UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO

LIBRARY

Acme
Under

Pat.

Library Card Pocket " Ref. Index
File."

Made by LIBRAET BUfiEAU

PROPERTY OF ELECTRICAL LABORATORY,
FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE.
Date

LABORATORY, PROPERTY OF ELECTRICAL
SCIENCE. FACULTY OF APPLIED

Date..

PROPERTY OF ELECTRICAL LABORATOfiT"
FACULTY OF APPLIED SCIENCE.
I).-.

THE INDUCTION MOTOR
A Short
Treatise on

Theory and Design, with Numerous Experimental Data
its

and Diagrams

B.
i

A.
Member

BEHREND
Inst.

M

i-ii!

her lust.

C.

E.,

E.

.,

Germany; Member
K.

lust.

E. E., Switzerland', Associate Member American Inst. /.'. ; .Formerly Assistant Chiff Electrician of
the

Oerlikon

Engineering Switzerland

Works,

" The absence of analytical difficulties allows attention to be mart easily con,entrated an the physical aspects <>/ the question, and thus girts the student a mure rii'iii idea and a mure inanaxeable grasp oj the subject than hf would << likely to attain if he merely regarded electrical phfnonteiiii through a cloud o/ a >ta lyt ica I symbols."
I.
-I.

TlloM-'is.

NEW YORK
Mi-GKAW PUBLISHING COMPANY
114
I.
I

B H K

T Y

STREET

COPYRIGHTED,

1901,

BY

ELECTRICAL WORLD AND ENGINEER
(INCORPORATED)

TO
MY FRIEND AND TEACHER

MR.
I

GISBERT KAPP

INSCRIBE THIS WORK.

PREFACE.
The
literature of electrical engineering has
it

become so vast and ex-

man to keep pace with all that is written on electrical subjects. He who produces a new book that adds to the swelling tide of new publications, may justly be asked for
tensive that
is

impossible for any

his credentials.
in the fact that,

My

justification for writing this tract will be
all

found

though almost

branches of applied electricity have

enlisted the industry of authors, the induction

motor has received

comparatively

little

attention from competent engineers.

The few

whose experience and knowledge would entitle them to speak with authority on this subject are deterred from publishing by commercial
reasons.
I

have made the induction motor the subject of early and special

studies,

and a comparison of

my

treatment of

its

theory with the
in

purely analytical theories will show
plifying and elucidating so

how

far

I

have succeeded

sim-

complex a

subject.

The

graphical treat-

and

ment of abstruse natural phenomena is constantly gaining ground, I quote with satisfaction the words of so great a mathematician

as Prof. George
bridge,

Howard Darwin, Fellow
p.

of Trinity College,

Cam-

who

says on

509 of the second volume of Lord Kelvin

and Prof. Tail's Treatise on Natural Philosophy that "the simplicity with which complicated mechanical interactions may be thus traced
out geometrically to their results appears truly remarkable."
All through this
little

book

I

have endeavored to

let

inductive

method check
of the results.

at every step the

mathematical or graphical deduction
alter-

A

wide experience with mono- and polyphase
to

nating current induction motors, gained at the Oerlikon Engineering

Works, Switzerland, has enabled me
reader

do

so.

Thus

the careful

who

is

willing to profit

by the experience of others, will find

many

valuable hints and results which he can turn to account in his

practice.
ciples laid

Many
down

induction motors have been designed on the prinin this little treatise,

and

in

no case has the theory
Those

failed to

answer the questions suggested by observation. The writing of this book has been mainly a labor of love.
through the press, not to mention the

who know

of the troubles, cares and labor involved in writing a
it

book and bringing

sacrifice

of personal experience by publication, will doubtless be able to appreciate this thoroughly.
I

wish

to

thank the editors of the ELECTRICAL WORLD AND ENGINEER

for the pains they have taken with the publication of this book, and I

must

specially

thank Mr.

has always given to me.
of ELECTRICAL

W. D. Weaver for the encouragement he To Mr. T. R. Taltavall, Associate Editor
endless pains

with the proofs of this book,

WORLD AND ENGINEER, who has taken I feel very much indebted.
of this volume

The substance
and
I

was delivered

in

January, 1900 in

the form of lectures at the University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wis.,

wish to thank Prof. John Butler Johnson, Dean of the Col-

lege of Mechanics and Engineering, for the invitation as non-resi-

dent lecturer which he extended to me.

To him and

to Prof. D. C.

Jackson

I

am

greatly indebted for the hospitality conferred

upon the

stranger within their gates.

CONTENTS.
PARA-

CHAPTER.
I.

PACE.
i

GRAPH.
1-17

II.

The General Alternating-Current Transformer A. The Character of the Magnetic Field in the
phase
B.

Polyii

Motor
for

18-23

The Formula

the Three-Phase-Curent

Motor..

15

24-28
29-38
39-64

III.

IV.

The Short-Circuit Current and The Leakage Factor
Design
of a

the Leakage Factor...

19

29

V.
VI.
VII.
VIII.

Three-Phase-Current

Motor

for

200
42
54
65-93
941 1

Horse-Power

The Single-Phase Motor
Calculation

o

of a

Single-Phase-Current
of
the

Motor
Alternating-Cur-

63

111-131

The Polar Diagrams
rent

General

Transformer
1

73

132-162

Appendix

89
96
100

Appendix II Appendix III

THE INDUCTION MOTOR
CHAPTER
The General
1.

I.

Alternating Current Transformer.
be-

The problem
is

of problems, in the solution of which the electrical
all others, is set

engineer

deeply interested, and which underlies

fore us in the form of the alternating current transformer possessing

considerable leakage and a relatively large magnetizing current.
2. A transformer with an open secondary takes from the primary mains just so much current as is necessary to produce a magnetic field which can balance the primary voltage. This current neglect-

moment hysteresis and eddy currents lags behind the primary voltage by a quarter of a phase hence the work done by this current is zero, and the magnetizing current is therefore a "wattless"
ing for the
;

current.

This consideration

is

true only for a transformer without

leakage.

The magnetizing
in

current need not be a wattless current in
is

the sense in which this term

generally used.

We

shall learn

more

about this
3. If
say,
if

Chapter VIII.
is

you throw a non-inductive load upon the secondary, that

to

the secondary of the transformer be closed through a resist-

ance, then the impedance represented by the action

and reaction of the
is

primary and the secondary system of the transformer,
permitting a larger current to flow.
If,

diminished,

for didactic purposes,

we

make
mary

the
is

assumption

that

the

transmitted without loss

whole magnetic flux of the priinto the secondary, and vice versa,

then the vector of the primary current must be composed of two
vectors, the one representing the magnetizing or wattless current,

lagging behind the terminal volts by a quarter of a phase, and the
other representing the watt
irrent
i

and being

in

phase with the

ter-

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
minal
volts.
is

resistance

Thus the vector of the primary current for any external determined by the locus of the point A, Fig. i, which is

the straight line

AD

parallel with the vector of the impressed

e.

m.

f.

The energy consumed by
(i)
4.

the transformer

is

given by the equation
.

&
The
coil

=e

i

cos

fi

The

introduction of leakage into the transformer changes the dia:

gram

as follows

total

number of

lines of induction passing

through the primary
sistance of the coil.

must remain constant

as long as the terminal

voltage remains constant, neglecting for the

moment

the ohmic re-

The magnetomotive

force of the

main current
field

produces a stray-field proportional to the driving current; this

added vectorially
magnetic
tions
line,

to the

main magnetic
that

field,

generates the constant

field

included by the primary
is

and reactions

A

The result of these acdoes no longer move in a straight
coil.

but in a semi-circle described upon the prolongation of
historical

OD

C).

writer worked out the theory here given in the summer of 1895, and sent the paper to the Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, Berlin, where it was published in February, 1896. Meanwhile Mr. A. Heyland, in some letters to the above-named paper, used the same diagram without, however, giving any proof. When Mr. Heyland's letters were published I inserted a note in my MS. referring to them. I have since, whenever I had an opportunity, given Mr. Heyland ample credit for his priority, and I have done it with satisfaction, as I really admired some of his later papers very much. Mr. Steinmetz informed me some time ago that he had found this relation as early as 1893, but that commercial reasons prevented him from pub-

*A

remark may not be out of place here.

The present

lishing.

GENERAL ALTERNATING CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
It is

'

of extreme importance for us to clearly understand these rela-

tions as they

form the basis for

all

further reasoning.

5. In Fig. 3

OA

is

the vector of the magnetomotive force.of the pri-

mary,

or, in

other words, the total number of lines of force (not in-

duction) produced by the primary current, and corresponding to the

number of ampere-turns. Not

all

the lines of induction which the prithe secondary of the transformer.

mary current generates can reach

FIG. 3.

Let us assume that the amount
Vi
.

AA

1

is

lost,

h OA* being
.i 1
i

equal to
loss of

O A,

Vi

being a factor smaller than one

and measuring the

lines

from the primary

to the secondary. Let

OB

1

represent the vector

of the total

number of

lines of induction of the secondary, lines that

and

OB=

vt

.

OB

1

the

number of

extend into the primary, vt being

again a coefficient smaller than one, then
tor

we

see at once that the vec-

sum

of

A

and

OB

must be equal

to the vector of the

magneto

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
motive force which
this

up the magnetizing current. The vector of magnetomotive force is represented by the line O C.
sets

6.

The

lines of force

which are common

to both

ondary, are the effect of the two magnetizing forces

primary and secO A and B
;

while the lines of induction which pass through the secondary only,

can be found as the resultant of

OA

and
is

OB

l
.

This resultant,

O

G,

must be perpendicular
tions of
7.

to

O B,

as

OB

produced through the

oscilla-

O

G.
list

The following
:

will help to

make

the diagram

more

clearly

understood

OA OB

= Xi =X
2

is is

the magnetizing force of the primary. the magnetizing force of the secondary.

OA

1

OA
0~B

= =
ohmic

OD

is

the field balancing the terminal voltage,
if

8. It will readily be seen that,

the drop caused by the

re-

sistance of the primary
racy,

may

be neglected without too
is so.

much

inaccuFig. 3,

OD

is

constant

if

the terminal voltage

We have,

Z

HA D= Z HOG
~C~K

=

Z

6

OK X
2

OK
vj)

(i

C~G

-*(-=--')
O~D
.

Vl

4

GENERAL ALTERNATING CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
Hence,
.

sin &

f

X, = -^ OD = ** (v

-jr
*

-)

rTn \

\

v*

In words, this means that Xi
semi-circle described

may

be represented as a chord in a

upon

LD

as basis,
.

and having a diameter

ITD
If

=

O~D

(
\Z/!

Vt

A /
directly without having to

we want

to take

from the diagram Xi

FIG. 4.

multiply by

v\,

we have

to join

A

and

K

by a

circle.

For a more deChapter VIII.

tailed treatment of all these points I refer the reader to
9.

We call the quotient

-

LD

the leakage factor a of the transformer,

and have therefore
(2),
I

The leakage

coefficient a is the

most important factor
5

in the

theory

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
of the alternating current transformer, and a successful design must endeavor to keep a as small as possible. The determination of a will

be treated of
10.

in a

chapter devoted entirely to the leakage factor.
table contains the results of a series of measure-

The following

ments as a corroboration of the theory. The data were taken from a
three-phase current motor, the armature of which was standing
still
;

the-

whole apparatus was thus acting as a transformer with considerable
leakage.

The

field

contained 36 closed

slots, 7

conductors in each slot

;

resistance of each phase 0.045 ohms.

The armature

contained 90

round

holes, 3 conductors in each hole;

resistance at each phase
.

0.172 ohms.

Number

of poles,

6.

Frequency, 48

PRIMARY CIRCUIT.

GENERAL ALTERNATING CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
13.

We

should make a great mistake were

we

to

assume that

this

value would give us a leakage factor a true to reality, since in our case,

where the

slots in armature and field are closed, v depends greatly upon the saturation of the thin iron bridges closing the slots. The

saturation of these bridges

is

dependent upon the intensity of the

FIG. 5.

current

;

beyond a certain intensity

v,

and therefore a

is

practically

constant.

Assuming
a

z/j

to be equal to
i

vt, we should get
68
'-$

for

=_

= 0.235, instead of
1

= 0.098,

0.90-0.00 as follows from the diagram.
14.
It

may

be advisable to emphasize that in the derivation of the

ohmic resistance of the primary has not been taken into account. As this point is of extreme theoretical and practical impordiagram the
tance,

we have

to dwell

on

it

at

some

length.

THE INFLUENCE OF THE RESISTANCE OF THE PRIMARY UPON THE DIAGRAM.
15.

The

semi-circle

L

i' 2' 3' 4'

D, Fig.

5,

represents the locus of the
the assumption that
2 3 4
is

current for a constant terminal voltage

OE, upon
I

the primary resistance be negligible. 'The arc
7

the locus of

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
the current
if

we assume

that the drop through

ohmic resistance

in

the primary amounts for point 4' to 10% of O E. Finally the ordinates of the curve i* 2" 3" 4" represent the amount of watt-com-

ponent of the current that

is

available in the secondary circuit.

It

would be superfluous here

to say

anything about the manner in which

these curves have been plotted, as everyone familiar with polar dia-

grams

will readily understand

it

from the

lines in the figure.

It is of

importance to note

that,

though the primary resistance was
five
I

assumed

to have a value

which exceeds about

times the real value

in practice, yet the curves

L

i' 2' 3' 4'

D and

2 '3 4 deviate compara-

tively little

from each
all.

other.

If

deviate at

In reality,
in

OD

+-

smaller than

it is

our

figure.

OD were zero, then they would not LD is almost always considerably If, however, OD is large in compariis

son with LD, and
to

if

the primary resistance

considerable,

we have

draw a diagram

like Fig. 5.

This will be the exception and not the

rule.
16.

Thus we have learned

that the influence of the ohrnic resistance
is,

upon the locus of the current
into account
this

in

most

practical cases, negligible;
is in all

but the energy dissipated in the resistance,
;

cases to be taken

can be done by deducting the watt-component cor-

responding to the ohmic loss from the ordinates of the semi-circle

LD.

We thus arrive at a curve similar to
We

i" 2" 3" 4".

