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File."
Made by LIBRAET BUfiEAU
PROPERTY OF ELECTRICAL LABORATORY,
FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE.
Date
LABORATORY, PROPERTY OF ELECTRICAL
SCIENCE. FACULTY OF APPLIED
Date..
PROPERTY OF ELECTRICAL LABORATOfiT"
FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE.
I)..
THE INDUCTION MOTOR
A Short
Treatise on
Theory and Design, with Numerous Experimental Data
its
and Diagrams
B.
i
A.
Member
BEHREND
Inst.
M
iii!
her lust.
C.
E.,
E.
.,
Germany; Member
K.
lust.
E. E., Switzerland', Associate Member American Inst. /.'. ; .Formerly Assistant Chiff Electrician of
the
Oerlikon
Engineering Switzerland
Works,
" The absence of analytical difficulties allows attention to be mart easily con,entrated an the physical aspects <>/ the question, and thus girts the student a mure rii'iii idea and a mure inanaxeable grasp oj the subject than hf would << likely to attain if he merely regarded electrical phfnonteiiii through a cloud o/ a >ta lyt ica I symbols."
I.
I.
TlloM'is.
NEW YORK
MiGKAW PUBLISHING COMPANY
114
I.
I
B H K
T Y
STREET
COPYRIGHTED,
1901,
BY
ELECTRICAL WORLD AND ENGINEER
(INCORPORATED)
TO
MY FRIEND AND TEACHER
MR.
I
GISBERT KAPP
INSCRIBE THIS WORK.
PREFACE.
The
literature of electrical engineering has
it
become so vast and ex
man to keep pace with all that is written on electrical subjects. He who produces a new book that adds to the swelling tide of new publications, may justly be asked for
tensive that
is
impossible for any
his credentials.
in the fact that,
My
justification for writing this tract will be
all
found
though almost
branches of applied electricity have
enlisted the industry of authors, the induction
motor has received
comparatively
little
attention from competent engineers.
The few
whose experience and knowledge would entitle them to speak with authority on this subject are deterred from publishing by commercial
reasons.
I
have made the induction motor the subject of early and special
studies,
and a comparison of
my
treatment of
its
theory with the
in
purely analytical theories will show
plifying and elucidating so
how
far
I
have succeeded
sim
complex a
subject.
The
graphical treat
and
ment of abstruse natural phenomena is constantly gaining ground, I quote with satisfaction the words of so great a mathematician
as Prof. George
bridge,
Howard Darwin, Fellow
p.
of Trinity College,
Cam
who
says on
509 of the second volume of Lord Kelvin
and Prof. Tail's Treatise on Natural Philosophy that "the simplicity with which complicated mechanical interactions may be thus traced
out geometrically to their results appears truly remarkable."
All through this
little
book
I
have endeavored to
let
inductive
method check
of the results.
at every step the
mathematical or graphical deduction
alter
A
wide experience with mono and polyphase
to
nating current induction motors, gained at the Oerlikon Engineering
Works, Switzerland, has enabled me
reader
do
so.
Thus
the careful
who
is
willing to profit
by the experience of others, will find
many
valuable hints and results which he can turn to account in his
practice.
ciples laid
Many
down
induction motors have been designed on the prinin this little treatise,
and
in
no case has the theory
Those
failed to
answer the questions suggested by observation. The writing of this book has been mainly a labor of love.
through the press, not to mention the
who know
of the troubles, cares and labor involved in writing a
it
book and bringing
sacrifice
of personal experience by publication, will doubtless be able to appreciate this thoroughly.
I
wish
to
thank the editors of the ELECTRICAL WORLD AND ENGINEER
for the pains they have taken with the publication of this book, and I
must
specially
thank Mr.
has always given to me.
of ELECTRICAL
W. D. Weaver for the encouragement he To Mr. T. R. Taltavall, Associate Editor
endless pains
with the proofs of this book,
WORLD AND ENGINEER, who has taken I feel very much indebted.
of this volume
The substance
and
I
was delivered
in
January, 1900 in
the form of lectures at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.,
wish to thank Prof. John Butler Johnson, Dean of the Col
lege of Mechanics and Engineering, for the invitation as nonresi
dent lecturer which he extended to me.
To him and
to Prof. D. C.
Jackson
I
am
greatly indebted for the hospitality conferred
upon the
stranger within their gates.
CONTENTS.
PARA
CHAPTER.
I.
PACE.
i
GRAPH.
117
II.
The General AlternatingCurrent Transformer A. The Character of the Magnetic Field in the
phase
B.
Polyii
Motor
for
1823
The Formula
the ThreePhaseCurent
Motor..
15
2428
2938
3964
III.
IV.
The ShortCircuit Current and The Leakage Factor
Design
of a
the Leakage Factor...
19
29
V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.
ThreePhaseCurrent
Motor
for
200
42
54
6593
941 1
HorsePower
The SinglePhase Motor
Calculation
o
of a
SinglePhaseCurrent
of
the
Motor
AlternatingCur
63
111131
The Polar Diagrams
rent
General
Transformer
1
73
132162
Appendix
89
96
100
Appendix II Appendix III
THE INDUCTION MOTOR
CHAPTER
The General
1.
I.
Alternating Current Transformer.
be
The problem
is
of problems, in the solution of which the electrical
all others, is set
engineer
deeply interested, and which underlies
fore us in the form of the alternating current transformer possessing
considerable leakage and a relatively large magnetizing current.
2. A transformer with an open secondary takes from the primary mains just so much current as is necessary to produce a magnetic field which can balance the primary voltage. This current neglect
moment hysteresis and eddy currents lags behind the primary voltage by a quarter of a phase hence the work done by this current is zero, and the magnetizing current is therefore a "wattless"
ing for the
;
current.
This consideration
is
true only for a transformer without
leakage.
The magnetizing
in
current need not be a wattless current in
is
the sense in which this term
generally used.
We
shall learn
more
about this
3. If
say,
if
Chapter VIII.
is
you throw a noninductive load upon the secondary, that
to
the secondary of the transformer be closed through a resist
ance, then the impedance represented by the action
and reaction of the
is
primary and the secondary system of the transformer,
permitting a larger current to flow.
If,
diminished,
for didactic purposes,
we
make
mary
the
is
assumption
that
the
transmitted without loss
whole magnetic flux of the priinto the secondary, and vice versa,
then the vector of the primary current must be composed of two
vectors, the one representing the magnetizing or wattless current,
lagging behind the terminal volts by a quarter of a phase, and the
other representing the watt
irrent
i
and being
in
phase with the
ter
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
minal
volts.
is
resistance
Thus the vector of the primary current for any external determined by the locus of the point A, Fig. i, which is
the straight line
AD
parallel with the vector of the impressed
e.
m.
f.
The energy consumed by
(i)
4.
the transformer
is
given by the equation
.
&
The
coil
=e
i
cos
fi
The
introduction of leakage into the transformer changes the dia:
gram
as follows
total
number of
lines of induction passing
through the primary
sistance of the coil.
must remain constant
as long as the terminal
voltage remains constant, neglecting for the
moment
the ohmic re
The magnetomotive
force of the
main current
field
produces a strayfield proportional to the driving current; this
added vectorially
magnetic
tions
line,
to the
main magnetic
that
field,
generates the constant
field
included by the primary
is
and reactions
A
The result of these acdoes no longer move in a straight
coil.
but in a semicircle described upon the prolongation of
historical
OD
C).
writer worked out the theory here given in the summer of 1895, and sent the paper to the Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, Berlin, where it was published in February, 1896. Meanwhile Mr. A. Heyland, in some letters to the abovenamed paper, used the same diagram without, however, giving any proof. When Mr. Heyland's letters were published I inserted a note in my MS. referring to them. I have since, whenever I had an opportunity, given Mr. Heyland ample credit for his priority, and I have done it with satisfaction, as I really admired some of his later papers very much. Mr. Steinmetz informed me some time ago that he had found this relation as early as 1893, but that commercial reasons prevented him from pub
*A
remark may not be out of place here.
The present
lishing.
GENERAL ALTERNATING CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
It is
'
of extreme importance for us to clearly understand these rela
tions as they
form the basis for
all
further reasoning.
5. In Fig. 3
OA
is
the vector of the magnetomotive force.of the pri
mary,
or, in
other words, the total number of lines of force (not in
duction) produced by the primary current, and corresponding to the
number of ampereturns. Not
all
the lines of induction which the prithe secondary of the transformer.
mary current generates can reach
FIG. 3.
Let us assume that the amount
Vi
.
AA
1
is
lost,
h OA* being
.i 1
i
equal to
loss of
O A,
Vi
being a factor smaller than one
and measuring the
lines
from the primary
to the secondary. Let
OB
1
represent the vector
of the total
number of
lines of induction of the secondary, lines that
and
OB=
vt
.
OB
1
the
number of
extend into the primary, vt being
again a coefficient smaller than one, then
tor
we
see at once that the vec
sum
of
A
and
OB
must be equal
to the vector of the
magneto
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
motive force which
this
up the magnetizing current. The vector of magnetomotive force is represented by the line O C.
sets
6.
The
lines of force
which are common
to both
ondary, are the effect of the two magnetizing forces
primary and secO A and B
;
while the lines of induction which pass through the secondary only,
can be found as the resultant of
OA
and
is
OB
l
.
This resultant,
O
G,
must be perpendicular
tions of
7.
to
O B,
as
OB
produced through the
oscilla
O
G.
list
The following
:
will help to
make
the diagram
more
clearly
understood
OA OB
= Xi =X
2
is is
the magnetizing force of the primary. the magnetizing force of the secondary.
OA
1
OA
0~B
= =
ohmic
OD
is
the field balancing the terminal voltage,
if
8. It will readily be seen that,
the drop caused by the
re
sistance of the primary
racy,
may
be neglected without too
is so.
much
inaccuFig. 3,
OD
is
constant
if
the terminal voltage
We have,
Z
HA D= Z HOG
~C~K
=
Z
6
OK X
2
OK
vj)
(i
C~G
*(=')
O~D
.
Vl
4
GENERAL ALTERNATING CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
Hence,
.
sin &
f
X, = ^ OD = ** (v
jr
*
)
rTn \
\
v*
In words, this means that Xi
semicircle described
may
be represented as a chord in a
upon
LD
as basis,
.
and having a diameter
ITD
If
=
O~D
(
\Z/!
Vt
A /
directly without having to
we want
to take
from the diagram Xi
FIG. 4.
multiply by
v\,
we have
to join
A
and
K
by a
circle.
For a more deChapter VIII.
tailed treatment of all these points I refer the reader to
9.
We call the quotient

LD
the leakage factor a of the transformer,
and have therefore
(2),
I
The leakage
coefficient a is the
most important factor
5
in the
theory
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
of the alternating current transformer, and a successful design must endeavor to keep a as small as possible. The determination of a will
be treated of
10.
in a
chapter devoted entirely to the leakage factor.
table contains the results of a series of measure
The following
ments as a corroboration of the theory. The data were taken from a
threephase current motor, the armature of which was standing
still
;
the
whole apparatus was thus acting as a transformer with considerable
leakage.
The
field
contained 36 closed
slots, 7
conductors in each slot
;
resistance of each phase 0.045 ohms.
The armature
contained 90
round
holes, 3 conductors in each hole;
resistance at each phase
.
0.172 ohms.
Number
of poles,
6.
Frequency, 48
PRIMARY CIRCUIT.
GENERAL ALTERNATING CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
13.
We
should make a great mistake were
we
to
assume that
this
value would give us a leakage factor a true to reality, since in our case,
where the
slots in armature and field are closed, v depends greatly upon the saturation of the thin iron bridges closing the slots. The
saturation of these bridges
is
dependent upon the intensity of the
FIG. 5.
current
;
beyond a certain intensity
v,
and therefore a
is
practically
constant.
Assuming
a
z/j
to be equal to
i
vt, we should get
68
'$
for
=_
= 0.235, instead of
1
= 0.098,
0.900.00 as follows from the diagram.
14.
It
may
be advisable to emphasize that in the derivation of the
ohmic resistance of the primary has not been taken into account. As this point is of extreme theoretical and practical impordiagram the
tance,
we have
to dwell
on
it
at
some
length.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE RESISTANCE OF THE PRIMARY UPON THE DIAGRAM.
15.
The
semicircle
L
i' 2' 3' 4'
D, Fig.
5,
represents the locus of the
the assumption that
2 3 4
is
current for a constant terminal voltage
OE, upon
I
the primary resistance be negligible. 'The arc
7
the locus of
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
the current
if
we assume
that the drop through
ohmic resistance
in
the primary amounts for point 4' to 10% of O E. Finally the ordinates of the curve i* 2" 3" 4" represent the amount of wattcom
ponent of the current that
is
available in the secondary circuit.
It
would be superfluous here
to say
anything about the manner in which
these curves have been plotted, as everyone familiar with polar dia
grams
will readily understand
it
from the
lines in the figure.
It is of
importance to note
that,
though the primary resistance was
five
I
assumed
to have a value
which exceeds about
times the real value
in practice, yet the curves
L
i' 2' 3' 4'
D and
2 '3 4 deviate compara
tively little
from each
all.
other.
If
deviate at
In reality,
in
OD
+
smaller than
it is
our
figure.
OD were zero, then they would not LD is almost always considerably If, however, OD is large in compariis
son with LD, and
to
if
the primary resistance
considerable,
we have
draw a diagram
like Fig. 5.
This will be the exception and not the
rule.
16.
Thus we have learned
that the influence of the ohrnic resistance
is,
upon the locus of the current
into account
this
in
most
practical cases, negligible;
is in all
but the energy dissipated in the resistance,
;
cases to be taken
can be done by deducting the wattcomponent cor
responding to the ohmic loss from the ordinates of the semicircle
LD.
We thus arrive at a curve similar to
We
i" 2" 3" 4".
GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY.
17.
are
now
enabled, with the help of the diagram, to solve any
question pertaining to the alternating current transformer.
in a later chapter, discuss in detail for a concrete case the
We
shall,
many
prob
lems of interest which this diagram permits us to solve; here we shall merely summarize the main conclusions at which we have arrived.
In Fig. 6
OA
to,
represents the primary current
ti,
OD
HI
the magnetiz
ing current
and
AD
is
equal to
vl
2
z'
2
in
which
and
n* are the
7?j
number of turns
in the
primary and the secondary, respectively.
8
GENERAL ALTERNATING CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
The
circle
smallest lag
<P
is
determined by the intersection of the semi
LD
with the semicircle
HAO,
as can be seen at a glance.
It is
The
cosine of this angle can be expressed as follows.
HA =HD =^>, 20 HA = cos HO
<t>
=
(T
OO
20
I
I
+
.

