IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS, VOL. 16, NO.

1, JANUARY 2012

47

Comprehensive Error Analysis of Multi-Antenna Decode-and-Forward Relay in Fading Channels
Soumendra Nath Datta, Student Member, IEEE, Saswat Chakrabarti, Member, IEEE, and Rajarshi Roy

Abstractβ€”A comprehensive analytical framework of dualhop fixed decode-and-forward cooperative networks with multiantenna relay and distributed spatial diversity is developed over generalized Nakagami-π‘š fading channels. The effect of Rician fading for the relay-destination link has been of special interest. The multi-antenna relay employs selection combining (SC) and the destination adopts distributed SC. Analytical expressions for the cumulative distribution function (CDF) of the end-to-end signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) are derived and used to evaluate the bit error probability (BEP) for coherent and non-coherent binary modulation schemes in a unified manner. Numerical and simulation results are presented to illustrate the impact of the Rician K-factor and Nakagami-π‘š parameter on the end-to-end performance. Index Termsβ€”Decode-and-forward relay, Nakagami-π‘š fading, selection combining, unified expression, error performance.

I. I NTRODUCTION

C

OOPERATIVE diversity has emerged as an effective technique to realize spatial diversity benefits in a distributed manner. Distributed diversity systems often employ simple combining technique to process the independent signal replicas [1]. In the context of relay processing, the decodeand-forward (DF) protocol is most commonly used, in which relays decode the signal received from the source and then encode and retransmit it to the destination. The limitations of using multiple antennas on mobile terminals can be alleviated through infrastructure-based fixed relays carrying multiple antennas instead of involving multiple single-antenna relays in a network area, thereby reducing system deployment cost. Use of multi-antenna relay nodes in a two-hop cooperative network has been well-studied in [2], [3] and threshold-based SC and maximal-ratio combining have been adopted at the relays to evaluate the error rate under uncorrelated and correlated fading. In [1] and [4], the authors derived exact closed-form solutions for the outage probability and symbol error rate of DF systems in dissimilar Rayleigh and Nakagami-π‘š fading channels that use SC at the destination. Recently, in [5] and [6], a unified approach has been taken for multi-antenna amplify-and-forward (AF) relaying to evaluate the error rate in a compact form for binary modulations. In contrast to the symmetric fading assumptions, there are few performance analysis results for dual-hop relay networks under asymmetric fading scenarios [7], [8]. Such mixed

type fading channels exist for an indoor relay system [9], where there is always a line-of-sight (LoS) component in the relay-mobile link, which should be modelled as Rician fading. Outage probability and error performance of dualhop, single-antenna AF relaying system have been analyzed for Rayleigh/Rician (and Rician/Rayleigh) fading scenarios [7] and Nakagami-π‘š/Rician fading channels [8]. Motivated by the absence of a comprehensive error analysis for fixed DF relay with coherent and non-coherent binary modulation schemes, in this letter we analyze SC-based multiantenna DF relay with distributed SC receiver under a unified framework over independent and non-identical flat Nakagamiπ‘š fading channels for all links while investigating the effect of Rician fading in relay-destination link. A class of unified closed-form BEP solutions is derived using the computed CDF of the output SNR at distributed SC receiver. The unified approach eliminates the need for BEP calculation for individual binary modulation schemes separately. Also, the applicability of the generalized Nakagami-π‘š model has been corroborated with preferred SNR region of interest. II. S YSTEM M ODEL WITH M ULTI - ANTENNA DF RELAY The two-hop relay architecture consists of a multi-antenna relay 𝑅, placed between a single antenna source 𝑆 and destination 𝐷. 𝑅 has one transmitting antenna and 𝐿 receiving antennas, and is assumed to be operative in half-duplex mode. In the first time slot, 𝑆 broadcasts a signal that is received by both 𝐷 and 𝑅. 𝐷 stores this signal for future processing. 𝑅 then performs SC combining of the signals received in the first time slot and forwards the decoded signal to 𝐷 in the second time slot. Thus, 𝐷 receives directly through 𝑆 βˆ’π· link as well as indirectly through the virtual 𝑆 βˆ’ 𝑅 βˆ’ 𝐷 link. The end-toend SNRs of the π‘‘π‘–π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘π‘‘ and π‘Ÿπ‘’π‘™π‘Žπ‘¦π‘’π‘‘ path are represented by 𝛾𝐷 and 𝛾𝑅 , respectively. With the fixed DF protocol in which the relay terminal is always active to assist the direct communication, the dual-hop 𝑆 βˆ’π‘…βˆ’π· channel can be tightly approximated in the high SNR regime as follows [10], [4]: (1) 𝛾𝑅 = min {𝛾𝑆𝑅 , 𝛾𝑅𝐷 } where, 𝛾𝑆𝐷 , 𝛾𝑅𝐷 denote the instantaneous SNRs of respective links and ]for a 𝐿-branch SC-based relay, 𝛾𝑆𝑅 = }2 { [ (1) (𝐿) (β„“) (β„“) (β„“) max 𝛾𝑆𝑅 , ..., 𝛾𝑆𝑅 with 𝛾𝑆𝑅 = β„Žπ‘†π‘… 𝐸𝑏 /𝑁0 where, β„Žπ‘†π‘… is the fade sample at receive antenna β„“, 𝐸𝑏 is the bit energy, 𝑁0 is the single-sided power spectral density of the AWGN and 𝛾𝑖 = 𝐸 [𝛾𝑖 ] is the average SNR per bit at the input of a Β― receiving node as indicated by 𝑖 = 𝑆𝑅, 𝑆𝐷, 𝑅𝐷. In the distributed SC scheme [1, eq. (1)], the destination combines the received signals from the 𝑆 βˆ’π· and 𝑆 βˆ’π‘…βˆ’π· links using SC and the instantaneous SNR is given by 𝛾𝑆𝐢 = max {𝛾𝑅 , 𝛾𝐷 }.