GENERAL CONCLUSIONS AND SUMMARY.
17.

are

now

enabled, with the help of the diagram, to solve any

question pertaining to the alternating current transformer.
in a later chapter, discuss in detail for a concrete case the

We

shall,

many

prob-

lems of interest which this diagram permits us to solve; here we shall merely summarize the main conclusions at which we have arrived.

In Fig. 6

OA
to,

represents the primary current

ti,

OD
HI

the magnetiz-

ing current

and

AD

is

equal to

vl

2
z'

2

in

which

and

n* are the

7?j

number of turns

in the

primary and the secondary, respectively.
8

GENERAL ALTERNATING CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
The
circle

smallest lag

<P

is

determined by the intersection of the semi-

LD

with the semi-circle

HAO,

as can be seen at a glance.
It is

The

cosine of this angle can be expressed as follows.

HA =HD =-^>-, 20 HA = cos HO
<t>

=

(T

OO

20

I

I

+
.
-

(3)-

20+1

This equation enables us to predict the maximum power factor if the leakage coefficient a is known. I will here premise that the starting current furnishes a value for the determination of the diameter of

8

8
FIG. 6.

the semi-circle, while the magnetizing current can always easily be

measured.

This method of determining the

maximum power

factor

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
attainable, thus

recommends

itself

not only to the designer, but, on

account of

its

The
input

full

and accuracy, also to the customer. curve / of higher order in Fig. 6, which can easily be
simplicity

constructed, represents the power factor as a function of the
;

the dotted line // shows the

power power factor for a transformer

without any leakage.

10

CHAPTER
A.

II.
in

The Character

of the Magnetic Field Polyphase Motor.
in
I,

the
is

18. The magnetic field duced by three windings,
III

a three-phase current motor
II,
I

pro-

and

III, Fig. 7.

If the current in

FIG. 7.

Ill

is

a

maximum, and

if

the currents vary acording to a simple
I

sine curve, then the currents in

and
II

II are

each equal to half the cur-

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
rent in III.

The magnetomotive

forces of each phase are represented

by the ordinates of the curves

I, II,

and

III respectively.

Each ordinate

measures the magnetomotive force produced in that place of the circumference in which it is drawn. The adding up of the three curves
yields the thick line curve
If the

drawn below.
is

magnetic reluctance
if

the

same

at every point of the circumis

ference, in other words,

the reluctance of the iron

negligible,

then the flux, produced by the magnetomotive force represented by
the thick line curve,
is

proportional to that magnetomotive force.

Hence
flux.

the thick line curve

may

be taken as

"a

representation of the

We

call the total

number of

lines of induction $,

and we

as-

II

FIG. 8.

FIG. Q.

sume

that this flux varies according to a simple sine law.

We

shall

now

proceed to calculate the

e.

m.

f.

induced by this

field

upon each

phase.

We have

tacitly

assumed

that the coils
slots.

I, II,

and

III are distributed
this

in a practically infinite
case, yet this

number of

Though

cannot be the

assumption

may

safely be made for our present pur-

pose.
19.
It is

obvious

that, if the

convolutions of each phase were

alj

con-

centrated in one

slot, the effect of the oscillation or the traveling of

12

THE MAGNETIC FIELD
the field

IN
m.

THE POLYPHASE MOTOR.
f.

would be

to set

up an

e.

equal to 2.22

~z
e.

.

<j>

,

10"* volts;

however, through the distribution of the winding, only the parts of
the flux not covered with hrtchings can produce an

m.

f.

expressed

by this formula, while the hatched parts of the
siderably smaller effect.

field will

have a con-

The induced
is

e.

m.

f.

can be calculated as
conductors
-

follows

:

The width

of the coil

2b

;

there are

in the coil

spread over 2b.

Per unit length there

are, therefore,

conductors,
of
\t

hence the element d
lines of induction

x

contains d

x

.

2b

- conductors.

The number

threading the conductors in the element

dx

equal to

**

represented by the hatched area.

We

have, therefore,

de

= 2.22 ~
.

.

.

dx

.

**

.

10-8 volts.

2 b

*,

=<B.l_ aJ r.^~ = 2 2
= 2.22 ~
.

Hence

de

n
.

r&.^..
-

ib

-L

--..
26
2
o
.

($,.x*.(tx-\
I
.

J

io-

JL
2

^L.

[jV^ - /B^lffI J
2b

.

I0 ,

_n
6 J
io-

.

,o

e

= 2.22 ~
.

.

-"
2

.

ifi

.

-.
3

.

We
(4)
<r

have *

=
2

,

therefore

=

2.

This

is in

words,
is

The

e.

m.

f.

induced by the
e.

field
f.

the width b

two-thirds as large as the
13

m.

* upon a coil of which would be in-

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
duced by the same field upon a lodged in only one groove. The
It
coil

which
case

is is

not distributed, but
9.

latter,

represented in Fig.

may

not be amiss to call attention to the fact that a coil like that in

Fig. 9

that

shown

would produce a rectangular magnetic field twice as large as in the figure. Hence the inductance of the flat coil is
slot.

one-third as large as the inductance of the coil lodged in one

20. The
calculated.

e.

m.

f.

generated by the

field in Fig. 7

can

now

easily be

The number
Fig. 7
is

of lines of induction represented by the white area in

equal to

The

e.

m.

f.

produced by

this flux is

<?,

= 2.22 ~
.

.

z

.

( -5. V 4

.

.

t

.

b

.

(&\ io*

3

/

The hatched

areas represent a flux equal to

*""**6 2
The
e.

m.

f.

produced by

this flux is

eu

= 2.22 ~
.

.

z

.

-|-

(i
.
.

.

/

.

*

.

10-8

(B)

Hence
*

= e + ^n = 2.22 ~
l

z

.

(

p .t.b.Qt]

lO' 8

The

total flux

amounts
.

to

<t>

= -312

b

.

t

.

(B,

hence
$
io'
8

6 e

= 2.22 ~
.

.

Z z

.

.

.

10-8

21
(5)

= 2.12 ~
.

.

.

$

.

volts.

21.

The ampere-turns

in

each phase which are needed to produce

the induction (B in the air-gap are determined by the consideration,

which follows immediately from
2 (o
.

Fig.
.

7,

that

4

JT

.

.

/

1/2.

)

= (B

2

A

THE MAGNETIC FIELD
In this equation
to

IN

THE POLYPHASE MOTOR.
number of conthe air-gap in cm.

is

the magnetizing current, n the

ductors per pole and phase, and
of the iron
is

A
(B
2

The

reluctance

supposed to be negligible.
1.6

From
(6)

this equation follows /

=

A
amperes.

n
is

.

7=V2

22. If the reluctance of the iron
duction
($>

not negligible, the magnetic in-

has to be determined point for point, which can easily be

done with the help of a magnetizing curve. It is of importance to note that the maximum induction does not extend over a very large part
of the pole-pitch, hence
it is

not objectionable to have an induction

of 15,000 or 16,000 in the teeth, as this high induction hardly increases the magnetizing current on account of
its

being limited to a

very small part of the surface of the pole. 23. I have not entered upon a detailed consideration of the elementary

phenomena
it

in the

polyphase motor, as they have been treated by
lucidity

Gisbert Kapp* and

Andre Blondel* with a
for

and clearness

which
B.
24.

would be impossible

me

to surpass.

The Formulae
It

for the

Three-Phase Current

Motor.
remains to prove that the theory of the general alternating curis

rent transformer

directly applicable to the polyphase motor.

That

this

is true, as long as the armature of the motor is standing still, is evident. If the armature runs at synchronism, the number of its revolutions cor-

responds to the frequency of the feeding current
ture runs slower than the
field,

~i.

If the

arma2,

the difference being

~!
slip

-

then

an

e.

m.

f.

is

induced

in the

armature proportional to the
is

~i

~r

If the

armature resistance per phase

rt

,

then a current will flow
attained in the

proportional to

~'

~*.

The same current can be
if

transformer with the secondary at rest,

the resistance be thus

chosen that the relation exists
'Electric Transmission of Energy, p. 304

and following, reprinted

in

Appen-

dix

I.

*L''Eclairagt Electriqitt, 1895.

15

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
(7)

-^r

=

~'
r,

2

r,

signifying the internal and external resistance of the secondary of

the transformer.

Under

this condition the

same diagram represents the

currents in size and phase in the transformer as well as in the motor.

That

this

must be so becomes
is

clear as soon as

we remember
(~ x
is

that the

impedance of the motor
a constant.

equal to

VV2 3
~!
2

-f-

A

~

2 ) *,

A

being

The impedance

of the transformer

equal to

Vr*
hence

+A

.

,

~i ri
which equation
is

=

(~i
(7).

~a) r

>

identical with

Credit

is

due to Dr. Behnthis

Eschenburg, Oerlikon, for having
relation.

first

prominently put forth

25. The Torque.

magnetic
equal to

field,

which
2-

is

Imagine the armature to be turned against the supposed to stand still, with an angular velocity

^

If

D
.

is

the torque in
.

mkg, then we have
z 2 *

9.81
it

D

(!

,)

=3

r,,

being the current

in,

and rt the resistance

of,

each phase.

We

have
'

p
if
/>

'

is

the

number

of north or south poles.
9.81
.

And

also

D

.

u2

= P watts.
w2 )

From

these equations follows
9.81
.

9.81

.

D mkg .(27T. -^ 2 n D mks -^p
.

=3
3

z2

.

P

*

*2

16

THE MAGNETIC FIELD
(8)

IN

THE POLYPHASE MOTOR.
(3/ 2

61.6 to

.

D mks = -^~
i

*r2

+ />,*,).
is
ts).

If

we want

have the torque
8.5
.

in

foot-pounds, the formula

Dft.

ibi.

= -^~i

*

(3

*j

r2

+ P wat

The torque

is,

therefore, proportional to the algebraic
in the

sum

of the

output of the motor plus the energy dissipated
26. Starting Torque.
into the motor,
is

armature.

At

starting

P
;

is

zero. All the energy that goes
2

dissipated into heat

therefore. 3
circle.

(z\

rt

-f-

it

*

rt

=)

3*

must be equal
by trying.

to the ordinate of

our

If TI

and

r 2 are

known,

the point on the circle corresponding to this case can easily be found

A glance at our diagram
running torque
;

shows us that we can
4

attain at starting
to,

but the starting current will always be equal
is

any and

never smaller than, the running current, unless the motor

started

under conditions, as higher or lower voltage, under load.
27. Efficiency.

etc.,

different

from those

The energy which

flows into the motor neglecting
If e\ is the

hysteresis can be taken from the diagram.
e.

impressed

m.

i.,

ii

the current in each phase, then

we have

(9)

= 3'i*iw*
we have
to deduct the

To

obtain the output

ohmic

losses, the load

losses,

and the

friction.

Hysteresis and eddy currents may be taken

into account, since they are practically constant at all loads, as though

they were ohmic losses

in

a coil so placed upon the primary as to have

no leakage
loss

at

all,

the energy wasted in this coil being equal to the

through hysteresis and eddy currents.
(10)

We
'

have, then,
3
>

P=3^

/!

cos *

3

t\

rt

i,

rt

F Q

Prof. Silvanus P. Thompson, "Polyphase Electric Currents," 213, says of a polyphase motor: "This motor starts under full load, taking less than full-load current." This is an impossible figment. In the second, vi-ry imu-h enlarged, edition of Prof. Thompson's interesting honk, this statement is changed, and we read on page 255: "This motor starts under full load, taking less than twice the full-load current." The motor should theoretically not take more than full-load current, but just as much, and in practice this is also generally obtained, as, in this case, the rotor is equipped with slide rings.
first edition, p.

4

17

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
F
being the friction loss in watts,

Q

the loss through hysteresis and

eddy currents.

The

efficiency

v

is,

28. The most important formulas for the design of the polyphase

motor have thus been determined, and them in the form of a table.

it

will

be useful to give

Maximum Power
(3) J/

Factor

.......... cos

<t>

=2a
=2
.

-(-

i

Magnetic Field
(5) ..............

e

12

.

~

.

zv

.

*

.

io- volts.

8

Magnetising Current
($>
.

1.6
.

(6).

2

n

A V2

Slip lip(7).

^r
Torque
(8) ... .61.6
.

=
(3

3

D m kg = -^b
8

h *r2

+ P -watts)

Impressed Energy
(9) ..............

= 3*1

1\

cos?

Output
(10) ......... P-watts

= 3*i h costyT)

t\

Efficiency
(11) ..............

1=
3
'i *i

cos

18

CHAPTER
The
29.

III.

Short-Circuit Current and the Leakage Factor

An

invaluable aid in the design of polyphase motors

is

af-

forded by the short-circuit current characteristic.

In a motor hav-

ing a squirrel-cage armature, the starting current under different

voltages

is

identical with the short-circuit characteristic.

If the re-

were known, the power factor of the feeding current could be calculated; thus it would not even be necessary to use a wattmeter unless very accurate measuresistances of the armature
field

and of the

ments were required.

Theoretically, then, the short-circuit char-

acteristic is sufficient for the determination of the leakage factor; in

practice,

however,

it

will, in the

majority of cases, be unadvisable to

depend upon the short-circuit curve, on account of the corrections which become necessary. If the total resistance of the motor is
small, the lag of the current

amounts

to nearly a quarter of a period

;

the inductance of a motor at standstill (short-circuit) should always

be as small as possible; therefore, a very large current will go

through the motor at

full voltage.

Now,

the leakage factor

is

always

more or

less

dependent upon the strength of the currents which
very different from

cause the leakage, hence the leakage factor at starting with only a
small resistance in the armature

may be

as a rule,
is

smaller than
structed.

the leakage factor upon which the diagram

con-

In fact,

we do

not

work the motor

in that

quadrant of the
If,

semi-circle,

which corresponds to the short-circuit
shall not

characteristic.

therefore,

I

make much use of

the short-circuit curve for
I shall
it

the determination of the absolute value of the leakage factor,
all

the

more

avail myself of

it

for comparative purposes
is

where

does

not so

much matter whether
relative value
is

the absolute value

correct or not, but
in-

where the

of importance.