(3)
20+1
This equation enables us to predict the maximum power factor if the leakage coefficient a is known. I will here premise that the starting current furnishes a value for the determination of the diameter of
8
8
FIG. 6.
the semicircle, while the magnetizing current can always easily be
measured.
This method of determining the
maximum power
factor
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
attainable, thus
recommends
itself
not only to the designer, but, on
account of
its
The
input
full
and accuracy, also to the customer. curve / of higher order in Fig. 6, which can easily be
simplicity
constructed, represents the power factor as a function of the
;
the dotted line // shows the
power power factor for a transformer
without any leakage.
10
CHAPTER
A.
II.
in
The Character
of the Magnetic Field Polyphase Motor.
in
I,
the
is
18. The magnetic field duced by three windings,
III
a threephase current motor
II,
I
pro
and
III, Fig. 7.
If the current in
FIG. 7.
Ill
is
a
maximum, and
if
the currents vary acording to a simple
I
sine curve, then the currents in
and
II
II are
each equal to half the cur
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
rent in III.
The magnetomotive
forces of each phase are represented
by the ordinates of the curves
I, II,
and
III respectively.
Each ordinate
measures the magnetomotive force produced in that place of the circumference in which it is drawn. The adding up of the three curves
yields the thick line curve
If the
drawn below.
is
magnetic reluctance
if
the
same
at every point of the circumis
ference, in other words,
the reluctance of the iron
negligible,
then the flux, produced by the magnetomotive force represented by
the thick line curve,
is
proportional to that magnetomotive force.
Hence
flux.
the thick line curve
may
be taken as
"a
representation of the
We
call the total
number of
lines of induction $,
and we
as
II
FIG. 8.
FIG. Q.
sume
that this flux varies according to a simple sine law.
We
shall
now
proceed to calculate the
e.
m.
f.
induced by this
field
upon each
phase.
We have
tacitly
assumed
that the coils
slots.
I, II,
and
III are distributed
this
in a practically infinite
case, yet this
number of
Though
cannot be the
assumption
may
safely be made for our present pur
pose.
19.
It is
obvious
that, if the
convolutions of each phase were
alj
con
centrated in one
slot, the effect of the oscillation or the traveling of
12
THE MAGNETIC FIELD
the field
IN
m.
THE POLYPHASE MOTOR.
f.
would be
to set
up an
e.
equal to 2.22
~z
e.
.
<j>
,
10"* volts;
however, through the distribution of the winding, only the parts of
the flux not covered with hrtchings can produce an
m.
f.
expressed
by this formula, while the hatched parts of the
siderably smaller effect.
field will
have a con
The induced
is
e.
m.
f.
can be calculated as
conductors

follows
:
The width
of the coil
2b
;
there are
in the coil
spread over 2b.
Per unit length there
are, therefore,
conductors,
of
\t
hence the element d
lines of induction
x
contains d
x
.
2b
 conductors.
The number
threading the conductors in the element
dx
equal to
**
represented by the hatched area.
We
have, therefore,
de
= 2.22 ~
.
.
.
dx
.
**
.
108 volts.
2 b
*,
=<B.l_ aJ r.^~ = 2 2
= 2.22 ~
.
Hence
de
n
.
r&.^..

ib
L
..
26
2
o
.
($,.x*.(tx\
I
.
J
io
JL
2
^L.
[jV^  /B^lffI J
2b
.
I0 ,
_n
6 J
io
.
,o
e
= 2.22 ~
.
.
"
2
.
ifi
.
.
3
.
We
(4)
<r
have *
=
2
,
therefore
=
2.
This
is in
words,
is
The
e.
m.
f.
induced by the
e.
field
f.
the width b
twothirds as large as the
13
m.
* upon a coil of which would be in
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
duced by the same field upon a lodged in only one groove. The
It
coil
which
case
is is
not distributed, but
9.
latter,
represented in Fig.
may
not be amiss to call attention to the fact that a coil like that in
Fig. 9
that
shown
would produce a rectangular magnetic field twice as large as in the figure. Hence the inductance of the flat coil is
slot.
onethird as large as the inductance of the coil lodged in one
20. The
calculated.
e.
m.
f.
generated by the
field in Fig. 7
can
now
easily be
The number
Fig. 7
is
of lines of induction represented by the white area in
equal to
The
e.
m.
f.
produced by
this flux is
<?,
= 2.22 ~
.
.
z
.
( 5. V 4
.
.
t
.
b
.
(&\ io*
3
/
The hatched
areas represent a flux equal to
*""**6 2
The
e.
m.
f.
produced by
this flux is
eu
= 2.22 ~
.
.
z
.

(i
.
.
.
/
.
*
.
108
(B)
Hence
*
= e + ^n = 2.22 ~
l
z
.
(
p .t.b.Qt]
lO' 8
The
total flux
amounts
.
to
<t>
= 312
b
.
t
.
(B,
hence
$
io'
8
6 e
= 2.22 ~
.
.
Z z
.
.
.
108
21
(5)
= 2.12 ~
.
.
.
$
.
volts.
21.
The ampereturns
in
each phase which are needed to produce
the induction (B in the airgap are determined by the consideration,
which follows immediately from
2 (o
.
Fig.
.
7,
that
4
JT
.
.
/
1/2.
)
= (B
2
A
THE MAGNETIC FIELD
In this equation
to
IN
THE POLYPHASE MOTOR.
number of conthe airgap in cm.
is
the magnetizing current, n the
ductors per pole and phase, and
of the iron
is
A
(B
2
The
reluctance
supposed to be negligible.
1.6
From
(6)
this equation follows /
=
A
amperes.
n
is
.
7=V2
22. If the reluctance of the iron
duction
($>
not negligible, the magnetic in
has to be determined point for point, which can easily be
done with the help of a magnetizing curve. It is of importance to note that the maximum induction does not extend over a very large part
of the polepitch, hence
it is
not objectionable to have an induction
of 15,000 or 16,000 in the teeth, as this high induction hardly increases the magnetizing current on account of
its
being limited to a
very small part of the surface of the pole. 23. I have not entered upon a detailed consideration of the elementary
phenomena
it
in the
polyphase motor, as they have been treated by
lucidity
Gisbert Kapp* and
Andre Blondel* with a
for
and clearness
which
B.
24.
would be impossible
me
to surpass.
The Formulae
It
for the
ThreePhase Current
Motor.
remains to prove that the theory of the general alternating curis
rent transformer
directly applicable to the polyphase motor.
That
this
is true, as long as the armature of the motor is standing still, is evident. If the armature runs at synchronism, the number of its revolutions cor
responds to the frequency of the feeding current
ture runs slower than the
field,
~i.
If the
arma2,
the difference being
~!
slip