Manuscript received July 27, 2011. The associate editor coordinating the review of this letter and approving it for publication was G. Giambene. S. N. Datta and S. Chakrabarti are with the G. S. Sanyal School of Telecommunications, IIT Kharagpur, India-721302 (e-mail: soumendra@gssst.iitkgp.ernet.in, saswat@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in). R. Roy is with the Dept. of E & ECE, IIT Kharagpur, India (e-mail: royr@ece.iitkgp.ernet.in). Digital Object Identifier 10.1109/LCOMM.2011.111611.111622

c 1089-7798/12$31.00 ⃝ 2012 IEEE

Ξ¨ (𝑄. 𝑛 + 1. 𝑄 = π‘Ž + (β„“ + 1) 𝛽𝑆𝑅 . (12)]. BEP analysis under distributed SC with Nakagami-π‘š faded 𝑆 βˆ’ 𝐷. 𝑇 . Fig. β€² 𝑃𝑒 (𝛾) πΉπ›Ύπ‘œπ‘’π‘‘ (𝛾) 𝑑𝛾 (3) ( ) π›Όπœˆ Ξ“(πœ‡+𝜈) 𝛽 where. 𝑐. the CDF of the SNR 𝛾𝑆𝑅 at the output of the 𝐿-branch SC-based relay receiving signals through multiple independently faded links with identical π‘šπ‘†π‘… is derived utilizing [2. βˆ’π‘§ In the following. a class of generalized closed-form solutions for the CDF and BEP is derived for a SC-based multi-antenna relay for coherent and non-coherent binary modulation schemes in a unified manner with the CDF based approach of (3) while considering non-identical Nakagami-π‘š fading for all links. eq. 𝛽 β€² = 𝛽 + 𝛽𝑆𝐷 and 𝛼𝑆𝐷 = π‘šπ‘†π· . NO.1)] and infinite series resultant CDF expression from (5) into (3). the CDF of the SNR 𝛾𝑆𝐢 at the SC output of where. (4)] to get the CDF of 𝛾𝑅𝐷 .(2)] to evaluate the BEP. eq. BEP A NALYSIS USING U NIFIED A PPROACH A unified expression for conditional error probability of binary signalling schemes in terms of complementary incomplete gamma function Ξ“ (β‹…. eq. (16)]. 𝜐 = π‘šπ‘…π· . 𝑛)βˆ’ βˆ’π‘’ 𝛿 (𝑝)Ξ¨(𝑄. 𝜐. β€² (5) 𝑇 = 𝑏 + π‘˜. 𝛽) = πœ‡(𝛼+𝛽)πœ‡+𝜈 2 𝐹1 1. 𝛽𝑆𝑅 = π‘šπ‘†π‘… /¯𝑆𝑅 . π‘Ÿ. 𝛾𝑆𝐷 = 𝛾𝑆𝑅 = 𝛾𝑅𝐷 ) for BFSK modulation. π‘˜) 𝐹𝛾𝑅(𝛾) = 1 βˆ’ Ξ“(π‘šπ‘†π‘… )Ξ“(π‘šπ‘…π· ) π‘Ÿ=0 where. π‘Ÿ π‘Ÿ (8) β„“ ( ) (12)] and 𝛼𝑆𝑅 = π‘šπ‘†π‘… +π‘Ÿ. 𝑧) = π‘Žβˆ’1 exp (βˆ’π‘§). 𝑄1 (β‹…. 𝑏} are specified in [11. (π‘šπ‘…π· /¯𝑅𝐷 ) 𝛾) (4) { } ]] 𝛼𝑆𝐷 βˆ’1 ∞ βˆ‘ 𝑅𝑛 βˆ‘ (𝛼𝑆𝑅 βˆ’1)! {(β„“+1)𝛽𝑆𝑅 }π‘˜ βˆ’πΎ β€² β€² and where. π‘Žπ›Ύ)/2Ξ“ (𝑏) where. 𝛾 𝛽 = π‘Ž + (β„“ + 1) 𝛽𝑆𝑅 . 