Such questions as the

fluence of a closed or open slot, of the
19

number

of slots, of the air-

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
gap, and of the pole-pitch

upon the leakage factor, can all be answered by consulting the short-circuit characteristic. I shall proceed to discuss, point for point, the influence of these factors on the leakage coefficient.

THE
30.

SLOTS.

The curves

A

and B,

in Fig. 10, represent the short-circuit char-

acteristics for a closed slot of the
slots of the

shape marked A, and of the open
slots of the

shape marked B.

The

armature were closed

B

120

100

200

300

400
FIG. IO.

500

600

700

800

900

in

each case.
if

Curve

C

shows the

ideal short-circuit curve obtainall.

able only

the leakage paths contain no iron at

Curve

D

is

the

magnetizing current reduced from the measured value of 42.2 am20

SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT AND LEAKAGE FACTOR.
peres at 1900 volts to the various voltages in the diagram.

The

in-

crease of the magnetic reluctance of the main field through the opening of the slots proved too small to influence the magnetizing current
in

any perceptible manner.

We see that for voltages above 600 the curves A, B, and C converge
ir

;

other words, the short-circuit current at the

full

voltage of 1900

will be

almost the same whether the slots are open or closed.

Hence
would
change

the
is

maximum

flow of energy which can be impressed upon the motor
slot as

by no means so much dependent upon the form of the

appear at first sight.
the

The tendency of the closed fundamental diagram in the way shown by the

slot is to
full line

curve in

FIG. II.

Fig. ii.

From

this

factor

is

0.715 instead of 0.755,

58 instead of 55,

maximum power and the current for the same output yet the maximum output of the motor is hardly recurve follows that, though the
ordinate of the semi-circle, represented by
is

duced as the

maximum

the broken line,

only inconsiderably larger than the

maximum
inferior to

ordinate of the

full line curve.

If the iron bridges are kept very thin,

excellent motors can be built with closed slots, in no

way

motors with open
itself

slots.

The

objection to closed slots, then, resolves

neglecting at present the load losses which

may
in

probably be

caused by the bridges

into a commercial one, viz., the question,

Which

slot is

cheaper?

Labor being expensive
21

America,

it

is

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
cheaper to wind the coils on forms and to use open
of labor being considerably smaller in Europe,
builders of polyphase motors have preferred to
to
slots.

The

cost

some of the leading use closed slots and

wind by hand.

Coils

wound

outside of the machine require

more

insulating material, and as the room is always somewhat scant in polyphase motors, the European method offers some advantages.

On

the other hand,

we have

to bear in

mind

that the greater ease

with which machine-wound coils can be exchanged, should not be
underrated, and might even be bought with the loss of another advantage.
sign
is

A

design

is

more or

less of

a compromise, and the best de-

that which combines the greatest

number of advantages with

the least

number of drawbacks.

NUMBER
31.

OF SLOTS PER POLE.

A
it

little

consideration teaches us that

of fluctuation in the field the
then,

more
to

would be advisable
Either extreme

we obtain the least amount we have per pole. Theoretically, have as many slots as possible. From
slots
it is

a commercial standpoint, however,
possible.
is

advisable to have as few as
;

impracticable

we must

try to strike the

golden mean.
32.

The

influence of the

readily be seen.

number of slots upon The more conductors we have
surrounding the
for
slot.

the leakage can also
in a slot the larger

will be the leakage field

The

active field is

with

enough accuracy whether we distribute the same number of cbnductors

our present consideration
in a

the

same
slots

few

or in many.

The

e.

m.

f.

induced by this

field

upon

these conductors

may, therefore, be set constant independently of the number of slots. Let us take a concrete case. If we have, for instance, 100 conductors
arranged in 5
field
slots,

there are in each slot 20 conductors.

The

leakage

per slot is

produced by these 20 conductors, hence proportional

to their

number.

The

e.

m.

f.

induced by the leakage

field

per slot in

the 20 conductors in each

slot, is

proportional to 20 times 20.

Hence

22

SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT AND LEAKAGE FACTOR.
the total
is
e.

m.

f.,

induced in the 100 conductors by the 5 leakage

fields,

proportional to 20

X

20

X5=

2000.
slots.

33.

Now,

let

us arrange the 100 conductors in 10

Each

slot,

then, contains 10 conductors, the leakage field per slot being proportional to 10.

The

e.

m.
is

f.

induced by the leakage

field in

the 10 conthe total

ductors in each slot
e.

proportional to 10 times

10.
is
e.

Hence
m.

m.

f.

induced

in all the

conductors in the 10 slots

proportional to
f.

10
is

X

10

X

10

= looo.

In other words, the counter

of leakage

twice as large in the case of 5 slots as in the case of 10 slots.

The above

calculation rests

of the leakage path of each slot
consideration.

upon the assumption that the reluctance is the same in the two cases under
only with some qualifications, yet

Though
is

this is true

the argument clearly shows the superiority of
far as leakage

many over few
slots

slots, as

concerned.

34.

A general
To

rule for the

most favorable number of
5 slots per pole

can hardly
is

be given.

take

more than

and phase

in the field

FIG. 12.

hardly advisable unless the pole-pitch be very large, as in motors for

low frequencies.

As

the

maximum
23

of ampere-conductors per slot 600

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
might be put down; but this should be no rigid fewer than 3 slots per pole and phase, if possible.
conductors in a
slot,

rule.

Never take

the leakage field

is

you put too few not saturated, and thus the
If

STARTING CURRENT

10O

2OO VOLTS
FIG. 13.

300

400

advantage of a great number of
leakage.

slots

may

be balanced by this greater

Thus we

see that in spite of

many

rules, still

a great deal

is left

to

the individual

judgment of the designer.

35.

To

enable the reader to form for himself an opinion of the acI

curacy of the theory,

give the complete experimental data of a small

three-phase current motor with short-circuited armature.

SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT AND LEAKAGE FACTOR.
The motor
tween the
shall develop 20 horse-power, at a voltage of 380 be-

lines,

and a frequency of 47

p. p. s.

The

slots in

armature

and

field

were closed, but the bridges were
field

thin.

slots in

armature and
its

are represented in Fig.

The shape of the 12. The motor had
r. p.

six poles, therefore

synchronous speed was 940

m.
as-

shows the starting or short-circuit current a function of the terminal volts measured between the lines
table
:

The following

Volt.

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
This point
Fig. 15.
lies

very near the

maximum
is

ordinate of the semi-circle in

The diameter
a

of this circle

122.5 amperes, the magnetizing

.current 4.5 amperes, hence

=
122.5

=o
i
2<7-f- I

.

0367
is,

.

The maximum power
COS
tf
ft

factor attainable

equation (3),

=

= 0.93

Fig. 15 and the data given above clearly show the inaccuracy which

80

20 KILOWATTS
FIG. 14.

would

arise if

we were

to use the short-circuit current as a

means of

determining the absolute value of the leakage factor.
26

SHORT-CIRCUIT CURRENT AND LEAKAGE FACTOR.
37.
1

want

to call attention to the load losses,

which are always presstill

ent in polyphase motors, the causes of which are, however,

vary

obscure.

The maximum
are:

efficiency of this

motor

is

84.5 per cent.

The

losses

Hysteresis, eddy currents and friction

800 watts. 600 200
"

Ohmic Ohmic

loss in

primary

loss in secondary

Total losses

Output
Input

1600 watts. "

13200 14800 watts.
the motor actually

The energy which

watts, corresponding to

an additional

loss

consumed amounted to 15600 the load loss of 6 per

DIAMETER 122.5 A
FIG. 15

cent of the output.
load, until
it

The

load loss increases rapidly with increasing
to all other losses taken together.

becomes equal

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Opening the
slots

has a decided tendency to diminish the load loss
it is

considerably, therefore

probable that the seat of this waste of

energy is in the bridges. 38. It has often been advocated to calculate the leakage
dimensions of the
slots,

fields

from the

of the air-gap, of the pole-pitch, and so forth,
is

and

it

has been claimed that great accuracy

thus obtainable.
it is

I

am

not of that opinion.

Though

I

am

perfectly aware that

possible

at least theoretically

to calculate the leakage, yet I cannot close

my

eyes to the fact that such calculations are, of necessity, based upon
;

a good deal of guesswork the designer who chooses this a man groping in the dark with here and there a guiding
I should rather say, a will-o'-the-wisp, sometimes guiding

pa.th is like
light, or, as

him

aright,

but much oftener leading him astray. I am suspicious of the a priori method it has proved utterly vicious in all departments of human
;

knowledge.

Upon a sound experimental foundation any mathematical superstructure may be safely reared and no desire to obtain a knowl;

edge of things, which are

in their

very nature not yet clearly underdata.

stood, should mislead us to build

upon the quicksand of imagined

The succeeding
tors

chapter will be devoted to an exposition of the faccoefficient.

which enter into the equation for the leakage

CHAPTER
The Leakage
trude THERE themselves
at every step

IV.

Factor.

are two questions of the most vital interest which in-

How

does the

maximum

upon the designer. The first is, output a polyphase motor is capable
In other words,
if I

of yielding, depend upon the air-gap?
the air-gap, does this to

increase

any great extent decrease the output?
If a

And
The
inin

does a decreased air-gap increase the output of the motor?

second question

is this,

motor

is

wound

for four poles,

and we

want

to

wind

it

for eight poles, provided the frequency

and the

duction in the air-gap remain the same, does the output decrease
the ratio of 4
-=-

8, or,

what

relation exists between the
I shall

put of the motor and the number of poles?

maximum outnow proceed to
FACTOR.

answer these questions.

THE INFLUENCE OF THE AIR-GAP UPON THE LEAKAGE

39. In order to determine the interdependence between the magnetic
reluctance of the main field and the leakage factor, the following ex-

periment was made

:

The magnetic
to create

field

the stator

of a three-phase

current motor was provided with two armatures, the diameters of

which were so chosen as

an air-gap of

0.5

mm, and one

of

1.5

mm.

The magnetizing
:

currents were then measured as well as the

short-circuit currents.

The following

tables contain the results of

the experiment

Currents at 50

^ = 0.5 m. m.

THE INDUCTION MOTOR. Short-circuit Currents at 50 ~

A = 0.5 m. m.

THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
otherwise the leakage factor would have been proportional to the airgap.
40

I

I

10

20
I.

40

(50

100
0.5

120

XL

Volts Magnetizing Current. Short.- circuit Current.
FIG. l6.

.

m.m.

42.

Now,

this result is highly interesting.
is

As

a glance at Fig. 18
in at the volt-

shows, the energy that the motor

capable of taking

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
age of no,
40
is

the

same whether the air-gap

is

small or large. Hence..

30

.20

10

40
I

60
)

80

100
, _
1

120

Volts Magnetizing Current. JI. Short -circuit Current.
FIG. 17.

V

/\

..

^

5 tn.Tn

J

the overload that a

motor

is

alnc TO stand

is

independent of the air-gap.
air-gaps.

This, of course, holds

good only of small

THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
The
air-gap influences merely the strength of the magnetizing current, but not the output.

FIG. 18.

^ V / V
FIG. IQ.

The

curves of the short-circuit currents in Figs. 16 and 17 are
line

al-

most straight

owing

to the open slots in the field of our motor.

33

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
43. There remains to be answered the second question,
leakage factor dependent upon the pitch of the poles
?

How

is

the

THE INFLUENCE OF THE POLE-PITCH UPON THE LEAKAGE
44. Before entering upon the experiments made to clear up
I shall attempt to

FACTOR.
this point,

show deductively how the leakage

factor

may

be

expected to vary with the pole-pitch.
Fig. 19 gives a view of the slots in a polyphase motor.
lines

The broken

that

mark the leakage flux threading each slot. Now, let us assume we have a motor with 48 slots in the field, which we want to
four-pole, or eight-pole motor, the armature

wind as a two-pole,
any number of
If the

being provided with a squirrel-cage winding, thus being suitable for
poles.

for

number of ampere-conductors per slot remains the same any number of poles, the leakage flux per slot also remains contotal

stant.

The
poles.

number of ampere-turns spread over

the circumference

of the field

is

then constant whether the motor has two, four, or eight

45. But the number of ampere-turns per pole
to the

is

inversely proportional

number of

poles; hence, the induction produced by these
is

am-

pere-turns in the air-gap

also inversely proportional to the
field

number

of poles.

In other words, the magnetic

per pole, being propor-

tional to the product of the induction in the air-gap into the polepitch, varies inversely

with the square of the pole-pitch.
as

46. The leakage

field,

we have

seen, is constant for each slot.

Hence, the

total

amount of leakage
is

the

sum

of

all

the leakage fields

pertaining to each lot

also constant.

The number
slots

of leakage lines

per pole

is

proportional to the

number of
main

per pole.

47. The ratio of leakage

field -=-

field is

therefore inversely pro-

portional to the pole-pitch for the
slot.

same number of ampere-turns per

34

THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
48. This result
is

verified

by the following

series of tests:

A.

Three-phase current motor for 36 horse-power, 380 volts belines, six poles,

tween the

42

~.

Air-gap

Pole-pitch /
Volts between the lines.

A = =

0-62
30.5

m. tn. cm.

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
50. For equal air-gaps
(TI

we have
o.n
f-

a\i

= 0.0224 = 0.0664
0.0664
0.0396

= 0.0396

Hence,
on
<TI

=

1.68,

or, in

other words,
_ _ "
'

ffi

in'
is

51.

The leakage

factor

inversely proportional to the pole-pitch, or

directly proportional to the

number
it

of poles.

52.

By

the above experiments
is

has been demonstrated that the leak-

age factor

directly proportional to the air-gap,

portional to the pole-pitch.
for the leakage factor,

We

and inversely promay, therefore, write the formula

in

which equation

c is

a factor dependent upon the shape and size of

the slots, and upon a great
still

many

other conditions of which
c

we

are

profoundly ignorant.

For

practical purposes, however,
it

can be
left to

determined with satisfactory accuracy, though

will

still

be

the designer to estimate the value of c between certain limits.
slots, as

For

shown

in Fig. 19, c varies

between 10 and

15.

WINDING THE SAME MOTOR FOR DIFFERENT

SPEEDS.