then
an
e.
m.
f.
is
induced
in the
armature proportional to the
is
~i
~r
If the
armature resistance per phase
rt
,
then a current will flow
attained in the
proportional to
~'
~*.
The same current can be
if
transformer with the secondary at rest,
the resistance be thus
chosen that the relation exists
'Electric Transmission of Energy, p. 304
and following, reprinted
in
Appen
dix
I.
*L''Eclairagt Electriqitt, 1895.
15
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
(7)
^r
=
~'
r,
2
r,
signifying the internal and external resistance of the secondary of
the transformer.
Under
this condition the
same diagram represents the
currents in size and phase in the transformer as well as in the motor.
That
this
must be so becomes
is
clear as soon as
we remember
(~ x
is
that the
impedance of the motor
a constant.
equal to
VV2 3
~!
2
f
A
~
2 ) *,
A
being
The impedance
of the transformer
equal to
Vr*
hence
+A
.
,
~i ri
which equation
is
=
(~i
(7).
~a) r
>
identical with
Credit
is
due to Dr. Behnthis
Eschenburg, Oerlikon, for having
relation.
first
prominently put forth
25. The Torque.
magnetic
equal to
field,
which
2
is
Imagine the armature to be turned against the supposed to stand still, with an angular velocity
^
If
D
.
is
the torque in
.
mkg, then we have
z 2 *
9.81
it
D
(!
,)
=3
r,,
being the current
in,
and rt the resistance
of,
each phase.
We
have
'
p
if
/>
'
is
the
number
of north or south poles.
9.81
.
And
also
D
.
u2
= P watts.
w2 )
From
these equations follows
9.81
.
9.81
.
D mkg .(27T. ^ 2 n D mks ^p
.
=3
3
z2
.
P
*
*2
16
THE MAGNETIC FIELD
(8)
IN
THE POLYPHASE MOTOR.
(3/ 2
61.6 to
.
D mks = ^~
i
*r2
+ />,*,).
is
ts).
If
we want
have the torque
8.5
.
in
footpounds, the formula
Dft.
ibi.
= ^~i
*
(3
*j
r2
+ P wat
The torque
is,
therefore, proportional to the algebraic
in the
sum
of the
output of the motor plus the energy dissipated
26. Starting Torque.
into the motor,
is
armature.
At
starting
P
;
is
zero. All the energy that goes
2
dissipated into heat
therefore. 3
circle.
(z\
rt
f
it
*
rt
=)
3*
must be equal
by trying.
to the ordinate of
our
If TI
and
r 2 are
known,
the point on the circle corresponding to this case can easily be found
A glance at our diagram
running torque
;
shows us that we can
4
attain at starting
to,
but the starting current will always be equal
is
any and
never smaller than, the running current, unless the motor
started
under conditions, as higher or lower voltage, under load.
27. Efficiency.
etc.,
different
from those
The energy which
flows into the motor neglecting
If e\ is the
hysteresis can be taken from the diagram.
e.
impressed
m.
i.,
ii
the current in each phase, then
we have
(9)
= 3'i*iw*
we have
to deduct the
To
obtain the output
ohmic
losses, the load
losses,
and the
friction.
Hysteresis and eddy currents may be taken
into account, since they are practically constant at all loads, as though
they were ohmic losses
in
a coil so placed upon the primary as to have
no leakage
loss
at
all,
the energy wasted in this coil being equal to the
through hysteresis and eddy currents.
(10)
We
'
have, then,
3
>
P=3^
/!
cos *
3
t\
rt
i,
rt
F Q
Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, "Polyphase Electric Currents," 213, says of a polyphase motor: "This motor starts under full load, taking less than fullload current." This is an impossible figment. In the second, viry imuh enlarged, edition of Prof. Thompson's interesting honk, this statement is changed, and we read on page 255: "This motor starts under full load, taking less than twice the fullload current." The motor should theoretically not take more than fullload current, but just as much, and in practice this is also generally obtained, as, in this case, the rotor is equipped with slide rings.
first edition, p.
4
17
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
F
being the friction loss in watts,
Q
the loss through hysteresis and
eddy currents.
The
efficiency
v
is,
28. The most important formulas for the design of the polyphase
motor have thus been determined, and them in the form of a table.
it
will
be useful to give
Maximum Power
(3) J/
Factor
.......... cos
<t>
=2a
=2
.
(
i
Magnetic Field
(5) ..............
e
12
.
~
.
zv
.
*
.
io volts.
8
Magnetising Current
($>
.
1.6
.
(6).
2
n
A V2
Slip lip(7).
^r
Torque
(8) ... .61.6
.
=
(3
3
D m kg = ^b
8
h *r2
+ P watts)
Impressed Energy
(9) ..............
= 3*1
1\
cos?
Output
(10) ......... Pwatts
= 3*i h costyT)
t\
Efficiency
(11) ..............
1=
3
'i *i
cos
18
CHAPTER
The
29.
III.
ShortCircuit Current and the Leakage Factor
An
invaluable aid in the design of polyphase motors
is
af
forded by the shortcircuit current characteristic.
In a motor hav
ing a squirrelcage armature, the starting current under different
voltages
is
identical with the shortcircuit characteristic.
If the re
were known, the power factor of the feeding current could be calculated; thus it would not even be necessary to use a wattmeter unless very accurate measuresistances of the armature
field
and of the
ments were required.
Theoretically, then, the shortcircuit char
acteristic is sufficient for the determination of the leakage factor; in
practice,
however,
it
will, in the
majority of cases, be unadvisable to
depend upon the shortcircuit curve, on account of the corrections which become necessary. If the total resistance of the motor is
small, the lag of the current
amounts
to nearly a quarter of a period
;
the inductance of a motor at standstill (shortcircuit) should always
be as small as possible; therefore, a very large current will go
through the motor at
full voltage.
Now,
the leakage factor
is
always
more or
less
dependent upon the strength of the currents which
very different from
cause the leakage, hence the leakage factor at starting with only a
small resistance in the armature
may be
as a rule,
is
smaller than
structed.
the leakage factor upon which the diagram
con
In fact,
we do
not
work the motor
in that
quadrant of the
If,
semicircle,
which corresponds to the shortcircuit
shall not
characteristic.
therefore,
I
make much use of
the shortcircuit curve for
I shall
it
the determination of the absolute value of the leakage factor,
all
the
more
avail myself of
it
for comparative purposes
is
where
does
not so
much matter whether
relative value
is
the absolute value
correct or not, but
in
where the
of importance.
Such questions as the
fluence of a closed or open slot, of the
19
number
of slots, of the air
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
gap, and of the polepitch
upon the leakage factor, can all be answered by consulting the shortcircuit characteristic. I shall proceed to discuss, point for point, the influence of these factors on the leakage coefficient.
THE
30.
SLOTS.
The curves
A
and B,
in Fig. 10, represent the shortcircuit char
acteristics for a closed slot of the
slots of the
shape marked A, and of the open
slots of the
shape marked B.
The
armature were closed
B
120
100
200
300
400
FIG. IO.
500
600
700
800
900
in
each case.
if
Curve
C
shows the
ideal shortcircuit curve obtainall.
able only
the leakage paths contain no iron at
Curve
D
is
the
magnetizing current reduced from the measured value of 42.2 am20
SHORTCIRCUIT CURRENT AND LEAKAGE FACTOR.
peres at 1900 volts to the various voltages in the diagram.
The
in
crease of the magnetic reluctance of the main field through the opening of the slots proved too small to influence the magnetizing current
in
any perceptible manner.
We see that for voltages above 600 the curves A, B, and C converge
ir
;
other words, the shortcircuit current at the
full
voltage of 1900
will be
almost the same whether the slots are open or closed.
Hence
would
change
the
is
maximum
flow of energy which can be impressed upon the motor
slot as
by no means so much dependent upon the form of the
appear at first sight.
the
The tendency of the closed fundamental diagram in the way shown by the
slot is to
full line
curve in
FIG. II.
Fig. ii.
From
this
factor
is
0.715 instead of 0.755,
58 instead of 55,
maximum power and the current for the same output yet the maximum output of the motor is hardly recurve follows that, though the
ordinate of the semicircle, represented by
is
duced as the
maximum
the broken line,
only inconsiderably larger than the
maximum
inferior to
ordinate of the
full line curve.
If the iron bridges are kept very thin,
excellent motors can be built with closed slots, in no
way
motors with open
itself
slots.
The
objection to closed slots, then, resolves
neglecting at present the load losses which
may
in
probably be
caused by the bridges
into a commercial one, viz., the question,
Which
slot is
cheaper?
Labor being expensive
21
America,
it
is
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
cheaper to wind the coils on forms and to use open
of labor being considerably smaller in Europe,
builders of polyphase motors have preferred to
to
slots.
The
cost
some of the leading use closed slots and
wind by hand.
Coils
wound
outside of the machine require
more
insulating material, and as the room is always somewhat scant in polyphase motors, the European method offers some advantages.
On
the other hand,
we have
to bear in
mind
that the greater ease
with which machinewound coils can be exchanged, should not be
underrated, and might even be bought with the loss of another advantage.
sign
is
A
design
is
more or
less of
a compromise, and the best de
that which combines the greatest
number of advantages with
the least
number of drawbacks.
NUMBER
31.
OF SLOTS PER POLE.
A
it
little
consideration teaches us that
of fluctuation in the field the
then,
more
to
would be advisable
Either extreme
we obtain the least amount we have per pole. Theoretically, have as many slots as possible. From
slots
it is
a commercial standpoint, however,
possible.
is
advisable to have as few as
;
impracticable
we must
try to strike the
golden mean.
32.
The
influence of the
readily be seen.
number of slots upon The more conductors we have
surrounding the
for
slot.
the leakage can also
in a slot the larger
will be the leakage field
The
active field is
with
enough accuracy whether we distribute the same number of cbnductors
our present consideration
in a
the
same
slots
few
or in many.
The
e.
m.
f.
induced by this
field
upon
these conductors
may, therefore, be set constant independently of the number of slots. Let us take a concrete case. If we have, for instance, 100 conductors
arranged in 5
field
slots,
there are in each slot 20 conductors.
The
leakage
per slot is
produced by these 20 conductors, hence proportional
to their
number.
The
e.
m.
f.
induced by the leakage
field
per slot in
the 20 conductors in each
slot, is
proportional to 20 times 20.
Hence
22
SHORTCIRCUIT CURRENT AND LEAKAGE FACTOR.
the total
is
e.
m.
f.,
induced in the 100 conductors by the 5 leakage
fields,
proportional to 20
X
20
X5=
2000.
slots.
33.
Now,
let
us arrange the 100 conductors in 10
Each
slot,
then, contains 10 conductors, the leakage field per slot being proportional to 10.
The
e.
m.
is
f.
induced by the leakage
field in
the 10 conthe total
ductors in each slot
e.
proportional to 10 times
10.
is
e.
Hence
m.
m.
f.
induced
in all the
conductors in the 10 slots
proportional to
f.
10
is
X
10
X
10
= looo.
In other words, the counter
of leakage
twice as large in the case of 5 slots as in the case of 10 slots.
The above
calculation rests
of the leakage path of each slot
consideration.
upon the assumption that the reluctance is the same in the two cases under
only with some qualifications, yet
Though
is
this is true
the argument clearly shows the superiority of
far as leakage
many over few
slots
slots, as
concerned.
34.
A general
To
rule for the
most favorable number of
5 slots per pole
can hardly
is
be given.
take
more than
and phase
in the field
FIG. 12.
hardly advisable unless the polepitch be very large, as in motors for
low frequencies.
As
the
maximum
23
of ampereconductors per slot 600
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
might be put down; but this should be no rigid fewer than 3 slots per pole and phase, if possible.
conductors in a
slot,
rule.
Never take
the leakage field
is
you put too few not saturated, and thus the
If
STARTING CURRENT
10O
2OO VOLTS
FIG. 13.
300
400
advantage of a great number of
leakage.
slots
may
be balanced by this greater
Thus we
see that in spite of
many
rules, still
a great deal
is left
to
the individual
judgment of the designer.
35.
To
enable the reader to form for himself an opinion of the acI
curacy of the theory,
give the complete experimental data of a small
threephase current motor with shortcircuited armature.
SHORTCIRCUIT CURRENT AND LEAKAGE FACTOR.
The motor
tween the
shall develop 20 horsepower, at a voltage of 380 be
lines,
and a frequency of 47
p. p. s.
The
slots in
armature
and
field
were closed, but the bridges were
field
thin.
slots in
armature and
its
are represented in Fig.
The shape of the 12. The motor had
r. p.
six poles, therefore
synchronous speed was 940
m.
as
shows the starting or shortcircuit current a function of the terminal volts measured between the lines
table
:
The following
Volt.
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
This point
Fig. 15.
lies
very near the
maximum
is
ordinate of the semicircle in
The diameter
a
of this circle
122.5 amperes, the magnetizing
.current 4.5 amperes, hence
=
122.5
=o
i
2<7f I
.
0367
is,
.
The maximum power
COS
tf
ft
factor attainable
equation (3),
=
= 0.93
Fig. 15 and the data given above clearly show the inaccuracy which
80
20 KILOWATTS
FIG. 14.
would
arise if
we were
to use the shortcircuit current as a
means of
determining the absolute value of the leakage factor.
26
SHORTCIRCUIT CURRENT AND LEAKAGE FACTOR.
37.
1
want
to call attention to the load losses,
which are always presstill
ent in polyphase motors, the causes of which are, however,
vary
obscure.
The maximum
are:
efficiency of this
motor
is
84.5 per cent.
The
losses
Hysteresis, eddy currents and friction
800 watts. 600 200
"
Ohmic Ohmic
loss in
primary
loss in secondary
Total losses
Output
Input
1600 watts. "
13200 14800 watts.
the motor actually
The energy which
watts, corresponding to
an additional
loss
consumed amounted to 15600 the load loss of 6 per
DIAMETER 122.5 A
FIG. 15
cent of the output.
load, until
it
The
load loss increases rapidly with increasing
to all other losses taken together.
becomes equal
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Opening the
slots
has a decided tendency to diminish the load loss
it is
considerably, therefore
probable that the seat of this waste of
energy is in the bridges. 38. It has often been advocated to calculate the leakage
dimensions of the
slots,
fields
from the
of the airgap, of the polepitch, and so forth,
is
and
it
has been claimed that great accuracy
thus obtainable.
it is
I
am
not of that opinion.
Though
I
am
perfectly aware that
possible
at least theoretically
to calculate the leakage, yet I cannot close
my
eyes to the fact that such calculations are, of necessity, based upon
;
a good deal of guesswork the designer who chooses this a man groping in the dark with here and there a guiding
I should rather say, a willo'thewisp, sometimes guiding
pa.th is like
light, or, as
him
aright,
but much oftener leading him astray. I am suspicious of the a priori method it has proved utterly vicious in all departments of human
;
knowledge.
Upon a sound experimental foundation any mathematical superstructure may be safely reared and no desire to obtain a knowl;
edge of things, which are
in their
very nature not yet clearly underdata.
stood, should mislead us to build
upon the quicksand of imagined
The succeeding
tors
chapter will be devoted to an exposition of the faccoefficient.
which enter into the equation for the leakage
CHAPTER
The Leakage
trude THERE themselves
at every step
IV.
Factor.
are two questions of the most vital interest which in
How
does the
maximum
upon the designer. The first is, output a polyphase motor is capable
In other words,
if I
of yielding, depend upon the airgap?
the airgap, does this to
increase
any great extent decrease the output?
If a
And
The
inin
does a decreased airgap increase the output of the motor?
second question
is this,
motor
is
wound
for four poles,
and we
want
to
wind
it
for eight poles, provided the frequency
and the
duction in the airgap remain the same, does the output decrease
the ratio of 4
=
8, or,
what
relation exists between the
I shall
put of the motor and the number of poles?
maximum outnow proceed to
FACTOR.
answer these questions.
THE INFLUENCE OF THE AIRGAP UPON THE LEAKAGE
39. In order to determine the interdependence between the magnetic
reluctance of the main field and the leakage factor, the following ex
periment was made
:
The magnetic
to create
field
the stator
of a threephase
current motor was provided with two armatures, the diameters of
which were so chosen as
an airgap of
0.5
mm, and one
of
1.5
mm.
The magnetizing
:
currents were then measured as well as the
shortcircuit currents.
The following
tables contain the results of
the experiment
Currents at 50
^ = 0.5 m. m.
THE INDUCTION MOTOR. Shortcircuit Currents at 50 ~
A = 0.5 m. m.
THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
otherwise the leakage factor would have been proportional to the airgap.
40
I
I
10
20
I.
40
(50
100
0.5
120
XL
Volts Magnetizing Current. Short. circuit Current.
FIG. l6.
.
m.m.
42.
Now,
this result is highly interesting.
is
As
a glance at Fig. 18
in at the volt
shows, the energy that the motor
capable of taking
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
age of no,
40
is
the
same whether the airgap
is
small or large. Hence..
30
.20
10
40
I
60
)
80
100
, _
1
120
Volts Magnetizing Current. JI. Short circuit Current.
FIG. 17.
V
/\
..
^
5 tn.Tn
J
the overload that a
motor
is
alnc TO stand
is
independent of the airgap.
airgaps.
This, of course, holds
good only of small
THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
The
airgap influences merely the strength of the magnetizing current, but not the output.
FIG. 18.
^ V / V
FIG. IQ.
The
curves of the shortcircuit currents in Figs. 16 and 17 are
line
al
most straight
owing
to the open slots in the field of our motor.
33
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
43. There remains to be answered the second question,
leakage factor dependent upon the pitch of the poles
?
How
is
the
THE INFLUENCE OF THE POLEPITCH UPON THE LEAKAGE
44. Before entering upon the experiments made to clear up
I shall attempt to
FACTOR.
this point,
show deductively how the leakage
factor
may
be
expected to vary with the polepitch.
Fig. 19 gives a view of the slots in a polyphase motor.
lines
The broken
that
mark the leakage flux threading each slot. Now, let us assume we have a motor with 48 slots in the field, which we want to
fourpole, or eightpole motor, the armature
wind as a twopole,
any number of
If the
being provided with a squirrelcage winding, thus being suitable for
poles.
for
number of ampereconductors per slot remains the same any number of poles, the leakage flux per slot also remains contotal
stant.
The
poles.
number of ampereturns spread over
the circumference
of the field
is
then constant whether the motor has two, four, or eight
45. But the number of ampereturns per pole
to the
is
inversely proportional
number of
poles; hence, the induction produced by these
is
am
pereturns in the airgap
also inversely proportional to the
field
number
of poles.
In other words, the magnetic
per pole, being propor
tional to the product of the induction in the airgap into the polepitch, varies inversely
with the square of the polepitch.
as
46. The leakage
field,
we have
seen, is constant for each slot.
Hence, the
total
amount of leakage
is
the
sum
of
all
the leakage fields
pertaining to each lot
also constant.
The number
slots
of leakage lines
per pole
is
proportional to the
number of
main
per pole.
47. The ratio of leakage
field =
field is
therefore inversely pro
portional to the polepitch for the
slot.
same number of ampereturns per
34
THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
48. This result
is
verified
by the following
series of tests:
A.
Threephase current motor for 36 horsepower, 380 volts belines, six poles,
tween the
42
~.
Airgap
Polepitch /
Volts between the lines.
A = =
062
30.5
m. tn. cm.
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
50. For equal airgaps
(TI
we have
o.n
f
a\i
= 0.0224 = 0.0664
0.0664
0.0396
= 0.0396
Hence,
on
<TI
=
1.68,
or, in
other words,
_ _ "
'
ffi
in'
is
51.
The leakage
factor
inversely proportional to the polepitch, or
directly proportional to the
number
it
of poles.
52.
By
the above experiments
is
has been demonstrated that the leak
age factor
directly proportional to the airgap,
portional to the polepitch.
for the leakage factor,
We
and inversely promay, therefore, write the formula
in
which equation
c is
a factor dependent upon the shape and size of
the slots, and upon a great
still
many
other conditions of which
c
we
are
profoundly ignorant.
For
practical purposes, however,
it
can be
left to
determined with satisfactory accuracy, though
will
still
be
the designer to estimate the value of c between certain limits.
slots, as
For
shown
in Fig. 19, c varies
between 10 and
15.
WINDING THE SAME MOTOR FOR DIFFERENT
SPEEDS.
53. Formula (12) permits us to determine the change in the output,
power
or 72
will
factor,
and so
forth, of a
motor wound for a
different
number
48
of poles, for instance, for eight, four, or two poles.
slots, it
If the field has
can easily be
wound
all
so as to satisfy this demand.
We
assume the induction
in the airgap, or,
which
is
the same, in the
teeth, to
remain constant for
three cases.
for the
We
will further
assume
it is
that the motors are to be
wound
same
voltage.
Then
clear, according to equation (5), that the total
number of
active con
36
THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
ductors must be proportional to the
if
number of
poles
;
in other
words,
the eightpole
motor
has, for instance, 720 conductors, or ten con
ductors in each of 72
slots,
then the fourpole motor must have 360,
and the twopole motor
the airgap.
rent
180, in
order to get the same induction
in
To
calculate the relative value of the magnetizing cur
we need only know
the
number of
active conductors
per pole,
see equation (6).
in the four pole
We
have for n
in the eightpole
motor
motor
720 s180
2
.
= 90;
=
As
90.
it
360 ^i motor = =90; and
4
in the twopole
in
Hence, as
($>
and n are the same
each of the three cases,
follows that the magnetizing current also remains the same.
the
Two
Poles
FIG. 20.
shape and size of the slots are the same in
in
all
three cases, the factor
equation (12)
for the leakage coefficient also remains the same.
is
Hence, as the leakage factor
proportional to the quotient of the air
gap divided by the polepitch,
be inversely proportional to the
represented in Fig. 20.
we
find the shortcircuit current to
number of
poles.
This
is
graphically
A
glance at the
diagram teaches us that the
maximum
energy that can be impressed upon the motor, and, there37
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
fore, also
very nearly the output, vary in proportion to the poleto the
pitch.
According
diagram we
g
find the leakage factor for the
twopole motor equal to >
O
Q
= 0.05
;
for the fourpole
to

