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The main functions of the Governing system of a Steam Turbine are: • To control the initial run-up and synchronization of the Unit. • To assists in matching the power generated to that demanded by responding to system frequency changes. • To regulate the steam control valves position (and hence the load generated) in response to signal from the operator or from the load despatch centre. • To restrict the speed rise within acceptable limits should the unit get disconnected from the load.
TYPE OF GOVERNORS
MECHANICAL Speed transducer in this type is mechanical centrifugal type speed governor, which directly actuates control valves through mechanical linkages. ELECTRO MECHANICAL Mechanical centrifugal type speed governor is connected to hydraulic system either mechanically or hydraulically. HYDRAULIC Speed transducer is a centrifugal pump whose discharge pressure is a function of machine speed. This signal is sent to a hydraulic converter, to generate a high power hydraulic signal for the operation of different control valves. ELECTRO HYDRAULIC In this type, Electronic Transducer is used for measuring the machine speed. This signal is processed electronically and then sends to an Electro Hydraulic Converter for converting the electronic signals into proportional hydraulic signals for the operation of control valves.
DIFFERENT METHODS OF GOVERNING
Three methods of varying steam admission are normally used in utility turbines. These are: 1. Throttle Governing 2. Nozzle Governing 3. By-pass Governing THROTTLE GOVERNIN In this method of governing, steam is throttled to a suitable pressure using one or more sets of throttle valves (control valves). All these valves operate simultaneously and the throttle control is achieved usually by controlling the steam admission to the HP cylinder. Arc of steam admission in this governing method is 3600 .
KWU TURBINE GOVERNING
KWU Turbine is a reaction turbine and uses the Throttling Governing principle. For the governing purpose, these turbines are provided two separate control systems namely, HYDRAULIC and ELECTRO HYDRAULIC, both are connected in parallel. In case of Hydraulic Governing, all the signals are transmitted in the form of hydraulic (oil) pressure and the final operation of Control Valves is achieved by way of Hydraulic Converter (HC). In case of Electro Hydraulic Governing, all the signals are electrical in nature and for the operation of CVs; these signals will be converted into hydraulic signal using the Electro Hydraulic Converter (EHC).
Hydraulic Converter and Electro Hydraulic Converter are switched in parallel to form a hydraulic minimum value gate. The system that is not in service remains at its maximum position.
FEATURES OF KWU TURBINE
• Speed of the machine is controlled right from barring speed by EHG. • Dead band of the governing system is 0.01% (0.3RPM) in EHG. • Control Valves open with varying SECONDARY OIL pressure with constant CONTROL OIL pressure. • Above 20% load, machine load can be varied by HPCVs only. (Because IPCVs reach 100% open by about 20% load). • Closing time of Stop and Control Valves are HP STOP VALVE HP CONTROL VALVE IP STOP VALVE IP CONTROL VALVE : 0.20 SEC : 0.40 SEC : 0.80 SEC : 0.80 SEC
• Each Control Valve has a separate servomotor and hence CVs can be tested individually for spindle freeness during operation. • Automatic Turbine Test is available to test the healthiness of all Safety Devices along with Stop and Control valves. • Start-up and shutdown operation in OIL System, Evacuation System and Turbine System can be automatically done using ATRS. • Turbine Stress Evaluator is available for the conservative operation of the machine during start-up and shutdown. • Load Shedding Relay is available to prevent over-speeding of the machine during sudden loads throw offs. • To prevent high exhaust hood temperature in HP Turbine caused by churning, during sudden load reduction, Trimming Device is available.
• Pressure Controller is provided to unload the turbine in case main steam pressure drops by more than 10 kg/cm2.
