the internal forces are also acting along this main direction of the body. <drawing,check notebook> If these elongated bodies are cylindrical in nature or they have other shapes where the transverse surface is constant, the internal stresses are strictly along the main dimension along which the load axe, the internal load being constant as any place along this line, an internal stress is calculated, as σ= = external load / closed section of area <drawing, check notebook> Strain A solid material put under uniaxial tension or compression changes in length. The changing length divided by the original length is called strain and it’s noted ε= ΔL / L0. When a body is subject to uniaxial loading, all the dimensions change, as shown above, the main direction can increase / decrease and the cross sectioned area decreases/increases. Strains are calculated for any of the directions.

εx = Δx/x0. εy =Δy/y0. εz = Δz/z0. The ratio between strains in longitudinal and transverse direction is called the Poisson’s ratio: ʋ= - εx / εz = - εy / εz. Stress strain diagrams (Hooke’s law) σ = tensiuni de stress ε = deformatii specific when a solid material is subject to a small stress, in uniaxial loading, the resulting strain is proportional to the applied stress and the proportional factor is called elastic modulus (young’s modulus). Drawing, check notebook. ʋ=E*ε Most materials have a young modulus with values in the range of Giga Pa -> 10^9 Pa. One of the most important E: ESteel=210 Giga Pa. If the uniaxial loading test is continued from 0 load to the point where the material is destroyed, several domains can be identified on the stress-strain diagram and several reference values are identified as follows: For moderate loads (the term moderate load depends upon the material being tested) , strain and stress are proportional, so the curve is linear described by Hooke’s Law. <drawing, check notebook> A certain value of the stress exists, σys, which is called yield strength above which the stress strain diagram is no longer linear and the slope of the diagram decreases and the deformation of the materials above the yield strength are much higher than in the linear domain for the same increase in stress. This second domain for ʋ bigger than σys represents the plastic deformation. In a plastic domain the transverse area also reduces until the point where NECKING (gatuire) appears, where the transverse area reduces significantly and after which rupture occurs. The highest value of strength for which the material can still withstand loading without breaking is called the ultimate strength and is noted σus.

This type of behavior and this shape of the stress strain curve is common for most metals used for mechanical parts and components. What varies from material to material is the extent of the linear side governed by: Hooke’s Law, the value of the σys, the value of σus, the young modulus value and the way in which transition takes place from the elastic domain to the plastic domain. The behavior of the material in the elastic domain differs significantly from the behavior in the plastic domain. In the elastic domain, where σ = ε * E, when the law is removed all the deformations disappear. In the plastic domain, remnant deformation persists even after the external load is removed. <check notebook for drawing> For some materials, it is difficult to identify the limit between the elastic domain and the plastic domain, as a change of the slope between the elastic and plastic domain happens graduant. Therefore, the σys is defined based upon plastic deformations and it is conventionally chosen as the limit stress for which at the unloading the remnant deformation is 0.2%. This value is noted as σ0.2 or R0.2 and it represents the σ for which εremnant = 0.002. Hooke’s law Uniaxial loading (loading along the main dimension of an elongated body) Standard shaped elongated bodies (EPRUVETE) are subject to tension (and/or compression) tests to determine the limits of the mechanical strength of the material, as well as the type of the behavior of the material when subject to loading. <check drawing from notebook> The ends do not play any role in the calculation of the mechanical properties of the material. The mechanical properties (stress and strain) are only calculated using measurements on the central smaller diameter cylindrical part. PHISICS PROPERTIES 1) Mass density ρ=M/V

Variation with respect to temperature

For gases dgas = M gas / M air = Molar mass of gas / 28. materials exist which have thermal contriction behavior (thermoconstrictive) which becomes smaller when they are heated. For this class ρH20h = 1000 kg/m3. creep = the slow “float” of a substance (the slow plastic deformation) when subject to a load over extended periods of time. S. [β]S. Tcreep ~ 0.97 kg/m3. 2) Specific gravity -> the ratio between the density of a substance at temperature t1 and the density of a reference substance at a standart temperature t2.I.G. is usually indicated at = ….8 Tmelt (ceramics) . even if the load does not exceed the yield strength of the material. alloys) Tcreep ~ 0. for many substances ρref = ρH20h at t=4° C ρH20h (4) = 999. S. The compressive strength (crushing strength) = the maximum stress which a material can withstand without being crushed.969 .5 Tmelt (metals.G = d = ρmaterial (t1) / ρref (t2) Usually. β usually > 0 .ρ = ρ0 ( 1 – β ΔT). However. = 1/K β – cubical thermal expansion coefficient.

some of which are presented below: <check notebook for table> Hardness scale Vickers hardness Indenter type 136° pyramid indenter Test loads Macro Vickers 1 to 120 kgf Micro Vickers 15-500 gf VHN = 2P sin(Θ/2) * 1/d2 Vickers hardness no# d. Hardness Hardness expresses the resistance of the material to indentation.T> Tcreep then the creep phenomena is significant and it should be considered in the design. Various hardness scales exist.loading Rockwell Rockwell A (Extremely hard materials) Rockwell B (medium) Rockwell C (hardened steels and tempered alloys) Incremental depth of penetration is measured between the indentations caused by diamond cones or steel balls.diagonal of indentation Θ = 136° P. Hardness is expressed using empirical hardness numbers which are calculated from measurements of the indentation dimensions. 65HRC FILE HRA -> symbol of the scale A . The material of the tool has to be much harder than the material being tested. It is measured by applying a known load to a tool of a defined shape.