𝛽) βˆ’ Ξ¨ (𝛼. can be stated in terms of the CDF πΉπ›Ύπ‘œπ‘’π‘‘ (𝛾) of output SNR π›Ύπ‘œπ‘’π‘‘ as ∫ ∞ 𝑃𝑏 (𝑒) = βˆ’ 0 β€² where 𝑃𝑒 (𝛾) denotes the first derivative of 𝑃𝑒 (𝛾). (81)] [ 𝛼𝑆𝐷 βˆ’1 βˆ‘ 1 Ξ“(𝑏+𝑝) 𝑏 Ξ“(𝑏) π‘Ž 𝑃𝑏 (𝑒) = βˆ’ 𝛿 (𝑝) 𝑏 2Ξ“ (𝑏) π‘Ž (π‘Ž+𝛽𝑆𝐷)𝑏+𝑝 𝑝=0 [ π›Όβˆ‘ βˆ’1 πΏβˆ’1β„“(π‘šπ‘†π‘… βˆ’1)𝛼𝑆𝑅 βˆ’1 𝐿 βˆ‘ βˆ‘ βˆ‘ Ξ“ (𝑇 ) 𝑆𝐷 Ξ“ (𝑇 β€² ) βˆ’ Θ (β„“. R ESULTS AND C ONCLUSION For simulation. Θ (β„“. 𝐹𝛾𝑅 (𝛾) is finally derived as πΏβˆ’1β„“(π‘šπ‘†π‘… βˆ’1) 𝑆𝑅 βˆ’1 βˆ‘ βˆ‘ 𝛼 βˆ‘ Θ (β„“. In a distributed 𝛾 Ξ“(𝑇 +𝑛) 𝐾𝑅 SC receiver. 𝛽𝑆𝐷 = π‘šπ‘†π· /¯𝑆𝐷 and 2 𝐹1 (π‘Ž. 𝑆 βˆ’ 𝑅 links and Rician faded 𝑅 βˆ’ 𝐷 link Asymmetric fading environment is often encountered in an indoor relay scenario [9]. πœ‡β€² . Therefore. π‘Ÿ. eq. 16. 𝑇. 𝑧) 𝐹𝛾𝑆𝐢 (𝛾) = 𝐹𝛾𝐷 (𝛾) 𝐹𝛾𝑅 (𝛾) 𝛾 denotes the confluent hypergeometric function [12]. Now substituting the CDF of SNR 𝛾𝑆𝐷 . π‘Ÿ. 𝑏. The resultant expressions are attractive for simplicity and a kind of novel findings in its genre. One can identify that Ξ“ (𝑏. BEP analysis with distributed SC and Nakagami-π‘š fading In order to determine the BEP. π‘˜) = Ξ  (β„“. π‘Ÿ) = (βˆ’1)β„“ 𝑏ℓ with 𝑏ℓ defined in [2. π‘˜)𝛾 π‘˜ 𝐹𝛾𝑅(𝛾) = 1βˆ’(𝐿/Ξ“ (π‘šπ‘†π‘… )) (√ ) √ Γ— exp {βˆ’(β„“ + 1)𝛽𝑆𝑅 𝛾} 𝑄1 2𝐾. (3)] and (4) into (5) and thereafter inserting (2) and the transformation formula in [12. the CDF of 𝛾𝑅 . when differentiated using the relation βˆ‚π‘§ Ξ“ (π‘Ž. eq. π‘˜) βˆ’ 𝛿 (𝑝) β„“=0 π‘˜=0 𝑇 β€² 𝑇 Ξ“(π‘šπ‘†π‘… ) 𝑄 (𝑄′ ) π‘Ÿ=0 𝑝=0 β„“=0 π‘˜=0 𝛾 ×𝛾 π‘˜ exp {βˆ’ (β„“ + 1) 𝛽𝑆𝑅 𝛾} Ξ“ (π‘šπ‘…π· . VOL. 𝑄′ = 𝑄 + 𝛽𝑆𝐷 . there is a close fit between the π‘š-distribution and the √Rician model through the transformation. 𝑅. 𝛽 β€² ) (6) links (i. 1.48 IEEE COMMUNICATIONS LETTERS. simplifies the integration process in (3). 𝐹𝛾𝐷 (𝛾) stated in [5.455. JANUARY 2012 III. 2 √ βˆ’π‘š 𝐾 = π‘šβˆ’π‘šπ‘š2 βˆ’π‘š . π‘₯) denotes 𝛾 the Gauss hypergeometric function [12]. {2(1 + 𝐾)/¯𝑅𝐷 } 𝛾 (7) 𝛾 β„“=0 π‘Ÿ=0 π‘˜=0 A. the CDF of 𝛾𝑅 over the dual-hop DF relay-assisted path given by 𝐹𝛾𝑅 (𝛾) = 1 βˆ’ [1 βˆ’ 𝐹𝛾𝑆𝑅 (𝛾)] [1 βˆ’ 𝐹𝛾𝑅𝐷 (𝛾)] following (1) is finally derived as πΏβˆ’1β„“(π‘šπ‘†π‘… βˆ’1) 𝑆𝑅 βˆ’1 βˆ‘ βˆ‘ π›Όβˆ‘ 𝐿 Θ (β„“. but it is further observed that this