motor equal
to
oo
=
o.io;
and for the eightpole motor equal
=
0.20.
The
for
power factor in each case can now be calculated with the help of mula (3). This is done in the following table:
Number
Poles.
of
THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
Allowing again the induction
ferent frequencies, which
it
in
the airgap to be the same for difless challengeable proposition,
is
a
more or
follows from formula (5) that the total
field
number of
active con
ductors around the circumference of the
for the polepitch
is
must also be the same,
lines of induction per
is
inversely proportional to the frequency, hence
the product of the frequency into the
number of
pole remains the same
if
the induction in the airgap
the same.
57.
tient
The magnetizing current, however, being proportional to the quoof the induction (B divided by the number of active conductors
is
per pole,
thus inversely proportional to the frequency.
The
leak
FIG. 21.
age factor
is,
according to formula (12), directly proportional to the
because the
polepitch, or inversely proportional to the frequency
polepitch
is,
in the case
under consideration, inversely proportional
it
to the frequency
hence
follows that, as the magnetizing current
has been shown to be proportional to the frequency, the diameter of
the semicircle remains constant for all frequencies.
58. Fig. 21 shows the clock diagram for the same motor, but for different frequencies.
The maximum energy
But the
that the
motor
is
capable of
taking
in,
and, therefore, also the
~, 50 ~, or 25 ~.
maximum output, is the same for 100 maximum power factor is consider39
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
ably smaller for the high frequencies, as a glance at the diagram
shows.
The following
table
shows the leakage factor and the power
:
factor in relation to the frequency
Frequency.
THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
with the conditions underlying the leakage in polyphase motors.
I
am
far
;
ness
from claiming for this treatment completeness or conclusiveon the contrary, I deem it a necessity to revise it by the light of
I
forthcoming experience.
am
tolerably confident that the
main pro
positions will be proved true, while
qualification.
minor points may need some
63. Considering the immense complexity of the phenomena in poly
phase motors, the greater or
less arbitrariness
which hangs about most
in
of our assumptions which have to be
calculate at
all, I
made
order to be able to
cannot forbear from wondering that so approximate
all.
a solution can be attained at
It
may
be that there are errors inall
herent
in
our fundamental assumptions which
This view will
so counteract one
little
another as to cause the result of calculation to deviate but
from
those
experiment and observation.
commend
itself to
who
are
familiar
with any branch of physiology,
;
for
instance,
physiological optics
here
we have
the testimony of Helmholtz that
the eye, having "every possible defect that can be found in an optical
instrument," yet gives us a fairly accurate image of the outer world
because these various defects balance one another almost completely. 64.
The above remarks
to look
will be distasteful to those
who have
accusto
tomed themselves
upon only one
side of a question,
and try
shut their eyes to the inevitable uncertainties that beset us in
lectual problems.
I
all intel
was once taken
to task
by a
critic for
having ad
duced experimental evidence qualifying my theory, and narrowing the limits of its application, and I was told that these experiments invalidated
my
argument, while
completeness and the shortcomings of the theory
even thought of by
sides
my
and spots of their point them out and expose them. The formulae and rules of the preceding
turned to account
in
upon the inwas obviously not critic. Lawyers may have to hide the weak arguments, but men of science are bound to
to lay stress
my
intention
articles
will
now be
to the
the following part by applying
them
calculation of a motor.
41
CHAPTER
V.
Design of a ThreePhase Current Motor for 2OO HorsePower.
THE
application to practice of the theory
expounded
in the pre
ceding chapters will best be illustrated by a concrete case.
To
this
end
I
propose to calculate a threephase current motor for
an output of 200 horsepower at 440 r. p. m. for a frequency of 60 ~. Voltage between the lines 2000. I have chosen a rather extraordinary
case, the speed of 440
r.
p.
m. being comparatively low, while the
it is
frequency
is
unfavorably high, in order to show that
yet pos
sible to build
a satisfactory motor for such conditions.
:
65. The following are further conditions for the design
(i.)
Normal
output, 200 horsepower.
torque, 400 synchronous horsepower.
(2.) (3.)
Maximum
The motor must be able to start with the maximum torque. 66. The torque of a motor is measured in mkg. or footpounds. The product of the number of mkg. into the angular velocity of the rotor,
divided by 76, yields the
number of horsepower
of
available at the shaft
in
of the motor.
The
unit
horsepower used
America and
England
is
slightly greater than
the unit used on the Continent
of Europe.
divide by 75. As, in a great
we should have to many cases, we do not care much about the absolute value of the torque, we speak of torque corresponding to a certain number of horsepower at a certain speed. The most natural speed is offered us by the speed at synchronism. If we thus
get "European horsepower,"
To
speak of a torque of 400 synchronous horsepower, this torque may be developed at any speed, but the product of it into the angular
velocity of the rotor at synchronism
is
proportional to 400 horse
power.
This very convenient mode of expressing torque in "synchronous horsepower" has been introduced by Mr. Steinmetz; at
42
THREEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
least the author first
saw
it
some years ago
in a short paper of this
gentleman
in the
German Elektrotechnische
Zeitschrift.
67. The motor must be
wound
for 16 poles, which gives a synchro
nous speed of 450
68.
r.
p.
m.
The
circumferential speed of the revolving armature should not
ft.
exceed 7000
p.
m.
A
high speed
is
necessary in order to get a
seen, the leakage factor is
large polepitch upon which, as
greatly dependent
to a cheap,
we have
Indeed,
ft.
So high a speed as
this is not
it
always favorable
be urged that by
commercial design.
may
choosing so high a speed as 7000
p.
m. we have overstepped the
set
most favorable
limit.
Had
I,
in this
work,
myself the task of deI
signing a cheap motor, as the market
may
here and there require,
should have yielded to this objection from economy and adopted a slower speed.
It is still
a
much vexed
economy
question whether, in the long
is
run, the greatest commercial
not identical with excelthe
lence of quality.
I
therefore prefer to
make
motor as good as
possible without giving
undue regard
to cheapness.
69.
The motor
receives a diameter of 150 cm, corresponding to a cirft. p.
cumferential speed of 6960
m.
The
The
70.
polepitch
is
equal to
^7
= 29.5 cm.
airgap will be
made
equal to 0.15 cm.
The
coefficient c in
formula (12) may be estimated for the shape
;
of the slots which
we
are going to adopt at 12
:
we
then have for the
leakage factor according to formula (12)
a
71.
I
=
12
.
0.15  29.5
=
0.061
With
this leakage factor a
is
maximum power
factor of cos0o
=
20
72.
=
0.89
attainable.
will take
The motor
from the mains a current of about 54 am
peres per phase at an output of 200 horsepower.
43
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
73. In order to develop a
maximum
to
torque equal to 400 synchronous
horsepower, the
in the
maximum
400
1/3
.
.
ordinate or the radius of the semicircle
diagram must be equal
2000
746
.
= 102 amperes,
Hence follows
must be equal
to 200 amperes.
0.85
assuming the
efficiency to be 85 per cent at this output.
that the diameter of the semicircle
74. The noload we remember that
circle
current
io
can
now immediately
it
be calculated,
it
the quotient of
to
<*
and the diameter of the semi
must be equal
t
= 0.061. We thus get = 12 amperes.
number of conductors per pole and
75.
phase,
From formula
if
(6) follows the
($>
a value for
is
assumed.
We make (B, the maximum
induc
tion in the airgap, equal to 5600,
*o
and we have then
= 12 amperes. A = 0.15 cm. (B = 5600 g.
c.
s.
76.
< 6)
Inserting these values into the formula
'
_ ~
ffi
.
1.6
A
2
n
V2
we
get
n
77.
= 40
z, is
The
total
number
of active conductors per phase,
poles.
equal to n
multiplied by the
number of
Thus we have
.
z 78.
=
16
40
=
640
We
can
now
calculate the
number
It is
of lines of induction per pole
with the help of formula (5).
(5)
e
e
=2.12. ~.
z
.
*
.
io 8
= 2OOO volts.
V3
~ =60
z
= 640
Hence,
$
= 1.42
44
.
io' c. g. s.
THREEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
79.
We
found
in the
second chapter that
*
where b
is is
_ _!_
12
.
b
t
.
t
.
&,
the width of the motor, and
if
the polepitch.
This formula
correct only
the slots in the field
and the armature are prac
FIG.
22.
field
tically closed.
As we
intend to keep the slots in the
entirely
open
in
order to be able to exchange the coils easily,
45
N will
be about
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
85 per cent smaller than according to the formula.
into account,
By
taking this
we
find for
b
=
17.0
cm.
i.o
80.
We leave in
in the
middle of the iron a space of
18.0
cm
for radial
ventilation, so that the
width of the iron becomes
cm.
81. The" slots are represented in Fig. 22.
ins.
The
slots in the field are 2
deep; in the
armature
i^
ins.
These
slots represent
about the
FIG. 23.
largest size that should be used in polyphase motors.
is
If possible,
it
preferable to keep the slots smaller than those in Fig. 22.
field coils is
in.
The
wire used for the
diameter of 0.229
No. 3 of B.
&
S.
wire gauge, having a
The maximum
induction in the iron teeth
is
13000.
46
THREEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
The
induction in the iron above the teeth should be no higher than
3000; this gives 15.0
cm of iron above the slots. The main dimensions of the motor are inscribed in Fig. 23. The resistance of each phase of the field is 0.28 ohm, hot The resistance of each phase of the armature is 0.016 ohm, hot The loss through hysteresis and eddy currents is noo watts,
is
of
which 530 watts
teeth.
dissipated in the iron ring,
and 570 watts
in the
82.
We are now
in possession of all the data
necessary to predeterat starting.
mine the behavior of the motor under load and
This has been done
in the
following table.
it
After the explanation
to enter
given in the preceding chapters,
would be superfluous here
FIG. 24.
upon the manner in which these figures were derived partly from Fig. 24, partly from the foregoing formulas. A word, however, has
to be said about the
way
in
which the
loss
by
friction is taken into
account
With
sufficient
accuracy
we may assume
is
that the torque
necessary to overcome the friction
constant at different speeds.
By drawing a described, we
line
line parallel to the basis
find in the length of the ordinates lying
lies
upon which the semicircle is between this
24,
and the curve which
next to the semicircle in Fig.
47
a
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
measure for the torque and synchronous kilowatts available
pulley of the motor.
at the
83. For the calculation of the efficiency 7
I
have assumed that the
150
"I
cos 9
/
ft
TOO
1OO
200 KILDWATTS.CONSUM.ED
FIG. 25.
300
loss
through friction and
air resistance is practically constant at all
so, I
speeds.
That
this is
not accurately
48
need hardly remark.
THREEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
84.
The
ordinates of the
full line
curve
in Fig. 24
measure the output
of the motor for an armature of small resistance, provided with external starting resistance.
85. The ordinates of the broken line curve measure the output of the
motor having a squirrelcage armature with considerable resistance six times larger than that of the armature with external resistance
in
order to start under load.
A
glance at the curves shows the tre
mendous reduction of
the output with which
we have
is
to
buy the ad
vantage of dispensing with slide rings.
spicuous in the curves of Fig. 25.
This
even more con
The
abscissae here represent the
energy
in kilowatts
resent the field
consumed by the motor, while the ordinates repcurrent, the output, the efficiency, and the power factor
as functions of the energy consumed.
As
in
Fig. 24, the full line
curves represent the different quantities for the motor with external
starting resistance, while the broken line curves
show these
quantities
for the
motor with squirrelcage armature.
field current,
86. The
of course, remains unaltered, and so does the
power efficiency, of the motor with squirrelcage armature are powerfully influenced by the high resistance of the armature. For a starting torque equal to the
factor.
But the output, and therefore the
torque at normal load,
we need
a current which
;
is
almost four times
as large as the current at normal load
indeed, a poor result.
87.
To emphasize
this point
once more, the abolition of an external
the armature, or placed
it
starting resistance
either revolving with
outside the armature and being connected to
rings
put,
by means of
slide
brings with
it
inevitably a considerable reduction of the out
a glance at Figs. 24
and a lowering of the efficiency. The reduction of the output, as and 25 shows, is equivalent to a reduction of the
overloading capacity of the motor, diminishing the margin of power
overload.
and thus tending to pull the motor out of step at a small temporary For these reasons European designers have abandoned the squirrelcage armature in all larger motors.
49
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
88. In the calculation of the efficiency the load losses have not been
taken into account.
efficiency, but
it
As
I
have said before, they greatly influence the
difficult to
is
extremely
predetermine them for va
Data of 200
h. p.
Polyphase Motor for 2000 Volts, 60 Periods, 440 R. P. M.
THREEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
The Starting
Resistance.
it
89. In order to calculate the resistance
of the starting box,
torque, the amperes
is
advisable to plot a curve representing the
volts in
and the
the armature as a function
of the resistance of the starting box.*
This can easily be done
if
we
remember
that at starting the energy available at the shaft of the
motor, when running with the same torque, must be dissipated into
heat.
We
find, therefore, the starting resistance
necessary to enable
300
600
OHMS
PB
PHASE.
FIG. 26.
the same torque to be generated in the motor, by dividing the output
by the square of the armature current. In torque, in Fig. 26, has been drawn. From
starting current, the torque,
this
way
the curve for the
this
curve
we can
find the
and the voltage
at the slide rings of the
armature.
The
latter is considerable at a small starting torque,
and
the armature conductors must, therefore, be carefully insulated.
This method was
first
recommended by Dr. BehnEschenburg, Oerlikon.
Si
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Slip
and Torque.
90. Lastly, Fig. 27 represents the torque as afuncthat the
tion of the slip.
The curves demonstrate
maximum
torque
attainable
is
entirely independent of the armature resistance.
The
curve
per
effect of a great
armature resistance consists in shifting the same
Again, the
full line
torque from a small slip to a large one.
gives the torque for the armature with a resistance of 0.016
ohm
phase, while the broken line curve shows the torque for the squirrel 350
I