53. Formula (12) permits us to determine the change in the output,

power
or 72
will

factor,

and so

forth, of a

motor wound for a

different

number
48

of poles, for instance, for eight, four, or two poles.
slots, it

If the field has

can easily be

wound
all

so as to satisfy this demand.

We

assume the induction

in the air-gap, or,

which

is

the same, in the

teeth, to

remain constant for

three cases.
for the

We

will further

assume
it is

that the motors are to be

wound

same

voltage.

Then

clear, according to equation (5), that the total

number of

active con-

36

THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
ductors must be proportional to the
if

number of

poles

;

in other

words,

the eight-pole

motor

has, for instance, 720 conductors, or ten con-

ductors in each of 72

slots,

then the four-pole motor must have 360,

and the two-pole motor
the air-gap.
rent

180, in

order to get the same induction

in

To

calculate the relative value of the magnetizing cur-

we need only know

the

number of

active conductors

per pole,

see equation (6).
in the four- pole

We

have for n

in the eight-pole

motor
motor

720 s180
2
.

= 90;
=
As
90.
it

360 ^i motor = =90; and
4

in the two-pole
in

Hence, as

($>

and n are the same

each of the three cases,

follows that the magnetizing current also remains the same.

the

Two

Poles

FIG. 20.

shape and size of the slots are the same in
in

all

three cases, the factor

equation (12)

for the leakage coefficient also remains the same.
is

Hence, as the leakage factor

proportional to the quotient of the air-

gap divided by the pole-pitch,
be inversely proportional to the
represented in Fig. 20.

we

find the short-circuit current to

number of

poles.

This

is

graphically

A

glance at the

diagram teaches us that the

maximum

energy that can be impressed upon the motor, and, there37

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
fore, also

very nearly the output, vary in proportion to the poleto the

pitch.

According

diagram we
g

find the leakage factor for the

two-pole motor equal to ->
O
-Q-

= 0.05

;

for the four-pole
to
-

motor equal

to

oo

=

o.io;

and for the eight-pole motor equal

=

0.20.

The
for-

power factor in each case can now be calculated with the help of mula (3). This is done in the following table:
Number
Poles.
of

THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
Allowing again the induction
ferent frequencies, which
it

in

the air-gap to be the same for difless challengeable proposition,

is

a

more or

follows from formula (5) that the total
field

number of

active con-

ductors around the circumference of the
for the pole-pitch
is

must also be the same,
lines of induction per
is

inversely proportional to the frequency, hence

the product of the frequency into the

number of

pole remains the same

if

the induction in the air-gap

the same.

57.
tient

The magnetizing current, however, being proportional to the quoof the induction (B divided by the number of active conductors
is

per pole,

thus inversely proportional to the frequency.

The

leak-

FIG. 21.

age factor

is,

according to formula (12), directly proportional to the
because the

pole-pitch, or inversely proportional to the frequency

pole-pitch

is,

in the case

under consideration, inversely proportional
it

to the frequency

hence

follows that, as the magnetizing current

has been shown to be proportional to the frequency, the diameter of
the semi-circle remains constant for all frequencies.

58. Fig. 21 shows the clock diagram for the same motor, but for different frequencies.

The maximum energy
But the

that the

motor

is

capable of

taking

in,

and, therefore, also the

~, 50 ~, or 25 ~.

maximum output, is the same for 100 maximum power factor is consider39

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
ably smaller for the high frequencies, as a glance at the diagram

shows.

The following

table

shows the leakage factor and the power
:

factor in relation to the frequency

Frequency.

THE LEAKAGE FACTOR.
with the conditions underlying the leakage in polyphase motors.
I

am

far
;

ness

from claiming for this treatment completeness or conclusiveon the contrary, I deem it a necessity to revise it by the light of
I

forthcoming experience.

am

tolerably confident that the

main pro-

positions will be proved true, while
qualification.

minor points may need some

63. Considering the immense complexity of the phenomena in poly

phase motors, the greater or

less arbitrariness

which hangs about most
in

of our assumptions which have to be
calculate at
all, I

made

order to be able to

cannot forbear from wondering that so approximate
all.

a solution can be attained at

It

may

be that there are errors inall

herent

in

our fundamental assumptions which
This view will

so counteract one
little

another as to cause the result of calculation to deviate but

from
those

experiment and observation.

commend

itself to

who

are

familiar

with any branch of physiology,
;

for

instance,

physiological optics

here

we have

the testimony of Helmholtz that

the eye, having "every possible defect that can be found in an optical

instrument," yet gives us a fairly accurate image of the outer world

because these various defects balance one another almost completely. 64.

The above remarks
to look

will be distasteful to those

who have

accusto

tomed themselves

upon only one

side of a question,

and try

shut their eyes to the inevitable uncertainties that beset us in
lectual problems.
I

all intel-

was once taken

to task

by a

critic for

having ad-

duced experimental evidence qualifying my theory, and narrowing the limits of its application, and I was told that these experiments invalidated

my

argument, while

completeness and the shortcomings of the theory

even thought of by
sides

my

and spots of their point them out and expose them. The formulae and rules of the preceding
turned to account
in

upon the inwas obviously not critic. Lawyers may have to hide the weak arguments, but men of science are bound to
to lay stress

my

intention

articles

will

now be
to the

the following part by applying

them

calculation of a motor.
41

CHAPTER

V.

Design of a Three-Phase Current Motor for 2OO Horse-Power.

THE

application to practice of the theory

expounded

in the pre-

ceding chapters will best be illustrated by a concrete case.

To

this

end

I

propose to calculate a three-phase current motor for

an output of 200 horse-power at 440 r. p. m. for a frequency of 60 ~. Voltage between the lines 2000. I have chosen a rather extraordinary
case, the speed of 440
r.

p.

m. being comparatively low, while the
it is

frequency

is

unfavorably high, in order to show that

yet pos-

sible to build

a satisfactory motor for such conditions.
:

65. The following are further conditions for the design
(i.)

Normal

output, 200 horse-power.
torque, 400 synchronous horse-power.

(2.) (3.)

Maximum

The motor must be able to start with the maximum torque. 66. The torque of a motor is measured in mkg. or foot-pounds. The product of the number of mkg. into the angular velocity of the rotor,
divided by 76, yields the

number of horse-power
of

available at the shaft
in

of the motor.

The

unit

horse-power used

America and

England

is

slightly greater than

the unit used on the Continent

of Europe.

divide by 75. As, in a great

we should have to many cases, we do not care much about the absolute value of the torque, we speak of torque corresponding to a certain number of horse-power at a certain speed. The most natural speed is offered us by the speed at synchronism. If we thus
get "European horse-power,"

To

speak of a torque of 400 synchronous horse-power, this torque may be developed at any speed, but the product of it into the angular
velocity of the rotor at synchronism
is

proportional to 400 horse-

power.

This very convenient mode of expressing torque in "synchronous horse-power" has been introduced by Mr. Steinmetz; at
42

THREE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
least the author first

saw

it

some years ago

in a short paper of this

gentleman

in the

German Elektrotechnische

Zeitschrift.

67. The motor must be

wound

for 16 poles, which gives a synchro-

nous speed of 450
68.

r.

p.

m.

The

circumferential speed of the revolving armature should not
ft.

exceed 7000

p.

m.

A

high speed

is

necessary in order to get a
seen, the leakage factor is

large pole-pitch upon which, as
greatly dependent
to a cheap,

we have
Indeed,
ft.

So high a speed as

this is not
it

always favorable
be urged that by

commercial design.

may

choosing so high a speed as 7000

p.

m. we have overstepped the
set

most favorable

limit.

Had

I,

in this

work,

myself the task of deI

signing a cheap motor, as the market

may

here and there require,

should have yielded to this objection from economy and adopted a slower speed.
It is still

a

much vexed
economy

question whether, in the long
is

run, the greatest commercial

not identical with excelthe

lence of quality.

I

therefore prefer to

make

motor as good as

possible without giving

undue regard

to cheapness.

69.

The motor

receives a diameter of 150 cm, corresponding to a cirft. p.

cumferential speed of 6960

m.

The
The
70.

pole-pitch

is

equal to

^7

= 29.5 cm.

air-gap will be

made

equal to 0.15 cm.

The

coefficient c in

formula (12) may be estimated for the shape
;

of the slots which

we

are going to adopt at 12
:

we

then have for the

leakage factor according to formula (12)
a
71.
I

=

12

.

0.15 - 29.5

=

0.061

With

this leakage factor a
is

maximum power

factor of cos0o

=

20
72.

=

0.89

attainable.
will take

The motor

from the mains a current of about 54 am-

peres per phase at an output of 200 horse-power.

43

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
73. In order to develop a

maximum
to

torque equal to 400 synchronous

horse-power, the
in the

maximum
400
1/3
.
.

ordinate or the radius of the semi-circle

diagram must be equal
2000

746
.

= 102 amperes,
Hence follows
must be equal
to 200 amperes.

0.85

assuming the

efficiency to be 85 per cent at this output.

that the diameter of the semi-circle

74. The no-load we remember that
circle

current

io

can

now immediately
it

be calculated,

it

the quotient of
to
<*

and the diameter of the semi-

must be equal

t

= 0.061. We thus get = 12 amperes.
number of conductors per pole and

75.
phase,

From formula
if

(6) follows the
($>

a value for

is

assumed.

We make (B, the maximum

induc-

tion in the air-gap, equal to 5600,
*o

and we have then

= 12 amperes. A = 0.15 cm. (B = 5600 g.
c.
s.

76.
< 6)

Inserting these values into the formula
'

_ ~

ffi

.

1.6

A

2

n

V2

we

get

n
77.

= 40
z, is

The

total

number

of active conductors per phase,
poles.

equal to n

multiplied by the

number of

Thus we have
.

z 78.

=

16

40

=

640

We

can

now

calculate the

number
It is

of lines of induction per pole

with the help of formula (5).
(5)
e
e

=2.12. ~.

z

.

*

.

io- 8

= 2OOO volts.
V3

~ =60
z

= 640

Hence,

$

= 1.42
44

.

io' c. g. s.

THREE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
79.

We

found

in the

second chapter that

*
where b
is is

_ _!_
12

.

b
t

.

t

.

&,

the width of the motor, and
if

the pole-pitch.

This formula

correct only

the slots in the field

and the armature are prac-

FIG.

22.
field

tically closed.

As we

intend to keep the slots in the

entirely

open

in

order to be able to exchange the coils easily,
45

N will

be about

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
85 per cent smaller than according to the formula.
into account,

By

taking this

we

find for

b

=

17.0

cm.
i.o

80.

We leave in

in the

middle of the iron a space of
18.0

cm

for radial

ventilation, so that the

width of the iron becomes

cm.

81. The" slots are represented in Fig. 22.
ins.

The

slots in the field are 2

deep; in the

armature

i^

ins.

These

slots represent

about the

FIG. 23.

largest size that should be used in polyphase motors.
is

If possible,

it

preferable to keep the slots smaller than those in Fig. 22.
field coils is
in.

The

wire used for the
diameter of 0.229

No. 3 of B.

&

S.

wire gauge, having a

The maximum

induction in the iron teeth

is

13000.

46

THREE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
The
induction in the iron above the teeth should be no higher than

3000; this gives 15.0

cm of iron above the slots. The main dimensions of the motor are inscribed in Fig. 23. The resistance of each phase of the field is 0.28 ohm, hot The resistance of each phase of the armature is 0.016 ohm, hot The loss through hysteresis and eddy currents is noo watts,
is

of

which 530 watts
teeth.

dissipated in the iron ring,

and 570 watts

in the

82.

We are now

in possession of all the data

necessary to predeterat starting.

mine the behavior of the motor under load and
This has been done
in the

following table.
it

After the explanation
to enter

given in the preceding chapters,

would be superfluous here

FIG. 24.

upon the manner in which these figures were derived partly from Fig. 24, partly from the foregoing formulas. A word, however, has
to be said about the

way

in

which the

loss

by

friction is taken into

account

With

sufficient

accuracy

we may assume
is

that the torque

necessary to overcome the friction

constant at different speeds.

By drawing a described, we
line

line parallel to the basis

find in the length of the ordinates lying
lies

upon which the semi-circle is between this
24,

and the curve which

next to the semi-circle in Fig.
47

a

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
measure for the torque and synchronous kilowatts available
pulley of the motor.
at the

83. For the calculation of the efficiency 7

I

have assumed that the

150

"I

cos 9

/

ft

TOO

1OO

200 KILDWATTS.CONSUM.ED
FIG. 25.

300

loss

through friction and

air resistance is practically constant at all
so, I

speeds.

That

this is

not accurately
48

need hardly remark.

THREE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
84.

The

ordinates of the

full line

curve

in Fig. 24

measure the output

of the motor for an armature of small resistance, provided with external starting resistance.

85. The ordinates of the broken line curve measure the output of the

motor having a squirrel-cage armature with considerable resistance six times larger than that of the armature with external resistance
in

order to start under load.

A

glance at the curves shows the tre-

mendous reduction of

the output with which

we have
is

to

buy the ad-

vantage of dispensing with slide rings.
spicuous in the curves of Fig. 25.

This

even more con-

The

abscissae here represent the

energy

in kilowatts

resent the field

consumed by the motor, while the ordinates repcurrent, the output, the efficiency, and the power factor

as functions of the energy consumed.

As

in

Fig. 24, the full line

curves represent the different quantities for the motor with external
starting resistance, while the broken line curves

show these

quantities

for the

motor with squirrel-cage armature.
field current,

86. The

of course, remains unaltered, and so does the

power efficiency, of the motor with squirrel-cage armature are powerfully influenced by the high resistance of the armature. For a starting torque equal to the
factor.

But the output, and therefore the

torque at normal load,

we need

a current which
;

is

almost four times

as large as the current at normal load

indeed, a poor result.

87.