3058 m 1 yd = 0.9 m = 3 ft 1 land mile = 1609 m .4 mm 1 ft = 12 inch = 0.HRB -> symbol of the scale B HRC -> symbol of the scale C Another scale which is used if the Brinell scale BHN (brinell hardness scale) 550 HRB ~ 650 VHN ~55 HRC 550 BHN Multiples and submultiples 1 pico = 10-12 1 nano = 10-9 1 micro = 10-6 1 mili = 10-3 1 centi = 10-2 1 deci = 10-1 unit 1 deca = 10 1 hecto = 102 1 kilo = 103 1 mega = 106 1 giga = 109 1 terra = 1012 Conversion factors for some English units 1 inch = 1’=25.

However. the dimensions change.1 lb (pound)= 0. subject to heating or cooling.I. . Various coefficients are defined which express the change in length. L-L0= αL * L0 (T – T0) 4) Thermal conductivity When a material is subject to a temperature difference. For this class.45 kg 1 oz (ounce) = 1/16 lb ( °F – 32 ) * 5/9= °C Thermal properties 1) The heat capacity – the thermal energy required to change the temperature of a body by 1K Q = C * ΔT. or the change in volume of a body. the area change. the coefficient of thermal expansion of an elongated body will be expressed as αL = 1/L0 * dL/dT . [αL]S. = 1/K. The coefficient of thermal expansion expresses the change in size as a result of a temperature change. a heat transfer rate occurs( = heat flux = flow of heat which values in time). [C] = j/K 2) The specific heat capacity (specific heat) = the heat required to change the temperature of 1 kg of substance within certain conditions by 1K. even these coefficients are provided in various forms. as imposed by the second law of thermodynamics. However. most handbooks (books with materials properties and other basic information) contain the coefficient of thermal expansion which expresses the change in length of an elongated body. Energy in form of heat flows from the high temperature area to the low temperature regions. Q = m * cv * ΔTat constant volume Q = m* cp * ΔT at constant pressure [c] = j / (kg*K) 3) Coefficient of thermo-expansion ( coeficientul de dilatare termica) When a body is subject to heating (or cooling).

J = Q / (Δt * A) => [J]s. k = thermal conductivity.2(αl/106 =2. [k]s. = w / (m * K) The thermal conduction is a way of heat transfer in which heat flows through a body substance due to the motion of the atoms.2 => αl =2. the heat from sun to earth) Material Melting point °C 3500 2400 Thermal conductivity w / (m * K) 900 43 Specific Heat j/(kg*k) 500 690 Diamond Silicone Carbide (carbura de siliciu) Stainless Steel (steel 304) Steel 1010 (otel carbon) Aluminum Linear thermal expansion α/10-6 [1/k] 2.=j/s*m2 = w/ m2 A dependency exists between the heat flux and the variation of temperature in the body.5 1400 1200 660 15 64 237 480 430 903 17 19 23 Crystallography – some basic info A crystal or a crystalline solid is a solid material whose constituents (atoms.K * dT/dX. The convection is a way of heat transfer in which heat is exchanged between a solid and a stream of flowing liquid.i.The heat flux is a vector quantity which expresses the way in which the heating flows in time per unit of area. which is expressed by the thermal conductivity coefficient <drawing.i. check notebook> J = . molecules or ions) are arranged in an orderly repeating pattern which expands in all three directions.2*10-6) 4. Radiation is a way of heat transfer due to the electromagnetic waves (ex. .

It is possible to find several latices for the same substance. beginning with small crystals which grow (expand) until they fuse and begin to form the crystalline structure. Consequently. can have various latices in the cubic system. For pure chemical substances. the substance undergoes (experiences) a phase change from liquid to solid. a crystalline structure is described as a lattice which is an infinite set of points generated by a set of discrete translation operations. The lattices of the cubic system. 4) hexagonal latice etc. Crystallization – process of forming a crystalline structure from a fluid or from materials dissolved into a fluid. The polymorphism is the ability of a solid to exist in more than one crystalline form. Steel. A material which has no long range order is called amorphous or vitreous or glassy.From a mathematical perspective. ice is usually found in hexagonal form. During crystallization. The crystal. a crystal is made of atoms which repeat at any latice points. ideally looks the same when viewed from any of the latice points. Amorphous substances (amorphous arrangements) can also appear for the same substances. Most methods that we use have a crystalline structure and usually the crystalline materials may exist arranged in various latices. 1) simple cubic .one atom at any corner of a cube 2) Body centered cubic (BCC) has an additional atom in the centre 3) Face central cubic (FCC): atoms at all of the corners and in the middle of any of the sides. for example. . in which case the phenomenon is called poly-amorphism. the polymorphism is called allotropy. Crystallography – science which describes crystals and crystal formations.

the cooling process usually results in generation of the crystalline material. Other types of non-homogeneities can also appear due to manufacturing processes which use extreme pressure to change the shape of the materials. when the liquid is removed at high rates. However. overall.g. in many cases. The processes are generally referred to as heat treatments. Such processes (e. However. under certain conditions. The homogeneity is largely due to the latice structure. the defects caused by residues do not change the homogeneous nature of the material. small crystals appear. these small crystals can fuse into larger crystalline structures. to the presence of foreign atoms (residues) or irregularities in cooling. Most industrial-used methods are crystalline and homogenous. This methodology of changing crystalline structures via heating and cooling is widely used in industry for tuning mechanical properties of various materials. forging = forjare (ro) or other metal forming) can also produce changes in the shapes of the crystals. Ferrous materials and their alloys (Iron and STEEL) The melting temperature TmeltFe = 1500°C ρFe=7800 kg/m3 . When the heat is removed slower. Some non-homogeneities appear as irregularities in the latice which are also called crystal defects and they are due. so. thermal. this involves cooling the fluid so rapidly that the atoms cannot travel to their latice sides before they lose mobility. In most cases. In general. for crystalline structures. the fluid may be formed in a non-crystalline state. the defects are usually uniform distributed in the material. The homogeneity expresses the fact that the material has the same properties (mechanical. the conditions of solidification (especially the rate of heat removal) and pressure. Otherwise.Which crystalline structure will appear depends upon the chemistry of the fluid. electrical and so on) at any point and in any direction.