s:
o.
30
50
SLIP FIG. 27.
80
90
1
00*
cage armature having a resistance equivalent to six times that of the
armature with external starting resistance.
and calculation of the polyphase behooves us to glance back upon the comparatively easy motor, road by which we have reached a complete solution of a problem
91.
Having thus
it
finished the theory
which,
if
treated merely by mathematics, appears to be one of the
THREEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
most abstruse problems
in natural philosophy.
More and more we
begin to realize the truth of the words with which Kelvin and Tait
prefaced their lucid treatise on "Natural Philosophy," that "simplification of modes of proof is not merely an indication of advance in our knowledge of a subject, but is also the surest guarantee of read
iness for farther progress."
92.
Time was
and that not very long ago
when
theories in which
mathematical methods were restricted to a minimum, were glibly
labeled "popular," with that fine flavor of contempt that hangs about
this
term.
Slowly but surely graphical methods have supplanted,
methods, as
7
and
will supplant in the future, highly analytical
in the
graphical method the development of the idea can be followed stage
by stage, thus furnishing a means of constantly checking the process
01 reasoning
and keeping the attention of the mind concentrated
upon the development of the thought. While a long analytical argument, after starting out from certain premises, leaves us in large
measure
in the
dark until the result
is
reached.
In
my
opinion the
didactic value of graphic
methods
is
vested in the difference traced
out in the above comparison.
93. These remarks must not be misconstrued.
graphical treatment turns out to be far
In
many
cases the
more complicated and weariI
some than
IM the case
the analytical treatment, and
is
need hardly say that
is
in
such cases the latter
preferable.
Whichever method
the simpler,
under consideration, deserves preference.
'One of the most complex problems in natural philosophy is the theory of the on which the greatest mathematicians from the time of Newton until today have tried their powers. This is what one of the workers in this field, Prof.
tides,
and numerically its bearings un the history of the earth. "Sir William Thomson, having read the paper, told me that he thought much light might be thrown on the general physical meaning of the equation, by a comparison of the equation of conservation of moment of momentum with the energy of the system for various configurations, and he suggested the appropriateness of geometrical illustration for the purpose of this comparison. "The simplicity with which complicated mechanical interactions may be thus traced out geometrically to their results appears truly remarkable."
analytically
S3
CHAPTER
simplified
VI.
Motor.
The SinglePhase
THE
is
and improved transformer diagram which has
stood us in good stead in understanding the phenomena in
polyphase motors, will serve our purpose equally well in the
treatment of the singlephase motor.
based upon the wellknown theorem
The method here employed* first made prominent by the
late Galileo Ferraris
field can, in all its effects,
and Andre Blondel, that an oscillating magnetic be replaced by two revolving fields, the
is
amplitude of each of which
oscillating field
;
equal to half the amplitude of the
the two fields revolve in opposite directions at a
field.
2
frequency equal to that of the oscillating alternating
94.
A
twopole armature revolving at a speed
field
of ~
in
an
oscillat
ing magnetic
netic field,
of the frequency ~i, has relative to the one
will call I, a slip of
mag
which we
~i
~
2>
relative to the
other, II, a slip of
~i
+~
2
.
95. Let us
now consider the field II. At the immense
slip of
~
x
H
',
the secondary ampereturns act almost exactly in an opposite direction to the primary ampereturns
;
they thus neutralize each other,
leaving only a small
vectors
field
the vector of which coincides with the
of
the
enough
to balance the voltage
fieldcoils.
primary and secondary ampereturns just large which drives the magnetizing current
through the
96.
We
have dissolved the amplitude of the impressed alternating
This
current flowing through the primary into two components of half the
amplitude revolving in opposite directions.
is
equivalent to
having two polyphase motors, the
fieldcoils
of which are coupled in
*See the author's article on "Asynchronous Alternating Current Motors," in the Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, Berlin, March 25, 1897.
54
THE SINGLEPHASE MOTOR.
series,
but in such a manner that an observer looking at the fields in
the direction of the axes of the rotors, would call the one revolving
clockwise, the other counterclockwise.
tors are rigidly connected.!
The armatures
I would then
of both
mo
The
field
try to turn the
armatures
in a
clockwise direction, while the
field II, if left to itself,
would
try to turn
them
in a counterclockwise direction.
/ would take the larger share of the voltage, since
The motor we have seen that
slip,
the reactance of a polyphase motor
for a great
slip.
is
great for a small
is
and small
Hence, the voltage which
7,
necessary to drive the
II, is
current, that
comes from motor
through motor
/.
small in com
parison with that consumed by motor
97. In order, then, to draw a diagram of the singlephase motor should have to find out by trying
we
ar
how
the voltage
is
distributed be
tween the two motors.
This
is
a very wearisome procedure.
We
rive at a sufficiently accurate
and simple solution if we remember that the resultant magnetic field in motor II will always, with very
little
inaccuracy, coincide with the impressed magnetic field of
mo
tor
7.
But
this
means nothing
else
than that the effect of motor //
it
may
be taken into account by considering
as an apparent increase of the
primary leakage field of motor I. 98. According to the above considerations
will be induced
it
is
clear that currents
by the
synchronously.
if running almost Synchronism, of course, can never be reached by the
field
// in the armature, even
armature unless an external force
is
applied to
its shaft.
These
ar
mature currents react upon the primary and must, obviously, about double the magnetizing current; in other words, the singlephase
motor running
idle,
takes a current about twice as large as the
mag
netizing current.
The
accurate relation between magnetizing cur
rent and "idle current" depends upon the leakage factor, and can be
calculated as follows.
Each of the motors
is
/
and // receives onehalf
I,
the idle current
tThe author
is
t.
the magnetizing current in motor
and the
Herrmann Cahen
indebted for this helpful comparison to a conversation with Mr.
in 1895.
55
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
voltage necessary to drive this current through the
field
coils
*i
motor 7
99.
is
proportional to of 2
may
be called in, then
The magnetizing current of motor //, running at a slip we have for the magnetizing current
~
of the
singlephase motor:
im
=% +
tn
For
hence
in
we have
in
=
0'
*'**)
ff
.
;
=
<j)

4
/
<r
i
m
a
i
m
(i __
=
I
/
+2f
Im
(I3)
=
IT
TT^
we have
:
I
+
2
ff
For
<r
=
o, that is, for
a motor without leakage,

m=L
= 0.500
we have
For a
=
=
0.05
~fFig. 28
0.525
shows the diagram resulting from these considerations.
the idle current.
the magnetizing current.
OA OB
The
<r.
is
is
point
C
bisects
O
A.
B'
lies
upon the semicircle
L,
B B' G, G
being the centre of the semicircle
B
B
A'
=
BL
being equal to
B' divides the total primary current
in the ratio of
OB' O A'
hence the locus of A'
is
I
''
''
f
2
0'
2
+
2C
the semicircle
A A' L.
55
THE SINGLEPHASE MOTOR.
THE CURRENTS IN THE ARMATURE.
100.
The current
in the
armature of the singlephase current motor
of the secondary currents
is
equal to the vector
.
sum

v\
to
.
B
Vi
B' and
.
A' B'
of the
two polyphase motors, hence equal
A' B.
*l
A glance at Fig. 28 shows us that only
pated
in the
onehalf of the energy dissiarmature can be utilized for the production of the torque.
represented by
is
We see, namely, that at all loads the secondary currents
A' B' and B'
B
remain very nearly equal, and as only motor 7
do
FIG. 28.
ing useful work, the armature currents in motor II represent a loss
almost exactly equal to the loss
/.
in the
armature of the working motor
indicates, therefore, only one
The
slip in a singlephase
motor
half of the energy dissipated in the armature, hence the loss in the
armature of a singlephase motor
is
twice as large as that in a poly
phase motor, provided the slip be equal in the
Torque.
101.
is
two motors.
:
armature
The torque can be calculated as follows Suppose the* wound in three phases, each having the resistance ry
is
The output
of the motor
then
*, ;,
.
:
P=
cos
<t>
i,
.
r,
3
/,
rtt
57
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
whence follows
(14) ..... 6i.6D
j) m ke = J.
~i
Pwatts,
in
which equation
Dmkg
is
the torque in m.kg., and
p
:
the
number
of north or south poles.
102.
The following reasoning
have for motor
9.81
7,
.
yields a value for
~,
We
and
A (i  s) =
DnK +
is
3
*'
a
'
r>
,
for
motor
II,
9.81
in
<>,
.
u,)
=
3
*
'"'
'
r
2
\
.
field,
which equations
t
the angular velocity of the revolving
that of the armature.
Hence,
9.81
.
(Di
 Dn
)
"2
=3^
\"2 /
or
(IS) ..................... 3
803.
To
illustrate
:
= Plaits Let us assume ~i = 50, and ~ =
*
*,
r*
~
2
45
;
then
we
have
=
In words, if the slip is 10 per ture amounts to 20 per cent.
104. It
is
0.23 Pwatts cent, the loss of energy in the arma
instructive to
compare with (14) the formula (7) for the
polyphase motor, which reads after some transformations,
(16) ..................... 3
*
t\
rz
=
Pwatts
.

~
armature
This
is
in
words that the
slip in per cent is equal to the
it*
loss in per cent, setting
P
+3
r*
equal to 100.
58
THE SINGLEPHASE MOTOR.
Ratio of Transformation.
to cover the
eral,
it
105.
We
shall see that
field
it is
not advisable
whole circumference of the
with windings. In genit.
will be
advantageous to wind but twothirds of
is
The
ratio of
transformation in this case
of conductors in the
field
not equal to the quotient of the
number
divided by the
number
of conductors in the
armature. With sufficient accuracy
we may
consider the ratio of trans
FIG. 2Q.
formation to be equal to the number of active conductors in the
divided by only fivesixths of the total
in the
field
number
of active conductors
armature.
EXPERIMENTAL CORROBORATION.
106.
The data given
in
the following table,
and graphically reprem. The number of
in the
sented in the polar diagram, Fig. 29, belong to a lohp, singlephasi
current motor for
no
volts, 50
~, and
1500
r.
p.
conductors in the
field
was 120; the number of conductors
59
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
armature was 312. The resistance of the
field
was
0.015
ohm;
of each
of the three phases of the armature, 0.08 ohm.
TESTS OF loHP MOTOR.
THE SINGLEPHASE MOTOR.
tive
conductors per pole
n,
then
we have
n
for the induction in the air
gap:
.
(I7)
<*=
is
im 1.6.
V/2
A
In this formula im
the effective value of the magnetizing cur
\
FIG. 30.
rent, while
A
/
is
the airgap.
If & is the
width of the iron of the
motor
in
cm,
the polepitch, then
we
,
have,
.
08).
*
=
we
<B
Instead of a coefficient of 2.22
efficient
get, as will easily
be seen, a co
of 1.85; therefore,
we have
e
the formula:
1.85
.
(19)
=
~
.
z
.
*
.
lo8
Secondly
Fig.
31
shows
this
case.
For the induction formula
(16) holds good.
The number
(20)
of lines of induction
is
equal to b
.
*
be seen at a glance.
=
61
t
.
<B,
as
may
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
For the
e.
m.
f.
we have
:
e
=
3
.
2.22
.
.
108
(21)
e
=
1.48
.
~
.
z
.
.
108
109. It will readily be seen
from these formulae that
it is
not advan
tageous to use a coil spread over the whole polepitch.
' ' '
i;
i
I
i
I
"i
'iff
N=i
B.b.t.
1.48
\
FIG. 31.
110.
We
can
now
;
proceed to study in detail the qualities of the
to this purpose
singlephase motor
we
shall devote the next chapter,
taking the iron frame of the threephase motor designed in chapter
V, and winding
it
as a singlephase current motor.
62
CHAPTER
VII.
Calculation of a SinglePhase Current Motor.
THE
threephase current motor, the design of which was given
in chapter
V,
is
reproduced
in Fig. 32.
We
if
shall
now
proceed
to
examine the behavior of
this
motor
running as a single
phase motor.
For
simplicity's sake
we
shall retain the winding,
and
uL_
FIG. 32.
investigate
what voltage
is
most suitable for
and
is
it.
The motor,
s.
as will
be remembered,
III.
has 16 poles,
to
work
again at 60 p. p.
;
Field Winding.
;
128 slots, 10 conductors in each slot
diameter
of wire, 0.229"
resistance hot, 0.28
ohm.
63
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Armature Winding.
in three
240
slots,
2 conductors in each slot;
wound
phases in star connection; resistance of each phase, 0.016
ohm.
112. E.
M.
F.
According to (18) we have:
(18)
b
/
(B
= = =
17 cm.
29.5
cm.
5600.
is
The diminution
Thus,
of the airgap through the open slots
taken into
account by reckoning only 85 per cent of the surface of the airgap.
we
find
:
4>
=
=
8
1.58
.
io* c. g.
s.
1
13.
In the threephase current motor
#s
i
.
we had
s.
:
42
.
io* c. g.
We
insert
100
.
N = 1.58 io ~ e = 1.85
.
in
formula (19) and get
.
.
.
z
$
.
io"6
= 2250 volts.
Therefore, the terminal voltage should be equal to 2250 volts.
114. Hysteresis.
The
loss
amounts
to 1150 watts, of
through hysteresis and eddy currents which 570 is dissipated in the teeth, and
580 in the iron ring.
Magnetizing Current.
From
tm
(17) follows
(B
.
=
1.6
A
H
V2
c.
We
insert the following values
:
(B = 5600 A = 0.15 cm. n = 80.
g. s.
and
find
i
m
=
1
2 amperes.
64
CALCULATION OF A SINGLEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
115. Leakage.
The leakage
coefficient is 0.061 for the iron frame,
:
116. Idle Current.
We
have according to (13)
'
im
(13).
1
+
f
2
2 a
1
2
2
+ +
0.122 0.122

