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TPS 64

TELEPROTECTION SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT Operating Manual C33258.20 C0

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TPS 64 Operating Manual

The following products comply with the protection requirements of the European Union Council Directive 89/336/EEC relating to electromagnetic compatibility (EMC), provided that installed using EMC-compatible installationpractices (installation in mechanical housings stated to be EMC-compatible and using cabling material [at least as well shielded] and practices as stated in relevant Nokia Telecommunications user manuals): Product code CU 24201 CU 24202 CU 24203 Product name TPS 64 Control Unit TPS 64 Channel Unit TPS 64 Channel Unit Release 02A 01A 01A

The following mechanical housings are designed for EMC-compatible installations (EMC, Electromagnetic Compatibility).When electrical items (plug-in units, for example) carrying the CE mark on the package are installed into this mechanical housing according to the installation practices stated for the housing and the units, the total installation complies with the protection requirements of the European Union Council Directive 89/336/EEC relating to electromagnetic compatibility. Product code CF 24284.09 Product name TPS 64 Cartridge 20 T EMC Release 01A

E COPYRIGHT Nokia Telecommunications Oy 1998 All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may be copied, distributed, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language without the prior written permission of Nokia Telecommunications Oy. The manufacturer has made every effort to ensure that the instructions contained in the documents are adequate and free of errors and omissions. The manufacturer will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the documents. The manufacturers liability for any errors in the documents is limited to the correction of errors and the aforementioned advisory services. The documents have been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using them.The manufacturer welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continual developmentand improvement of the documentation in the best way possible from the users viewpoint. Please submit your comments to the nearest Nokia sales representative. NOKIA is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Any other trademarks mentioned in the documents are the property of their respective owners.

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Document History
Document C33258001PE_00 C33258001PE_A0 Date 24 Aug 1993 1 Oct 1997 Instructions on installation revised to ensure EMC-compatible installations. CE-marking added on page ii. New channel unit added. Comment

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8 Jun 1998

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TPS 64 Operating Manual

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Contents

1 2 3 4

Functional Description Installation Operation Operation with Service Terminal Program CS 24260, versions 03A and 03B Program CS 24261, version 02A

C33258002SE_00 C33258003SE_00 C33258004SE_00

DTPS60829SEA2

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TPS 64 Operating Manual

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TPS 64
TELEPROTECTION SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT Functional Description

NTC C33258002SE_00

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TPS 64 Functional Description

E COPYRIGHT Nokia Telecommunications Oy 1997, 1998 All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may be copied, distributed, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language without the prior written permission of Nokia Telecommunications Oy. The manufacturer has made every effort to ensure that the instructions contained in the documents are adequate and free of errors and omissions. The manufacturer will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the documents. The manufacturers liability for any errors in the documents is limited to the correction of errors and the aforementioned advisory services. The documents have been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using them.The manufacturer welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continual developmentand improvement of the documentation in the best way possible from the users viewpoint. Please submit your comments to the nearest Nokia sales representative. NOKIA is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Any other trademarks mentioned in the documents are the property of their respective owners.

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Document History
Document DTPS0826SEB1 C33258002SE_00 Date 01 Oct 1997 8 Jun 1998 New document numbering scheme adopted (previous number DTPS0826SEB1). Comment

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TPS 64 Functional Description

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Contents

Chapter 1 TPS 64 Main Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


1.1 1.2 1.3 Teleprotection Applications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teleprotection System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Construction and Transmission Management . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1
1 2 2

Chapter 2 Equipment Operation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.5.1 2.5.2 2.5.3 2.5.4 2.5.5 2.5.6 2.5.7 2.5.8 2.5.9 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.9.1 2.9.2 2.10 2.11 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Principle of Operation and Main Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . Equipment Configurations . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Blocks and Their Functions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring of Equipment Status . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Signalling of Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring the Operation of the TPS 64 with One Control Unit . . . . Monitoring the Operation of the TPS 64 with Two Control Units . . . Incoming 64 kbit/s Signal Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Unit Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Unit Faults . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cancelling of Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Filtering of Alarms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Service Interface (MI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Interface (DI) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Programmable Alarm Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In Unit CU 24202 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . In Unit CU 24203 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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7 8 14 19 23 23 25 28 28 28 30 34 35 35 35 36 37 39 39 40 41 44
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2.12 2.13

Loopback . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Supply and Grounding . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 3 Technical Specifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.1 3.2 3.3 3.3.1 3.3.2 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 3.4.3 3.5 3.5.1 3.5.2 3.5.3 3.5.4 3.5.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.8.1 3.8.2 Main Characteristics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Frame Structure . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64 kbit/s Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Return Loss of the 64 kbit/s Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Pulse Masks of the Outgoing Signal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Inputs, CU 24202 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Inputs, CU 24203 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Maintenance Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Parameters of Service Interface (MI/MO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Data Channel Interface (DI/DO) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Programmable Alarm Outputs PA1 and PA2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Teleprotection Alarm Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Power Supply . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Mechanical Dimensions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Environmental Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . General Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Command Interface-related Requirements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Chapter 4 Equipment Composition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 5 Customer Documents . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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TPS 64 Main Characteristics

Chapter 1 TPS 64 Main Characteristics

1.1

Teleprotection Applications
Command type teleprotection applications are normally placed in three categories according to the nature of the information conveyed by the teleprotection commands: Permissive, blocking and intertripping schemes.