it cannot be used for manufacturing mechanical components. Above 2. Pure iron is only used in applications where its chemical (or electricalo. Steel is by far the most used category of materials nowadays. since in some very important steels such as interstitial free steels (i.Pure iron is a soft metal and. and A. Mo. steels). <check drawings on notebook> 2) Workability: capability of a material to be used in manufacturing processes where the shape is changed through plastic deformation.1% C. O. N. So. 2nd definition of steel (modern): today. f. carbon is considered an impurity and it’s acceptable on quantities of only a few parts/million. especially from Steel. carbon and other elements with less then 2.75% Carbon. Mn. Cr. Some definitions: 1) Machinability (prelucrabilitate prin aschiere) is a capability of a material to be used in manufacturing processes where the shape of the materials is changed by chip removal. The two main machining processes are turning (strunjire) and milling (frezare). united together by being fused together and dissolved in each other when melted. However. Ti. steel is defined as an alloy with at least 50% iron which also contains alloying elements which include Carbon. iron alloys are called cast iron. in general. something else applies pressure. The most important iron alloys are Steel (otel) and Cast iron (fonta). . the older definition of steel is no longer applicable. most of the parts used in today’s industry are made from iron alloys. in the recent period. a) Rolling (roluire) b) Forging (forjare): the material stays on something and from the top. electromagnetic) properties are important. Vn. Ni. which contains carbon up to a practical limit of 3. An alloy is a substance composed of two or more materials of a metal and a non-metal. 1st definition of steel: steel is an alloy of iron.1% carbon. [I hope it’s right sadlol] Each of these components place a role in the final properties in the alloy.

It increases strength but by much less than carbon. called AUSTENITIC MANGANESE.8 0. (miscellaneous to-be-remembered stuff) If you go and sell steel scrap. otel carbon = steels with very low amounts of alloying elements other than carbon) Low alloy steels = ro. or buy it. oteluri slab aliate = steels with small amounts of alloying elements (beside Carbon) tool steels (= ro. oteluri de scule) = steels with special mechanic strength and hardenability used for making tools. more specifically.005 0. when manganese is also used as a chemical and structural stabilizer. Percent carbon added % 0 0.1% carbon. you’ll have an approximate price of 1 ron. the price will be 50-60 times larger. manganese is used to remove the sulphur from the steel.8 Yield strength σys (MPa) 28 190 450 750 1000 Observations Cooled in the air Cooled in the air With special cooling/heating treatment Carbon atoms are much smaller than Iron atoms and they usually occupy the space between Iron atoms in the FCC (face-centered-cubic) or the BCC (bodycentered-cubic) crystals. Role of alloying elements in steel 1) Carbon is the most common alloy in steel.6 0. 2) Manganese The main role of manganese is chemical stabilization of the steel.3) Hardenability is the capability to achieve a better hardness (duritate) of a material by changing the structure. This class is used in wear intensive devices . However. if you do the same thing to special steel. Carbon is an essential alloy element for all plain carbon steel (= ro. The old definition of steel mentioned that steel was an alloy of iron and up to 2. usually through processes based upon adding and removing heat in special ways. a special class of steel exists. because steel can exist either as BCC or as FCC latices.

B. 6) Copper is another residual element and it is also restricted. 5) Sulphur is also a residual element and it is restricted below certain values which vary with the steel type. 8) Chromium is good for hardenability and corrosion resistance. Both Molybdenum and Vanadium are important alloying elements in tool steels. N. 11) Tungsten – very important in tool steels. 3) Silicon (=ro. 9) Molybdenum is very good for hardenability 10) Vanadium is very good for hardenability. Molybdenum increases creep resistance so it is used for parts which work at high temperature. as it forms hard components in the steel alloy (tungsten carbide) 12) 13) Aluminum – deoxidizer (chemical stabilizer or oxygen removal) Titanium – mainly as deoxidizer . The name for it is deoxidizer. siliciu) It’s a chemical stabilizer used for elimination of oxygen.(like rock crushers) becauseit has very good wear rezistance (rezistenta la uzura). Special types of steels exist where the desired properties are achieved by adding controlled amounts of residual elements. 7) Nickel is good for hardenability and corrosion resistance. 4) Phosphorus is considered a residual element and it is carefully restricted below certarin values which vary according with a type of steel.

1) Mining (extraction of ores) 2) Ore concentration through crushing gravitational and electromagnetic processes. i. however. Substances in powder form generate extremely fast chemical reactions. In nature. Here we just mentioned some elements which are most used in industry. (beneficiation – to remove gangue. This powder is agglomerated into bigger pieces of substance called Pallets( ~1 cm in diameter) In industry. Out of these chemical combinations. On their way up while descending metallic ores descend and the iron oxide is reduced to metallic iron. The blast furnace chemically reduces the iron with carbon which is present in the form of coke (=ro. unwanted substances extracted with the ore) 3) Palletizing: after beneficiation. cocs). iron is essentially combined with various other chemical elements. only the iron oxides are commercially used as iron ores (minereu) for commercially obtaining iron. the materials are in powder form. Coke is a sponge-like organic matter that is reduced from coal by heating the coal to eliminate the organic matter and gases which exist in the coal. the most carbothermic reduction means chemical combination of oxygen and carbon in presence of heat. their use is beyond the purpose of this class. From a mechanical engineering point of view the blast furnace is a counter-current heat and oxygen exchanger in which rising combusting gases lose most of the heat. the most efficient steel making or iron making process is the blast furnace process which consists in the carbothermic reduction of oxide from the pallets.14) Nitrogen (= ro. . Azot) is used in conjunction with Vanadium to generate high strength in tool steels (it is added to form the vanadium nitrate which gives high strength properties to steels) Some other elements are also used for improving properties of steel. A few elements regarding steelmaking.e.

