Combustion in SI Engines

Stages of SI Engine Flame Propagation

Essential Features of Combustion Process Combustion in SI Engines
Dr. M. Zahurul Haq
Professor Department of Mechanical Engineering Bangladesh University of Engineering & Technology (BUET) Dhaka-1000, Bangladesh zahurul@me.buet.ac.bd http://teacher.buet.ac.bd/zahurul/

e709

ME 401: Internal Combustion Engines

In a conventional SI engine, fuel-air premixture is compressed during the compression stroke. Normally, combustion is initiated towards the end of compression stroke at the spark plug by an electric discharge. Following inflammation, a turbulent flame develops, propagates through the air-fuel premixture until it reaches combustion chamber walls, then it extinguishes.
1 / 28 c Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 2 / 28 Combustion in SI Engines Stages of SI Engine Flame Propagation

c Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET)

Combustion in SI Engines

ME 401 (2011)

Combustion in SI Engines

Stages of SI Engine Flame Propagation

Spark discharge is at -30o & flame is visible first at -24o . Nearly circular flame propagates outward from the spark plug location. Irregular shape of turbulent flame front is apparent. Blue light is emitted most strongly from the flame front. At TC, flame diameter ≈ 2/3 of cylinder bore. Flame reaches the farthest cylinder wall at 15o ATC, but combustion continues for another 10o . At about 10o ATC, additional radiation - initially white, turning to pinky-orange – centred at the spark plug location is evident. These afterglow comes from the gases behind the flame as these are compressed to the highest temperatures attained in the cylinder (at about 15o ATC) while the rest of the charge burns.
e712

Images of a SI Engine Combustion Process
c Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 3 / 28 c Dr. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 4 / 28

Vf − θ & xb − θ curves for each cycle differ significantly. c Dr. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 5 / 28 Combustion in SI Engines Stages of SI Engine Flame Propagation Volume fraction en-flamed (Vf /V ) curves rise more sharply than mass fraction (xb ). Flame growth depends on local mixture motion & composition. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 6 / 28 Combustion in SI Engines Stages of SI Engine Flame Propagation Flame development and subsequent propagation vary.due to variations in mixing between air. M. and residual gas. Cycle-by-cycle combustion variations are evident in flame development and subsequent propagation. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 8 / 28 . and these quantities vary in successive cycles in a cylinder and may vary cylinder-to-cylinder. and recycled exhaust gas. Experimental evidences suggest 4 distinct phases in combustion: 1 2 3 4 Variation is gas motion in the cylinder during combustion. c Dr. Also. At the walls. M. Pressure is maximum after TC but before the charge is fully burned. recycled exhaust gas. fuel. Variation in mixture composition within the cylinder each cycle especially near the spark plug . Cycle-by-cycle & cycle-to-cylinder variations are important as the extreme cycles limit the operating regime of engines. some 25% of mass still to burn. Variation in the amounts of fuel. there is a period during which pressure rise due to combustion is insignificant. Zahurul Haq (BUET) c Dr. and then decreases as the cylinder volume continues to increase in its expansion stroke. air. flame is quenched as heat transfer & destruction of active species at the wall become the dominant processes. cycleV by-cycle: shape of P − θ. a flame develops from the kernel created by spark discharge and propagates across the cylinder to the walls. an electrical discharge initiates the combustion process. M. In the large part. pressure rises steadily. Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 7 / 28 Spark ignition Early flame development Flame propagation Flame termination c Dr. M. this is due to ρu 4ρb .Combustion in SI Engines Stages of SI Engine Flame Propagation Combustion in SI Engines Stages of SI Engine Flame Propagation e704 e703 e702 Following spark ignition. As flame continues to grow and propagates. there are some unburned mixture behind the visible flame: even when the entire combustion chamber is fully en-flamed. Three key factors to influence the cycle-by-cycle variation: 1 2 3 At the end of compression stroke. Mixture motion & composition in the vicinity of the spark plug at the time of spark discharge significantly govern the early stages of flame development.

Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines Spark Ignition ME 401 (2011) 10 / 28 Combustion in SI Engines Combustion in SI Engines Components of Conventional Coil-Ignition System Overview of Various Ignition Systems 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Battery Ignition switch Coil Distributor Ignition condenser Contact breaker Spark plugs e698 e693 c Dr.Combustion in SI Engines Spark Ignition Combustion in SI Engines Spark Ignition Ignition Systems For a spark to jump across an air gap of 0.6 mm in an engine cylinder. M. 8 kV is required. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 12 / 28 . 2 Spark voltage. In general. having a compression ratio of 8 : 1. M. at the right time. M. t Spark duration e696 a high ignition voltage to break down in the spark-gap a low source impedance or steep voltage rise a high energy capacity to create a spark kernel of sufficient size sufficient duration of the voltage pulse to ensure ignition Combustion in SI Engines Spark Ignition ME 401 (2011) 9 / 28 c Dr.2 mJ of energy is required to ignite a stoichiometric mixture at normal engine operating conditions by means of a spark. About 0. ignition systems deliver 30 to 50 mJ of electrical energy to the spark. M. has to deliver the voltage to the right cylinder. Ignition system has to transform battery voltage of 12 V to 8-20 kV and. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 11 / 28 c Dr. Fundamental requirements of the ignition source: 1 2 3 4 e695 1 Ignition voltage. approx. Zahurul Haq (BUET) c Dr. Over 3 mJ is required for a rich or lean mixture.

∆θd : crank angle interval between spark discharge and the time when a small but significant fraction of the cylinder mass ( 10%) has burned . =⇒ Thermodynamic state & composition of burned gas is non-uniform within cylinder. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 15 / 28 c Dr.Combustion in SI Engines Flame Development & Propagation Combustion in SI Engines Flame Development & Propagation Flame Development & Propagation Combustion normally begins at the spark plug where the molecules in and around the spark discharge is activated to a level where reaction is self sustaining. followed by a region of rapid growth. and burned gases are pushed towards the spark plug. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 14 / 28 Combustion in SI Engines Flame Development & Propagation Combustion Process Characterization Flame-development angle. ∆θo : ∆θo = ∆θd + ∆θb Characteristic features of the heat release curve of a SI engine are initial small slope region beginning with spark ignition. and the burned gas behind the flame front. cylinder pressure rises due to release of fuel’s chemical energy. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 13 / 28 Combustion in SI Engines Flame Development & Propagation During combustion. c Dr. and then a more gradual decay. interval between end of flame development (xb = 10%) & end of flame propagation (xb = 90%). pressure rise is also small because the mass of mixture burned is small. Unburned gas ahead of flame front. Rapid-burning angle. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 16 / 28 . M. ∆θb : crank angle interval required to burn the bulk of the charge. Initially. either by a moving piston or by heat conduction from advancing flame. As ρu 4ρb . During this period. c Dr. M. are raised in temperature by compression. Overall burning angle. e706 c Dr. Elements of unburned mixture which burn at different times have different pressure and temperature just prior to combustion and thus end up at different thermodynamic states after combustion. M. flame slows down as it approaches the walls of the combustion chamber (from heat loss & low turbulence) and is finally extinguished (wall quenching). gas expansion compresses unburned mixture ahead of flame & displaces it towards the walls. flame speed is very low as the reaction zone must be established. and heat loss is high as the spark plug is located near the cold walls. In the final stage. The pattern is generally represented by a Wiebe function: xb (θ) = 1 − exp −a θs θd n a e715 θ − θs θd n : : : : start of combustion duration of heat release Weibe form factor Weibe efficiency factor a = 5 & n = 3 have been reported to fit well with experimental data. This level is achieved when the energy released by combustion is slightly greater than the heat loss to the metal & the gas surroundings.

even if not severe. If the start of the combustion process is progressively advanced before TC. Zahurul Haq (BUET) e736 n = 1. In practice.05) ME 401 (2011) 19 / 28 The abnormal combustion phenomena are of concern because: when severe. they can cause major engine damage. M. These changes reduce the expansion stroke work transfer. these are objectionable source of noise. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 17 / 28 e707 Empirical rules with MBT timing: 1 2 the maximum pressure occurs at about 16o after TC half the charge is burned at about l0o after TC.3(±0. M. c Dr. and ends after the point in the cycle at which the peak cylinder pressure occurs. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 18 / 28 Knock in SI Engines Combustion in SI Engines Flame Development & Propagation Pressure-Volume Diagram of SI Engine Abnormal Combustion: Knock & Surface Ignition e705 In logP-logV diagram: Compression & expansion processes are straight line. c Dr. c Dr. peak cylinder pressure occurs later in the expansion stroke and is reduced in magnitude. the spark is often retarded to give a 1 or 2% reduction in brake torque from the maximum value. the compression stroke work transfer increases. Combustion starts before the end of the compression stroke. If the end of the combustion process is progressively delayed by retarding the spark timing.Combustion in SI Engines Flame Development & Propagation Combustion in SI Engines Flame Development & Propagation Spark Timing & MBT Combined duration of the flame development & propagation process is typically between 30 and 90o . Start of combustion & end of combustion are identified by departure of curve from straight line. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 20 / 28 Combustion in SI Engines . Compression & expansion processes are given by a relation: PV n = constant c Dr. occurs when the magnitudes of these two opposing trends just offset each other. continue through the early part of the expansion stroke. M. M. The optimum timing which gives the maximum brake torque (MBT).

