Telnet A terminal emulation program for TCP/IP networks such as the Internet. The Telnet program runs on your computer and connects your PC to a server on the network. You can then enter commands through the Telnet program and they will be executed as if you were entering them directly on the server console. This enables you to control the server and communicate with other servers on the network. To start a Telnet session, you must log in to a server by entering a valid username and password. Telnet is a common way to remotely control Web servers.

Telnet is a client-server protocol, based on a reliable connection-oriented transport. Typically this protocol is used to establish a connection to Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) port number 23, where a Telnet server application (telnetd) is listening.
Telnet Security

Telnet, by default, does not encrypt any data sent over the connection (including passwords), and so it is often practical to eavesdrop on the communications and use the password later for malicious purposes; anybody who has access to a router, switch, hub or gateway located on the network between the two hosts where Telnet is being used can intercept the packets passing by and obtain login, password and whatever else is typed with a packet analyzer. • Most implementations of Telnet have no authentication that would ensure communication is carried out between the two desired hosts and not intercepted in the middle.

Short for HyperText Transfer Protocol, the underlying protocol used by the World Wide Web. HTTP defines how messages are formatted and transmitted, and what actions Web servers and browsers should take in response to various commands. For example, when you enter a URL in your browser, this actually sends an HTTP command to the Web server directing it to fetch and transmit the requested Web page. The other main standard that controls how the World Wide Web works is HTML, which covers how Web pages are formatted and displayed. HTTP is called a stateless protocol because each command is executed independently, without any knowledge of the commands that came before it. This is the main reason that it is difficult to implement Web sites that react intelligently to user input. This shortcoming of HTTP is being addressed in a number of new technologies, including ActiveX, Java, JavaScript and cookies.

Proxy Servers

proxy server is a server (a computer system or an application) that acts as an intermediary for requests from clients seeking resources from other servers. A client connects to the proxy server, requesting some service, such as a file, connection, web page, or other resource available from a different server. The proxy server evaluates the request according to its filtering rules. For example, it may filter traffic by IP address or

It may also cache DNS records. and sometimes it may serve the request without contacting the specified server. In this case. A domain name is a meaningful and easy-toremember "handle" for an Internet address. Uses of proxy servers 1) A content-filtering web proxy server provides administrative control over the content that may be relayed through the proxy. Most ISPs(internet service provider) and large businesses have a caching proxy. There is probably a DNS server within close . it 'caches' responses from the remote server. It is commonly used in both commercial and non-commercial organizations (especially schools) to ensure that Internet usage conforms to acceptable use policy. Because maintaining a central list of domain name/IP address correspondences would be impractical. Caching proxies keep local copies of frequently requested resources. the lists of domain names and IP addresses are distributed throughout the Internet in a hierarchy of authority.protocol. and returns subsequent requests for the same content directly. the proxy provides the resource by connecting to the relevant server and requesting the service on behalf of the client. allowing large organizations to significantly reduce their upstream bandwidth usage and costs. In some cases users can circumvent the proxy. Domain Name Server / System(DNS) The domain name system (DNS) is the way that Internet domain names are located and translated into Internet Protocol addresses. If the request is validated by the filter. A proxy server may optionally alter the client's request or the server's response. since there are services designed to proxy information from a filtered website through a non filtered site to allow it through the user's proxy. 2) A caching proxy server accelerates service requests by retrieving content saved from a previous request made by the same client or even other clients. while significantly increasing performance. Caching proxies were the first kind of proxy server. 3) A DNS proxy server takes DNS queries from a (usually local) network and forwards them to an Internet Domain Name Server.