0.576
/
=
20.8 amperes.
117. Friction.
Loss through
friction
and
air resistance,
2150 watts.
118.
We
can
now draw our
standard diagram. This has been done
in Fig. 33.
The
ordinates measured between the full line curve and
FIG. 33.
the basis of the semicircle measure the output of the
motor for the
armature with small resistance.
line curve
The
ordinates between the broken
and the basis of the semicircle measure the output of the
squirrel cage armature.
motor for the
65
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
From
this
diagram the following table has been compiled.
i8oHP
DATA OF
SINGLEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
S.,
2250 Volts, 60 P. P.
450 R. P. M.
CALCULATION OF A SINGLEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
122. Fig. 34 shows the field current and the output as a function of
the energy consumed.
The
full line
curves represent again the output
H
FIG. 34.
of the armature with small resistance, while the broken line curve
shows the output of the motor with
67
squirrel cage armature, the re
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
sistance of
which
is
six times as large as that of the
armature with
external starting resistance.
123. Fig. 35 shows the
cases.
power
is,
factor
and the
efficiency for the
in either case.
two
The power
factor
of course, the
same
In the
calculation of the efficiency the loadlosses have not been taken into
account.
124. Finally,
we have
in Fig. 36 a graphic representation of the outs.,
put and the torque
in watts as a function of the slip in p. p.
or rath
mo
150
K.W.
FIG. 35.
er,
of the
number of revolutions of
the armature expressed in
p. p. s.
The broken
Little
line curves refer as usual to the squirrel
cage armature.
need be said about these curves.
It is plain that for the
is still
arma
ture with a small resistance the starting torque
exceedingly
small at
~
2
= 40.
Such a motor
will
never start well without extra
resistance in the armature, whatever starting arrangement be made.
68
CALCULATION OF A SINGLEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
125.
ity
The effect of armature
resistance consists in reducing the capac
of the motor, and in shifting the
maximum
torque toward the
starting point.
126. In designing the threephase current motor,
we had made
the
condition that the motor should start with a torque equal to twice the
normal running torque. As all the starting devices that have been tried for singlephase motors are not worth very much, such a condition can, at present, not be fulfilled.
We
rate the motor, therefore,
FIG. 36.
according to
kilowatts
its
most favorable
efficiency
and power
factor.
For 135
we have an
efficiency of 94 per cent and a power factor of
82 per cent, corresponding to an apparent efficiency of 77 per cent.
The motor
127.
It
is
will safely yield 180
horsepower at 2250
volts.
instructive to
compare the current
with
the
in the three
phases
of the threephase current motor reduced to the voltage of the
singlephase
current
motor
current
in
the
single
phase motor.
The
threephase
motor took a magnetizing cur
69
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
rent
of
12
amperes,
corresponding
to
12
.
2000
V3
volt

am
peres. This divided by 2250 volts yields a magnetizing current equivalent to 18.4 amperes. The leakage factor being 0.061, we can draw
our standard diagram whence the curves in Fig. 37 are derived.
400
350
JHREE!
SCO
200
150
50
100
150
200
}<..
250
300
350
400
W.
FIG. 37.
These curves clearly show that the
phase current motor phase current motor.
is
only 0.65 the
maximum output of the singlemaximum output of the three
CALCULATION OF A SINGLEPHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
STARTING ARRANGEMENTS.
128.
A
few words may
It
fitly
be added about the methods of starting
singlephase motors.
has generally been found advantageous to
use twothirds of the polepitch for the main winding, and to leave
the remaining third for the starting phase.
as an imperfect twophase current motor.
The motor
thus starts
An
external armature re
cb
S5
a
S
MM in
AAA/WW
FIG. 38.
sistance
is
to be
recommended
for large sizes, say, for
an output above
15 horsepower.
129.
The
starting phase receives generally either half the
number of
method
convolutions as the main phase, or twice as many.
The
latter
seems to be preferable. Figs. 38 and 39 show the switch used by the Oerlikon Engineering Works for their singlephase motors.
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
130. In Fig. 38 the resistance or condenser
R
is,
at starting, in series
with the main phase, the auxiliary phase being directly between the
terminals.
131. In Fig. 39 the resistance
R
is
in parallel
with the auxiliary
phase, which
is
in series
with the main phase.
During the throwingover of the switch from the starting position
cS
EH
^
cT 7)
AUXILIARY
vmm PHASE
FIG. 39.
to the running position, the
motor
is
temporarily disconnected from
the mains.
The
last chapter
we
shall devote to a
more general and broader
treatment of the polar diagrams of the general alternatingcurrent
transformer.
72
CHAPTER
The Polar Diagrams
VIII.
of the General AlternatingCurrent Transformer.
this last chapter
it is
my aim
to present, in as simple
and lucid
IN a manner as possible, the general theory of the alternatingcurrent transformer, taking also the resistance of the primary into
account.
The
results of this consideration are partly
is
known, but as
it
the road by which they can be reached,
a very easy one,
in
may
de
serve
some consideration.
I
shall
make use
my
treatment of the
in
problem of the theorem of reciprocal vectors, known
kinematics
and geometry as the theorem of inverse points, and I will here make good a sin of omission, of which I became aware only when by
chance glancing over the pages of Dr. Bedell's book, "The Principles of the Transformer,"
in
November,
1900.
As
early as
1893
Messrs. Bedell and Crehore gave the theoretical proof of the fact
that the locus of the primary voltage in a transformer at constant
current
is
a semicircle,* and in his paper on "Transformer Diaat the Electrical
grams Experimentally Determined," read
in
Congress
terminals
Chicago, 1893, Dr. Bedell gave also the experimental proof for
its
the constantcurrent transformer that the potential at
can be represented by chords
in a semicircle.
To
develop the dia
gram
to
for the constant potential transformer was, however, reserved
physicists.
European
DIAGRAM OF FLUXES AND MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCES.
132.
The
principle of the conservation of energy requires thaf the
,Yi
magnetomotive forces
and Xi of the primary and secondary of the
transformer tend to magnetize the core in opposite directions.
'See a series of ten World, May, 1893, and
article*
later.
X
on the "Theory of the Transformer," Electrical 73
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
and
X may be considered to be magnetic cells producing, as it were, magnetomotive forces Xi and X*. The reluctance of the circuit comx,
Q
Fig. 40.
mon
to both be R, the reluctance of the strayfields that naturally
form about Xi and
Xt, be PI
and p2
74
.
Let us
call
the flux flowing
ALTERNATINGCURRENT TRANSFORMER.
through Xi and
X
t,
F, and the leakagefluxes fa and ^, respectively.*
We
have then,
(i)
Xi
(2)
X,
= =
t lPl
<f t
P,
Treating
write,
X
t
and Xi not as scalar quantities but as
vectors,
we may
(3)
X
l
X*
=
F
.
R.
the
133.
The phase
of the leakagefields fa and fa
is
same as
that of
the magnetomotive forces which produce them, hence they are in
phase with the currents. 134. Let Ei, Fig. 40, represent the voltage
rent will be in phase with
at the terminals of a
non
inductive resistance in the secondary of the transformer, then the cur
E The
3.
magnetic
field
which
is
required to
lines
is in
produce
by
its
variation, is Ft, in quadrature with
E* The
e.
of induction in phase with the secondary current, whose
m.
f.
quadrature with the current, are represented by 0.
treat the case in
We
shall first
which these
lines are all within the transformers,
and next we
pacity.
shall deal with the case of an external inductance or ca
135.
The
flux F, as
coils.
mentioned above, links together the primary and
secondary
136. If
The vectorsum of 0, and F is equal to F. we neglect for the moment the lag of phase between
flux,
is in
the
magnetomotive force and the
the magnetizing current
then the magnetomotive force of
It
phase with the flux F.
may be
rep
resented by the vector X.
137.
X
must be the vectordifference between
A'i
and X*.
138. Xi, 139.
X
2,
and
X
have
real existence.
is in
The
leakageflux fa of the primary
t,
phase with the pri
mary magnetomotive force X and may be represented in the diagram by fa. The vectorsum of fa and F is equal to the total primary
flux
F
t.
The notation of
chapters, the
will
fluxes in this chanter is different from that of the preceding main flux being called /' instead of <t>. I hope that this reference prevent readers from making a mistake.
75
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Let us now choose our scale for X, Xi and Xt so that
X
is
equal to
F; then, Fig. 41, O~A = Xi, and O~B = X,.
THE DIAGRAM FOR THE CONSTANTCURRENT TRANSFORMER.
140. Let us keep
OA
= Xi
still
and constant, then we see
at
a
50 AMP.
80
100
VOLTS
Fig. 41.
glance that the point
ways a constant portion of
G will move in the semicircle Oi. G C = fa, is alA C = O B = X because of equation (2).
2,
76
0,
=
Here
ALTERNATINGCURRENT TRANSFORMER. y and A very useful way of defining is that
.
<t>i
<j>
t
of A.
P\
Heyland,
who
TJ
is
writes,
*!
=
''
*V
obviously the magnetic conductivity or reluctivity of
the leakagepath.
Similarly he writes,
6l
=
r,
.
X^
I
According
chapters,
to the notation
which
have used
we
define
^
and
0,
by saying that
_=
in
the preceding
*,
AG
and
~0~A'
141.
=
v\ If
:
G mo\*es in the circle O\, C, which divides A G in the ratio A C A G :: Vt I, also moves in a circle, which is determined by C' OA v I. dividing O A in the ratio AC'
: :
_
: :
:
142. It
since,
is
just as simple to find the locus of the primary flux Fi,
is
by our assumption, the primary current
constant, the leakage
field 0i is also constant.
We
have, therefore, only to transfer the semilF
circle
Ot
::vi
to Ot,
:
Oi Ot being equal to
or, to
put
it
differently,
OA
:
U A'
143.
i.
The primary
e.
resistance can easily be taken into account a
we
may imagine
lent to the
that the drop caused by the
ohmic resistance
field
is
equiva
m.
f.
produced by a magnetic
of constant magnitude,
field is
lagging behind the current by 90 degs.
This
represented by
D~M.
The
locus of the primary field
is,
therefore, the semicircle Ot,
O
Ot being equal to
144.
D M.
is is
The
potential at the terminals, necessary to drive a current
proportional to X, through the transformer,
proportional to
calculated
O M.
From O M,
formula
the potential at the terminals
from the
100 e
in
=
z
k
~
the
z
F
if
io"
volts,
is
which k
is
generally equal to 2.22,
to 4.44,
if is
s
the
number of conduc
tors,
and equal
number of convolutions.
77
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
145.
either
The
position of the semicircle can
now
easily be determined,
by the use of complex imaginary numbers, or graphically, as
I prefer.
The
ratio
O D'
:
A' D' can be found
7
at once.
We
have:
O& = ^
A' D'
ATiy
.
=
X^
i
v2 hence
,
OD'
A'D'
146. This constant ratio
~^'~
v^
v*
v* v*
we
call the
leakage factor of the trans
former, and denote
(4).
it
by
<?.
I
In Heyland's notation
we should have
(i
:
=
147.
(i
+
is
^i)
:
+
2)
i'=
Ti
+
T2
+
ri TI
To
recapitulate
In a constantcurrent transformer whose sec
ondary resistance
varied from naught to opencircuit, the terminal
voltage varies in such a manner that the vector of the field to which
it is
proportional and with which
it is
t
in quadrature,
has for
its
locus
the semicircle, determined by
circle is perfectly defined if the
O
as centre.
The
position of this
primary resistance and the leakage
factor are
known.
THE CONSTANTPOTENTIAL TRANSFORMER.
148.
If, in
Fig. 41,
we wanted
to
know what
current would flow
through the transformer at a certain difference in phase between
OM
and
O A,
if
OM
were ntimes as large as
e.
in the diagram,
we should
simply reason that, the counter
times as
if
m.
f.
being ntimes as large, only
much
current could flow through the transformer.
constant, varying only
its
Hence,
we
kept
OM
phase relative to
O A,
the
78
ALTERNATINGCURRENT TRANSFORMER.
current would vary in inverse proportion to the magnitude of the
fieldvectors.
If
we kept O
M not only constant, but also
OA
it
in the
same
position, the locus of the vector
would
also be a semicircle.
This
is
a very
fertile principle,
and
was
called
by Dr. Bedell the
method of
reciprocal vectors.
Let, in Fig. 42, the semicircle having Oi as centre, represent the
locus of the primary field of the constantcurrent transformer,
Oi
being the primary current
to 50,
Let
04
be numerically equal to 20,
O 1*
and
O
i to 60.
A
current
O
I*
=
50 produces a
field
equal to
OI
=60, hindering
the flow of the current.
Hence,
if
the field
is
only
O4
= 20,
then a
current of current
I,

