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1, JANUARY 2012

47

**Comprehensive Error Analysis of Multi-Antenna Decode-and-Forward Relay in Fading Channels
**

Soumendra Nath Datta, Student Member, IEEE, Saswat Chakrabarti, Member, IEEE, and Rajarshi Roy

AbstractβA comprehensive analytical framework of dualhop ο¬xed decode-and-forward cooperative networks with multiantenna relay and distributed spatial diversity is developed over generalized Nakagami-π fading channels. The effect of Rician fading for the relay-destination link has been of special interest. The multi-antenna relay employs selection combining (SC) and the destination adopts distributed SC. Analytical expressions for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are derived and used to evaluate the bit error probability (BEP) for coherent and non-coherent binary modulation schemes in a uniο¬ed manner. Numerical and simulation results are presented to illustrate the impact of the Rician K-factor and Nakagami-π parameter on the end-to-end performance. Index TermsβDecode-and-forward relay, Nakagami-π fading, selection combining, uniο¬ed expression, error performance.

I. I NTRODUCTION

C

OOPERATIVE diversity has emerged as an effective technique to realize spatial diversity beneο¬ts in a distributed manner. Distributed diversity systems often employ simple combining technique to process the independent signal replicas [1]. In the context of relay processing, the decodeand-forward (DF) protocol is most commonly used, in which relays decode the signal received from the source and then encode and retransmit it to the destination. The limitations of using multiple antennas on mobile terminals can be alleviated through infrastructure-based ο¬xed relays carrying multiple antennas instead of involving multiple single-antenna relays in a network area, thereby reducing system deployment cost. Use of multi-antenna relay nodes in a two-hop cooperative network has been well-studied in [2], [3] and threshold-based SC and maximal-ratio combining have been adopted at the relays to evaluate the error rate under uncorrelated and correlated fading. In [1] and [4], the authors derived exact closed-form solutions for the outage probability and symbol error rate of DF systems in dissimilar Rayleigh and Nakagami-π fading channels that use SC at the destination. Recently, in [5] and [6], a uniο¬ed approach has been taken for multi-antenna amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying to evaluate the error rate in a compact form for binary modulations. In contrast to the symmetric fading assumptions, there are few performance analysis results for dual-hop relay networks under asymmetric fading scenarios [7], [8]. Such mixed

type fading channels exist for an indoor relay system [9], where there is always a line-of-sight (LoS) component in the relay-mobile link, which should be modelled as Rician fading. Outage probability and error performance of dualhop, single-antenna AF relaying system have been analyzed for Rayleigh/Rician (and Rician/Rayleigh) fading scenarios [7] and Nakagami-π/Rician fading channels [8]. Motivated by the absence of a comprehensive error analysis for ο¬xed DF relay with coherent and non-coherent binary modulation schemes, in this letter we analyze SC-based multiantenna DF relay with distributed SC receiver under a uniο¬ed framework over independent and non-identical ο¬at Nakagamiπ fading channels for all links while investigating the effect of Rician fading in relay-destination link. A class of uniο¬ed closed-form BEP solutions is derived using the computed CDF of the output SNR at distributed SC receiver. The uniο¬ed approach eliminates the need for BEP calculation for individual binary modulation schemes separately. Also, the applicability of the generalized Nakagami-π model has been corroborated with preferred SNR region of interest. II. S YSTEM M ODEL WITH M ULTI - ANTENNA DF RELAY The two-hop relay architecture consists of a multi-antenna relay π , placed between a single antenna source π and destination π·. π has one transmitting antenna and πΏ receiving antennas, and is assumed to be operative in half-duplex mode. In the ο¬rst time slot, π broadcasts a signal that is received by both π· and π . π· stores this signal for future processing. π then performs SC combining of the signals received in the ο¬rst time slot and forwards the decoded signal to π· in the second time slot. Thus, π· receives directly through π βπ· link as well as indirectly through the virtual π β π β π· link. The end-toend SNRs of the ππππππ‘ and πππππ¦ππ path are represented by πΎπ· and πΎπ , respectively. With the ο¬xed DF protocol in which the relay terminal is always active to assist the direct communication, the dual-hop π βπ βπ· channel can be tightly approximated in the high SNR regime as follows [10], [4]: (1) πΎπ = min {πΎππ , πΎπ π· } where, πΎππ· , πΎπ π· denote the instantaneous SNRs of respective links and ]for a πΏ-branch SC-based relay, πΎππ = }2 { [ (1) (πΏ) (β) (β) (β) max πΎππ , ..., πΎππ with πΎππ = βππ πΈπ /π0 where, βππ is the fade sample at receive antenna β, πΈπ is the bit energy, π0 is the single-sided power spectral density of the AWGN and πΎπ = πΈ [πΎπ ] is the average SNR per bit at the input of a Β― receiving node as indicated by π = ππ , ππ·, π π·. In the distributed SC scheme [1, eq. (1)], the destination combines the received signals from the π βπ· and π βπ βπ· links using SC and the instantaneous SNR is given by πΎππΆ = max {πΎπ , πΎπ· }.