INTRODUCTION The turbine is equipped with electro-hydraulic governing system to facilitate the operation of the turbo set in an interconnected grid system. The electrical measuring and processing of signals offer the advantages such as flexibility, dynamic stability and simple representation of complicated functional relationship. The processed electrical signal is introduced at a suitable point in the hydraulic circuit through the electro-hydraulic converter. The hydraulic controls provide the advantages of continuous control of large positioning forces for control valves. The integration of electrical and hydraulic system offers the following advantages • Exact load frequency droop with high sensitivity, • Reliable operation in case of isolated power grids, • Dependable control during load rejection, • Low transient and low steady-state speed deviations under all operational conditions, • Excellent operational reliability and dependability, • Safe operation of the turbo-set in conjunction with the Turbine Stress Evaluator (TSE) / Controller (TSC). ELECTRICAL EQUIPMENT The electrical equipment of the electro-hydraulic governing system comprises of measuring devices, the electronic controllers, electro-hydraulic converters etc. The electro hydraulic controller is realized in the microprocessor based hardware system. It is configured as a local station with input/output and processor modules housed in cabinet. The cabinet also contains the solid state hardware for actual speed acquisition, position
measurement of electro hydraulic converter, speeder gear and starting device and for the valve lift controller. MEASURING DEVICES • Digital speed monitoring devices with three speed measuring probes for measuring rotational speed installed in bearing housing and three pulse converters for amplifying and shaping of the signal from the speed probes, • Three measuring devices to determine the active electrical power of the generator, • Remote position transducers to determine the actual positions of electrohydraulic converters. • One electr o-hydraulic converter housed in the governing rack placed adjacent to the main turbine OPERATING EQUIPMENT To facilitate easy and efficient operation of the electro-hydraulic governing system, it is interfaced with HMI system via the control system data highway s and with operator interface. The system is provided with the following display indications on the operator workstations. For actual provision of control tiles and operator displays project specific documents may be referred.
• SPEED REFERENCE Used for giving to increase or decrease the speed during speed control mode. • NRTD Speed reference time delay. It has the TSC influence to guide the machine during rolling without having thermal stress. • SPEED EVALUATION Actual measured speed of the turbine. • LOAD REFERENCE Load increase/decrease command tile. • PRTD Load reference time delay. It has the TSC upper load and lower load margin to safely load or unload the machine.
• FREQUENCY INFLUENCE It increase or decrease the load reference according to frequency. • DELTA PR The correction factor provided due to the difference between actual pressure and set pressure. • Pr MAX Maximum load reference. • LOAD ACTUAL Actual measured load. • SIGMA Pr Sum of load reference. • PR ACTUAL Actual pressure • PR REF Pressure reference. • PRESSURE DEVIATION The difference between actual pressure and set pressure. • IP Initial pressure mode. • LP Limiting pressure mode. ANNUNCIATION The following Annunciation are provided in the control desk • Speed control active • Load control active • Pressure control active • Stop reference limit • Limit pressure reached • DN/DT monitoring active • Load control not stable • EHTC fault • Turbine tripped CONTROL LOOP The electro-hydraulic governing system essentially consists of the following control loops • Speed Control Loop • Load control Loop • Pressure Control Loops
One of these three loops act selectively on the subordinate valve lift control loop. The valve lift controller actuates the plunger coil of the electrohydraulic converter, which acts as an interface between the electrical and the hydraulic systems. SPEED CONTROL LOOP The loop is formed essentially by a speed reference limiter and speed controller. The integrated functions of the two blocks are explained below. The speed controller essentially compares the speed reference generated by the speed reference limiter circuit and the actual speed of the turbine and accordingly provides an output for the valve lift controller The actual speed, n is acquired by three speed pick-up systems. The output of each pick up is then processed in three different channels. The output from only one channel is used. In the event of failure of this channel, the system is automatically switched onto the other channel and an alarm to that effect is initiated. The switchover does not affect the operation. In case the defective channel gets restored again, the same is automatically made available to the selection circuit independent of any acknowledgement of the