Distance relay

Distance relay

TPS 64 64 kbit/s G.703

TPS 64 64 kbit/s G.703

ITU T specified digital network

Figure 1

Typical application of digital teleprotection in power line protection

The application of Figure 1 is a distance relay-based power line protection where the teleprotection service is used to speed up the clearance of faults that occur near the ends of the line. Such applications are either permissive or blocking schemes.
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TPS 64 Functional Description

In permissive schemes the circuit breaker is operated, in case of faults occurring close to the opposite end of the line, only if a teleprotection command is received. The purpose of the command is then to confirm that the fault really lies on the line to be protected. In blocking schemes the circuit breaker is correspondingly operated only in the absence of the teleprotection command. In this case the teleprotection command is sent if the fault lies outside of the line to be protected and is therefore used to prevent the operation of the circuit breaker. In blocking schemes high dependability, i.e. low probability of missing command, is required. In intertripping schemes the reception of the teleprotection command causes directly circuit breaker operation. Accordingly, very high security is required. Although the three basic application types have different requirements with regard to the performance parameters of command-type teleprotection, the TPS 64 can be used in all of them. This is due to the fact that the digitalization has improved the performance so much that the same equipment can meet even the most stringent requirements simultaneously.

1.2

Teleprotection System
The teleprotection equipment TPS 64 has been designed to transfer on/off-type teleprotection commands. An operating teleprotection system always requires two TPS 64 terminals and a 64 kbit/s connection between them as shown in Figure 1. The error control procedure used in the TPS 64 has been designed so that any transmission media can be applied to achieve the needed 64 kbit/s connection. The error control procedure also guarantees full security against any signal disturbances (e.g. octet slips) generated by telecommunication equipment under abnormal operating conditions. In general the 64 kbit/s connection is formed by means of a telecommunication network consisting of equipment that complies with the ITU-T recommendations. The 64 kbit/s interface of the TPS 64 is in accordance with the ITU-T recommendation G.703. Note The 64 kbit/s connection must retain the octet information contained in the 64 kbit/s signal. In other words, the eight bits belonging to the same octet at the transmitting TPS 64 terminal must still belong to the same octet when the 64 kbit/s signal reaches the receiving TPS 64 terminal. If the TPS 64 is directly connected to a Data Interface Unit with a 64 kbit/s G.703 interface, the octet timing is always retained. However, if a modem is used between the TPS 64 and the Data Interface Unit, it must be carefully checked that the modem also meets this condition.

1.3

Construction and Transmission Management


The teleprotection equipment TPS 64 consists of plug-in units constructed on a EURO-2 sized PCB and installed into a TM4 equipment cartridge (please refer to the Operating Manual for the TM4 Construction Practice). The cartridge has four equipment locations which are numbered 1...4 from the left to the right. The units of the TPS 64 are named Control Unit A, Control Unit B, Channel Unit 1 and Channel Unit 2 from the left to the right as shown in Figure 2. The basic teleprotection equipment with four command channels includes only two units: Control

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TPS 64 Main Characteristics

Unit A and Channel Unit 1. If desired, the 64 kbit/s interface can be duplicated by adding Control Unit B and the number of command channels can be increased to eight by adding Channel Unit 2. The operation of the equipment is controlled via the service interface on the front edge of the control unit with a Service Terminal or Service Terminal Emulator (see Figures 2 and 4). Via this interface, equipment state and alarm data is read, controls and settings are selected etc. Refer to the Operating Instructions for Service Terminal and the part Operation with Service Terminal in this manual. The equipment can also be controlled using the Transmission Management System TMS (please refer to Transmission Management System TMS Operating Manual).

Control Unit A Control Unit B Channel Unit 1 (command channels 1...4) Channel Unit 2 (command channels 5...8)

Figure 2

Service Terminal and TPS 64 with all optional cards included

The service interfaces can be connected into a bus at an equipment station and the buses of different stations can be further connected into a service network (Figure 4) by means of the data channel (TS0 B5-B8) in the other telecommunication equipment. This allows all equipment connected to the bus or network to be

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TPS 64 Functional Description

remote-controlled from one point with a Service Terminal or Transmission Management System (refer to the related operating manuals).

RACK

WALL-MOUNTING SHELF

MOUNTING FRAME (INST ALLATION INTO 19" OR NOKIA M80 RACK)

Figure 3

Installation alternatives for equipment cartridges

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TPS 64 Main Characteristics

SERVICE TERMINAL CONNECTED DIRECTLY TO OBJECT EQUIPMENT

SERVICE INTERFACES CONNECTED INTO BUS B U S

SERVICE BUSES CONNECTED INTO NETWORK

STATION 1

STATION 2

B U S

B U S

DATA CONNECTION

Figure 4

Connection alternatives for Service Terminal

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Equipment Operation

Chapter 2 Equipment Operation

2.1

General
In most teleprotection applications, commands must be transferred in both directions. Accordingly, the command channels provided by the TPS 64 are bidirectional. To achieve this, the following main functions are needed: (1) Sensing of the command input states and encoding of the on/off command information into the outgoing 64 kbit/s signal. (2) Decoding of the incoming 64 kbit/s signal and control of the command outputs. A block diagram showing the functions mentioned above is shown in Figure 5. The number of command channels is four.

64 kbit/s ITU T G.703

V.11

CONTROL

Figure 5

Block diagram of the TPS 64

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TPS 64 Functional Description

2.2

Principle of Operation and Main Characteristics


The frame structure of the TPS 64 is shown in Figure 6. Each frame includes the frame alignment word FAW and a time slot for auxiliary information AUX, both 8 bits in length. These bytes are followed by 8 bytes (64 bits) reserved for the transmission of the teleprotection commands. The number of bits in a frame is 80 resulting as a frame time of 1.25 ms.