Manuscript received July 27, 2011. The associate editor coordinating the review of this letter and approving it for publication was G. Giambene. S. N. Datta and S. Chakrabarti are with the G. S. Sanyal School of Telecommunications, IIT Kharagpur, India-721302 (e-mail: soumendra@gssst.iitkgp.ernet.in, saswat@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in). R. Roy is with the Dept. of E & ECE, IIT Kharagpur, India (e-mail: royr@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in). Digital Object Identiο¬er 10.1109/LCOMM.2011.111611.111622

c 1089-7798/12$31.00 β 2012 IEEE

Ξ¨ (π. π + 1. π = π + (β + 1) π½ππ . (12)]. BEP analysis under distributed SC with Nakagami-π faded π β π·. π . Fig. β² ππ (πΎ) πΉπΎππ’π‘ (πΎ) ππΎ (3) ( ) πΌπ Ξ(π+π) π½ where. π. the CDF of the SNR πΎππ at the output of the πΏ-branch SC-based relay receiving signals through multiple independently faded links with identical πππ is derived utilizing [2. βπ§ In the following. a class of generalized closed-form solutions for the CDF and BEP is derived for a SC-based multi-antenna relay for coherent and non-coherent binary modulation schemes in a uniο¬ed manner with the CDF based approach of (3) while considering non-identical Nakagami-π fading for all links. eq. π½ β² = π½ + π½ππ· and πΌππ· = πππ· . NO.1)] and inο¬nite series resultant CDF expression from (5) into (3). the CDF of the SNR πΎππΆ at the SC output of where. (4)] to get the CDF of πΎπ π· .(2)] to evaluate the BEP. eq. BEP A NALYSIS USING U NIFIED A PPROACH A uniο¬ed expression for conditional error probability of binary signalling schemes in terms of complementary incomplete gamma function Ξ (β . eq. (16)]. π = ππ π· . π)β βπ πΏ (π)Ξ¨(π. π. β² (5) π = π + π. π½) = π(πΌ+π½)π+π 2 πΉ1 1. π½ππ = πππ /Β―ππ . π. πΎππ· = πΎππ = πΎπ π· ) for BFSK modulation. π) πΉπΎπ (πΎ) = 1 β Ξ(πππ )Ξ(ππ π· ) π=0 where. π π (8) β ( ) (12)] and πΌππ = πππ +π. π§) = πβ1 exp (βπ§). π1 (β . π} are speciο¬ed in [11. (ππ π· /Β―π π· ) πΎ) (4) { } ]] πΌππ· β1 β β π π β (πΌππ β1)! {(β+1)π½ππ }π βπΎ β² β² and where. ππΎ)/2Ξ (π) where. πΎ π½ = π + (β + 1) π½ππ . π½) β Ξ¨ (πΌ. can be stated in terms of the CDF πΉπΎππ’π‘ (πΎ) of output SNR πΎππ’π‘ as β« β ππ (π) = β 0 β² where ππ (πΎ) denotes the ο¬rst derivative of ππ (πΎ). (81)] [ πΌππ· β1 β 1 Ξ(π+π) π Ξ(π) π ππ (π) = β πΏ (π) π 2Ξ (π) π (π+π½ππ·)π+π π=0 [ πΌβ β1 πΏβ1β(πππ β1)πΌππ β1 πΏ β β β Ξ (π ) ππ· Ξ (π β² ) β Ξ (β. R ESULTS AND C ONCLUSION For simulation. Ξ (β. πΉπΎπ (πΎ) is ο¬nally derived as πΏβ1β(πππ β1) ππ β1 β β πΌ β Ξ (β. In a distributed πΎ Ξ(π +π) πΎπ SC receiver. π½ππ· = πππ· /Β―ππ· and 2 πΉ1 (π. π β π links and Rician faded π β π· link Asymmetric fading environment is often encountered in an indoor relay scenario [9]. πβ² . Therefore. π. eq. 16. π. π§) πΉπΎππΆ (πΎ) = πΉπΎπ· (πΎ) πΉπΎπ (πΎ) πΎ denotes the conο¬uent hypergeometric function [12]. Now substituting the CDF of SNR πΎππ· . π. π. The resultant expressions are attractive for simplicity and a kind of novel ο¬ndings in its genre. One can identify that Ξ (π. BEP analysis with distributed SC and Nakagami-π fading In order to determine the BEP. π) = Ξ (β. π) = (β1)β πβ with πβ deο¬ned in [2. π)πΎ π πΉπΎπ (πΎ) = 1β(πΏ/Ξ (πππ )) (β ) β Γ exp {β(β + 1)π½ππ πΎ} π1 2πΎ. (3)] and (4) into (5) and thereafter inserting (2) and the transformation formula in [12. the CDF of πΎπ . when differentiated using the relation βπ§ Ξ (π. eq. π) β πΏ (π) β=0 π=0 π β² π Ξ(πππ ) π (πβ² ) π=0 π=0 β=0 π=0 πΎ ΓπΎ π exp {β (β + 1) π½ππ πΎ} Ξ (ππ π· . VOL. πβ² = π + π½ππ· . there is a close ο¬t between the π-distribution and the βRician model through the transformation. π . π½ β² ) (6) links (i. 1.48 IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS. simpliο¬es the integration process in (3). πΉπΎπ· (πΎ) stated in [5.455. JANUARY 2012 III. 2 β βπ πΎ = πβππ2 βπ . π₯) denotes πΎ the Gauss hypergeometric function [12]. {2(1 + πΎ)/Β―π π· } πΎ (7) πΎ β=0 π=0 π=0 A. the CDF of πΎπ over the dual-hop DF relay-assisted path given by πΉπΎπ (πΎ) = 1 β [1 β πΉπΎππ (πΎ)] [1 β πΉπΎπ π· (πΎ)] following (1) is ο¬nally derived as πΏβ1β(πππ β1) ππ β1 β β πΌβ πΏ Ξ (β. but it is further observed that this interrelation formula may not be very good when the SNR is large but ο¬ts well for low SNR values [13]. π. β ) is the ο¬rst-order Marcum Q-function [14. π + π. eq. substituting the resultant CDF πΉπΎππ (πΎ) and the CDF of πΎπ π· given in [8. (14)] and Ξ (β ) is the gamma function [12]. π) shows the error performance of SC based πΏ-antenna relay π=0 β=0 π=0 ( )}] under symmetric Nakagami-π fading scenario and balanced πΌππ· β1 β (π½ππ· )π Β― Β― Β― Ξ¨ (πΌ. πΌ+π½ and πΌ = ππ π· /Β―π π· . (6. uniο¬ed solution for ππ (π) is evaluated using [14. π) (β+1)πΌππ Ξ¨ (π. π) π! ( ) Ξ(π + 1) π=1 π=0 πΏ β 1 Ξ (β. eq. Kummerβs Now substituting the CDF of SNR πΎππ· .1)] as [ {πΌ β1 ππ· β (π½ππ· )π ππ Ξ (π + π) 1 1β β ππ (π) = π+π 2 Ξ (π) π! (π + π½ππ· ) π=0 π IV. π. (3)] and (7) into (5) and thereafter inserting (2) and the resultant CDF expression from (5) into (3). (9). π+π π destination receiver is given by and πΏ (π) = (π½ππ· ) /π!. in a new closed-form using [12. eq. π. π . It is π! observed that at BEP = 10β5 . Monte Carlo technique is used to estimate the BEP while passing 106 symbols through the system with πΏβ1β(πππ β1)πΌππ β1 β β β an average of 50 different runs at every SNR value. πβ² = π + π. π) = (π+π )π +π 1 πΉ1 π + π. π + 1. π. π. π. An alternative approach of the traditional PDF method described in [6. the CDF of πΎππ is derived utilizing [2. 1 + (πΏ/Ξ (πππ ) Ξ (ππ π· )) Ξ (β. the conditional BEP in AWGN. π.212. π. πΉπΎπ· (πΎ) given in [5. Thereafter. eq. π (π) is derived representation of π1 (β .e. To evaluate the BEP. the ο¬xed DF relay with dual π=0 . π = (1 + πΎ)/Β―π π· and 1 πΉ1 (π. π . eq. (2)]. the values of {π. π = π + π. exact analysis with Rician statistics for π β π· link is presented below with novel uniο¬ed BEP expression while the applicability of the generalized Nakagami-π model has been corroborated with preferred SNR region of interest in Section IV. B. According to Nakagami. (12)] and making use of [7. eq. π = π + π. Ξ¨ (πΌ. ππΎ) β in (2). (9. eq. eq. β ) have been employed to arrive at (8). β ) is provided in [11] as (2) ππ (πΎ) = Ξ (π.