Next. crevuzet <check notebook for drawing> The liquid metal resulting from the furnace is called pig iron ( = ro. the material which became stream is solidified in a continuous passing machine. curva c) the bosh parallel (the barrel) = ro. zgura). the blast furnace is a tall hollow made out of steel on the outside and special refractory bricks and graphite bricks on the inside. which have to be removed to make steel. At this stage. etalaj e) the heart = ro. the slag floats above the melting iron. steel slabs (= ro.Limestone ( = calcium carbonate = ro. fonta bruta de turnatorie) Pig iron still contains a relatively important amount of C and impurities. substitute substances have been invented since the 1950’s in which iron poured is reduced without the use of coke. alloying elements are also added to achieve the final composition. gatul b) the stack = ro. From the constructive standpoint. salbe)) <check notebook for drawing> The direct reduction iron The blast furnace techniques strongly depend upon availability of coke. pantece d) the bosh = ro. calcar) is added for easier melting and slag (cenusa. For this reason. The furnace has 5 sections: a) the throat = ro. The second stage of refining is usually done in the basic oxygen furnace where the melted pig iron is clear of undesired elements by a stream of oxygen. A water cooled mold (like a funnel) is utilized in which in liquid steel is put in and solid steel is continually drawn from the bottom and it’s cut into various shapes (steel billet. These processes utilize natural gas or coal as a . In the process.

II. When small amounts of Carbon are added. B. The term equilibrium (steady state) refers to a situation where variables describing the state do not vary in time or they vary very slowly. is a very soft metal. in many cases treated as steady-state. Room temp -> 912 °C 912 °C -> 1394 °C 1394 °C -> 1540 °C αFe = Ferrite γFe = AUSTENITE αFe B. iron undergoes three phase changes.C.C. cementite) is an iron carbide which is extremely hard and brittle.C. a map of the phases that exist in steel and various carbon-contents and temperatures under equilibrium conditions (or under steady-state conditions). it settles at the boundaries of the grains. F. III.11%. I.C. <check notebook for important drawing> Between the melting T (1540°C) and the room temperature. Cementite (=ro. Iron. . Any amount in excess of this value is rejected from the solid solution and it usually combines with iron into a form of ceramic. this case when the variation is slow Is also called CVASI STEADY STATE and from a mathematical perspective can be. in nature. it first settles between the iron grains (crystals) which leads to increase the resistance of steel. essentially. <check notebook for important drawings otherwise you won’t understand much here> If even increasing amount of C is added.reductant and they are grouped under the name of direct reduction or smelting reduction iron making. The maximum solubility of C in steel is 2. called CEMENTITE (Fe3C) which has 6.7% C.C. a constituent appears (PEARLITE) which consists of layers of cementite and layers of ferrite. If more carbon is added. The Iron – Carbon Equilibrium Diagram is. The iron – carbon equilibrium diagram Since carbon is a key alloying element for most steels. the basic principles of structural development of steel can be explained using the Iron – Carbon Equilibrium Diagram.C.

new constituents appear. martensita) which appears in quenched steels (= oteluri calite) and is a form of ferrite supersaturate of C. so the quenched steels are also very hard and brittle. <check notebook for drawing> Departure from equilibrium (real world) Industrial processes very rarely occur at equilibrium. bainita ). under real conditions. the iron-carbon diagram can only be used as a rough guidance. It is very hard and brittle.This arrangement of hard layers of cementite between soft layers of ferrite has very strong. In the structure. <check notebook for drawing> This kind of arrangement allows the crystal to withstand very hard loads. and they are quite rare consequently. For example: permittive microstructures have superior wear properties permittive microstructures have high strength and toughness martensitic structures are very hard and brittle The main types of heat treatment: . and only those that take place at extremely slow heating and cooling rates can be considered near equilibrium. At high cooling rates. Different microstructural constituents can be produced in this manner and each constituent gives various properties to the steel. 2) MARTENSITE (=ro. the transformations are described by the time-temperature transformation diagrams. such as: 1) BAINITE ( = ro. very good mechanical properties. which consists of ferrite with small cementite particles. martensite appears as big V-s <check notebook for drawings> The heat treatment in steel One of the most important characteristics of steel is the ability to change the microstructure through heat addition and removal ( = heat treatment). At high cooling rates.

Various constituents which improve the properties of steel can also be arranged better in the structure with mechanical treatments. 3) Annealing (= ro. revenire) Quenched steels are heated close to the Utectoid Temperature of 730°C and cooled slowly to improve the ductility. recoacere) is used to soften steel and improve ductility. 2) Tempering ( = ro. This treatment generates in the softest possible conditions. The mechanical treatments consist of applying high pressure on the steel which give a preferred orientation to the crystals and helps reducing eventual crystalline defects in the material.1) quenching ( = ro. 4) Normalizing (= ro. globulizare) Requires heating just below temp heating holding that exact temperature for extended time and slow cooling. or stresses which exist following the plastic deformation. changing this structure by mechanical means can also improve properties of steel. normalizare) The steel is heated into the austenite region and the temperatures which are higher than the Annealing temp. 7) Stress Relieving (detensionare) The steel is heated to temperatures approaching 730°C to relieve residual stresses which might exist due to various manufacturer processes. This process brakes down lamellar pearlite into spheroids or cementite. The steel is heated into the lower region of the austenite fied and cooled slowly to the room temperature. calire ) consists of heating the steel into the austenite phase and fast cooling by submerging in oil/water. . Rates of heat removal in water are higher than similar rates in oil. 6) Process Annealing (recrystallization annealing) The steel is heated just below the intectoid temperature and is cooled slowly. Mechanical treatments The properties of the steel depend upon the crystalline structure. 5) Spheroidizing (nobulizare.