COMMAND INPUTS Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 8 bits 8 bits


FAW AUX

sampling

4 bits encoding

64 bits
CODEWORD

8 bits 8 bits
FAW AUX

outgoing signal

CONTROL BLOCK

incoming signal
FAW AUX CODEWORD FAW AUX

8 bits 8 bits Channel 1 Channel 2 Channel 3 Channel 4 COMMAND OUTPUTS

64 bits output relay control

8 bits 8 bits decoding 4 bits

Figure 6

Operating principle of the TPS 64 and frame structure of the 64 kbit/s signal

The auxiliary byte enables the exchange of control information between the two terminals of the teleprotection system. The command inputs are sampled every 1.25 ms. The sampling is done just before the transmitter starts to send the codeword bearing the sampling result. As the number of command inputs is four, the sampling yields one of the 24 = 16 possible

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Equipment Operation

input state combinations. Accordingly, there are 16 different codewords from which the one corresponding to the sampling result is sent. The following characteristic features result from the operating principle described above:
D

The delay in the transmitter varies between the limits 0...1.25 ms determined by the time elapsed from the change of state at the command input to the next sampling. It requires 1 ms to transfer the 64 bits. The sum of the two delays mentioned above, the error control delay of the teleprotection system, has the value tec = 1...2.25 ms. The four command channels have identical delays which remain unchanged even if teleprotection commands are applied to several command inputs simultaneously.

D D D

Accounting for the delays produced by the interface circuits results in a teleprotection equipment time of less than 6 ms. The teleprotection equipment times given here and in other TPS 64 documents are based on the maximum value of the error control delay. In other words, it is always assumed that the sampling of the command inputs occurs 1.25 ms after the change of state at the command input.

Principle of Error Detection and Correction


In principle, to represent the 16 different sampling results with 64-bit codewords means that one 64-bit sequence has to be assigned to each sampling result as shown in Figure 7. Note The terms message and codeword are used in the TPS 64 documentation interchangeably to refer to the 64-bit sequence carrying the information on the command input states.

64 bits 4 bits

16 different sampling results

possible codewords

2 64

Figure 7

Encoding of the command input states into 64-bit codewords

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TPS 64 Functional Description

The theory of block codes provides several means to select the 64-bit messages out of the enormous number of all possible 64-bit sequences. The most important target of these methods is to find a set in which any of the messages differs from any other message in as many bit positions as possible. The number of bit positions in which two codewords are different is called the distance of these codewords. The procedure used to find out the codewords of the TPS 64 is a combination of the known methods of the coding theory and some specific operations needed to achieve the necessary security against any signal deterioration in the telecommunication network. The set formed by the 16 codewords is a block code in the sense of the coding theory but is mostly called teleprotection code in the documentation of the TPS 64. The most important characteristic of the code is the minimum distance which is the distance of those two codewords which have the least number of different bits, i.e. are most alike. The minimum distance of the teleprotection code of the TPS 64 is 32. In the transmitter the codewords have been stored in an EPROM circuit. Each time the command inputs are sampled, the corresponding 64-bit message is retrieved from the memory for transmission. The receiver at the other end of the system also has the messages in its memory and the received message is decoded by comparing it with all the 16 possible messages. If one of the 16 messages differs from the received message in less than a specified number of bit positions, then it is considered that the concerned message has been received and the command outputs are affected accordingly. By default, the TPS 64 accepts messages corrupted by up to five errors but the number of acceptable errors can be specified by the user within the limits 0...7. The appropriate Service Terminal command for this can be found in the receiver settings as explained in the part Operation with Service Terminal of this Operating Manual.

Command Channel States


Instead of calling the two states of the command channels on and off, the terms command and no command are used throughout the TPS 64 documentation. The reason for this can be understood by considering the operation of a teleprotection system. Typically, the state no command is present for major portion of the total time. Teleprotection commands are transferred very seldom, at most a few times in a year. Transferring a teleprotection command means that the state of the command channel is changed from no command to command. The duration of the state command is short, typically not exceeding a few hundred milliseconds. In addition to the difference in duration, the two states differ in one important respect: The state no command is a preferred state. Being preferred means firstly that if transmission errors or some other reason prevents the receiver from knowing which one of the two states is present at the command input of the transmitting terminal, then the command output is directed to state no command. Secondly, it means that the equipment has been implemented in such a manner that disorders in the operation are more likely to cause an unintentional change of state from state command to state no command than a change in the reverse direction. For example, at the command output the state command corresponds to relay state relay energized so that a break of the operating voltage can only cause a change of state from state command to state no command.

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Probability of Missing and Unwanted Commands


In addition to teleprotection equipment time, the operation of a teleprotection equipment is characterized by the probability of missing command and by the probability of unwanted command. These characteristics always refer to the operation of one command channel in one transmission direction. All four (eight) command channels of the TPS 64 have identical characteristics. Due to the lack of standardization in the digital command-type teleprotection, the methods for calculating and expressing the probability of missing commands and unwanted commands were developed before starting the product development of the TPS 64. The complete treatment of this issue would go beyond the scope of this document but in the following paragraphs the way of expressing the probabilities is explained and the main results given. The probabilities given here are intended to describe the effectiveness of the error control techniques of the TPS 64. The effect of the hardware on the probability of missing commands and unwanted commands is dealt with in a separate document dealing solely with this question. In teleprotection the term missing command is used to refer to the event that the state command at the command input of the transmitting terminal cannot be reproduced at the command output of the receiving terminal within the specified teleprotection equipment time. The probability of missing commands is expressed as the probability that the transfer of a teleprotection command fails if there is a continuous binary error ratio of BER = 103 in the 64 kbit/s channel. Missing commands are often caused by transmission errors. Therefore, the error correction of the TPS 64 is an effective means to diminish the probability of missing command. If the error rate in the 64 kbit/s channel is BER = 103, then the probability of the missing command is Pmc < 109. This probability is based on the assumption that the receiver accepts messages corrupted by up to five bit errors, i.e. the error correction parameter has the default value. Because BER = 103 is the highest binary error ratio at which digital telecommunication systems remain operational and the given probability of missing command is extremely low, it can be concluded that no continuous binary error ratio can affect the operation of the TPS 64. The term unwanted command refers to the event that the state command appears at the command output of the receiving terminal but not at the command input of the transmitting terminal. The probability of unwanted commands is expressed by first specifying the error behaviour of the 64 kbit/s channel and then giving the probability as the Mean Time Between Unwanted Commands MTBUC under the specified conditions. Unwanted commands are also caused by transmission errors. For the TPS 64, the random binary signal BER = 0.5 is the most serious condition. The error behaviour of the 64 kbit/s connection was specified using the error performance parameters defined in the ITU-T Recommendation G.821. Based on the experience gained in the design of telecommunication networks it was assumed that the percentage of severely errored seconds is less than tses < 0.005 % on a typical 64 kbit/s connection used for command-type teleprotection. For errored seconds a percentage of tes < 0.1 % was assumed. Based on these assumptions it was calculated that the Mean Time Between Unwanted Commands is MTBUC > 100 000 years if the error correction parameter has the default value of five.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