To emphasize

this point

once more, the abolition of an external
the armature, or placed
it

starting resistance

either revolving with

outside the armature and being connected to
rings
put,

by means of

slide

brings with

it

inevitably a considerable reduction of the out-

a glance at Figs. 24

and a lowering of the efficiency. The reduction of the output, as and 25 shows, is equivalent to a reduction of the

overloading capacity of the motor, diminishing the margin of power

overload.

and thus tending to pull the motor out of step at a small temporary For these reasons European designers have abandoned the squirrel-cage armature in all larger motors.
49

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
88. In the calculation of the efficiency the load losses have not been
taken into account.
efficiency, but
it

As

I

have said before, they greatly influence the
difficult to

is

extremely

predetermine them for va-

Data of 200

h. p.

Polyphase Motor for 2000 Volts, 60 Periods, 440 R. P. M.

THREE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
The Starting
Resistance.
it

89. In order to calculate the resistance

of the starting box,
torque, the amperes

is

advisable to plot a curve representing the
volts in

and the

the armature as a function

of the resistance of the starting box.*

This can easily be done

if

we

remember

that at starting the energy available at the shaft of the

motor, when running with the same torque, must be dissipated into
heat.

We

find, therefore, the starting resistance

necessary to enable

300

600

OHMS

PB

PHASE.

FIG. 26.

the same torque to be generated in the motor, by dividing the output

by the square of the armature current. In torque, in Fig. 26, has been drawn. From
starting current, the torque,

this

way

the curve for the

this

curve

we can

find the

and the voltage

at the slide rings of the

armature.

The

latter is considerable at a small starting torque,

and

the armature conductors must, therefore, be carefully insulated.
This method was
first

recommended by Dr. Behn-Eschenburg, Oerlikon.
Si

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Slip

and Torque.

90. Lastly, Fig. 27 represents the torque as afuncthat the

tion of the slip.

The curves demonstrate

maximum

torque

attainable

is

entirely independent of the armature resistance.

The
curve
per

effect of a great

armature resistance consists in shifting the same
Again, the
full line

torque from a small slip to a large one.

gives the torque for the armature with a resistance of 0.016

ohm

phase, while the broken line curve shows the torque for the squirrel 350
I

-

s:

o.

30

50
SLIP FIG. 27.

80

90

1

00*

cage armature having a resistance equivalent to six times that of the

armature with external starting resistance.

and calculation of the polyphase behooves us to glance back upon the comparatively easy motor, road by which we have reached a complete solution of a problem
91.

Having thus
it

finished the theory

which,

if

treated merely by mathematics, appears to be one of the

THREE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
most abstruse problems
in natural philosophy.

More and more we

begin to realize the truth of the words with which Kelvin and Tait
prefaced their lucid treatise on "Natural Philosophy," that "simplification of modes of proof is not merely an indication of advance in our knowledge of a subject, but is also the surest guarantee of read-

iness for farther progress."

92.

Time was

and that not very long ago

when

theories in which

mathematical methods were restricted to a minimum, were glibly
labeled "popular," with that fine flavor of contempt that hangs about
this

term.

Slowly but surely graphical methods have supplanted,
methods, as
7

and

will supplant in the future, highly analytical

in the

graphical method the development of the idea can be followed stage

by stage, thus furnishing a means of constantly checking the process
01 reasoning

and keeping the attention of the mind concentrated

upon the development of the thought. While a long analytical argument, after starting out from certain premises, leaves us in large
measure
in the

dark until the result

is

reached.

In

my

opinion the

didactic value of graphic

methods

is

vested in the difference traced

out in the above comparison.
93. These remarks must not be misconstrued.
graphical treatment turns out to be far
In

many

cases the

more complicated and weariI

some than
IM the case

the analytical treatment, and
is

need hardly say that
is

in

such cases the latter

preferable.

Whichever method

the simpler,

under consideration, deserves preference.

'One of the most complex problems in natural philosophy is the theory of the on which the greatest mathematicians from the time of Newton until today have tried their powers. This is what one of the workers in this field, Prof.
tides,

and numerically its bearings un the history of the earth. "Sir William Thomson, having read the paper, told me that he thought much light might be thrown on the general physical meaning of the equation, by a comparison of the equation of conservation of moment of momentum with the energy of the system for various configurations, and he suggested the appropriateness of geometrical illustration for the purpose of this comparison. "The simplicity with which complicated mechanical interactions may be thus traced out geometrically to their results appears truly remarkable."
analytically

S3

CHAPTER
simplified

VI.
Motor.

The Single-Phase

THE
is

and improved transformer diagram which has

stood us in good stead in understanding the phenomena in

polyphase motors, will serve our purpose equally well in the
treatment of the single-phase motor.

based upon the well-known theorem

The method here employed* first made prominent by the

late Galileo Ferraris

field can, in all its effects,

and Andre Blondel, that an oscillating magnetic be replaced by two revolving fields, the
is

amplitude of each of which
oscillating field
;

equal to half the amplitude of the

the two fields revolve in opposite directions at a
field.
2

frequency equal to that of the oscillating alternating
94.

A

two-pole armature revolving at a speed
field

of ~

in

an

oscillat-

ing magnetic
netic field,

of the frequency ~i, has relative to the one
will call I, a slip of

mag-

which we

~i

~

2>

relative to the

other, II, a slip of

~i

+~

2

.

95. Let us

now consider the field II. At the immense

slip of

~

x

H

',

the secondary ampere-turns act almost exactly in an opposite direction to the primary ampere-turns
;

they thus neutralize each other,

leaving only a small
vectors

field

the vector of which coincides with the

of

the

enough

to balance the voltage
field-coils.

primary and secondary ampere-turns just large which drives the magnetizing current

through the
96.

We

have dissolved the amplitude of the impressed alternating
This

current flowing through the primary into two components of half the

amplitude revolving in opposite directions.

is

equivalent to

having two polyphase motors, the

field-coils

of which are coupled in

*See the author's article on "Asynchronous Alternating- Current Motors," in the Elektrotechnische Zeitschrift, Berlin, March 25, 1897.

54

THE SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR.
series,

but in such a manner that an observer looking at the fields in

the direction of the axes of the rotors, would call the one revolving
clockwise, the other counter-clockwise.
tors are rigidly connected.!

The armatures
I would then

of both

mo-

The

field

try to turn the

armatures

in a

clock-wise direction, while the

field II, if left to itself,

would

try to turn

them

in a counter-clockwise direction.

/ would take the larger share of the voltage, since

The motor we have seen that
slip,

the reactance of a polyphase motor
for a great
slip.

is

great for a small
is

and small

Hence, the voltage which
7,

necessary to drive the
II, is

current, that

comes from motor

through motor
/.

small in com-

parison with that consumed by motor

97. In order, then, to draw a diagram of the single-phase motor should have to find out by trying

we
ar-

how

the voltage

is

distributed be-

tween the two motors.

This

is

a very wearisome procedure.

We

rive at a sufficiently accurate

and simple solution if we remember that the resultant magnetic field in motor II will always, with very
little

inaccuracy, coincide with the impressed magnetic field of

mo-

tor

7.

But

this

means nothing

else

than that the effect of motor //
it

may

be taken into account by considering

as an apparent increase of the

primary leakage field of motor I. 98. According to the above considerations
will be induced

it

is

clear that currents

by the

synchronously.

if running almost Synchronism, of course, can never be reached by the

field

// in the armature, even

armature unless an external force

is

applied to

its shaft.

These

ar-

mature currents react upon the primary and must, obviously, about double the magnetizing current; in other words, the single-phase

motor running

idle,

takes a current about twice as large as the

mag-

netizing current.

The

accurate relation between magnetizing cur-

rent and "idle current" depends upon the leakage factor, and can be
calculated as follows.

Each of the motors
is

/

and // receives one-half
I,

the idle current
tThe author
is

t.

the magnetizing current in motor

and the

Herrmann Cahen

indebted for this helpful comparison to a conversation with Mr.
in 1895.

55

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
voltage necessary to drive this current through the
field

coils

*i

motor 7
99.

is

proportional to- -of 2

may

be called in, then

The magnetizing current of motor //, running at a slip we have for the magnetizing current

~

of the

single-phase motor:

im

=-%- +

tn

For
hence

in

we have
in

=

0'

*'**)

ff

.

;

=
<j)

-

4-

/

<r

i

m

a

i

m

(i _|_

=

I

/

+2f

Im
(I3)

=

IT

TT^
we have
:

I

+

2

ff

For

<r

=

o, that is, for

a motor without leakage,

-

m-=-L-

= 0.500
we have

For a

=
=

0.05

~fFig. 28

0.525

shows the diagram resulting from these considerations.
the idle current.
the magnetizing current.

OA OB
The
<r.

is
is

point

C

bisects

O

A.

B'

lies

upon the semi-circle
L,

B B' G, G

being the centre of the semi-circle

B

B
A'

-=-

BL

being equal to

B' divides the total primary current

in the ratio of

OB' O A'
hence the locus of A'
is

I
''
''

-f-

2

0'

2

+

2C

the semi-circle

A A' L.

55

THE SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR.
THE CURRENTS IN THE ARMATURE.
100.

The current

in the

armature of the single-phase current motor
of the secondary currents

is

equal to the vector
.

sum

-

v\
to

.

B
Vi

B' and
.

A' B'

of the

two polyphase motors, hence equal

A' B.

*l

A glance at Fig. 28 shows us that only
pated
in the

one-half of the energy dissiarmature can be utilized for the production of the torque.
represented by
is

We see, namely, that at all loads the secondary currents
A' B' and B'

B

remain very nearly equal, and as only motor 7

do-

FIG. 28.

ing useful work, the armature currents in motor II represent a loss

almost exactly equal to the loss
/.

in the

armature of the working motor
indicates, therefore, only one-

The

slip in a single-phase

motor

half of the energy dissipated in the armature, hence the loss in the

armature of a single-phase motor

is

twice as large as that in a poly-

phase motor, provided the slip be equal in the
Torque.
101.
is

two motors.
:

armature

The torque can be calculated as follows Suppose the* wound in three phases, each having the resistance ry
is

The output

of the motor

then
*, ;,
.

:

P=

cos

<t>

i,

.

r,

3

/,

rtt

57

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
whence follows
(14) ..... 6i.6D
j) m ke = -J.

~i

P-watts,

in

which equation

Dmkg

is

the torque in m.kg., and

p
:

the

number

of north or south poles.
102.

The following reasoning
have for motor
9.81
7,
.

yields a value for

~,

We
and

A (i - s) =
DnK +
is

3

*'
a

'

r>
,

for

motor

II,

9.81
in
<>,

.

u,)

=

3

*
'"'

'

r

2

\

.
field,

which equations

t

the angular velocity of the revolving

that of the armature.

Hence,
9.81
.

(Di

- Dn

)

"2

=3^
\"2 /

or

(IS) ..................... 3

803.

To

illustrate

:

= Plaits Let us assume ~i = 50, and ~ =
*

*,

r*

~

2

45

;

then

we

have

=
In words, if the slip is 10 per ture amounts to 20 per cent.
104. It
is

0.23 P-watts cent, the loss of energy in the arma-

instructive to

compare with (14) the formula (7) for the

polyphase motor, which reads after some transformations,
(16) ..................... 3
*

t\

rz

=

P-watts

.

-

~
armature

This

is

in

words that the

slip in per cent is equal to the
it*

loss in per cent, setting

P

+3

r*

equal to 100.

58

THE SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR.
Ratio of Transformation.
to cover the
eral,
it

105.

We

shall see that
field

it is

not advisable

whole circumference of the

with windings. In genit.

will be

advantageous to wind but two-thirds of
is

The

ratio of

transformation in this case
of conductors in the
field

not equal to the quotient of the

number

divided by the

number

of conductors in the

armature. With sufficient accuracy

we may

consider the ratio of trans-

FIG. 2Q.

formation to be equal to the number of active conductors in the
divided by only five-sixths of the total
in the

field

number

of active conductors

armature.

EXPERIMENTAL CORROBORATION.
106.

The data given

in

the following table,

and graphically reprem. The number of
in the

sented in the polar diagram, Fig. 29, belong to a lo-hp, single-phasi

current motor for

no

volts, 50

~, and

1500

r.

p.

conductors in the

field

was 120; the number of conductors
59

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
armature was 312. The resistance of the
field

was

0.015

ohm;

of each

of the three phases of the armature, 0.08 ohm.

TESTS OF lo-HP MOTOR.

THE SINGLE-PHASE MOTOR.
tive

conductors per pole

n,

then

we have
n

for the induction in the air-

gap:
.

(I7)

<*=
is

im 1.6.

V/2

A

In this formula im

the effective value of the magnetizing cur-

\
FIG. 30.

rent, while

A
/

is

the air-gap.

If & is the

width of the iron of the

motor

in

cm,

the pole-pitch, then

we
,

have,
.

08).

*

=
we

<B

Instead of a coefficient of 2.22
efficient

get, as will easily

be seen, a co-

of 1.85; therefore,

we have
e

the formula:
1.85
.

(19)

=

~

.

z

.

*

.

lo-8

Secondly

Fig.

31

shows

this

case.

For the induction formula

(16) holds good.

The number
(20)

of lines of induction

is

equal to b
.

*
be seen at a glance.

=
61

t

.

<B,

as

may

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
For the
e.

m.

f.

we have

:

e

=
3

.

2.22

.

.

10-8

(21)

e

=

1.48

.

~

.

z

.

.

10-8

109. It will readily be seen

from these formulae that

it is

not advan-

tageous to use a coil spread over the whole pole-pitch.

' ' '

i;

i

I

i

I

"i

'iff

N=i

B.b.t.

1.48

\
FIG. 31.

110.

We

can

now
;

proceed to study in detail the qualities of the
to this purpose

single-phase motor

we

shall devote the next chapter,

taking the iron frame of the three-phase motor designed in chapter

V, and winding

it

as a single-phase current motor.

62

CHAPTER

VII.

Calculation of a Single-Phase Current Motor.

THE

three-phase current motor, the design of which was given

in chapter

V,

is

reproduced

in Fig. 32.

We
if

shall

now

proceed

to

examine the behavior of

this

motor

running as a single-

phase motor.

For

simplicity's sake

we

shall retain the winding,

and

uL_

FIG. 32.

investigate

what voltage

is

most suitable for
and
is

it.

The motor,
s.

as will

be remembered,
III.

has 16 poles,

to

work

again at 60 p. p.
;

Field Winding.
;

128 slots, 10 conductors in each slot

diameter

of wire, 0.229"

resistance hot, 0.28

ohm.