alarm. The controller gain is matched to have a very precise control in the vicinity of the rated speed. The speed reference is generated by the speed reference limiter control loop. The desired reference speed value can be set with the help of a potentiometer remotely from control desk or manually at the cabinet. In the speed reference limiter the reference speed signal is juxtaposed with the output from the TSE/TSC at every instant and a time dependent limited speed reference is generated corresponding to the highest permissible rate of speed increase which is consistent with the safe operation of the turbine. After attaining the target reference speed the output of the speed reference limiter is held constant. The TSE/TSC influence is made ineffective in those segments of speed increase, which cover the critical speed of rotors. The output of speed reference limiter is automatically blocked in the event of a fault in TSE/TSC and the speed of
the set cannot be changed until disconnected. dn/dt monitoring
and unless TSE/TSC
To avoid rolling of the turbo set at or near critical speeds, the acceleration of the set is monitored in the range 700 rpm to 2850rpm. In case dn/dt goes below the set value, the speed set point is rolled back to the soaking value and the set is returned to that speed. After further thermal stabilization, when sufficient temperature margins are available, the speed is again increased. The speed controller exhibits a steady state proportional control to form the necessary droop characteristics. The dynamic response is improved by the addition of proportional integral and differential element. The speed controller realises the following operations • • • • Start up and shut down of the turbine Synchronization of the generator Provides a minimum load operation Operation of the turbo-set in the complete power range in case load controller is defective LOAD CONTROL LOOP • Load Reference Limiter • Frequency Load Droop • Load / Frequency Controller The reference load is set by a motor -operated potentiometer, which is transmitted to the load reference limiter. The load reference set value and output signal from TSE/TSC are juxtaposed in the load limiter and it generates the time dependent limited reference load setting depending upon the influence of the TSE/TSC at the highest permissible rate consistent with the thermal stresses of the turbine both during load increase and decrease. After attaining the target load reference, the
reference limiter output is held constant. The TSE/TSC influence is rendered ineffective upon failure and the load reference limiter is held constant. It is only possible to increase the load when TSE/TSC is disconnected. The load gradient setter also influences the time dependent load reference signal but the actual maximum permissible load rate is governed by the TSE/TSC. The grid controller can also be activated to exercise control on the load reference setter, which in turn is effective via the load reference limiter and TSE/TSC. This facilitates loading of the set from dispatch centers. The load controller receives the reference load signal from the load reference limiter and also from the frequency controller depending upon the frequency of the grid. These two signals are summed in the load controller and the net value derived for controlling the valve position. The droop characteristics of the frequency controller can be varied from 2.5% to 8% in steps of 0.5%. To limit the total power delivered by the turbine, the system is equipped with maximum load reference limit. This acts directly on the valve lift controller and has priority over all other influences acting directly or indirectly on the valve lift controller. The actual load value is acquired in three independent channels and transmitted to the load controller. In case of a deviation of more than 5% in between the measurement channels, an alarm "actual load signal faulty" is initiated. The load controller exhibits a proportional -integral action and has an excellent dynamic response, when the turbine is synchronised and the block loading have been achieved. This controller and the speed controller signal are transmitted to valve lift controller signal through maximum an minimum selection circuit. ISOLATED GRID OPERATION If the power plant together with a section of the power grid should become isolated during load control, the configuration of the control is switchover to
frequency control. The PI characteristics of the load controller is switched over to P characteristics with 5% droop. Isolated grid operation is suitably annunciated and is reset manually. LOAD SHEDDING In case of sudden loss of export load, the output of the load controller is immediately reduced below the output of the speed controller which is set at station load. Due to maximum selection speed controller assumes control and returns the turbine back to almost the rated speed. This provision improves the dynamic response of the closing of the steam control valves and keeps the turbine speed from rising along the droop characteristics.