and we consider {πππ· = 1. 1427β1438. 4. no. G. Commun. 1523β1525. [5] S. no.mSD=1. vol. Oct.mSR=1 (Sim) L=1. Katiyar and R. 1964. 1986. vol.K=β β dB mSD=1. pp.β IET Elec. βComprehensive error performance analysis of distributed selection combining with multi-antenna amplify-and-forward relay over Nakagami-m fading channels.. 2010. 1231β1232. 13. Having {πππ· = 1. a large K-factor provides SNR gain in the high SNR regime i. M. 2009. Karagiannidis.5dB m SD 10 β1 =1. [14] W. 6. no.94%.mSR=1.65%. vol. Bao. 1. pp. 11. Chakrabarti. and P. 14.5ππ΅} scenario with BPSK and it is being noted from Fig. 2.. Commun. Feb. it can be stated that since practical systems often operate at considerably lower SNR range. πππ } and K factors 0 antenna exhibits about 1. June 2007. Q.58%. J.: COMPREHENSIVE ERROR ANALYSIS OF MULTI-ANTENNA DECODE-AND-FORWARD RELAY IN FADING CHANNELS 49 10 0 10 0 10 β1 L=1 (Sim) L=2 (Sim) L=3 (Sim) Theoretical L=1. βUniο¬ed error analysis of dual-hop relay link in Nakagami-m fading channels. Ryzhik. Fig. βOn the performance of selection decode-and-forward relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels. 7th edition. 487β493. [11] A. 22. Mar. πππ = 1.β IEEE Trans.mRD=1 L=1 10 β2 BEP 10 β3 10 β4 L=3 10 β5 10 β6 0 5 Average SNR per bit (dB) 10 15 20 25 30 Fig. Lett. Oct. a gain of 9. πππ = 2.K=6.. vol.95%. Lett. pp. [12] I.m SR =2. 46. βHigh-performance cooperative demodulation with decode-and-forward relays. 10. whereas only marginal (almost none) gain is noticed for the same with K=6 dB.{πππ· = 1. Commun. Smith. βUnknown bounds on performance in Nakagami channels.. 6. πΎ = 6. pp. 10 BEP of binary DPSK with different {πππ· . Cano. 9 dB and 15 dB SNR respectively over using the exact expression in (8) whereas for πΏ = 3.9% discrepancy at 6 dB. no. βPerformance analysis of decode-and-forward relaying with selection combining.5 dB occurs at BEP=10β5 when πΏ is increased from 1 to 3. Wojnar. πππ = 2.5 dB superiority over that using a single antenna for {πππ· = 1. Nov. πππ = 3}. [6] S. 21. BEP evaluation using (6) with interrelation formula results in 3. 7. vol. 2007..m RD =3 mSD=1. N.β IEEE Commun. Yanikomeroglu.. 3. Wang. [3] H.50). 3 that for πΏ = 1. 8. Oct. πππ = 2. Giannakis. πππ . Inf.mSR=1. 2009. 11. So. In conclusion. 820β822. Crepeau. To validate the claim mentioned earlier regarding the interrelation equation between πΎ and π.mSR=2. no.β IEEE Trans. pp.6 dB is achieved for {πππ· = 1. no. Lett.. N.β IEEE Commun. Series and Products. COM-34. vol. BEP of coherent BFSK considering different {πππ· . βError probabilities for Rician fading multichannel reception of binary and n-ary signals. 40. [10] T. and P. The analytical curves are from (8) using 50 summations (π=1. pp. Wireless Commun. 