which is specific to every process and the surface is brought in contact with various chemical regions. 1000 of different steels are commercially available sp a complete classification is very difficult to make.<check notebook for drawing> Thermo-mechanical treatments The thermo-mechanical treatments consist of combining plastic deformation occurred in mechanical treatments with heat treatment cycles to improve the properties of values higher that values obtainable through thermal treatment or mechanical treatment alone. Examples: 1) Carburizing (carburare) 2) Nitrurizing (nitrurare) 3) Carbo – nitrurizing (carbonitrurare) cyaniding In all of these processes the steel is heated at elevated temperatures. An elementary classification -> based upon SAE/AISI i. Elements regarding classifications and specifications of steels. For some applications it is desired to have a relatively soft and ductile core surrounded by a very hard boundary. carbon steel (=ro. This can be obtained by changing the structure just at the surface of the material through various chemical reactions at high temperatures. This treatment usually creates a roughly 1 mm thick layer of hard material at the surface of the parts which are subject to the treatment. oteluri carbon) . Thermo-chemical treatments Applications exist where it is not desirable that the part has the same composition everywhere.

. Higher alloy steels a. High resistance steels exist which can be used up to 500 . Ma. Ca used to make tools. oteluri aliate) 1. used for missiles and aircraft components Music wire: the steel with the highest Yield strength σys available ~ 5 GPA. very high capability to be deformed plastically. Special low carbon steels Carbon is considered an impurity. after which the oxidation of the steel becomes semnificant and the mechanical properties diminish as well. Tool steels – steels with Cr. V. IV. The amount of Carbon is strictly controlled and kept as small as possible. 2. Heat Resistance Steels Note: for the common C steel.8 GPA. Example: interstitial free (FF) steel. V. typically maximum value of Yield strength σys ~ 1 GPA. b. ii. cheapest and the most used. Alloy steel ( = ro.iron . Low alloy steels . W. iii. Stainless steels ( corrosion resistance steels with more than 10% Cr) Most used stainless steel is “18-8”: 18% Cr. They have high mechanical properties: mechanical strength and good hardenability.Yield strength σys up to 1. the temperature limit for usual longtime operation is ~ 350°C. Wear resistance steels (Austenitic Manganese Steels) Ultra high strength steel ( maroging steels ) : Yield strength σys up to 2.600°C. used for parts which require important plastic deformation. 8% Ni.5 GPA.carbon – manganese.

In the case of cyclic loading. Aluminum alloys Aluminum is the most unbounded metal and the 13th element in the earth crust (I think). It is obtained of (blank space) using electrolytic reduction. The failure mechanism in the cyclic loading is called fatigue. even if the maximum values of the internal stresses which appear is much lower than the Yield strength σys of the material. . the behavior under cyclic conditions is different than the behavior under static loading conditions.(to keep in mind) Music wire is regular carbonated ( SI 10 x 10) which is subject to a mechanical treatment to change it into a wire whose internal structure offers no defects and optimal orientation on the structure. In static conditions. the ratio between the σLoading and σys plays an significant role in the fatigue strength of the parts. In cyclic loading. 5) Low modulus of elasticity. which grants a higher capability to absorb mechanical energy upon deformation. all the materials fail after a certain number of loading/unloading cycles. The process is called patenting + cold drawning. 4) Good fatigue strength (good capability to withstand cyclic loading) Note: for any material. A high σLoading / σys ratio would generate a part which can withstand less cycles than a part which is similar but has a low σLoading / σys value. parts behave well if internal stresses are below the Yield strength σys. Advantages and disadvantages of Al: 1) low density 2700 kg/m3 2) melting temperature 500°C 3) high strength/weight ratio ( high strength alloys have Yield strength σys comparable to carbonsteel).

the Aluminum parts have a very good resistance to corrosion. 11) 12) 13) Wide array of surface finishes available Good reflectivity Good behavior (property improvements) after heat treatments. riveting (nituire). glueing (lipire cu adezivi plastici). Consequently. 7) Good machinability.6) Good workability – Aluminum alloys have good capability related to manufacturing via plastic deformation. bolting (asamblare cu suruburi). Limits of Aluminum alloys: 1) Low modulus of elasticity – which causes higher deformation under load (than the materials with high E) Δl = N * l0 / (E * A) 2) Melting temperature ~1000 °F (~537 °C) 500 °F – temperatura medie de folosinta pt majoritatea materialelor. brazing (lipire cu material metalice).250°C. the temperature operation for most Aluminum parts is below 200 . Note: Aluminum and Aluminum alloys which are subject to axidating conditions produce a very thin and very adherent layer of Aluminum oxide which is impenetrable to air and prevents further oxidation of the material. 9) Ease of casting (for certain alloys) 10) Good corrosion resistance. . 8) Ease of joining (usurinta in asamblare ) through various processes: welding ( sudura). Consequently. Note: Teflon 0 limit of use 500 °F.

Certain Aluminum alloys used in aerospace. Such Aluminum alloys have. Al – Zn – Cu – Mg Commercial names: ZICRAL (or Ergal. properties which do not make them suitable for aerospace applications. Aluminum 7XXX series. Aluminum with 4% Cupper would slowly harden when left at room temperature. even if they are much cheaper than aircraft aluminum. DURAL (OBSOLUTE). The main classes of high-strength Aluminum alloys: a) • • Series 2000 which is also designated as 2XXX (Cu-Al alloys). (name = age hardening – imbatranire). after quenching. σuts up to 450 MPa. Note: Duralumin is the trade-name of one of the earliest types of class 2000 Aluminum alloys. Aluminum 4XXX series. Al – Si very good for cast parts (good flow properties when melted) used for piston engine (reciprocating engine). Various classes of Aluminum alloys exist which are made for other industries than the aerospace industry. Good machinability Commercial names: DURALUMIN (OBSOLETE). components (e. In the early 20th century it was discovered that.g. Series 2000 alloys are used for aircraft wing and fuselage structures and skin. Foral. Heat treatable – good behavior is achieved after quenching. Almec) . cylinders). in most cases. Further improvements of the material led to the introduction of what it was called DURALUMIN. Constructal.

7% of the Earth’s crust). However. series 7XXX. which in turn. magnesite. and so on. . Some examples of uses of various Al alloys for aircraft components. It is used for highly stressed components of wings and bodies. Aluminum 8XXX series (other alloys. Mirrors: high purity Aluminum. For aerospace. there is an Aluminum – Lithium (Al. Piston components: series 4XXX. Tanks of various types: series 2XXX.It has the highest mechanical strength of all Aluminum alloys. catches fire. Components where high elastic modulus is important: series 8XXX. Difficult to weld and it is mostly used for riveted structures ( = asamblate prin nituire). Ultimate tensile strength σuts ~ 600 MPa. Magnesium alloys ρMg = 1700 kg/m3 Tmelt ~ 650 °C Magnesium is a very abundant element in nature (2. The widest applications of the series 7XXX Al alloys is for aircraft industry and for highly stressed wing and fuselage components. not included in the previous classes). so it is only dangerous if it exists as powder or thin sheets or small chips which can melt when subject to low amount heat. It exists in nature as chemical combinations (Mg carbonates.Li) alloy which belongs to this class. Magnesium is only flammable when melted. dolomite). Solid Magnesium such as in finished parts is harmless. The common perception is that magnesium is highly flammable. from a cigarette. Zicral was invented in Japan in the late 1930s and it was first used on a massive base for the japanesse fighter Zero. A major source of Magnesium is sea water. for highly stressed parts. and the drops of liquid Magnesium would catch fire and melt more Magnesium powder. for example. Wing structures and body parts: series 2XXX or series 7XXX if highly stressed.

good fatigue strength.Magnesium alloys are attractive for aerospace applications due to properties such as: good mechanical strength at several hundred degrees temperature. Housings ( a structure which holds something in place) Oil baths Boxes of electronic equipment. Titanium alloys . Magnesium parts are easily fabricated by most traditional metal – forming process: casting (turnare) forging (forjare) machining (prelucrabilitate prin aschiere). Magnesium parts can be joint by most traditional methods: riveting bolting welding in inert gas adhesive bonding. A limit of mechanical strength for Magnesium alloys σuts ~ 300 MPa. Gearboxes. the sixth engine American bomber B036 had around 6 tons of Magnesium sheets attached to the frame of wings and fuselage by adhesives. and damping (capability to diminish vibrations). Examples of uses of Magnesium alloys for aircraft: Skin of wing and fuselages. For example. It requires less power for removing a given volume of metal by machine than any others commonly available method. Magnesium is the easiest method machining.

The other one is HPC (hexagonal closed packed) and is designated as α.Titanium. Most published data regarding Titanium alloys refers to an alloy with the chemical composition Ti – 6Al – 4V (titanium – 6 aluminum – 4 vanadium). The first one is BCC (body centered cubic) and is designated as β. . The ultimate tensile strength σuts for Titanium alloys go up to 1200 MPa. Standard organizations may publish information regarding Titanium alloys but additional design data must be obtained from the manufacturers of the alloy. Various “near α”. Titanium alloys have metallurgical characteristics that make them more difficult to machine than steels of comparable hardness. Moreover. Titanium. All the property data for Titanium alloys should be verified for the actual manufacturing specifications and processing conditions expected. even if such data were widely available. It’s got high mechanical properties comparable to steel and ρ smaller than steel. are not normally well documented in literature. The grain size and grain boundary arrangement have a very significant influence over the mechanical properties. In welding or machining of Titanium. or “α-β” structures also exist. The main disadvantage is related to the fact that titanium alloys are very hard to machine.Titanium. the effects of energy input (heat or deformation energy which can also change into heat) on the microstructure and properties of the final Titanium alloy product must be very carefully considered. This is a very important limitation because at the current stage of technology. high precision parts can only be made via machining. same as Iron. Many Titanium alloys can burn (combust) if certain temperature coefficients are exceeded. has two crystal structures.ρ=4500 kg/m3 Tmelt = 1660°C E ~ 100 GPa Operational temperature up to 700°C The main advantages for aerospace applications are σuts / σ better than for steel. heat treatment and so on can significantly affect properties of Titanium alloys. The properties of Titanium alloys. the alloy selector must be very careful because even apparently minor changes in chemistry or in processing operations such as forging conditions. The values from the Young modulus of Titanium varies with the structure from about 90 GPa to almost 120 GPa. “near β”. Here is required in machining and in storing scrap. also developed for many years.

an external power source is used to rotate the compressor and the turbine which works together with the compressor. Most Titanium alloys which are used for aerospace applications belong to the α alloys. the burning chamber and the turbine. The compressed air which is created enters into the burning chamber and additional energy is provided to the air due to the burning fuel. Machining of this part is kept to a minimum. even in the so-called “cold area” (ex: the compressor) of the engine at the end of which temperatures reach 500°C. In the burners. A few things to know about the structure of a gas turbine of a jet engine: <check notebook for drawing> The main components of a jet engine are the compressor. temperatures diminish by a few hundred degrees which finally lead to a temperature of about 900°C. laser beam welding or in protective in inert gas atmosphere. in particularly forged. fan compressors and turbine discs are the main applications for Titanium alloys. Titanium is also preferred in some applications related to engine components because it also has a very good resistance to corrosion. most parts manufactured from Titanium which are used in industry (and most Titanium parts are used in aerospace industry) are wrought(deformate plastic). Fan blades and compressor blades of Titanium are under continuous development in spite of recent progresses in the area of the composed materials. Welding of Titanium is possible via processes like plasma welding. The amount of fuel which is provided is increased and the additional energy provided to the working fluid (air) can accelerate the turbine and they can also provide an axial load pushes the turbine forward. By and large. Titanium alloys usually behave much better than Stainless Steel when subject to a relatively large class of corrosive agents. . In the beginning.Single-piece forged gas turbine fan. This creates even a higher pressure and the hot gasses which leave the burners rotate the compressors and the external power source used in the beginning to start the engine is no longer needed. Temperatures in a gas turbine are extremely high. temperatures can reach 1200°C and in the turbine. before the engine is started.