X
50
=
150 can flow through the transformer.
This
is
represented by
O 4'.
It
can easily be shown that the points
i', 2', 3', 4',
2, 3,
4 correspond point for point to the points
the
angle 301 being equal to 2'oi.
Fig. 43 represents the circle O/, reciprocal to 0*.
Angle
OA
is
equal to angle
O
t
A.
A
rent
concrete case will bring the matter into a
more palpable form.
149.
'
A
transformer or induction motor requires a magnetizing cur
=5
amp.
We
assume
Vi
= 0.91
79
and
Vt
= 0.80.
The constant
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
potential of the transformer be
no
volts.
The
resistance of the pri
mary be
2 ohms.
The
semicircle Ot can then easily be constructed.
is
All that remains to be done
stantpotential transformer.
to construct the semicii*cle.for the confield
Oi, Fig. 44, is a
equivalent to
no volts.
is
O2
is
a field equivalent to 31.5 volts; hence,
if
the potential
kept
constant at
no
volts,
X
5
=
174 amp.
will flow
through the
DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING METHOD OF RECIPROCAL VECTORS.
Angle
0^0 A, Angle
4
O
A,
A,
;
Angle M'O'A, Angle
Angle
L'
M
L
;
.
A. Angle

A,
.
0~M
.
OM' OD
6~D'
OL
O~L
Fig. 43
transformer at the same phaseangle.
We
thus get point
I
2.
The
centre of the semicircle can at once be. found, points
and 2 being
determined, as angle Ot
150.
OA
is
equal to angle
O A.
2
The
ordinates of the semicircle Ot represent the wattcurrent
I
of the transformer, the ordinate of point
being equal to
5
X2
f
no
80
ALTERNATINGCURRENT TRANSFORMER.
= 0.455,
amp.
and the ordinate of 2 being equal
directly the
to 174*
X
2
r
no
=
5.5
Oi; O2, represent
To
find the secondary currents
primary currents. I have redrawn the same diagram
in Fig. 45.
OA
is
the primary current, or, to be
f.
more
strictly correct,
the primary m. m.
OM
is
proportional to the terminal voltage of
SCALE FOR
1
10 volts in our case.
01234
M. M. T.
SCALE FOR FIELDS
5
AMP.
20
40
60
80
100
VOLTS
Fig. 44
MD
is
proportional to
ti
n, the ohmic drop in the primary.
It is
drawn perpendicular
would be equivalent to the throttling action of the ohmic resistance must be in quadrature with the voltage necessary to overcome it
to Xi, as the field that
O D,
then,
is
the primary flux F\.
81
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
CD
is
the primary leakagefield
^
i
C~D
=

6~A
CG
is
the secondary leakagefield ^ 2 .
C~G
=
z.
20
i
A~C
for the fields the
in
O G is the secondary field F
SCALE FOR
1
By means of the scale
It
SCALE FOR FIELDS
secondary voltage can at once be determined.
M. M. F.
must be borne
100
2
3
45
AMP.
40
60
80
VOLTS
OAX,;
"oLTF,;
ACX 2 OCF;
;
OOX
"OGF2
J
7
OME,
Fig. 45
mind
151.
that
OG
is
not proportional to the voltage at the secondary
it
terminals, but that
includes the ohmic drop in the secondary.
Though
the preceding considerations offer no great difficulty
in
understanding them clearly, yet the transformer diagram becomes
if
surprisingly simple
we
neglect the resistance of the primary.
its
And
not only the diagram, but also
evolution,
become so perspicuous
82
ALTERNATINGCURRENT TRANSFORMER.
that
it
seems peculiar that
it
has taken such a long time to arrive at
this solution.
That the locus of the vector of the primary m. m. f. must be a semicircle, follows directly from the diagram of Fig. 41. This circle
is
reproduced in Fig.
forces.
46.
The
thick lines
show the
triangle of the
magnetomotive
152.
OC
is
the magnetizing current.
If the transformer runs
on
opencircuit,
OC
becomes equal to
O K. We
see, therefore, that the
20 40 60
80 1OO VOLTS
Fig. 46.
magnetizing current
is
not constant for
all
loads, but decreases with
the diminution of the secondary resistance.
the primary magnetic field Fi,
What remains constant
of the
is
which
is
is
composed
common
field
is
F
and the
153.
leakagefield
ft,
F
constantly diminishing, while ft
increasing, their vectorsum being constant.
K
divides
line
O~D
in a constant ratio,
O~K
=v
, .
O~D.
it
Hence,
until
it
drawing a
through K,
for instance,
A
K, and producing
83
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
intersects the semicircle in G, yield us all the data of the transformer
that
we
are interested
in.
INDUCTANCE IN SECONDARY.
is no difficulty in drawing the diagram for a transformer on an inductive load of constant powerfactor. The develworking
154.
There
INDUCTANCE
IN
SECONDARY.
/
/
A/!/
a 77^710.66
Fig. 47
opment of the diagram is of the simplest if we neglect the primary Afterwards it resistance, which is generally perfectly permissible.
ALTERNATINGCURRENT TRANSFORMER.
is
easy to correct the diagram with regard to the ohmic resistance of
if this
the primary,
155. Let
should be desired.
Q, Fig. 47, be the e. m. f. necessary to overcome the ohmic resistance of the secondary circuit, including the resistance of
the coils of the transformer, and
O
ON
the
e.
m.
f.
required to over
come
the external inductance in the secondary circuit, then
e.
OP
is
is
equal to the
m.
f.
required to drive the current
through the whole
secondary of the transformer.
in
is
The
field
necessary to do this
O
is
G,
quadrature with
E
t.
CG
f. t,
is
the leakage field of the secondary,
CA
the
the secondary m. m.
field.
is
X OA
OC
is
the primary m. m.
f.
X\.
CD
primary leakage scale of Xi and X 2
F.
the
common magnetic
field,
and the
so chosen as to give a resultant equal to
OK
is
constant as
OD
is
constant,
OK
being equal to Vi
.
O C= O D.*
It follows at
once from the diagram,
AK X, AK =
:
:
:
X,
.
:
~
Vl
v,
X,.
P O N, G O G K remains constant and equal to 180 O G K. If the diagram is constructed for one point, the locus of G is determined. 156. To determine the locus of A we have to consider the ratio between G K and A K, which we have called
As
angle
moves
in the arc
KC =
For
X,
(i
vj
A K we
have
a
Vi
.
Xi, hence
G~K =  =

A ~K
vt

i
=
*i
i
^

I
This diagram is identical with that given by Herr Emde in the EltktrottchI refer the reader to Herr Erode'* important ische Zeitschrift, Oct. n, 1900. contributions on this subject, as well as to his valuable criticism of my paper of also 1896 on the general transformer. See "al* Herrn Heubach's, Kuhlmann's, and ITC. Sumec's letters on the same subject there.
85
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Hence the
the ratio.
locus of
A
is
an arc the chord of which
is
determined by
O~K
(5).
Vi
centre of this arc
is
^
KL
Angle Oi
157.
is
The
determined by the angle Os
equal to
equal to
Q O P, Q O P.
is
the angle of lag in the secondary.
K L, which O K is
CAPACITY IN THE SECONDARY.
158. Fig. 48
constructed for a capacity in the secondary in series
with the resistance. secondary
field,
Angle
triangle
:
P O B is O A K is the
the secondary lead, Ft
triangle of the m. m.
is
the
ff.
We
find exactly as before
OL
Bearing
in
OK =
a
=
O GK
l
i
mind
that angle
is
constant and equal to angle
N O P,
159.
it
follows at once that the locus of
3
G and
that of
A
are circles.
Again angle
KL
is
equal to angle Oi
O K,
equal to angle
P
Q, the angle of the secondary lead.
HYSTERESIS AND EDDY CURRENTS.
160.
A
word about
the
way
in
which hysteresis and eddy currents
to be constant for all
is
should be taken into account.
loads
Assuming them
which they are
not, as, if the leakagepath
slightly saturated,
the leakageflux becomes greater with larger currents, and the greater
loss in the leakagepath
field
it
may outdo
the decrease of the loss in the
main
seems most logical to take these losses into account by assuming a lag between the common field O C and the magnetizing current. This lag diminishes the secondary current. Draw a line parallel
with
in watts
L D, the distance of which from L D being equal to the loss through hysteresis and eddies divided by the primary voltmus* be measured between
this line
age, then the secondary currents
and the semicircle
O*.
86
ALTERNATINGCURRENT TRANSFORMER.
161.
I
wish to impress upon the reader that there
I
is
little in
this
contribution that
can claim specially
my
own.
I
have merely com
bined the diagrams of Kapp, Steinmetz, and Blondel, simplifying
wherever
it
was
possible.
The
application of the principle of recipro
cal vectors* enables us in a surprisingly simple
manner
to trace out
if
the intricate
phenomena
in the
transformer for constant potential,
IN
CAPACITY
SECONDARY.
t/,0.80
V.0.75