Identifying the Transmitting Equipment


In recent telecommunication networks the rearrangement of connections is very straightforward and therefore susceptible to human errors. To make sure that cross-connecting the 64 kbit/s signals of two separate teleprotection systems does not have serious consequences, the receiver must be capable of identifying the equipment from which the 64 kbit/s signal is coming. It is also important that an unintentional loopback of the 64 kbit/s can be detected so that the receiver does not accept a signal which has been transmitted by the transmitter of the same equipment. One possible method to determine the origin of the 64 kbit/s signal could be to provide the signal frame with a separate address field used for this purpose only. This would, however, be a very ineffective approach to the problem from an information-theoretical viewpoint. Therefore, the information required to identify the transmitting TPS 64 is embedded into the actual codewords of the 64 kbit/s signal so that instead of always using the same set of codewords (i.e. teleprotection code) there are several different teleprotection codes. They have been constructed in such a manner that any two codewords always differ from each other in a great number of bit positions. As a matter of fact the larger set of codewords formed by the codewords of all teleprotection codes can also be thought of as a block code. The effect of the identification method explained above becomes apparent if we think what happens when two 64 kbit/s signals are accidentally cross-connected so that a TPS 64 receiver suddenly starts to receive a signal originating from a foreign TPS 64 and therefore containing a wrong teleprotection code. Already the first decoding after the change of the teleprotection code will fail, i.e. the codeword is found to contain more errors than accepted by the receiver. Thus, the wrong origin of the signal can be detected without any delay and no unwanted command is possible even if one of the command channels of the foreign teleprotection system is continuously in state command. The number of teleprotection codes is 16. It should be noted that the number of codewords in a teleprotection code and the number of teleprotection codes coincide by chance only. The number of teleprotection codes was determined by the requirements of the application and by the practical limits encountered during the implementation of the TPS 64. Because different teleprotection codes must be used in different transmission directions, 8 teleprotection systems with four command channels can be installed without needing to reuse any of the teleprotection codes. If the reuse cannot be avoided, the danger of cross-connecting the 64 kbit/s signals can still be diminished by careful planning in the allocation of the teleprotection codes. For example, it is recommended not to use the same code in 64 kbit/s signals being multiplexed in the same 2 Mbit/s signal. The selected teleprotection codes should always be entered into a map or some other kind of document to ensure that the allocation of the codes is not changed in conjunction with the maintenance of the teleprotection systems.

Frame Structure in Case of Eight Command Channels


The frame structure of an eight-channel teleprotection equipment differs slightly from that of the basic four-channel equipment. The additional command channels 5...8 are added to the 64 kbit/s signal by means of time division multiplexing, i.e. the states of command channels 1...4 are transferred in every other frame and the states of command channels 5...8 in the frames between them as shown in Fig12
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Equipment Operation

ure 8. The command inputs of each channel group are sampled every 2.5 ms. Due to this increase in the sampling delay, a teleprotection equipment time of less than 7 ms is guaranteed in case of eight command channels.

FAW1

AUX

CODEWORD FAW2

AUX

CODEWORD FAW1

AUX

CODEWORD

Command channels 1...4

Command channels 5...8

Command channels 1...4

Figure 8

Frame structure in case of eight command channels

The demultiplexing of the two channel groups is based on two facts: The two channel groups have different frame alignment words so that the receiver can start the decoding correctly. The necessary security against cross-connecting the two channel groups is achieved by using different teleprotection codes in each group.

Frame Alignment Strategy


The frame alignment of the TPS 64 is based on the error behaviour of the main signal. The frame alignment word is used for searching of the frame only. When considering the frame alignment of the TPS 64 it should also be kept in mind that the 64 kbit/s signal contains octet timing. This facilitates the search for the frame alignment word because the eight bits of the frame alignment word always belong to the same octet. During normal operation the receiver does not check the content of the frame alignment word. Instead, the loss of frame alignment condition is declared when two consecutive codewords containing more than seven errors have been received. After that, the search for a frame alignment word starts immediately. After encountering the first correct frame alignment word, the receiver removes the auxiliary byte from the incoming data stream and then decodes the next eight bytes. If more than seven errors are detected, the receiver starts again to search for a frame alignment word. The operation of the auxiliary channel is broken during the frame alignment lost condition. The auxiliary channel signal is then replaced with an all-ones (1) string. The above description is valid under the condition that a correct teleprotection code is contained in the incoming 64 kbit/s signal. If the teleprotection code does not correspond to the receiver settings, the receiver stops the decoding process and initiates the Invalid incoming signal alarm. Distinguishing the wrong teleprotection code from the frame alignment lost condition is possible because each one of the available 16 teleprotection codes has a different frame alignment word of its own. The receiver can recognize the frame alignment word of any teleprotection code but in case of a wrong code it does not try to decode the following codeword. Instead, the frame alignment is used only to keep the auxiliary channel functional. The function of the Service Terminal command which is used to show the number of channel groups and the teleprotection code(s) in the incoming 64 kbit/s signal is also based on the teleprotection code-specific frame alignment words.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