63

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Armature Winding.
in three

240

slots,

2 conductors in each slot;

wound

phases in star connection; resistance of each phase, 0.016

ohm.
112. E.

M.

F.

According to (18) we have:

(18)

b
/

(B

= = =

17 cm.
29.5

cm.

5600.
is

The diminution
Thus,

of the air-gap through the open slots

taken into

account by reckoning only 85 per cent of the surface of the air-gap.

we

find

:

4>

=
=
8

1.58

.

io* c. g.

s.

1

13.

In the three-phase current motor
#s
i
.

we had
s.

:

42

.

io* c. g.

We

insert

100

.

N = 1.58 io ~ e = 1.85
.

in

formula (19) and get
.

.

.

z

$

.

io"6

= 2250 volts.

Therefore, the terminal voltage should be equal to 2250 volts.
114. Hysteresis.

The

loss

amounts

to 1150 watts, of

through hysteresis and eddy currents which 570 is dissipated in the teeth, and

580 in the iron ring.

Magnetizing Current.

From
tm

(17) follows
(B
.

=

1.6

A

H

V2
c.

We

insert the following values

:

(B = 5600 A = 0.15 cm. n = 80.

g. s.

and

find
i

m

=

1

2 amperes.

64

CALCULATION OF A SINGLE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
115. Leakage.

The leakage

coefficient is 0.061 for the iron frame,
:

116. Idle Current.

We

have according to (13)
'

im
(13).

1

+
-f-

2
2 a

1

2

2

+ +

0.122 0.122

-

0.576
/

=

20.8 amperes.

117. Friction.

Loss through

friction

and

air resistance,

2150 watts.

118.

We

can

now draw our

standard diagram. This has been done

in Fig. 33.

The

ordinates measured between the full line curve and

FIG. 33.

the basis of the semi-circle measure the output of the

motor for the

armature with small resistance.
line curve

The

ordinates between the broken

and the basis of the semi-circle measure the output of the
squirrel cage armature.

motor for the

65

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
From
this

diagram the following table has been compiled.
i8o-HP

DATA OF

SINGLE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
S.,

2250 Volts, 60 P. P.

450 R. P. M.

CALCULATION OF A SINGLE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
122. Fig. 34 shows the field current and the output as a function of
the energy consumed.

The

full line

curves represent again the output

H

FIG. 34.

of the armature with small resistance, while the broken line curve

shows the output of the motor with
67

squirrel cage armature, the re-

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
sistance of

which

is

six times as large as that of the

armature with

external starting resistance.
123. Fig. 35 shows the
cases.

power
is,

factor

and the

efficiency for the
in either case.

two

The power

factor

of course, the

same

In the

calculation of the efficiency the load-losses have not been taken into

account.
124. Finally,

we have

in Fig. 36 a graphic representation of the outs.,

put and the torque

in watts as a function of the slip in p. p.

or rath-

mo

150

K.W.
FIG. 35.

er,

of the

number of revolutions of

the armature expressed in

p. p. s.

The broken
Little

line curves refer as usual to the squirrel

cage armature.

need be said about these curves.

It is plain that for the
is still

arma-

ture with a small resistance the starting torque

exceedingly

small at

~

2

= 40.

Such a motor

will

never start well without extra

resistance in the armature, whatever starting arrangement be made.

68

CALCULATION OF A SINGLE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
125.
ity

The effect of armature

resistance consists in reducing the capac-

of the motor, and in shifting the

maximum

torque toward the

starting point.

126. In designing the three-phase current motor,

we had made

the

condition that the motor should start with a torque equal to twice the

normal running torque. As all the starting devices that have been tried for single-phase motors are not worth very much, such a condition can, at present, not be fulfilled.

We

rate the motor, therefore,

FIG. 36.

according to
kilowatts

its

most favorable

efficiency

and power

factor.

For 135

we have an

efficiency of 94 per cent and a power factor of

82 per cent, corresponding to an apparent efficiency of 77 per cent.

The motor
127.
It
is

will safely yield 180

horse-power at 2250

volts.

instructive to

compare the current
with
the

in the three

phases

of the three-phase current motor reduced to the voltage of the
single-phase

current

motor

current

in

the

single-

phase motor.

The

three-phase

motor took a magnetizing cur-

69

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
rent

of

12

amperes,

corresponding

to

12

.

2000

V3

volt

-

am

peres. This divided by 2250 volts yields a magnetizing current equivalent to 18.4 amperes. The leakage factor being 0.061, we can draw

our standard diagram whence the curves in Fig. 37 are derived.
400

350

JHREE!
SCO

200

150

50

100

150

200
}<..

250

300

350

400

W.

FIG. 37.

These curves clearly show that the
phase current motor phase current motor.
is

only 0.65 the

maximum output of the singlemaximum output of the three-

CALCULATION OF A SINGLE-PHASE CURRENT MOTOR.
STARTING ARRANGEMENTS.
128.

A

few words may
It

fitly

be added about the methods of starting

single-phase motors.

has generally been found advantageous to

use two-thirds of the pole-pitch for the main winding, and to leave
the remaining third for the starting phase.
as an imperfect two-phase current motor.

The motor

thus starts

An

external armature re-

cb

S5

a

S

MM in

AAA/WW
FIG. 38.

sistance

is

to be

recommended

for large sizes, say, for

an output above

15 horse-power.

129.

The

starting phase receives generally either half the

number of
method

convolutions as the main phase, or twice as many.

The

latter

seems to be preferable. Figs. 38 and 39 show the switch used by the Oerlikon Engineering Works for their single-phase motors.

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
130. In Fig. 38 the resistance or condenser

R

is,

at starting, in series

with the main phase, the auxiliary phase being directly between the
terminals.
131. In Fig. 39 the resistance

R

is

in parallel

with the auxiliary

phase, which

is

in series

with the main phase.

During the throwing-over of the switch from the starting position

cS

EH
^

cT 7)
AUXILIARY

vmm PHASE

FIG. 39.

to the running position, the

motor

is

temporarily disconnected from

the mains.

The

last chapter

we

shall devote to a

more general and broader

treatment of the polar diagrams of the general alternating-current
transformer.

72

CHAPTER
The Polar Diagrams

VIII.

of the General AlternatingCurrent Transformer.

this last chapter

it is

my aim

to present, in as simple

and lucid

IN a manner as possible, the general theory of the alternating-current transformer, taking also the resistance of the primary into

account.

The

results of this consideration are partly
is

known, but as
it

the road by which they can be reached,

a very easy one,
in

may

de-

serve

some consideration.

I

shall

make use

my

treatment of the
in

problem of the theorem of reciprocal vectors, known

kinematics

and geometry as the theorem of inverse points, and I will here make good a sin of omission, of which I became aware only when by
chance glancing over the pages of Dr. Bedell's book, "The Principles of the Transformer,"
in

November,

1900.

As

early as

1893

Messrs. Bedell and Crehore gave the theoretical proof of the fact
that the locus of the primary voltage in a transformer at constant

current

is

a semi-circle,* and in his paper on "Transformer Diaat the Electrical

grams Experimentally Determined," read
in

Congress
terminals

Chicago, 1893, Dr. Bedell gave also the experimental proof for
its

the constant-current transformer that the potential at

can be represented by chords

in a semi-circle.

To

develop the dia-

gram
to

for the constant potential transformer was, however, reserved
physicists.

European

DIAGRAM OF FLUXES AND MAGNETOMOTIVE FORCES.
132.

The

principle of the conservation of energy requires thaf the
,Yi

magnetomotive forces

and Xi of the primary and secondary of the

transformer tend to magnetize the core in opposite directions.
'See a series of ten World, May, 1893, and
article*
later.

X

on the "Theory of the Transformer," Electrical 73

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
and

X may be considered to be magnetic cells producing, as it were, magnetomotive forces Xi and X*. The reluctance of the circuit comx,

Q

Fig. 40.

mon

to both be R, the reluctance of the stray-fields that naturally

form about Xi and

Xt, be PI

and p2
74

.

Let us

call

the flux flowing

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
through Xi and

X

t,

F, and the leakage-fluxes fa and ^, respectively.*

We

have then,
(i)

Xi

(2)

X,

= =

t lPl
<f t

P,

Treating
write,

X

t

and Xi not as scalar quantities but as

vectors,

we may

(3)

X

l

X*

=

F

.

R.
the

133.

The phase

of the leakage-fields fa and fa

is

same as

that of

the magnetomotive forces which produce them, hence they are in

phase with the currents. 134. Let Ei, Fig. 40, represent the voltage
rent will be in phase with

at the terminals of a

non-

inductive resistance in the secondary of the transformer, then the cur-

E The
3.

magnetic

field

which

is

required to
lines
is in

produce

by

its

variation, is Ft, in quadrature with

E* The
e.

of induction in phase with the secondary current, whose

m.

f.

quadrature with the current, are represented by 0.
treat the case in

We

shall first

which these

lines are all within the transformers,

and next we
pacity.

shall deal with the case of an external inductance or ca-

135.

The

flux F, as
coils.

mentioned above, links together the primary and

secondary
136. If

The vector-sum of 0, and F is equal to F. we neglect for the moment the lag of phase between
flux,
is in

the

magnetomotive force and the
the magnetizing current

then the magnetomotive force of
It

phase with the flux F.

may be

rep-

resented by the vector X.
137.

X

must be the vector-difference between

A'i

and X*.

138. Xi, 139.

X

2,

and

X

have

real existence.
is in

The

leakage-flux fa of the primary
t,

phase with the pri-

mary magnetomotive force X and may be represented in the diagram by fa. The vector-sum of fa and F is equal to the total primary
flux

F

t.

The notation of
chapters, the
will

fluxes in this chanter is different from that of the preceding main flux being called /' instead of <t>. I hope that this reference prevent readers from making a mistake.

75

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Let us now choose our scale for X, Xi and Xt so that

X

is

equal to

F; then, Fig. 41, O~A = Xi, and O~B = X,.
THE DIAGRAM FOR THE CONSTANT-CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
140. Let us keep

OA

= Xi

still

and constant, then we see

at

a

50 AMP.

80

100

VOLTS

Fig. 41.

glance that the point

ways a constant portion of

G will move in the semi-circle Oi. G C = fa, is alA C = O B = X because of equation (2).
2,

76

0,

=
Here

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSFORMER. y and A very useful way of defining is that
.

<t>i

<j>

t

of A.

P\

Heyland,

who
TJ
is

writes,
*!

=

''

-*V

obviously the magnetic conductivity or reluctivity of

the leakage-path.

Similarly he writes,
6l

=

r,

.

X^
I

According
chapters,

to the notation

which

have used

we

define

^

and

0,

by saying that

_=
in

the preceding
*-,

AG

and

~0~A'
141.

=
v\ If
:

G mo\*es in the circle O\, C, which divides A G in the ratio A C A G :: Vt I, also moves in a circle, which is determined by C' OA v I. dividing O A in the ratio AC'
: :

_

: :

:

142. It
since,

is

just as simple to find the locus of the primary flux Fi,
is

by our assumption, the primary current

constant, the leakage-

field 0i is also constant.

We

have, therefore, only to transfer the semilF

circle

Ot
::vi

to Ot,
:

Oi Ot being equal to

or, to

put

it

differently,

OA

:

U A'
143.

i.

The primary
e.

resistance can easily be taken into account a

we

may imagine
lent to the

that the drop caused by the

ohmic resistance
field

is

equiva-

m.

f.

produced by a magnetic

of constant magnitude,
field is

lagging behind the current by 90 degs.

This

represented by

D~M.

The

locus of the primary field

is,

therefore, the semi-circle Ot,

O

Ot being equal to
144.

D M.
is is

The

potential at the terminals, necessary to drive a current

proportional to X, through the transformer,

proportional to
calculated

O M.

From O M,
formula

the potential at the terminals

from the

100 e
in

=
z

k

~
the

z

F
if

io"

volts,
is

which k

is

generally equal to 2.22,
to 4.44,
if is

s

the

number of conduc-

tors,

and equal

number of convolutions.

77

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
145.
either

The

position of the semi-circle can

now

easily be determined,

by the use of complex imaginary numbers, or graphically, as

I prefer.

The

ratio

O D'

:

A' D' can be found
7

at once.

We

have:

O& = -^
A' D'

ATiy
.

=

X^
i

v2 hence
,

OD'
A'D'
146. This constant ratio

~^'~
-v^

v*

v* v*
we
call the

leakage factor of the trans-

former, and denote
(4).

it

by

<?.

I

In Heyland's notation

we should have
(i

:

=
147.

(i

+
is

^i)
:

+-

2)

i'=

Ti

+

T2

+

ri TI

To

recapitulate

In a constant-current transformer whose sec-

ondary resistance

varied from naught to open-circuit, the terminal

voltage varies in such a manner that the vector of the field to which
it is

proportional and with which

it is
t

in quadrature,

has for

its

locus

the semi-circle, determined by
circle is perfectly defined if the

O

as centre.

The

position of this

primary resistance and the leakage

factor are

known.

THE CONSTANT-POTENTIAL TRANSFORMER.
148.
If, in

Fig. 41,

we wanted

to

know what

current would flow

through the transformer at a certain difference in phase between

OM

and

O A,

if

OM

were n-times as large as
e.

in the diagram,

we should

simply reason that, the counter
times as
if

m.

f.

being n-times as large, only

much

current could flow through the transformer.
constant, varying only
its

Hence,

we

kept

OM

phase relative to

O A,

the

78

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
current would vary in inverse proportion to the magnitude of the
field-vectors.

If

we kept O

M not only constant, but also
OA
it

in the

same

position, the locus of the vector

would

also be a semi-circle.

This

is

a very

fertile principle,

and

was

called

by Dr. Bedell the

method of

reciprocal vectors.

Let, in Fig. 42, the semi-circle having Oi as centre, represent the

locus of the primary field of the constant-current transformer,

Oi

being the primary current
to 50,

Let

04

be numerically equal to 20,

O 1*

and

O

i to 60.

A

current

O

I*

=

50 produces a

field

equal to

OI

=60, hindering

the flow of the current.