P
Q
Fig. 48.
to include the
we want
at the
primary resistance.
is
My
diagram of the general transfomer
different
self
method of arriving from Dr. Be
and mutual
in
dell's in so far as
he uses the coefficients of
I
duction, a
method which
cannot advocate.
ments of Dynamic."
'The method of reciprocal vectors was admirably treated in 1878 by Prof. W. K. Clifford in the chapter on "Pedal and Reciprocal Curves" in his work on "EleBut Dr. Bedell first applied the principle to the transformer.
87
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
162.
A
very beautiful and simple diagram can be drawn, showing
lag,
in polar coordinates the locus of the primary current for a
non
inductive load, and a lead in the secondary, as for the same trans
former or motor
KL
is
a constant
if
O K
is
constant.
Neglecting
the primary resistance, a diagram can be constructed for constant
terminal voltage by erecting arcs over
K L
as chord.
Arcs
flatter
than the semicircle correspond to an inductance in the secondary, the semicircle corresponds to a noninductive load, and an arc whose
inscribed angle
is
smaller than a right angle, standing on
K L
as
chord, determines the locus of the primary current for a condenser
in the secondary.
As
the secondary terminal voltage
is
determined
most simple and beautiful manner the pheby nomena of resonance and kindred phenomena may at a glance be
the circle Oi, in the
qualitatively
construction to the reader,
and quantitatively understood. who will find no
But
I
must leave the
up
and
difficulty in building
46, 47, 48.
the diagram synthetically with the help of Figs.
It is
is is
worthy of notice how injurious an inductance
with regard to the
capable of taking
in the
secondary
maximum energy in, and how much
the transformer or motor
a condenser in the armature
of the motor would increase the power of the motor to do work.
APPENDIX
The following
phenomena
tric
I.
presentation by Mr. Gisbert
Kapp
of the elementary
in the
induction motor
is
reprinted from his book, "Elecin the author's opinion,
it
Transmission of Energy," because,
is
the clearest
and most concise
logical evolution of the principles unIt will
derlying the theory set forth in the preceding pages.
repay
the student to go over Mr. Kapp's presentation of the subject, and
he
will
understand the vector diagram much more clearly after hav
ing become thoroughly familiar with this extract from the
work of
a master of the art of exposition.
Extract from Gisbert Kapp's Electric Transmission of Power On the Induction Motor.
THE
tors,
armature conductors may be connected so as to form single loops, each passing across a diameter, or they may all be conin parallel at
nected
each end face by means of circular conduc
Either system of winding does equally well, but as the latter is mechanically more simple, we will assume it to be adopted in Fig. 49. The circular end connections are supposed to be of very large area as compared witli the
bars, so that their resistance
somewhat
in the fashion of a squirrel cage.
may
be neglected.
The
potential of either
connecting ring will then remain permanently at zero, and the current
passing through each bar from end to end will be that due to the
e.
m.
f.
acting in the bar divided by
e.
its
is
resistance.
It is
important
to note that the
m.
f.
here meant
not only that due to the bar
field,
cutting through the lines of the revolving
sults
but that which re
when armature
reaction
and selfinduction are duly taken into
account.
89
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Let us now suppose that the motor is at work. The primary field produced by the supply currents makes ~j complete revolutions per second, whilst the armature follows with a speed of ~ a complete revolutions per second.
The magnetic
slip 5 is
then
If the field revolves clockwise, the armature
must
also revolve clockfield,
wise, but at a slightly slower rate.
Relatively to the
then, the
FIG. 49.
armature will appear to revolve
a speed of
in a
counter clockwise direction, with
revolutions per second.
As
far as the electromagnetic action within
the armature
is
concerned,
we may
therefore assume that the priis
mary
by
field is
stationary in space,
and that the armature
revolved
a belt in a
backward
direction at the rate of
~
revolutions per
belt to the
second.
The
effective tangential pull transmitted
by the
90
APPENDIX
armature
in
I.
will then be exactly equal to the tangential force
which
proper
reality is transmitted
by the armature
to the belt at its
working speed, and we may thus calculate the torque exerted by the motor as if the latter were worked as a generator backward at a
much slower
in
speed, the
whole of the power supplied being used up
heating the armature bars.
this point of
The
is,
object of approaching the prob
lem from
view
of course, to simplify as
If
possible the whole investigation.
much we once know what torque
as a generator,
it it
as
is
required to
work
the machine slowly
backward
will
be an easy matter to find what power
gives out
when working
forward as a motor
Let
at its proper speed.
in Fig. 105 the horizontal a, c, b, d,
a represent the interpolar
line.
space straightened out, and the ordinates of the sinusoidal
B,
the induction in this space, through which the armature bars pass
with a speed of
~
revolutions per second.
We
make
at present
it
no
is
assumption as to
how
this induction
is
produced, except that
the resultant of all the currents circulating in the machine.
We
as
sume, however, for the present that no magnetic flux takes place
within the narrow space between armature and
field
wires, or, in
all
other words, that there
is
no magnetic leakage, and that
field
the lines
of force of the stationary
are radial.
The
rotation being counter
b,
clockwise, each bar travels in the direction from a to c to
and so on.
the space
The
d a
lines of the field are directed radially
c,
outwards
in
f.
and radially inward
in the
space c b d.
the bars
The
e.
m.
will, there
fore, be directed
in all the bars
downwards
in all
on the
left,
on the right of the vertical diameter in E represent the curve of e. m. f. in Fig. 50, then, since there
m.
curve, and
and upwards Fig. 49. Let
is
no
magnetic leakage the current curve will coincide in phase with the
e.
f.
we may
represent
it
by the line
I.
It is
important
firt
to note that this curve really represents
two
and
things.
In the
place
it
represents the instantaneous value of the current in any one
its
bar during
advance from
left to right
;
in the
all
second place,
it
represents the permanent effect of the current in
01
the bars, provided,
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
however, the bars are numerous enough
to
permit the representation
by a curve instead of a line composed of small vertical and horizontal
steps.
The question we have now
I ?
to investigate
is
:
what
is
the
magby
netizing effect of the currents
which are
if
collectively represented
the curve
In other words,
there were no other currents flowing
i,
but those represented by the curve
of the magnetic
field
what would be the disposition
Positive ordinates of
I
produced by them?
represent currents flowing upwards or towards the observer in Fig.
FIG. 50.
49, negative ordinates
represent
downward
Thus
currents.
The former
tend to produce a magnetic whirl in a counter clockwise direction,
and the
latter in
a clockwise direction.
the current in the bar
b, will
which happens
produce a
of
in
b,
field,
at the
moment
to
occupy the position
of
tend to
the lines of which flow radially inwards on the right
left
b.
and radially outwards on the
Similarly the current
the bar occupying the position a, tends to produce an inward
92
APPENDIX
field,
i.
I.
e.,
a
field
the ordinates of which are positive, in Fig. 105, to
field to
the
left
of a, and an outward
the right of
a.
It is
easy to
show
that the collective action of all the currents represented by the
field as shown by the sinusoidal line A. This curve must obviously pass through the point b, because the magnetizing effects on both sides of this point are equal and opposite.
curve / will be to produce a
For the same reason the curve must pass through
a.
i
That the curve
be the current
must be sinusoidal
armature
angle
is
easily proved, as follows: Let
b,
per centimetre of circumference in
;
and
let r
be the radius of the
then the current through a conductor distant from b by the be
i
a, will
cos a per centimetre of circumference.
If
we take
an infinitesimal part of the conductor comprised within the angle d o,
the current will therefore be
di
=
i
r cos a
d
a,
and the magnetizing effect in ampereturns of all the currents comprised between the conductor at b, and the conductor at the point
given by the angle a will be
di
i
=
i
r sin a,
act in the
and since the conductors on the other side of b
the
field in the
same sense,
point under consideration
i
will be
produced by 2
r
sin a ampereturns,
being the current per centimetre of circum
ference at
b.
Since for low inductions, which alone need here be considered, the
permeability of the iron
field
may
be taken as constant,
it
follows that the
strength
is
proportional to ampereturns,
and that consequently
that the field
A
must be
a true sine curve.
When
existence
starting this investigation,
we had assumed
find that the
represented by the curve
in
B
is
the only field which had a physical
the
motor
;
but
now we
armature currents
induced by
B
would,
if
acting alone, produce a second field, repre
sented by the curve A.
Such a
field, if it
had a physical existence,
would, however, be a contradiction of the premise with which
93
we
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
started,
and we see thus that there must be another influence
field
at
work
is
which prevents the formation of the
A.
This influence
ex
erted by the currents passing through the coils of the field magnets.
FIG.
51.
The primary field must therefore be of such shape and strength, that it may be considered as composed of two components, one exactly
94
APPENDIX
B
I.
equal and opposite to A, and the other equal to B. In other words, must be the resultant of the primary field and the armature fielc A.
1
The curve C
as
it
in Fig. 50 gives the induction in this
primary
field
or
is
is
also called, the "impressed field," being that field which
impressed on the machine by the supply currents circulating through the field coils. It will be noticed that the resultant field lags behind
the impressed field by an angle which
is
less
than a quarter period.
The working
in Fig. 106, the
(i.
e.,
condition of the motor, which has here been investi
gated by means of curves, can also be shown by a clock diagram.
Let
maximum
field
strength within the interpolar space
number of
lines per square centimetre at a
and b of
Fig. 104,
be represented by the line
O
B, and
let
O
Ia represent the total
left
am
pereturns due to armature currents in the bars to the
right of the vertical, then
or the
O A
represents to the same scale as
B
the
maximum
induction due to these ampereturns.
We
O
la
need not
stop here to inquire into the exact relation between
this will be explained later on.
and
O
A,
to
For the present it is only necessary note that under our assumption of no magnetic leakage in
the machine,
fore also to
O A must stand O B, and that the
at right angles to
O
Ia ,
and there
ratio
between
O
la
and
O A
(i.
e.,
armature ampereturns and armature field) is a constant. By drawing a vertical from the end of B and making it equal to O A, we find
O C
the
maximum
induction of the impressed
field
field.
The
total
am
pereturns required on the
magnet to produce this impressed field are found by drawing a line from C under the same angle to C O, as A Ia forms with A O, and prolonging this line to its intersection with a line drawn through O at right angles to O C. Thus we
obtain
little
O Ic the total ampereturns to be applied to the field. The diagram below shows a section through the machine, but in,
stead of representing the conductors by
little circles
as before, the
armature and field currents are
shown by
the tapering lines, the
thickness of the lines being supposed to indicate the density of current per centimetre of circumference at each place.
95
APPENDIX
The following
and
109.
52,
is
II.
a very simple
and elegant method of arriving
108
graphically at the results of the integrations in Sections 19, 20,
Consider a winding ag, Fig.
that
is all
extending over an arc of 180 degs.,
induced which we shall
over the polepitch.
In each element, extending over an
is
infinitesimally small arc, there
an
e.
m.
f.
FIG.
52.
call dc,
represented by the infinitesimally small vector
AB
perpen
dicular to the element of the winding ab.
that the vectorsum, or the expression
(
We
can see at a glance
de, is equal to
in the
AG, and
is
that
the algebraic
to the arc
sum
of the
e.
m.
f.'s
induced
elements
equal
ABC D
G, since in the latter case the elements have to
96
APPENDIX
be added independently of
the algebraic
II.
their phase relation.
But we know that
is
sum
of the
e.
m.
f.'s
of
all
the elements
equal to
~
V/2
z *
io' 8 volts,
hence we
may
conclude that
in
a distributed winding the
e.
m.
f.
induced
is
equal to
AG
r
A B CD G
multiplied by
e.
This
is,
FIG. 53
however, equal to
I
Z *
2
10"'
= V/2 ~
in
z *
io~* volts.
This formula
sentatfon
differs slightly
from (21) as
our graphic repre
we have assumed
a sinusoidal field the lines of which are
cutting the winding, whereas fields with straight contours have been
considered in Sections
If the coil covers
19,
20 and 108.
e.
an angle of 120 degs., (Fig. 53), the
97
m.
f.
in
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
it
duced in
that
is
it is
equal 107= V2
~
z *
icr8 multiplied
by
A G^ABCDG,
to say, equal to
z *
IO"8
=
1.836
~
z
volts.
For a
coil
extending over an angle of go degs. (Fig. 54),
we
find
FIG. 54.
at
e.
once the coefficient entering into the general equation for the
m.
f.
to be
1/2
2
Let the
coil
cover an angle of 30 degs. (Fig. 55), and
we have
at
once for the coefficient
7T
2
7T
V/2
as found in Section 20.
6
1/2
98
APPENDIX
The foregoing
integrations.
is
II.
again an illustration of the ease with which
graphic methods lead to results otherwise attainable only by lengthy
FIG. 55
In Appendix III.
we
shall describe a
in field
way
in
which
to take into
account the ohmic losses
that adopted in Figs.
5,
and armature much simpler than
24,
and
33.
99
APPENDIX
Figs.
5, 24,
III.
and
.33
can be greatly simplified
in the
if
the watt
component
corresponding to the C~R losses
primary and secondary of the
rotatory transformer are set off from
circle.
DL
instead of
from the semiordinates be
For
it
can easily be proved (Fig. 56) that
.the
,
tween RCi and
nates between
RC DL
2
are exactly proportional to
CV? 2
while the ordilittle
and RCi represent, with extremely
of this
2,
inac
curacy, the watt component corresponding to the ohmic loss in the
primary, C*Ri.
dinate between
The proof
RCi and
is
very simple, for
let
b be the or
RC
or a current Co, then
we have
Co
2
= mbo,
DL,
2
where
m
is
a constant.
do,
Calling the projection of Co on
and that of
C
on DL,
a,
then
we have
DN = C = a
2
We
also have
=
Hence follows
a
(DL
a)
C*
=
a

.
b
.
DL
DL
(a)
In a similar
manner
it
can be proved that the ohmic loss in the
primary may be represented by the ordinates between
and RCi,
RD
being equivalent to the ohmic loss produced by the current OR.
It is
now
evident that the output
P
of the motor
is
represented by
the ordinates between the circle and
RC
2,
while the ordinates be
tween the
circle
and
Rd
represent the torque
D
of the motor.
100
APPENDIX
III.
i90;. Slip
Generator
roi
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
The
by the
slip is
equal to the ratio of the loss in the armature divided
total
energy developed
in the secondary,
hence equal to the
ratio of the ordinates
between RCi and RCi, divided by the ordinates
between the
circle
and RC\.
Mr. Heyland has shown that the diagram may be used to represent the action of the motor when running at a speed above synchronism,
i.
e.,
at a negative slip.
The motor then
gives energy back upon the
it.
line,
I
requiring mechanical energy to drive
The
simplification that
have just introduced, by which the ohmic losses can be taken into
lines,
account by merely drawing two straight
enables us to plot at
once the current, d, the torque D, the output
cos
<j>,
P
,
the
power
factor
and the
slip
5",
in rectangular coordinates as functions of the
electrical electrical
energy consumed by the motor, and as functions of the
energy given back by the generator.
Fig. 56 illustrates these curves, the plotting of
which takes but a
few minutes.
102
INDEX.
(The numbers
refer to the pages.)
AmpereConductors P er Slot, Their Influence on Leakage AmpereConductors per Slot Armature Currents Li Different Frequencies
Bedell, Dr. Fred Bedell & Crehore
24 23 40
87
73
51
BehnEschenburg, Dr. Hans
Blondel, Prof.
Andre
15
C ahen,
Hermann
85.
35
Calculation of SinglePhase Motor, Chapter VII Capacity in Secondary of Transformer
63 86
1 1
Character of Magnetic Field Characteristic Curves of SinglePhase Motor
Clifford,
60. 67, 68,
W.
K
ConstantCurrent Transformer
Comparison of SinglePhase and ThreePhase Motor
Conductors, Number of, per Slot Constant Potential Transformer Corroboration of Theory CounterE. M. F. in ThreePhase Motor CounterE. M. F. in SinglePhase Motor
69 87 76 70 24 78
5
13.14 61,62
53
D arwin,
Prof. George Howard Design of 2OOhp ThreePhase Motor Determination of Characteristic Curves of 2OOhp Motor
42 47,48
17
E fficiency
Emde,
Fritz
;
85
Its
Exciting Current
Determination
103
15
THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
f ormulae
of Induction Motor .............................. Frequency, Drawbacks of High ..............................
15
38
General AlternatingCurrent Transformer, Chapter I ........ Graphic Integration, Appendix II ............................
i
96
H elmholtz, Quoted
A
.........................................
41
Heubach ...................................................
85
................................................ 2, 102 Heyland, Hysteresis and Eddy Currents .............................. 87
in Secondary of Transformer .................... Induction Generator, Appendix III ...........................
I nductance
84
100
K
............... ............................. Induction Motor, Appendix 1 ....................... Kuhlmann .................................................
:
a PP>
Gisbert
15
On
89
85
L eakage
...................................................
2
5
Leakage Coefficient ........................................ Leakage Coefficient Its Theoretical Predetermination ........ Leakage Factor, Chapter IV ................................ Leakage Factor, as Dependent on AirGap and PolePitch. .. .32, Leakage Factor, Influence of AirGap on .................... 29, Leakage, How Influenced by PolePitch ......................
;
28
29
36
30 34 27
Load Losses ...............................................
Current .................................. i, 4, Factor ...................................
14, 15
Maximum Power
18
Current, Relation Between NoLoad and Magnetizing Current in SinglePhase Motors .....................
56
Qhmic
Output
Resistance of Primary ............................. ....................................................
4,
7 18
Output, How Dependent on Speed .......................... Overload, Dependence on AirGap ..........................
104
38
32
INDEX.
P olar
Diagrams of General AlternatingCurrent Transformer,
23 34
Chapter VIII
Pole Pitch, Its Influence on Leakage Factor Power Factor Its Relation to Leakage Coefficient
;
9
21
Power Factor;
How
; ;
Primary Resistance Primary Resistance
Affected by Open or Closed Slots Its Influence on Diagram
8
81
How
Taken Into Account
R elation
S
Between Leakage Factor and Power Factor
26
5
emiCircle Diagram
.'
SemiCircle Diagram for Single Phase Motors ShortCircuit Current
Single Phase Motor, Chapters VI. and Slip and Resistance
60
19
54
16,
VII
18
and Torque Curves Slip and SinglePhase Motor
Slip
Slots,
52 58 22 23 20
Slots
Slots,
;
Number per Pole Their Number as Influencing Leakage
Comparison Between Open and Closed Speeds, Winding a Motor for Different Squirrel Cage Armature Starting Arrangement for SinglePhase Motors
Steinmetz, C.
P
Sumec
36 49 71,72 2 42 85
17
Thompson,
Silvanus
P
16,
Three Phase Motor, Experimental Data of
25
17
Torque Torque Curves of Single Phase Motor
Vectors, Reciprocal
57
79,
80
105
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DO NOT REMOVE
FROM
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UNIVERSITY
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