2.3

Equipment Configurations
The cartridge of the TPS 64 has four unit locations. The basic teleprotection equipment with four command channels includes one Control Unit CU 24201 and one Channel Unit CU 24202 or CU 24203. Although a TPS 64 with basic equipment configuration can fulfil the requirements of most applications, the system concept includes two options: The 64 kbit/s connection can be duplicated by inserting an additional control unit into the cartridge and the number of command channels can be increased to eight with an additional channel unit. On the following pages, the different equipment configurations are shown with simple schematic figures. The purpose of the figures is to show the differences of the various equipment configurations as far as the main function is concerned. The operation of the equipment monitoring and alarm facilities of the various configurations is explained later in a chapter dealing with these facilities. The teleprotection commands are transferred between the different units of the equipment as normal logic signals. On the motherboard, each command channel has a logic signal of its own. For reasons of legibility, the four command signals of each channel group have been represented with one line. This is indicated by means of four slashes on the command signal lines. Note The four command channels of one channel unit are called a channel group in the documentation of the TPS 64.

Motherboard signals Receiver

Control

Control Unit A Maintenance interface 64 kbit/s interface

Transmitter

Channel Unit 1 Command inputs

Command outputs

Figure 9

Basic four command channel equipment including one control unit and one channel unit

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Figure 9 shows the basic equipment with four command channels including one control unit and one channel unit. In the figure all signals that are not needed in this configuration have been omitted. Figure 10 shows an equipment with eight command channels including one control unit and two channel units. From this figure it can be seen that the control unit and the motherboard also include the hardware that is needed to transfer the eight command channels. This explains why the various equipment configurations can be achieved simply by inserting the additional units into the cartridge.

Motherboard signals

Control Unit A Control Receiver 64 kbit/s interface Transmitter Maintenance interface

Channel Unit 1 Command inputs

Command outputs

Channel Unit 2 Command inputs

Command outputs

Figure 10

Equipment with eight command channels including one control unit and two channel units

In the eight-channel equipment the additional command channels are added into the 64 kbit/s signal by means of time division multiplexing as explained before in
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TPS 64 Functional Description

conjunction with the description of the frame structure. The performance parameters of the eight-channel equipment are comparable to those of the four-channel equipment except for the teleprotection equipment time which is now less than 7 ms.

Control Unit A Motherboard signals Receiver 64 kbit/s interface Transmitter Control Maintenance interface

Control Unit B Control Receiver 64 kbit/s interface Transmitter Maintenance interface

Channel Unit 1 Command inputs

Command outputs

Figure 11

Four command channel equipment with 64 kbit/s duplication including two control units and one channel unit

Figure 11 represents an equipment with 64 kbit/s duplication. In the transmit direction, the teleprotection command coming to the equipment via the command input is directed to both transmitters and then sent out via both 64 kbit/s interfaces. In the receive direction, there is a wired OR connection formed on the motherboard so that the command appears at the command output if it has been detected

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Equipment Operation

at least by one of the two receivers. It should be noted that both receivers are working continuously. One consequence of this operating principle is that the time required by the leading edge of the teleprotection command to pass the system is determined by the faster 64 kbit/s connection whereas the passing time of the trailing edge is determined by the slower connection. By considering the principle of the duplication it can also be understood that the command output control modes and the associated parameters in the two control units should normally be identical. Of course, some quite specific reasoning made by the user might result in command output controls being different in the two control units but the user is urged to be especially careful if such settings are taken into use. The command output control facility has been explained in detail in the part Operation of this manual. This kind of duplication, though causing some extra cost, has two considerable advantages: Firstly, the complicated change-over switch of the incoming signal can be omitted. Secondly, in addition to the 64 kbit/s signal the control unit hardware is also duplicated which further improves the performance of the command channels. Finally, Figure 12 shows that the two options can be present simultaneously, i.e. the eight command channel equipment can also have a duplicated 64 kbit/s interface.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

Motherboard signals Receiver

Control Unit A Control Maintenance interface

64 kbit/s interface Transmitter

Control Unit B Control Receiver 64 kbit/s interface Transmitter Maintenance interface

Channel Unit 1 Command inputs

Command outputs

Channel Unit 2 Command inputs

Command outputs

Figure 12

Eight command channel equipment with 64 kbit/s signal duplication including two control units and two channel units

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2.4

Blocks and Their Functions


A block diagram of the TPS 64 is shown in Figure 13. In the figure the most important functions of the basic four-channel equipment are included. Additionally, it indicates how the functions are divided on the two units of the equipment.

64 kbit/s Interface
The 64 kbit/s interface block has the following functions:
D D D

It provides the galvanic isolation by means of transformers. It converts the received bipolar signal into a digital signal and decodes the line code. It regenerates the 64 kHz timing signal and the 8 kHz (octet) timing signal which are used to synchronize the operation of the receiver and the transmitter. In the transmit direction it executes the code conversion and the conversion into a bipolar signal. If no incoming signal is available, the operation of the transmitter and receiver is synchronized to an internal oscillator of the TPS 64 so that the sampling of the command inputs and some other functions can continue. However, the internal oscillator cannot be used as synchronization source of the outgoing 64 kbit/s signal. This is not expected to be a problem in normal use of the equipment because there is no need to synchronize the telecommunication network to the TPS 64. This characteristic property of the TPS 64 has only one practical consequence: It is not possible to make an experimental installation by connecting the 64 kbit/s interfaces of two TPS 64 terminals directly to each other. To make an operational system where teleprotection commands can be transmitted, some other telecommunication equipment, e.g. the Digital Branching Equipment DB 2 together with a Data Interface Unit comprising at least two 64 kbit/s G.703 interfaces is needed.