what the σys is for 100 hours. since Nickel is a major component of some of these classes of super alloys. the values of the mechanical properties are indicated together with the time for which the material can withstand the respective stress without rupture. plastic deformations occur. the material can fail completely and rupture occurs. From historical perspective. they’re called Ni-Super alloys. Consequently. for compressor discs). but it has limitations because it is very difficult to machine. However. but the values of the σys and σuts are small. For example. super alloys are those iron-nickel. which offer good mechanical behavior and good corrosion resistance at high temperatures and they can also be machined such that the high accuracies needed in the jet engine components can be respected. super alloys exist which are based upon other materials than Nickel. other classes of materials have been produced. The most steel materials aren’t suitable for turbine parts because regular steels have limitations due to oxidation and diminishing of mechanical strength at high temperatures. the behavior at high temperatures is identical to the behavior at low temperatures. Super alloys For the purpose of this class. nickel. even if values of stresses which are significantly lower than σys yield strength and in time.g.Ball bearings exist which support the shafts. . Titanium can be used for certain components (e. These materials are generically called Super Alloys.based corrosion resistant alloys which are generally meant to be used above nominal temperatures of 550°C (~1000°F). Consequently. Over extended periods of time. super alloys have been developed since WW2. A few words regarding the behavior of metals at high temperatures: For short periods of time. Stainless steels do not have high enough mechanical strength and special steels which have good mechanical properties have limitations due to corrosion at high temperatures. 1000 hours etc.and cobalt. for the materials which are meant to work at high temperatures. Sometimes. Other definitions exist which do not include the iron-nickel alloys in the super alloys because the iron – nickel alloys are essentially an extension of the stainless steels.

2 1800°C 1.5 28 1000 hours rupture stress (KSI) 1500°C 3.895 1KSI = 1000lb/inch2 Material 1400°C Inconel 600 Inconel 601 14.5 2. Nickel – Chromium – Iron: sold under commercial name INCONEL. The main Inconel materials used in aerospace are: Inconel 718 and Inconel X750. It’s probably the main class of materials which is used for jet engine components.2 .A few classes of Super Alloys Ni . it has good corrosion resistance and parts of it can be manufactured both via plastic deformation (material has good workability) and via various machining processes. while others can preserve better the mechanical properties at high temperatures Material Inconel 600 Inconel 601 Room temperature * σuts 112 KSI 102 KSI [MP]=KSI * 6.7 6. Some of the Inconel alloys have better mechanical strength at low temperatures.Cu: sold under commercial name MONEL and used for propeller shafts. Inconel exhibits good fatigue strength at temperatures up to 700°C. Various classes of Inconel exist which are used for jet engine components which work at high temperature.

Molybdenum. WASPALLOY) Various info regarding super alloys can be found in the open literature. sold under the commercial name HASTEALLOY (or RENE. sold as INCOLOY or Ni-Span. more and more used as replacement of natural materials such as wood. however slight changes in properties and heat treatment can generate significant change of properties. Registered Trademarks of super alloys: Hastelllog Incoloy Rene Rene 41 Waspalloy Haynes Int. . Others are sold under the commercial name Pyromet or Refractalloy (replacement for Inconel X750 turbine components). super alloys selection can only be properly made after consulting the data from the manufacturers.Nickel – Iron – Chronium super alloys Sold under the commercial name of INCOLOY. Therefore. Nickel – Chromium. Nickel – Iron super alloys Have lower expansion coefficients. Special Metals Corporation General Electric Company Allwtc Metals Corp (CRED) United Aircraft Corporation PLASTIC MATERIALS This class of materials includes synthetic polymers which are man-made substances.

. For example. Thermoplastic materials are usually sold in granular shape. HW 1) Choose. When heated. thermoplastics soften to an almost flowing state where they can be shaped into objects. Polimerizate) or hardened into a permanent shape. The curing which usually occurs under heat or UV (ultraviolet) light leads to an irreversible cross-linking of the polymer. the alloy with the highest σys . Upon cooling. Moreover. Materiale termo-rigide) are set (cured) (=ro. Thermoplastics can be repeatedly soften by heat and shaped. refining and other processing before they can be used in and metals. an item made of several leather that require separate fabrication can be often made of one or two plastic parts. also generally called “acrylic”. Thermosetting materials are sold in solid form as raw materials of standard shapes. It has good optical clarity. Various classes of polymers exist. Vitroflex. Examples of plastic materials used in aerospace field 1) Polymethylmetacrylate PMMA Transparent thermoplastic. which require mining. 2) Calculate σys /ρ for these alloys and show the alloy with the highest σys /ρ. for each class of materials. The rows of thermosets are shaped into useful objects by regular machining processes which are used for metals. Gabrieli. Thermoplastics do not set or cure under heat. thermoplastics harden and hold their shape. Commercial names: PLEXIGLAS. Perspex etc. which can perform better than natural materials for various applications. the use of plastics can also increase significantly the productivity. Thermosetting plastics (=ro.