interrelation formula may not be very good when the SNR is large but fits well for low SNR values [13]. π‘Ÿ. β‹…) is the first-order Marcum Q-function [14. πœ‡ + 𝜈. eq. substituting the resultant CDF 𝐹𝛾𝑆𝑅 (𝛾) and the CDF of 𝛾𝑅𝐷 given in [8. (14)] and Ξ“ (β‹…) is the gamma function [12]. π‘˜) shows the error performance of SC based 𝐿-antenna relay π‘Ÿ=0 β„“=0 π‘˜=0 ( )}] under symmetric Nakagami-π‘š fading scenario and balanced 𝛼𝑆𝐷 βˆ’1 βˆ‘ (𝛽𝑆𝐷 )𝑝 Β― Β― Β― Ξ¨ (𝛼. 𝛼+𝛽 and 𝛼 = π‘šπ‘…π· /¯𝑅𝐷 . (6. unified solution for 𝑃𝑏 (𝑒) is evaluated using [14. π‘Ÿ) (β„“+1)𝛼𝑆𝑅 Ξ¨ (𝑄. 𝑛) π‘˜! ( ) Ξ“(𝑛 + 1) 𝑛=1 𝑝=0 𝐿 βˆ’ 1 Ξ  (β„“. eq. Kummer’s Now substituting the CDF of SNR 𝛾𝑆𝐷 .1)] as [ {𝛼 βˆ’1 𝑆𝐷 βˆ‘ (𝛽𝑆𝐷 )𝑝 π‘Žπ‘ Ξ“ (𝑏 + 𝑝) 1 1βˆ’ β‹… 𝑃𝑏 (𝑒) = 𝑏+𝑝 2 Ξ“ (𝑏) 𝑝! (π‘Ž + 𝛽𝑆𝐷 ) 𝑝=0 𝑏 IV. 𝜐. (3)] and (7) into (5) and thereafter inserting (2) and the resultant CDF expression from (5) into (3). (9). 𝑄+𝑅 𝑝 destination receiver is given by and 𝛿 (𝑝) = (𝛽𝑆𝐷 ) /𝑝!. in a new closed-form using [12. eq. 𝑇. 𝑅. It is 𝑝! observed that at BEP = 10βˆ’5 . Monte Carlo technique is used to estimate the BEP while passing 106 symbols through the system with πΏβˆ’1β„“(π‘šπ‘†π‘… βˆ’1)𝛼𝑆𝑅 βˆ’1 βˆ‘ βˆ‘ βˆ‘ an average of 50 different runs at every SNR value. πœ‡β€² = πœ‡ + 𝑝. 𝑛) = (𝑄+𝑅)𝑇 +𝑛 1 𝐹1 𝑇 + 𝑛. πœ‡ + 1. 𝜐. π‘Ÿ. πœ‡. An alternative approach of the traditional PDF method described in [6. the CDF of 𝛾𝑆𝑅 is derived utilizing [2. 1 + (𝐿/Ξ“ (π‘šπ‘†π‘… ) Ξ“ (π‘šπ‘…π· )) Θ (β„“. the conditional BEP in AWGN. πœ‡.212. 𝑏. 𝐹𝛾𝐷 (𝛾) given in [5. Thereafter. eq. 𝑃 (𝑒) is derived representation of 𝑄1 (β‹….e. To evaluate the BEP. the fixed DF relay with dual 𝑝=0 . 𝑅 = (1 + 𝐾)/¯𝑅𝐷 and 1 𝐹1 (π‘Ž. 𝑅. eq. (2)]. the values of {π‘Ž. πœ‡ = 𝑏 + π‘˜. exact analysis with Rician statistics for 𝑅 βˆ’ 𝐷 link is presented below with novel unified BEP expression while the applicability of the generalized Nakagami-π‘š model has been corroborated with preferred SNR region of interest in Section IV. B. According to Nakagami. (12)] and making use of [7. eq. 𝑇 = 𝑇 + 𝑝. Ξ¨ (𝛼. π‘Žπ›Ύ) βˆ‚ in (2). (9. eq. eq. β‹…) have been employed to arrive at (8). β‹…) is provided in [11] as (2) 𝑃𝑒 (𝛾) = Ξ“ (𝑏.