Note

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TPS 64 Functional Description

P2

Data hybrid

Real time clock

Command input signals

Command input 1 Command input 2

P2

CONTROL

Auxiliary channel

Command output signals

Command input 3 Command input 4 P3

P4 Transmitter Receiver Command outputs

Timing signals Teleprotection alarm output Monitoring output

P5

P4

64 kbit/s interface

DC DC DC

DC

P6

Control Unit CU 24201

Channel Unit CU 24202 or CU 24203 *)

*) For pinout of connectors P2...P6, see the Installation part of this manual.

Figure 13

Block diagram of the TPS 64

Control
This block consists of a single-chip microprocessor together with its associated components such as the EPROM containing the program which controls the operation of the processor. The control block has the following main functions:
D D D D D

It performs the changes of the settings. It monitors the state of the equipment. In case of equipment fault or any incoming signal disorder it initiates the appropriate alarms. It registers the transmission and reception of teleprotection commands. It sends the Service Terminal commands to the remote-end equipment using the auxiliary channel of the 64 kbit/s signal.

DC/DC Converters
Both units generate their required supply voltages from the battery voltage.

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Transmitter
The electrical circuitry used to implement the transmitter is located on the additional component board attached on the printed circuit board of the control unit. The implementation is based on hardware except for the teleprotection codes which are stored in an EPROM. Although this memory contains teleprotection codes only, it is treated as a program and has accordingly a program identification code CS 24262. The transmitter includes the following functions:
D

It multiplexes the auxiliary channel and the teleprotection messages into the outgoing 64 kbit/s signal. It also adds the frame alignment word into every frame. It samples with an interval of 1.25 ms the logic signals coming from the command inputs. It retrieves the 64-bit message corresponding to the sampling result from the teleprotection code memory. In conjunction with the sampling of the command input signals, it interrupts the control processor so that the processor can verify whether one of the command input states has changed and execute the registration of the change if needed.

D D D

Receiver
The receiver has been implemented with a single-chip microprocessor. The program controlling the receiver processor has the identification code CS 24261. The receiver includes the following functions:
D D D

It synchronizes the operation to the frame of the incoming signal. It de-multiplexes the teleprotection messages from the auxiliary channel. It decodes the teleprotection messages (codewords) and calculates the number of errors contained in each message. On the basis of these results, it updates the error counters which can be found in the statistics in menu branch eight. It updates the command output control states as explained in detail in the part Operation of this manual. It controls the command output signals so that they correspond to the command output control states. It monitors the signal quality of the incoming signal and initiates the appropriate alarms if needed. It forwards the states of the command outputs to the control processor which compares the latest states to the previous states and enters the command events into the event register if changes have occurred.

D D D D

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TPS 64 Functional Description

Real-Time Clock
The real-time clock has been implemented by using a calendar chip which contains a calendar for one hundred years. The operation of the clock is supported with a rechargeable nickel-cadmium battery so that the time is not lost in conjunction with battery voltage outages. The calendar chip is connected to the control processor to enable the setting of time and date and the acquisition of the time and date when events are entered into the event register.

Command Inputs, CU 24202


All four command inputs of the channel unit are identical. The operation of the command inputs is explained in greater detail later in conjunction with the description of the interfaces of the TPS 64. The command inputs have the following functions:
D D

To provide the required galvanic isolation. To generate the operating voltage of the command input circuit. The voltage is monitored continuously and an alarm is initiated if the DC/DC converter used to generate the voltage fails. To detect the teleprotection command applied into the command input. To protect the command input and the whole equipment against overvoltages.

D D

Command Inputs, CU 24203


All four command inputs of the channel unit are identical. The only difference between the units different channels is the command input voltage level, which is selectable. The operation of the command inputs is explained in greater detail later, in conjunction with the description of the interfaces of the TPS64. The command inputs have the following functions:
D D D D

To provide the required galvanic isolation. To detect the teleprotection command applied into the command input. To filter the disturbances that may be supplied through the cable. To protect the command input and the whole equipment against overvoltages.

Command Outputs
All four command outputs of the channel unit are identical. The operation of the command outputs is explained in greater detail later in conjunction with the description of the interfaces of the TPS 64. The outputs have the following functions:
D D D

To provide the required galvanic isolation. To provide the output with proper switching power so that considerable external loads can be controlled. To protect the equipment against overvoltages.

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2.5
2.5.1

Alarms
Monitoring of Equipment Status
During operation the control processor checks at regular intervals (typically 8 milliseconds) that everything is in order. This monitoring of the operation includes e.g. the following: The operating voltages of the channel units and the operating voltages of the command inputs. The presence of units. The error rate of the incoming 64 kbit/s signal. If a failure is detected, an alarm is initiated. The hardware that is needed to monitor the status of the equipment is shown in Figure 14. Although this hardware is not visible to the user of the equipment, reading this chapter will probably be very useful in understanding how the TPS 64 operates in case of equipment faults and incoming signal disorders. Figure 14 represents an equipment comprising two control units and two channel units. The alarm signalling in case of other equipment configurations, not including all the units shown in the figure, can be understood by just imagining those units as being removed from the cartridge. All monitoring signals are based on the use of pull-up resistors at the receiving end and open-collector outputs at the transmitting end. The low signal level corresponds to state no alarm. This ensures that a power supply fault in the channel unit can also be detected because the open-collector connected transistor is then not powered any more and the corresponding signal goes high. The figure also shows that inserting a card into the cartridge grounds a monitoring signal that is used to sense whether the unit is present or not. The monitoring signals transmitted by the channel units are received by both control units. The control unit receives the following signals from the motherboard: 1. CHU1P (CHannel Unit 1 Present) indicates that Channel Unit 1 is present in the cartridge. CHU2P indicates correspondingly that Channel Unit 2 is present in the cartridge VOALA1 (VOltage ALArm 1) indicates that either the +5 V or the +24 V supply voltage of Channel Unit 1 is too low or has totally disappeared. VOALA2 indicates correspondingly whether the supply voltages of Channel Unit 2 are in order or not. INPAL1 (INPut ALarm 1) indicates that one of the command input DC/DC converters in Channel Unit 1 has failed. INPAL2 indicates correspondingly the condition of the DC/DC converters of Channel Unit 2.