Hence,

if

the field

is

only

O4

= 20,

then a

current of current
I,

-

X

50

=

150 can flow through the transformer.

This

is

represented by

O 4'.

It

can easily be shown that the points
i', 2', 3', 4',

2, 3,

4 correspond point for point to the points

the

angle 301 being equal to 2'oi.
Fig. 43 represents the circle O/, reciprocal to 0*.

Angle

OA

is

equal to angle

O

t

A.

A
rent

concrete case will bring the matter into a

more palpable form.

149.
'

A

transformer or induction motor requires a magnetizing cur-

=5

amp.

We

assume

Vi

= 0.91
79

and

Vt

= 0.80.

The constant

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
potential of the transformer be

no

volts.

The

resistance of the pri-

mary be

2 ohms.

The

semi-circle Ot can then easily be constructed.
is

All that remains to be done
stant-potential transformer.

to construct the semi-cii*cle.for the confield

Oi, Fig. 44, is a

equivalent to

no volts.
is

O2

is

a field equivalent to 31.5 volts; hence,

if

the potential

kept

constant at

no

volts,

X

5

=

174 amp.

will flow

through the

DIAGRAM ILLUSTRATING METHOD OF RECIPROCAL VECTORS.
Angle

0^0 A,- Angle

4

O

A,
A,

;

Angle M'O'A,- Angle
Angle
L'

M
L

;
.

A.- Angle
-

A,
.

0~M

.

OM'- OD

6~D'-

OL

O~L

Fig. 43-

transformer at the same phase-angle.

We

thus get point
I

2.

The

centre of the semi-circle can at once be. found, points

and 2 being

determined, as angle Ot
150.

OA

is

equal to angle

O A.
2

The

ordinates of the semi-circle Ot represent the watt-current
I

of the transformer, the ordinate of point

being equal to

5

X2

-f-

no

80

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSFORMER.

= 0.455,
amp.

and the ordinate of 2 being equal
directly the

to 174*

X

2

-r-

no

=

5.5

Oi; O2, represent

To

find the secondary currents

primary currents. I have redrawn the same diagram

in Fig. 45.

OA

is

the primary current, or, to be
f.

more

strictly correct,

the primary m. m.

OM

is

proportional to the terminal voltage of
SCALE FOR

1

10 volts in our case.

01234

M. M. T.

SCALE FOR FIELDS
5

AMP.

20

40

60

80

100

VOLTS

Fig. 44-

MD

is

proportional to

ti

n, the ohmic drop in the primary.

It is

drawn perpendicular

would be equivalent to the throttling action of the ohmic resistance must be in quadrature with the voltage necessary to overcome it
to Xi, as the field that

O D,

then,

is

the primary flux F\.
81

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
CD
is

the primary leakage-field

^
i

C~D

=

--

6~A

CG

is

the secondary leakage-field ^ 2 .

C~G

=
z.

-20

i

A~C
for the fields the
in

O G is the secondary field F
SCALE FOR
1

By means of the scale
It
SCALE FOR FIELDS

secondary voltage can at once be determined.
M. M. F.

must be borne
100

2

3

45

AMP.

40

60

80

VOLTS

OA-X,;
"oLT-F,;

AC-X 2 OC-F;

;

OOX
"OG-F2

J
7

OME,
Fig. 45-

mind
151.

that

OG

is

not proportional to the voltage at the secondary
it

terminals, but that

includes the ohmic drop in the secondary.

Though

the preceding considerations offer no great difficulty

in

understanding them clearly, yet the transformer diagram becomes
if

surprisingly simple

we

neglect the resistance of the primary.
its

And

not only the diagram, but also

evolution,

become so perspicuous

82

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
that
it

seems peculiar that

it

has taken such a long time to arrive at

this solution.

That the locus of the vector of the primary m. m. f. must be a semi-circle, follows directly from the diagram of Fig. 41. This circle
is

reproduced in Fig.
forces.

46.

The

thick lines

show the

triangle of the

magnetomotive
152.

OC

is

the magnetizing current.

If the transformer runs

on

open-circuit,

OC

becomes equal to

O K. We

see, therefore, that the

20 40 60

80 1OO VOLTS

Fig. 46.

magnetizing current

is

not constant for

all

loads, but decreases with

the diminution of the secondary resistance.
the primary magnetic field Fi,

What remains constant
of the

is

which
is

is

composed

common

field
is

F

and the
153.

leakage-field

ft,

F

constantly diminishing, while ft

increasing, their vector-sum being constant.

K

divides
line

O~D

in a constant ratio,

O~K

=v

, .

O~D.
it

Hence,
until
it

drawing a

through K,

for instance,

A

K, and producing

83

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
intersects the semi-circle in G, yield us all the data of the transformer

that

we

are interested

in.

INDUCTANCE IN SECONDARY.
is no difficulty in drawing the diagram for a transformer on an inductive load of constant power-factor. The develworking

154.

There

INDUCTANCE

IN

SECONDARY.
/

/

A/!/

a -77^7-1-0.66

Fig. 47-

opment of the diagram is of the simplest if we neglect the primary Afterwards it resistance, which is generally perfectly permissible.

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
is

easy to correct the diagram with regard to the ohmic resistance of
if this

the primary,
155. Let

should be desired.

Q, Fig. 47, be the e. m. f. necessary to overcome the ohmic resistance of the secondary circuit, including the resistance of
the coils of the transformer, and

O

ON

the

e.

m.

f.

required to over-

come

the external inductance in the secondary circuit, then
e.

OP
is

is

equal to the

m.

f.

required to drive the current

through the whole

secondary of the transformer.
in
is

The

field

necessary to do this

O
is

G,

quadrature with

E

t.

CG
f. t,

is

the leakage field of the secondary,

CA
the

the secondary m. m.
field.
is

X OA
OC
is

the primary m. m.

f.

X\.

CD

primary leakage scale of Xi and X 2
F.

the

common magnetic

field,

and the

so chosen as to give a resultant equal to

OK

is

constant as

OD

is

constant,

OK

being equal to Vi

.

O C= O D.*

It follows at

once from the diagram,

AK X, AK =
:

:

:

X,
.

:

-~
Vl

v,

X,.

P O N, G O G K remains constant and equal to 180 O G K. If the diagram is constructed for one point, the locus of G is determined. 156. To determine the locus of A we have to consider the ratio between G K and A K, which we have called
As
angle

moves

in the arc

KC =
For

X,

(i

vj

A K we

have
a

Vi

.

Xi, hence

G~K = -- =

-

A ~K

vt

--

i

=

*i

i

^

--

I

This diagram is identical with that given by Herr Emde in the EltktrottchI refer the reader to Herr Erode'* important ische Zeitschrift, Oct. n, 1900. contributions on this subject, as well as to his valuable criticism of my paper of also 1896 on the general transformer. See "al* Herrn Heubach's, Kuhlmann's, and ITC. Sumec's letters on the same subject there.

85

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Hence the
the ratio.
locus of

A

is

an arc the chord of which

is

determined by

O~K
(5).

Vi
centre of this arc
is

^

KL
Angle Oi

157.
is

The

determined by the angle Os

equal to

equal to

Q O P, Q O P.
is

the angle of lag in the secondary.

K L, which O K is

CAPACITY IN THE SECONDARY.
158. Fig. 48

constructed for a capacity in the secondary in series

with the resistance. secondary
field,

Angle

triangle
:

P O B is O A K is the

the secondary lead, Ft
triangle of the m. m.

is

the

ff.

We

find exactly as before

OL
Bearing
in

OK =

a

=
O GK

l

i

mind

that angle

is

constant and equal to angle

N O P,
159.

it

follows at once that the locus of
3

G and

that of

A

are circles.

Again angle

KL

is

equal to angle Oi

O K,

equal to angle

P

Q, the angle of the secondary lead.

HYSTERESIS AND EDDY CURRENTS.
160.

A

word about

the

way

in

which hysteresis and eddy currents
to be constant for all
is

should be taken into account.
loads

Assuming them

which they are

not, as, if the leakage-path

slightly saturated,

the leakage-flux becomes greater with larger currents, and the greater
loss in the leakage-path
field
it

may outdo

the decrease of the loss in the

main

seems most logical to take these losses into account by assuming a lag between the common field O C and the magnetizing current. This lag diminishes the secondary current. Draw a line parallel

with

in watts

L D, the distance of which from L D being equal to the loss through hysteresis and eddies divided by the primary voltmus* be measured between
this line

age, then the secondary currents

and the semi-circle

O*.

86

ALTERNATING-CURRENT TRANSFORMER.
161.
I

wish to impress upon the reader that there
I

is

little in

this

contribution that

can claim specially

my

own.

I

have merely com-

bined the diagrams of Kapp, Steinmetz, and Blondel, simplifying

wherever

it

was

possible.

The

application of the principle of recipro-

cal vectors* enables us in a surprisingly simple

manner

to trace out
if

the intricate

phenomena

in the

transformer for constant potential,
IN

CAPACITY

SECONDARY.

t/,-0.80

V.-0.75

-

P

Q
Fig. 48.
to include the

we want
at the

primary resistance.
is

My

diagram of the general transfomer

different
self-

method of arriving from Dr. Be
and mutual
in-

dell's in so far as

he uses the coefficients of
I

duction, a

method which

cannot advocate.

ments of Dynamic."

'The method of reciprocal vectors was admirably treated in 1878 by Prof. W. K. Clifford in the chapter on "Pedal and Reciprocal Curves" in his work on "EleBut Dr. Bedell first applied the principle to the transformer.

87

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
162.

A

very beautiful and simple diagram can be drawn, showing
lag,

in polar co-ordinates the locus of the primary current for a

non-

inductive load, and a lead in the secondary, as for the same trans-

former or motor

KL

is

a constant

if

O K

is

constant.

Neglecting

the primary resistance, a diagram can be constructed for constant
terminal voltage by erecting arcs over

K L

as chord.

Arcs

flatter

than the semi-circle correspond to an inductance in the secondary, the semi-circle corresponds to a non-inductive load, and an arc whose
inscribed angle
is

smaller than a right angle, standing on

K L

as

chord, determines the locus of the primary current for a condenser
in the secondary.

As

the secondary terminal voltage

is

determined

most simple and beautiful manner the pheby nomena of resonance and kindred phenomena may at a glance be
the circle Oi, in the
qualitatively

construction to the reader,

and quantitatively understood. who will find no

But

I

must leave the
up
and

difficulty in building
46, 47, 48.

the diagram synthetically with the help of Figs.

It is
is is

worthy of notice how injurious an inductance
with regard to the
capable of taking

in the

secondary

maximum energy in, and how much

the transformer or motor

a condenser in the armature

of the motor would increase the power of the motor to do work.

APPENDIX
The following
phenomena
tric

I.

presentation by Mr. Gisbert

Kapp

of the elementary

in the

induction motor

is

reprinted from his book, "Elecin the author's opinion,
it

Transmission of Energy," because,

is

the clearest

and most concise

logical evolution of the principles unIt will

derlying the theory set forth in the preceding pages.

repay

the student to go over Mr. Kapp's presentation of the subject, and

he

will

understand the vector diagram much more clearly after hav-

ing become thoroughly familiar with this extract from the

work of

a master of the art of exposition.

Extract from Gisbert Kapp's Electric Transmission of Power On the Induction Motor.

THE
tors,

armature conductors may be connected so as to form single loops, each passing across a diameter, or they may all be conin parallel at

nected

each end face by means of circular conduc-

Either system of winding does equally well, but as the latter is mechanically more simple, we will assume it to be adopted in Fig. 49. The circular end connections are supposed to be of very large area as compared witli the
bars, so that their resistance

somewhat

in the fashion of a squirrel cage.

may

be neglected.

The

potential of either

connecting ring will then remain permanently at zero, and the current
passing through each bar from end to end will be that due to the
e.

m.

f.

acting in the bar divided by
e.

its
is

resistance.

It is

important

to note that the

m.

f.

here meant

not only that due to the bar
field,

cutting through the lines of the revolving
sults

but that which re-

when armature

reaction

and self-induction are duly taken into

account.

89

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
Let us now suppose that the motor is at work. The primary field produced by the supply currents makes ~j complete revolutions per second, whilst the armature follows with a speed of ~ a complete revolutions per second.

The magnetic

slip 5 is

then

If the field revolves clockwise, the armature

must

also revolve clockfield,

wise, but at a slightly slower rate.

Relatively to the

then, the

FIG. 49.

armature will appear to revolve
a speed of

in a

counter clockwise direction, with

revolutions per second.

As

far as the electro-magnetic action within

the armature

is

concerned,

we may

therefore assume that the priis

mary
by

field is

stationary in space,

and that the armature

revolved

a belt in a

backward

direction at the rate of

~

revolutions per
belt to the

second.

The

effective tangential pull transmitted

by the

90

APPENDIX
armature
in

I.

will then be exactly equal to the tangential force

which
proper

reality is transmitted

by the armature

to the belt at its

working speed, and we may thus calculate the torque exerted by the motor as if the latter were worked as a generator backward at a

much slower
in

speed, the

whole of the power supplied being used up

heating the armature bars.
this point of

The
is,

object of approaching the prob-

lem from

view

of course, to simplify as
If

possible the whole investigation.

much we once know what torque
as a generator,
it it

as
is

required to

work

the machine slowly

backward

will

be an easy matter to find what power

gives out

when working

forward as a motor
Let

at its proper speed.

in Fig. 105 the horizontal a, c, b, d,

a represent the interpolar
line.

space straightened out, and the ordinates of the sinusoidal

B,

the induction in this space, through which the armature bars pass

with a speed of

~

revolutions per second.

We

make

at present
it

no
is

assumption as to

how

this induction

is

produced, except that

the resultant of all the currents circulating in the machine.

We

as-

sume, however, for the present that no magnetic flux takes place
within the narrow space between armature and
field

wires, or, in
all

other words, that there

is

no magnetic leakage, and that
field

the lines

of force of the stationary

are radial.