PRESSURE CONTROL LOOP
The pressure controller controls the turbine load w.r.t. the main steam pressure deviation and prevents a pressure drop e.g. during a quick load increase. Two operational modes can be selected a) Initial Pressure control b) Limit pressure control INITIAL STEAM PRESSURE CONTROLLER Operation of the initial steam pressure controller initiates the unloading of the set in the event of initial steam pressure falling below a preset value. The unloading of the set continues proportional to the available pressure. The loading of the set begins only if the firing rate in the boiler is increased. In this mode of operation load is controlled by the boiler and main steam pressure by the turbine. LIMIT PRESSURE CONTROL MODE The boiler storage capacity is utilized in this mode of operation. The controller influences MS control valves to support boiler pressure only
when a preset minimum deviation is exceeded. This allows load controller to handle small, quick load variations, until the pick-up limit of the limit pressure control is reached. VALVE LIFT CONTROLLER The input of valve lift controller is continuously compared to actual valve lift (feedback signal) and error signal is transmitted to the electro hydraulic controller. The feedback signal representing the valve lift is derived from position of the electro -hydraulic converter plunger as an analog value from the differential transformer type transducer. There are two transducers continuously scanning the position of the plunger. If the signal from any transducer differs by more than predefined value an alarm is initiated. The characteristics of valve lift controller are proportional, integral and differential type and this ensures high overall sensitivity and improves transient response. During operation of the turbo set one of the controllers is always in control. The other standby controllers are matched continuously with the active controller to allow quick transition without bumps. The outputs from the speed control loop and load control loop are juxtaposed and tied to each other by means of a maximum selection circuit. In a separate circuit the output of speed control loop is summed with load reference value. This signal is compared with the signal from maximum selection circuit of the speed and load controller and minimum of the two juxtaposed with the output signal from pressure control loop in yet another minimum election circuit. The output of this minimum selection circuit is fed to valve lift controller. Normally the set is run on electro -hydraulic controller whereas the hydraulic controller serves as a standby. ELECTRO HYDRAULIC CONVERTER The electro -hydraulic converter is used as an interface device between the
actuators of the main steam control valves and the electronic control circuits. It converts the electronic signal received from the valve lift controller to an appropriate hydraulic signal. The electro-hydraulic converter complies with the stringent requirements for actuating force and actuating speed of the electro hydraulic governing system. TRACKING DEVICE A tracking device is provided to achieve bump less transfer of control to the back-up hydraulic device in the event of failure of electro-hydraulic controller. This device tracks the output of hydraulic starting and load limiting device to 5 to 10% more than the output of the electro-hydraulic controller. During normal operation, electro-hydraulic controller is in operation through a hydraulic minimum gate. In case of failure of electrohydraulic controller, it gives a maximum opening signal for the valves and hydraulic controller takes over through the minimum gate. LOAD SHEDDING RELAY The load rejection relay assists the hydraulic controller to ensure that the speed of the turbine generator cannot reach the trip setting for the hydraulic over speed trip in case of load through off. The instantaneous power is compared with the last measured value (scanning time 60 msec), which is stored throughout the length of scanning time. In case a negative load transient is detected a control pulse is generated. This pulse is used to actuate the solenoid valve in the HP and IP secondary fluid circuits, switching to drain and thereby causing a rapid drop in pressure. The HP and IP turbine control valves close at maximum speed as a result, thereby preventing over speed. The length of the pulse, which determines the closure time of the valves, is dependent on the magnitude of the negative load transient. Upon termination of the control pulse the solenoid valve is de-energized, the
control fluid pressure increases again and the speed controller opens the valves corresponding to the new load value. Since the turbine speed after a load rejection is not only dependent on the magnitude of the load rejection but also on the residual load after the load rejection, the control pulse is only issued if the remaining load is also below a preset value. The setting for the load rejection relay (magnitude of load drop, remaining load, duration of pulse) may be adjusted during initial checkout/ commissioning and startup of the turbine generator. The default settings are as follow: DP > 50% Pres < 30% scanning time 60 msec length of pulse= 1.2 sec (max) f < 49 Hz. To prevent response of load shedding relay on under-frequency, a frequency monitoring circuit inhibits response of this relay if frequency drops to an adjustable under-frequency limit. Without this blocking (feature), the turbine would accelerate too much (in the event of load rejection on under frequency, after termination of the close pulse the hydraulic controller), would open the turbine control valves very far due to the large error caused by the frequency deviation. This itself would reach the over speed trip point.