2.

3.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

+5 V
CHU2P INPAL2 VOALA2 CHU1P INPAL1 VOALA1 RPUP RPUAL TPUAL

Control processor

Control Unit A

Receiver

64 kbit/s

+5 V
CHU2P INPAL2 VOALA2 CHU1P INPAL1 VOALA1 RPUP RPUAL TPUAL

Control processor

Control Unit B

Receiver

64 kbit/s

VOALA

Voltage Control

Com Input 1

Channel Unit 1

INPAL

w1

Com Input 2 Com Input 3 Com Input 4

VOALA

Voltage Control

Com Input 1

Channel Unit 2

INPAL

w1

Com Input 2 Com Input 3 Com Input 4

Figure 14

Monitoring of TPS 64 equipment status

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Equipment Operation RPUP (Receive Protecting Unit Present) indicates that the protecting control unit is present in the cartridge. RPUAL (Receive Protecting Unit ALarm) indicates that the main function of the protecting control unit has failed.

4. 5.

2.5.2

Signalling of Alarms
When the TPS 64 has detected a fault, it has several possibilities to signal the resulting alarms to the maintenance personnel. Additionally, there is one alarm output that has been especially designed to be used in signalling to the protection relay logic that the teleprotection system is not capable of transmitting the teleprotection commands. This alarm is called TeleProtection Alarm and abbreviated TPA throughout the TPS 64 documentation. Some of the alarm signalling possibilities are represented in Figure 15. The figure shows the TPS 64 in its maximum configuration with 8 command channels and 64 kbit/s duplication. The alarm signalling in case of other equipment configurations, not including all the units shown in Figure 15, can be understood by just imagining those units as being removed from the cartridge.

Control Unit LEDs


The control unit LEDs are used to indicate the alarm conditions both in the control unit itself and in the channel unit. The red LED is used to indicate a severe equipment failure. It normally means that one of the units belonging to the equipment needs service. The yellow LED indicates that a fault has been detected in the incoming 64 kbit/s signal. It is also turned on if eg. the event register is full. The red LED remains functional even if there is a power supply fault in the control unit of the TPS 64. This is possible because the LED is then powered by an auxiliary voltage generated in the PSA/PIA.

Rack Alarms
Each rack includes either a PSA cartridge or a PIA unit which, in addition to some other functions, provides a possibility to signal alarm conditions by means of lamps (LEDs in the PIA) and potential-free relay contacts as shown in Figure 15. If the rack includes several pieces of equipment, they share this facility in the same way as the two TPS 64 control units in Figure 15. The alarm information of all units, having access to these lamps and relays, is logically OR-connected. The lamps and the relays are controlled on the basis of the fault status. The red lamp indicates that there is at least one equipment with fault status A in the rack. The clear lamp in the middle corresponds to fault status B and the yellow lamp corresponds to fault status D.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

RED

CLEAR

YEL

PSA cartridge A B D
A rack alarm B rack alarm D rack alarm TPA1 TPA2 +5V PA1 Control Processor PA2 +5V

(PIA unit)
Relay outputs

CONTROL UNIT A

red yel gre


+5V +5V PA1 Control Processor PA2

A rack alarm B rack alarm D rack alarm TPA1 TPA2

CONTROL UNIT B

red yel gre CHANNEL UNIT 1 Teleprotection alarm TPA1 &

+5V

+24V

+5V

+24V

CHANNEL UNIT 2 Teleprotection alarm TPA2

&

Figure 15

Alarm indication possibilities of the TPS 64

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The A-alarm remains functional even if there is a power supply fault in the control unit of the TPS 64. This is possible because the corresponding switch is then powered by an auxiliary voltage generated in the PSA/PIA. The operation and connection possibilities of the rack alarm relays are described in detail in the General Description of the TM4 Construction Practice.

Service Interface
The control unit of the TPS 64 is normally connected to a Transmission Maintenance Computer (TMC) which displays the current fault status on a fault monitoring display. It also directs the occurrence and disappearance of the faults on an alarm printer. This facility is based on the use of predefined fault codes. To find out the exact reason for the fault requires in some cases that a service connection is created to the equipment either by using the Service Terminal or by starting a Service Terminal Emulator. The fault run diagnostic test is an example of this. It is used for any of those abnormal operating conditions that cannot, with reasonable accuracy, be described with the predefined coded faults.

Programmable Alarm Outputs


The programmable alarm outputs PA1 and PA2 are controlled on the basis of fault status. Being programmable means that the user can affect the way the fault status information is logically combined when forming the signal that controls these outputs. The available combinations are shown in the part Operation with Service Terminal of this Operating Manual. If there is a power supply fault in the control unit of the TPS 64, the programmable alarm output PA1 remains functional because it is supported by an auxiliary voltage generated in the PSA/PIA.