For example. or glowing combustion chamber deposit: i. When knock takes place. Following the surface ignition. burning gas is compressed by the raising piston and therefore temperature (& densities) are radically increased. an increase in compression ratio will increase both the temperature and density of unburned mixture.Knock in SI Engines Knock in SI Engines Spark Knock or Knock Surface Ignition e710 e711 Knock is the name of the noise transmitted through the engine structure when essentially spontaneous ignition of a portion of end-gas – the fuel. mixture ahead of the flame front – occurs. the effect of the change may be reflected by more than one of the above variables. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines Attenuation of Knock ME 401 (2011) 22 / 28 Knock in SI Engines Reduction of knock in SI engines To prevent knock in the SI engine the end gas should have: A low temperature A low density A long-ignition delay A non-reactive composition e708 When spark is advanced. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 24 / 28 . M. c Dr. there is an extremely rapid release of much of the chemical energy in the end-gas. c Dr. a turbulent flame develops at each surface-ignition locations and starts to propagate across the chamber in an analogous manner to what occurs in normal knock. any means other than the normal spark discharge. causing very high local pressures and the propagation of pressure waves of substantial amplitude across the combustion chamber. c Dr. M. residual gas. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 21 / 28 Knock in SI Engines Surface ignition is the ignition of the fuel-air premixtrue by a hot spot on the combustion chamber walls such as an overheated valve or spark plug. air.e. M. Thus knock is encouraged by the advanced spark timings and relieved by retarding spark timings. c Dr. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 23 / 28 When engine conditions are changed. M.

However.Knock in SI Engines Attenuation of Knock Knock in SI Engines Attenuation of Knock Temperature Factors in SI Knock Reduction Density Factors in SI Knock Reduction Increasing the temperature of the unburned mixture by any of the following factors will increase the possibility of SI engine knock: Raising the compression ratio Raising the inlet air temperature Raising the coolant temperature Raising the temperatures of the cylinder and chamber walls Advancing the spark timing. c Dr. M. total energy release is proportional to the mass of the mixture in the cylinder. and therefore opening the throttle tends to raise wall temperatures and raise mixture & end-gas temperatures. M. Increasing the density of unburned mixture by any of the following will increase the possibility of SI engine knock: Opening the throttle (increasing the load) Supercharging the engine Advancing the spark timing Opening the throttle does not appreciably change the gas temperatures when the air-fuel ratio is constant. once the compression ratio and engine dimensions are selected. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines Attenuation of Knock ME 401 (2011) 25 / 28 c Dr. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 27 / 28 c Dr. The possibility of knock is decreased by Increasing the octane rating of the fuel Either rich or lean mixtures Stratifying the mixture so that the end gas is less reactive Increasing the humidity of the entering air. M. Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines ME 401 (2011) 28 / 28 . Zahurul Haq (BUET) Combustion in SI Engines Attenuation of Knock ME 401 (2011) 26 / 28 Knock in SI Engines Knock in SI Engines Time Factors in SI Knock Reduction Increasing the time of exposure of the unburned mixture to autoigniting conditions by any of the following factors will increase the possibility of SI engine knock: Increasing the distance the flame has to travel in order to traverse the combustion chamber Decreasing the turbulence of the mixture and thus decreasing the flame speed Decreasing engine speed: thus decreasing the turbulence of the mixture increasing the time available for preflame reactions Composition Factors in SI Knock Reduction The properties of the fuel and fuel-air ratio are the primary means for controlling knock. A rich/lean mixture is effective in reducing knock because of: the longer delay the lower combustion temperature If the chamber width is great. M. c Dr. the end-gas may have time to reach a self-ignition temperature and pass though the ignition delay period before the flame flame has completed its travel. The temperature of the exhaust valve is relatively high and therefore it should be located near the spark plug and not in the end-gas region.