and we consider {π‘šπ‘†π· = 1. 1427–1438. 4. no. G. Commun. 1523–1525. [5] S. no.mSD=1. vol. Oct.mSR=1 (Sim) L=1. Katiyar and R. 1964. 1986. vol.K=βˆ’ ∞ dB mSD=1. pp.” IET Elec. β€œComprehensive error performance analysis of distributed selection combining with multi-antenna amplify-and-forward relay over Nakagami-m fading channels.. 2010. 1231–1232. 13. Having {π‘šπ‘†π· = 1. a large K-factor provides SNR gain in the high SNR regime i. M. 2009. Karagiannidis.5dB m SD 10 βˆ’1 =1. [14] W. 6. no.94%.mSR=1.65%. vol. Bao. 1. pp. 11. Chakrabarti. and P. 14.5𝑑𝐡} scenario with BPSK and it is being noted from Fig. 2.. Commun. Feb. it can be stated that since practical systems often operate at considerably lower SNR range. π‘šπ‘†π‘… } and K factors 0 antenna exhibits about 1. June 2007. Q.58%. J.: COMPREHENSIVE ERROR ANALYSIS OF MULTI-ANTENNA DECODE-AND-FORWARD RELAY IN FADING CHANNELS 49 10 0 10 0 10 βˆ’1 L=1 (Sim) L=2 (Sim) L=3 (Sim) Theoretical L=1. β€œUnified error analysis of dual-hop relay link in Nakagami-m fading channels. Ryzhik. Fig. β€œOn the performance of selection decode-and-forward relay networks over Nakagami-m fading channels. 7th edition. 487–493. [11] A. 22. Mar. π‘šπ‘†π‘… = 1.” IEEE Trans.mRD=1 L=1 10 βˆ’2 BEP 10 βˆ’3 10 βˆ’4 L=3 10 βˆ’5 10 βˆ’6 0 5 Average SNR per bit (dB) 10 15 20 25 30 Fig. Lett. Oct. a gain of 9. π‘šπ‘†π‘… = 2.K=6.. vol.95%. Lett. pp. [12] I.m SR =2. 46. β€œHigh-performance cooperative demodulation with decode-and-forward relays. 10. whereas only marginal (almost none) gain is noticed for the same with K=6 dB.{π‘šπ‘†π· = 1. Commun. Smith. β€œUnknown bounds on performance in Nakagami channels.. 6. 𝐾 = 6. pp. 10 BEP of binary DPSK with different {π‘šπ‘†π· . Cano. 9 dB and 15 dB SNR respectively over using the exact expression in (8) whereas for 𝐿 = 3.9% discrepancy at 6 dB. no. β€œPerformance analysis of decode-and-forward relaying with selection combining.5 dB occurs at BEP=10βˆ’5 when 𝐿 is increased from 1 to 3. Wojnar. π‘šπ‘†π‘… = 2.5 dB superiority over that using a single antenna for {π‘šπ‘†π· = 1. Nov. π‘šπ‘†π‘… = 3}. [6] S. 21. BEP evaluation using (6) with interrelation formula results in 3. 7. vol. 2007..m RD =3 mSD=1. N.” IEEE Commun. Yanikomeroglu.. 3. Wang. [3] H.50). 3 that for 𝐿 = 1. 8. Oct. π‘šπ‘†π‘… = 2. Giannakis. π‘šπ‘†π‘… . Inf.mSR=1. 