KWU TURBINE PROTECTION
GENERAL The turbine protection system can be actuated by any of the following trip systems: • Hydraulic trip system • Electrical trip system Both the trip systems, when initiated, act on the hydraulic control system and cause trip oil pressure to collapse which in turn closes the Emergency stop valves, Interce ptor valves and control valves . HYDRAULIC TRIP SYSTEM The hydraulic trip system comprises of the following trip devices and actuation of any one of these devices trips the turbine. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Over speed trip device 1 Over speed trip device 2 Vacuum trip device Thrust brg trip Hand trip lever (local) The mode of operation of these devices is separately covered in the descrip tion of hydraulic control (gover ning) system. CONFIGURATION Two trip soleno ids are provided in the hydraul ic circuit, which get trip signals from the electrical system . Actuation of any one solenoid is sufficient to trip the turbine . The electrical system is configured as a 2-channel system. Each channel is realized in a Processing Unit. Both the processor units are completely independent of each other and input modules, processor module and output modul es reside on each. Each channel having two processors Unit with one processor in hot standby mode. Trip signals from sensors/fiel d instru ments are conditi oned & distributed to both the channels (processor unit) via hardwired modules. Realization of 2 out of 3 trip logic is carried out in the processor. On detection of a fault in any one of the input signals to a channel, the configuration for that channel changes from 2 out of 3 to 1 out of 2 and is annu nciated . Further failure in a channel changes the configuration to 1 out of 1. Trip signal from each of the local buses acts on 3 relays in 2 out of 3 combinations.
Both the channels are tested periodically even while the turbine is running. Cyclic testing is done automatically at preset intervals and can be blocked from the protection cabinet, if desired. The testing can also be initiated manually from the cabinet . Only one channel can be tested at a time. Online testing is done by simulating the trip signals and it determines faults in the input modules, processor modules, output modules or the trip relays. These faults can be acknowledged from the cabinet. Next cycle test can only be carried out after acknowled ging of the fault. Once initiated, the trip signal keeps the trip solenoids energized unless and until the followin g conditio ns are fulfilled: 1. Command signal from the individual trip initiatin g circuit ceases. 2. Both the ESVs are closed and trip oil pressure (sensed by any of the two pressure transmitter) is less than 2 Kg/Cm²: (Disconnection relay 1) OR (Disconnection relay 2) is made ON from reset program of ATT, SG: Safety device s. The protection system conforms to the followin g requireme nts 3. The command signal appeari ng due to a fault sustains till a. The deviated parameter causing the fault returns to normal operating value or b. All the relate d safety measures are successf ully imple mented. 3.1. The affected equipment should be reinstated by the operating person nel only after ascertaining the cause of the fault and its elimination. 3.2. Once initiated, the fault command signal cannot be interrup ted or revers ed till all the related safety measures are successfully implemented . Suitable signals are provided for annunciatio n of fault conditio ns in the control room. All fault conditio ns shall be annunciated independe ntly and action of protection system and trip-out shall not hold annunciations for any subsequent faults. Under such conditions annunciation system must ensure positive identification of the first cause, which initiated actio n of the protection system. 3.3. Hydraulic trip devices including the trip solenoi ds can be tested even during on- load with the help of Automatic Turbine Tester (ATT) . During such testing both the trip channels are transferred to two separate trip solenoids (test) whic h serve to trip the turbine if any actual trip condition arises during testing.
TRIPPI NG CRITERIA The turbine trips automatically under any of the following conditions. The initiatin g signal in each case actuates both the channels. MS TEMPERATURE LOW Temp. less than 4500C (Arming at 5100C) applicable in Unit I, II & III. COND ENSER PRESSURE PROTECTION When condenser pressure greater than 0.3kg/cm2. LUBE OIL PRESSURE LOW The protection acts if the lube oil pressure before thrust bearing decreases to 1.2Kg/C m². The trip signal is initiated by three pressure transmitt ers in 2-out- of-3-logic. FIRE PROTECTION Fire protection is basically is a protection against oil leakage rather than fire. Because oil leakage may lead to fire, the fire protection is used. The protection comprises of two individual protections • Fire Protection • Fire Protection 1 2
Fire protection - 1 can be operated either in auto mode or in manual mode, where as fire protection -2 can be operated in manual mode only. For auto operation of Fire protection MOT level low low signal is used. Whenever two out of three level switches energizes Fire protection 1 will be initiated. Fire Protection auto operation will work only if the gate valve gearing remains closed. FIRE PROTECTION - 1 When Fire protection 1 is initiated either in manual mode by pressing the push button or in auto mode because of low MOT level, Turbine trip command is initiated for reducing the damages. In order to bring down the machine speed quickly, vacuum in the condenser will be killed by opening of the vacuum breaker. Like in other Turbine trips, in Fire protection -1 also AOP & JOP takes auto start and thus Lub oil, barring gear oil and jacking oil are ensured & machine will come on the barring gear.