other aerospace components). a) Semiaromatic Polyamides (PA6/61. b) Aromatic Polyamides (PPTA. high chemical resistance. MPTA): difficult to melt. CDs. ophthalmic applications (lenses) HIGH PERFORMANCE PLASTIC MATERIALS High mechanical strength Used as replacements for metals on ceramics 1) Polyphelinylene Sulfide (PPS) Semi crystalline High heat resistance . It was developed in 1928. fuel supply system components) electrical components (sockets. or used to add strength to a matrix of a weaker plastic. DVDs. high hardness. 2) Polyamids (NYLON) Semicrystaline thermoplastics. high mechanical strength. PA61/6T): high heat applications (radiator ventilators. 3) Polycarbonates (PC) Thermoplastics Very high clarity (transparency) High impact strength High dimensional stability Used for aircraft interiors.Used for aviation canopies and windows. spun into a fibers used into various woven components.

in general. lagare hidromecanice) The shaft is held in place in a cylindrical “container” and it “floats”. These components have to be held on the machines by machine components which must be strong enough to hold the rotating parts. Lagare hidrodinamice. lagare cu alunecare. bearing bushings are often made by layers of materials with various properties.- High abrasion resistance (only small amounts are removed while running another material) Low friction coefficient Stable up to 220°C Used for parts which experience rubbing and friction Ex: Bearing bushings (=ro. The machine components which fulfill this task are called bearings. lagare cu rostogolire. cuzineti] ) <check notebook. materials which provide high strength cannot provide low friction and viceversa. rulmenti) The rotating part is called shaft (=ro. <check drawing in notebook> 2) Hydrodynamic bearings (=ro. Fus. bearing bushings have to provide both mechanical strength to hold the shaft in place and low friction. However. . it is supported into various circular elements which rotate together with the shaft. drawing> As mentioned above. which is called bearing bushing [=ro. Cuzineti si lagare) Note regarding bearings Various machine components exist which execute spinning or rotation motion. Two main classes of bearings exist: 1) Rolling elements bearings (=ro. rotor. arbore). Consequently. due to hydrodynamic forces which appear in the oil which fills the gap between the shaft and the container (the cylinder. must allow the rotating motion and also must have small friction coefficients (to avoid the waste of energy).

it is also possible for some applications to have the entire bushing material PPS.220°C. Due to its high material strength. in the most times used alone. drawing> In the name of the bearing bushings. the name bearing is. Temperature limits for PPS .<check notebook. The anti-friction material is often deposited in a very thin layer which can be sometimes just a few tenths of microns thick. such thin antifriction layers are called COATINGS. For this reason. other anti-friction materials can be applied oth as a coating. . the word bushing is in many cases omitted. and as a thicker later with the thickness comparable to that of the high strength material. Florinated Thermoplastics 1) PTFE (Commercially TEFLON) Polytetraflorideethilene Good mechanical properties at high temperature Low friction coefficient Low abrasion rates (good abrasion resistance) Used for high temperature pipes Used for bearing coatings Temperature limits for PTFE and most high temp resistance plastics: 500°F ~ 250°C (for long term) 2) Polyvinyl floride (PVF) Anti-soiling properties UV resistance Used for aircraft interior protective coatings. The PPS and similarly.

3) Polytheremides (PEI) High strength Very tight moldingtolerances (bune proprietati la turnare) Small smoke generation Heat resistant to 200°C Used for interiors: trays etc. The process of reinforcing materials and the high cross – linking density (the complex interconnections of the plastic molecules) generate high density and high rigidity materials/ . Aromatic polyketons (PEK. ducting. Used for bearings. ~ 2oo°C Thermosettings – examples of applications Thermosettings resins are used in molten air navigation parts. They are generally usd in composite materials. PEEK) Semicrytalline thermoplastics High mechanical strength Very good high temperature resistance Flame resistance Very good friction and wear behavior Among the highest tensile strength of plastics: PEEK – 200 MPa. fuel valves. filled with various reinforcing materials (chips and fibers of various lengths) Once cured. the polymers cannot be reprocessed or reshaped.

A few ideas regarding the manufacturing of ceramics. heat resistance. good electrical properties and broad chemical resistance. the highest hardness. The uses: aircraft parts which require less strength than the high strength using epoxy composites reinforced with woven fibers. Garnituri) and sealing elements (=ro. Ceramics include materials that have the highest melting points the highest elastic modulus. Similarly. these beneficial factors are counter-balanced by brittleness and vulnerability to thermal and mechanical shocks. Used for GASKETS (=ro. 2) Unsaturated polyesters Glass fiber unsaturated polyesters are commonly referred to as sheet molding compound – SMC – or reinforced plastic. strength. optical and mechanical properties. 3) Elastoners – class of polymeric resins with properties similar to rubber. the highest erosion resistance known. Etansare) CERAMIC MATERIALS Engineering ceramics include materials with very special combinations of physical chemical. important to use at high temperatures –SILICON RUBER (=ro. except that ¼ inch chopped glass is used as a filler. electrical. epoxy resins are used in high strength composites to build aircraft structure components.1) Epoxy resins exhibit hardness. bulk molding compound – BMC – is formulated similar to SMC. In aerospace. - Includes three stages: . Calciu siliconic) which can withstand temperatures up to 500 °F. Consequently. design of machines and parts which includes ceramics require exceptional experience and expertise. However.

This objects called “the green body” and it is built using various pressing techniques and using either dry or wet powder according to the chemical composition. If only heat is applied. 3) The hot stage (the burning stage) In the final stage. However. the process is called sintering (=ro. in which the chemical components that ceramic I made of is produced in form of powder and it’s refined and it is deposited into shapes which resemble somehow the shape of the final product. the green body is toughened in a series of processes which utilize various combination of heat and pressure.1) The “powder stage”. otherwise shaped into an object which is much closer than the final product. it still includes an important amount of corosity and it is extremely frail. 2) The “green” stage (the green body stage) The powders are pressed. Sinterizare) .