2009. 11. So. In conclusion. 820–822. Crepeau. To validate the claim mentioned earlier regarding the interrelation equation between 𝐾 and π‘š.mSR=2. no.” IEEE Trans. pp.6 dB is achieved for {π‘šπ‘†π· = 1. no. Lett.. N.” IEEE Commun. Series and Products. COM-34. vol. 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N.m L=3. a constant gain of almost 2dB is found in the high SNR region using 𝐿 = 3 over single-antenna relay considering K=10 dB. pp. 2 shows the error performance in an asymmetric fading environment for binary DPSK modulation and balanced links. The derived results in a unified manner are useful to the network designers for performance evaluation in LoS/non-LoS conditions with a reasonable degree of accuracy in SNR region of interest. Zhang. . V. Hu and N.e. Lindsey. Zepernick. Datta. Theoretical BEP of BPSK with Nakagami-Rician comparison in 𝑅 βˆ’ 𝐷 link [2] A. Oct.m =1. and J. N.” IEEE Trans. S. Thus BEP evaluation using parametric relationship fits closely over small SNR range. pp. π‘šπ‘…π· = 3} while observing insignificant SNR gains for 𝐿 > 2. S. 1992. Laneman. Zhang. 897–899. 2010. π‘šπ‘…π· } Fig.. R EFERENCES [1] J. no. vol. β€œPerformance analysis of dual-hop amplify-and-forward relay system in mixed Nakagami-m and Rician fading channels.” IEEE Trans.mSR=2. and H. TSΒ― GRAN WG1 N0. 6. no. [8] W.” IEEE Trans. 22–24. the mismatch is significant. 2009. 2010. Datta and S. June 2009. 13. Rep. Jan.” IEEE Commun. Mar. 2007. no. the respective discrepancy from the exact evaluation becomes 6. 1. π‘šπ‘†π‘… = 1} and 𝑅 βˆ’ 𝐷 link having K=10 dB. no. no. 533–544.DATTA et al. Suraweera. pp..58bis R1-094303.. pp.m SD 10 βˆ’1 =1. β€œPerformance of two-hop regenerative relay network under correlated Nakagami-m fading at multi-antenna relay. mSD=1.57%. a generalized Nakagami-π‘š model advocated in this letter can be considered for Rician fading approximation as well due to the small difference observed between the actual and approximated results over lower SNR region. pp.mSR=1 (Sim) SD SR 10 βˆ’2 10 βˆ’2 Theoretical BEP 10 βˆ’3 mSD=1.. [9] β€œSupport of indoor relays in LTE-advanced. vol. Chakrabarti.m SR =3 (Sim) =3 (Sim) L=3. and R. Wireless Commun. Gradshteyn and I. Table of Integrals. 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