Whenever Fire Protection 2 switch is pressed either from desk or from local machine trips, vacuum breaker will be open, like in Fire Protection-1. However in case of Fire Protection 2 AOP is not come into the service as the SGC for oil will be going off . Gate valve gearing will also not open. Thus Turbine will directly come to stand steel after the operation of this protection. To cater the minimum requirement of machine (Lubricating oil & jacking oil), EOP & JOP 2 will come into service, automatically. Under extreme condition of oil leakage or chances of oil fire only operation of Fire Protection 2 is recommended. Because actuation of the protection will even cut off the barring gear, which in turn will result into uneven cooling of the rotor. This may further lead into the rubbing of seals & later on barring gear operation will become very difficult. HP EXHAUS T TEMP. HIGH The HP exhaust steam temp . protection circuit . protects the exhaust section of the Turbine, the blading & extraction points against overheating. During startup/shutdown or load rejections, there can be long period during which steam turbines are operated at very low volumetric flows and relatively high back pressure i.e. the mech. Energy transmitted by the turbine shaft is converted to thermal energy, which in turn result in an increase in the temp. of both the exhaust steam and turbine components . This temp. is required to be monitored to avoid any deformation in the casing or blades. The temp is measured by means of three Therm ocouples and protectio n criteria is derived in 2 out of 3 logics." AXIAL SHIFT VERY HIGH (THRUST BRG TRIP) A too high axial displacement of the turbine shaft may cause damage to the turbine blades. This protection trips the turbine in case the axial shift of the shaft exceeds the limits set during erection . The axial shift is measured in both directions (±) using three proximity probes. These measured signals are fed to a protection circuit designe d in 2-out-of -3 logic for further realiza tion. TG BEARIN G METAL TEMP. VERY HIGH The excessive temperature rise of bearings during operation can cause wear to bearing shells. Bearing temperature high trip protects the thrust and journal bearings of the Turbine and Generator against excessive temperatures rise. The temperature of the Babbitt metal temp is measured by means of four thermoco uples in the beari ng for each
bearing at HP front and HP rear Journal bearings and Thrust bearing. In other journal bearings, temperature is measur ed by means of thermocouples at front and rear end of generator and exciter. Protection criteria are derived in 2 out of 3 logics configurations of each bearings to safe guard the TG set. TURBINE TRIP SWITCH OPERATE D • The protection acts, when the turbine trip switch in CRT is operated manuall y. • The protection acts, when the turbine trip switch on UCB is operated manuall y. TRIP COMMAN D INITIATED FROM ATRS Trip command signal initiated from 'Shut -down' program of Turbine SubGroup Control in ATRS. TRIP COMMAND FROM GEN. MECHANICA L PROTECTION Trip command signal is initiated to trip the turbine from 2 out of 3 logic of gen. mechanical protection. Like LLD, CG temperature after cooler & seal oil temperature high. GENERAT OR PROT ECTION OR MASTER FUEL TRIP RELAY ENERGIZED In the event of generator faults under Class-B trip both the turbine trip channels are actuated to trip the turbine. In the event of generator faults under Class-A trip or in the event of boiler Master fuel trip relay energize d, the command signal for turbine trip shall act simultane ously and independe nt of other equipm ent trip out sequence . Three contacts for each of these conditions are taken from respective areas and processed in 2 out of 3 logic. ISOLATION OF GENERATO R FROM GRID It is recommended to provide two identical and indepen dent chann els and each channel with separate reverse power relay for isolation of generator from grid. The generator breaker shall open if one or both the channels operate. Each channel shall be operated under any of the followi ng conditio ns: • Turbine has tripped and reverse power relay has operated. The command signal shall be initiated with a delay of 3 Seconds OR
Reverse power relay has operated. The command signal shall be initiated with a time delay of 10 seconds.