3. G. ππ π· = 1} and a gain of 3. vol.mRD=3 10 β5 10 β5 10 β6 10 β6 0 5 10 15 20 25 30 0 5 10 15 20 Average SNR per bit (dB) 25 30 Average SNR per bit Ξ³S R = Ξ³RD = Ξ³S D (dB) Β― Β― Β― Fig.mRD=1 BEP 10 β3 K=6dB 10 β4 10 β4 K=10 dB mSD=1. and 33. Bhattacharjee. 9. July 2007. Lett. 17. ππ π· = 3} {πππ· = 1. pp.. and 74. 10. 3. no. ππ π > 15 dB. 55. J. 46. βPerformance analysis of the dual-hop asymmetric fading channel. Xu. vol. 2. 172β174. Roy. vol. 489β491.mSD=1. Aug. Academic Press.β IEEE Trans.mSR=1.β 3GPP. N.m L=3. a constant gain of almost 2dB is found in the high SNR region using πΏ = 3 over single-antenna relay considering K=10 dB. pp. 2 shows the error performance in an asymmetric fading environment for binary DPSK modulation and balanced links. The derived results in a uniο¬ed manner are useful to the network designers for performance evaluation in LoS/non-LoS conditions with a reasonable degree of accuracy in SNR region of interest. Zhang. . V. Hu and N.e. Lindsey. Zepernick. Datta. Theoretical BEP of BPSK with Nakagami-Rician comparison in π β π· link [2] A. Oct.m =1. and J. N.β IEEE Trans. S. Thus BEP evaluation using parametric relationship ο¬ts closely over small SNR range. pp. ππ π· = 3} while observing insigniο¬cant SNR gains for πΏ > 2. S. 1992. Laneman. Zhang. 897β899. 2010. ππ π· } Fig.. R EFERENCES [1] J. no. vol. βPerformance analysis of dual-hop amplify-and-forward relay system in mixed Nakagami-m and Rician fading channels.β IEEE Trans.mSR=2. and H. TSΒ― GRAN WG1 N0. 6. no. [8] W.β IEEE Trans. 22β24. the mismatch is signiο¬cant. 2009. 2010. Datta and S. June 2009. 13. Rep. Jan.β IEEE Commun. Mar. 2007. no. the respective discrepancy from the exact evaluation becomes 6. 1. πππ = 1} and π β π· link having K=10 dB. no. no. 533β544.DATTA et al. Suraweera. pp..58bis R1-094303.. pp.m SD 10 β1 =1. βPerformance of two-hop regenerative relay network under correlated Nakagami-m fading at multi-antenna relay. mSD=1.57%. a generalized Nakagami-π model advocated in this letter can be considered for Rician fading approximation as well due to the small difference observed between the actual and approximated results over lower SNR region. pp.mSR=1 (Sim) SD SR 10 β2 10 β2 Theoretical BEP 10 β3 mSD=1.. [9] βSupport of indoor relays in LTE-advanced. vol. Chakrabarti.m SR =3 (Sim) =3 (Sim) L=3. and R. Wireless Commun. Gradshteyn and I. Table of Integrals. Theory. βUncoded and coded performance of MFSK and DPSK in Nakagami fading channels. Beaulieu. 2783β2788.. vol. βCooperative relaying in multiantenna ο¬xed relay networks. A. When both π β π· and π β π links are Rayleigh faded i. otherwise. and simulated results closely match with analytical curves.. Duong.β IET Elec. 339β350.. Adinoyi and H. Lett.β IEEE Commun.e. [4] T. [13] P. [7] H. Tech. Lett..

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