The

rotation being counter
b,

clockwise, each bar travels in the direction from a to c to

and so on.
the space

The
d a

lines of the field are directed radially
c,

outwards

in
f.

and radially inward

in the

space c b d.
the bars

The

e.

m.

will, there-

fore, be directed
in all the bars

downwards

in all

on the

left,

on the right of the vertical diameter in E represent the curve of e. m. f. in Fig. 50, then, since there
m.
curve, and

and upwards Fig. 49. Let
is

no

magnetic leakage the current curve will coincide in phase with the
e.
f.

we may

represent

it

by the line

I.

It is

important
fir-t

to note that this curve really represents

two
and

things.

In the

place

it

represents the instantaneous value of the current in any one
its

bar during

advance from

left to right

;

in the
all

second place,

it

represents the permanent effect of the current in
01

the bars, provided,

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
however, the bars are numerous enough
to

permit the representation

by a curve instead of a line composed of small vertical and horizontal
steps.

The question we have now
I ?

to investigate

is

:

what

is

the

magby

netizing effect of the currents

which are
if

collectively represented

the curve

In other words,

there were no other currents flowing
i,

but those represented by the curve
of the magnetic
field

what would be the disposition
Positive ordinates of
I

produced by them?

represent currents flowing upwards or towards the observer in Fig.

FIG. 50.

49, negative ordinates

represent

downward
Thus

currents.

The former

tend to produce a magnetic whirl in a counter clockwise direction,

and the

latter in

a clockwise direction.

the current in the bar
b, will

which happens
produce a
of
in
b,
field,

at the

moment

to

occupy the position
of

tend to

the lines of which flow radially inwards on the right
left
b.

and radially outwards on the

Similarly the current

the bar occupying the position a, tends to produce an inward

92

APPENDIX
field,
i.

I.

e.,

a

field

the ordinates of which are positive, in Fig. 105, to
field to

the

left

of a, and an outward

the right of

a.

It is

easy to

show

that the collective action of all the currents represented by the

field as shown by the sinusoidal line A. This curve must obviously pass through the point b, because the magnetizing effects on both sides of this point are equal and opposite.

curve / will be to produce a

For the same reason the curve must pass through

a.
i

That the curve
be the current

must be sinusoidal
armature
angle

is

easily proved, as follows: Let
b,

per centimetre of circumference in
;

and

let r

be the radius of the

then the current through a conductor distant from b by the be
i

a, will

cos a per centimetre of circumference.

If

we take

an infinitesimal part of the conductor comprised within the angle d o,
the current will therefore be
di

=

i

r cos a

d

a,

and the magnetizing effect in ampere-turns of all the currents comprised between the conductor at b, and the conductor at the point
given by the angle a will be
di
i

=

i

r sin a,
act in the

and since the conductors on the other side of b
the
field in the

same sense,

point under consideration
i

will be

produced by 2

r

sin a ampere-turns,

being the current per centimetre of circum-

ference at

b.

Since for low inductions, which alone need here be considered, the
permeability of the iron
field

may

be taken as constant,

it

follows that the

strength

is

proportional to ampere-turns,

and that consequently
that the field

A

must be

a true sine curve.

When
existence

starting this investigation,

we had assumed
find that the

represented by the curve
in

B

is

the only field which had a physical

the

motor

;

but

now we

armature currents

induced by

B

would,

if

acting alone, produce a second field, repre-

sented by the curve A.

Such a

field, if it

had a physical existence,

would, however, be a contradiction of the premise with which
93

we

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
started,

and we see thus that there must be another influence
field

at

work
is

which prevents the formation of the

A.

This influence

ex-

erted by the currents passing through the coils of the field magnets.

FIG.

51.

The primary field must therefore be of such shape and strength, that it may be considered as composed of two components, one exactly
94

APPENDIX
B

I.

equal and opposite to A, and the other equal to B. In other words, must be the resultant of the primary field and the armature fielc A.
1

The curve C
as
it

in Fig. 50 gives the induction in this

primary

field

or
is

is

also called, the "impressed field," being that field which

impressed on the machine by the supply currents circulating through the field coils. It will be noticed that the resultant field lags behind
the impressed field by an angle which
is

less

than a quarter period.

The working
in Fig. 106, the
(i.
e.,

condition of the motor, which has here been investi-

gated by means of curves, can also be shown by a clock diagram.

Let

maximum

field

strength within the interpolar space

number of

lines per square centimetre at a

and b of

Fig. 104,

be represented by the line

O

B, and

let

O

Ia represent the total
left

am-

pere-turns due to armature currents in the bars to the
right of the vertical, then

or the

O A

represents to the same scale as

B

the

maximum

induction due to these ampere-turns.

We
O
la

need not

stop here to inquire into the exact relation between
this will be explained later on.

and

O

A,

to

For the present it is only necessary note that under our assumption of no magnetic leakage in

the machine,
fore also to

O A must stand O B, and that the

at right angles to

O

Ia ,

and there-

ratio

between

O

la

and

O A

(i.

e.,

armature ampere-turns and armature field) is a constant. By drawing a vertical from the end of B and making it equal to O A, we find

O C

the

maximum

induction of the impressed
field

field.

The

total

am-

pere-turns required on the

magnet to produce this impressed field are found by drawing a line from C under the same angle to C O, as A Ia forms with A O, and prolonging this line to its intersection with a line drawn through O at right angles to O C. Thus we
obtain
little

O Ic the total ampere-turns to be applied to the field. The diagram below shows a section through the machine, but in,

stead of representing the conductors by

little circles

as before, the

armature and field currents are

shown by

the tapering lines, the

thickness of the lines being supposed to indicate the density of current per centimetre of circumference at each place.

95

APPENDIX
The following
and
109.
52,
is

II.

a very simple

and elegant method of arriving
108

graphically at the results of the integrations in Sections 19, 20,

Consider a winding ag, Fig.
that
is all

extending over an arc of 180 degs.,
induced which we shall

over the pole-pitch.

In each element, extending over an
is

infinitesimally small arc, there

an

e.

m.

f.

FIG.

52.

call dc,

represented by the infinitesimally small vector

AB

perpen-

dicular to the element of the winding ab.
that the vector-sum, or the expression
(

We

can see at a glance

de, is equal to
in the

AG, and
is

that

the algebraic
to the arc

sum

of the

e.

m.

f.'s

induced

elements

equal

ABC D

G, since in the latter case the elements have to

96

APPENDIX
be added independently of
the algebraic

II.

their phase relation.

But we know that
is

sum

of the

e.

m.

f.'s

of

all

the elements

equal to

~
V/2

z *

io' 8 volts,

hence we

may

conclude that

in

a distributed winding the

e.

m.

f.

induced

is

equal to

AG

-r-

A B CD G

multiplied by

e.

This

is,

FIG. 53-

however, equal to
I

Z *
2

10"'

= V/2 ~
in

z *

io~* volts.

This formula
sentatfon

differs slightly

from (21) as

our graphic repre-

we have assumed

a sinusoidal field the lines of which are

cutting the winding, whereas fields with straight contours have been

considered in Sections
If the coil covers

19,

20 and 108.
e.

an angle of 120 degs., (Fig. 53), the
97

m.

f.

in-

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
it

duced in
that
is

it is

equal 10-7= V2

~

z *

icr8 multiplied

by

A G-^ABCDG,

to say, equal to

z *

IO"8

=

1.836

~

z

volts.

For a

coil

extending over an angle of go degs. (Fig. 54),

we

find

FIG. 54.

at
e.

once the co-efficient entering into the general equation for the

m.

f.

to be

1/2

2

Let the

coil

cover an angle of 30 degs. (Fig. 55), and

we have

at

once for the co-efficient
7T

2

7T

V/2
as found in Section 20.

6

1/2

98

APPENDIX
The foregoing
integrations.
is

II.

again an illustration of the ease with which

graphic methods lead to results otherwise attainable only by lengthy

FIG. 55-

In Appendix III.

we

shall describe a
in field

way

in

which

to take into

account the ohmic losses
that adopted in Figs.
5,

and armature much simpler than

24,

and

33.

99

APPENDIX
Figs.
5, 24,

III.

and

.33

can be greatly simplified
in the

if

the watt

component

corresponding to the C~R losses

primary and secondary of the

rotatory transformer are set off from
circle.

DL

instead of

from the semiordinates be-

For

it

can easily be proved (Fig. 56) that

.the
,

tween RCi and
nates between

RC DL

2

are exactly proportional to

CV? 2

while the ordilittle

and RCi represent, with extremely
of this
2,

inac-

curacy, the watt component corresponding to the ohmic loss in the

primary, C*Ri.
dinate between

The proof
RCi and

is

very simple, for

let

b be the or-

RC

or a current Co, then

we have

Co

2

= mbo,
DL,
2

where

m

is

a constant.
do,

Calling the projection of Co on

and that of

C

on DL,

a,

then

we have

DN = C = a
2

We

also have

=
Hence follows

a

(DL

a)

C*

=

-a

-

.

b

.

DL
DL

(a)

In a similar

manner

it

can be proved that the ohmic loss in the

primary may be represented by the ordinates between

and RCi,

RD

being equivalent to the ohmic loss produced by the current OR.

It is

now

evident that the output

P

of the motor

is

represented by

the ordinates between the circle and

RC

2,

while the ordinates be-

tween the

circle

and

Rd

represent the torque

D

of the motor.

100

APPENDIX

III.

i90;. Slip

Generator

roi

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.
The
by the
slip is

equal to the ratio of the loss in the armature divided

total

energy developed

in the secondary,

hence equal to the

ratio of the ordinates

between RCi and RCi, divided by the ordinates

between the

circle

and RC\.

Mr. Heyland has shown that the diagram may be used to represent the action of the motor when running at a speed above synchronism,
i.

e.,

at a negative slip.

The -motor then

gives energy back upon the
it.

line,
I

requiring mechanical energy to drive

The

simplification that

have just introduced, by which the ohmic losses can be taken into
lines,

account by merely drawing two straight

enables us to plot at

once the current, d, the torque D, the output
cos
<j>,

P

,

the

power

factor

and the

slip

5",

in rectangular co-ordinates as functions of the

electrical electrical

energy consumed by the motor, and as functions of the
energy given back by the generator.

Fig. 56 illustrates these curves, the plotting of

which takes but a

few minutes.

102

INDEX.
(The numbers
refer to the pages.)

Ampere-Conductors P er Slot, Their Influence on Leakage Ampere-Conductors per Slot Armature Currents Li Different Frequencies
Bedell, Dr. Fred Bedell & Crehore

24 23 40
87
73
51

Behn-Eschenburg, Dr. Hans
Blondel, Prof.

Andre

15

C ahen,

Hermann
85.

35

Calculation of Single-Phase Motor, Chapter VII Capacity in Secondary of Transformer

63 86
1 1

Character of Magnetic Field Characteristic Curves of Single-Phase Motor
Clifford,

60. 67, 68,

W.

K

Constant-Current Transformer

Comparison of Single-Phase and Three-Phase Motor
Conductors, Number of, per Slot Constant Potential Transformer Corroboration of Theory Counter-E. M. F. in Three-Phase Motor Counter-E. M. F. in Single-Phase Motor

69 87 76 70 24 78
5

13.14 61,62
53

D arwin,

Prof. George Howard Design of 2OO-hp Three-Phase Motor Determination of Characteristic Curves of 2OO-hp Motor

42 47,48
17

E fficiency
Emde,
Fritz
;

85
Its

Exciting Current

Determination
103

15

THE INDUCTION MOTOR.

f ormulae

of Induction Motor .............................. Frequency, Drawbacks of High ..............................

15

38

General Alternating-Current Transformer, Chapter I ........ Graphic Integration, Appendix II ............................

i

96

H elmholtz, Quoted
A

.........................................

41

Heubach ...................................................

85

................................................ 2, 102 Heyland, Hysteresis and Eddy Currents .............................. 87
in Secondary of Transformer .................... Induction Generator, Appendix III ...........................

I nductance

84
100

K

............... ............................. Induction Motor, Appendix 1 ....................... Kuhlmann .................................................
:

a PP>

Gisbert

15

On

89
85

L eakage

...................................................

2
5

Leakage Coefficient ........................................ Leakage Coefficient Its Theoretical Predetermination ........ Leakage Factor, Chapter IV ................................ Leakage Factor, as Dependent on Air-Gap and Pole-Pitch. .. .32, Leakage Factor, Influence of Air-Gap on .................... 29, Leakage, How Influenced by Pole-Pitch ......................
;

28

29
36

30 34 27

Load Losses ...............................................
Current .................................. i, 4, Factor ...................................

14, 15

Maximum Power

18

Current, Relation Between No-Load and Magnetizing Current in Single-Phase Motors .....................

56

Qhmic
Output

Resistance of Primary ............................. ....................................................

4,

7 18

Output, How Dependent on Speed .......................... Overload, Dependence on Air-Gap ..........................
104

38

32

INDEX.

P olar

Diagrams of General Alternating-Current Transformer,
23 34

Chapter VIII
Pole- Pitch, Its Influence on Leakage Factor Power Factor Its Relation to Leakage Coefficient
;

9
21

Power Factor;

How
; ;

Primary Resistance Primary Resistance

Affected by Open or Closed Slots Its Influence on Diagram

8
81

How

Taken Into Account

R elation
S

Between Leakage Factor and Power Factor

26
5

emi-Circle Diagram
.'

Semi-Circle Diagram for Single- Phase Motors Short-Circuit Current
Single- Phase Motor, Chapters VI. and Slip and Resistance

60
19
54
16,

VII

18

and Torque Curves Slip and Single-Phase Motor
Slip
Slots,

52 58 22 23 20

Slots
Slots,

;

Number per Pole Their Number as Influencing Leakage

Comparison Between Open and Closed Speeds, Winding a Motor for Different Squirrel Cage Armature Starting Arrangement for Single-Phase Motors
Steinmetz, C.

P

Sumec

36 49 71,72 2 42 85
17

Thompson,

Silvanus

P
16,

Three- Phase Motor, Experimental Data of

25
17

Torque Torque Curves of Single- Phase Motor
Vectors, Reciprocal

57
79,

80

105

PLEASE

DO NOT REMOVE
FROM
THIS

CARDS OR

SLIPS

POCKET

UNIVERSITY

OF TORONTO

LIBRARY

SAM
A

198

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