Teleprotection Alarm Outputs


Each channel unit has one relay output for signalling of severe alarm conditions. This alarm is called teleprotection alarm. The output relay includes one potentialfree change-over contact. Normally, the output relay is energized corresponding to the state no alarm. This ensures that the alarm is initiated if there is either a power supply fault in the channel unit or the battery voltage is lost. The same is true, of course, in the case that the channel unit is removed from the cartridge. The teleprotection alarm is initiated if the teleprotection service is not available. The teleprotection alarm output of Channel Unit 1 is abbreviated TPA1 and the output of Channel Unit 2 TPA2. Figure 15 also shows how these alarm outputs are controlled if the equipment includes two control units, i.e. the 64 kbit/s signal and the control unit hardware are duplicated. The figure shows that the alarm output remains in state no alarm until the alarm control signals from both control units TPA1 and TPA2 are in state alarm corresponding to the high level of the control signal. If Control Unit B does not belong to the equipment configuration, the corresponding alarm control signal is kept continuously high corresponding to the state alarm and Control Unit A alone determines the state of the teleprotection alarm output.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

2.5.3

Monitoring the Operation of the TPS 64 with One Control Unit


The operation of the TPS 64 is monitored by the control unit. The control unit has a serial interface for the Transmission Maintenance System. The channel unit has no control processor and is therefore monitored by the control unit. The TPS 64 has two or three supervision blocks depending on the number of channel units belonging to the equipment configuration. The supervision blocks are represented in Table 1.

Supervision block number SB000 SB001 SB002

Name of the Faults of the supervision block supervision block Control unit Channel unit 1 Channel unit 2 Incoming signal faults and control unit faults Faults in channel unit 1 Faults in channel unit 2

Table 1

TPS 64 supervision blocks

2.5.4

Monitoring the Operation of the TPS 64 with Two Control Units


If the equipment configuration includes two control units, they both must be connected to the TMC by means of the Service Interface.

2.5.5

Incoming 64 kbit/s Signal Faults


The various incoming 64 kbit/s signal faults are represented in Tables 2 and 3. The alarm status of these faults depends on the number of control units belonging to the equipment configuration. If only one control unit is used, alarms are given according to Table 2. If the equipment configuration includes two control units, alarms are given according to Table 3, but only under the condition that both control units belonging to the equipment configuration are present in the cartridge and the main function of the next (redundant) control unit is in order, i.e. it is not sending the protection lost alarm.

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Fault code

Fault

Fault status

LED

Tele- Protecprotection tion lost alarm alarm 1&2 1&2 1&2 1&2 1&2 D D D D D

Farend alarm 1) D 1) D D 1)

30H 41H 57H 51H 63H B0H 16H

No incoming 64 signal AIS received Octet timing lost Frame alingment lost BER > 1E-3 Far end alarm Loop to equipment Alarm No alarm AIS transmitted

AS BS AS AS B B AS

yel yel yel yel yel yel yel

Used symbols: D 1)

Table 2

64 kbit/s faults (SB000) Equipment configuration includes only Control Unit A or the redundant control unit is sending protection lost alarm

The fault status of the faults AIS received and BER>1E3 can be affected by the user. The status given here is valid if the corresponding setting has the same value as it had when the equipment was delivered to the customer. From the column Teleprotection alarm it can be seen that in most cases both channel units 1&2 give teleprotection alarm. However, if a far-end alarm is received, teleprotection alarms are not given because any fault in the remote-end equipment causes a far-end alarm to be sent. Most of these faults do not affect the main function and thus must not causes teleprotection alarm to be initiated. Therefore, channel unit faults and some other severe faults cause teleprotection alarm only at the faulty end of the teleprotection system. The column Protection lost alarm indicates whether the protection lost alarm is sent to the next control unit or not. If the equipment configuration comprises two control units, this signal determines whether the next control unit signals its alarms in accordance with Table 2 or in accordance with Table 3. The column Far-end alarm indicates whether the far-end alarm is sent or not. It can be seen that some incoming signal faults cause the far-end alarm to be sent. If one of the faults loop to equipment, no incoming signal or octet timing lost is detected, the Alarm Indication Signal AIS is sent. If the equipment configuration includes two control units and at least one of them is capable of transferring teleprotection commands, the alarms of the 64 kbit/s signal faults are given according to Table 3.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

Fault code

Fault

Fault status

LED

Tele- Protecprotection tion lost alarm alarm D D D D

Farend alarm 1) D 1) D D

30H 41H 57H 51H 63H B0H

No incoming 64 signal AIS received Octet timing lost Frame aligment lost BER > 1E-3 Far end alarm Alarm No alarm AIS transmitted

B B B B B B

yel yel yel yel yel yel

Used symbols: D 1)

Table 3

64 kbit/s faults (SB000) Equipment configuration includes two control units and the main function of the redundant control unit is in order

From the column Fault status it can be seen that the status of all faults is now B. This is due to the fact that the teleprotection commands can still be transmitted although one of the control units has detected a fault in the incoming 64 kbit/s signal. The AIS is transmitted according to the same principles as in the case of Table 2. Looping the 64 kbit/s signal back to the equipment is not possible when there are two control units inserted into the cartridge as explained in the part Operation of this manual. Therefore the fault loop to equipment is not included in this table.

2.5.6

Control Unit Faults


The response of the TPS 64 to control unit faults also depends on the equipment configuration. If the equipment configuration includes only one control unit, the alarms are given according to Table 4. This table is also used if the equipment configuration includes two control units but one of them is not capable of transferring teleprotection commands. Table 5 is used if the equipment includes two control units and the main function of the next (redundant) control unit is in order, i.e. it is not sending the protection lost alarm.

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Fault code

Fault

Fault status

LED

Tele- Protecprotection tion lost alarm alarm 1&2 1&2 # 1&2 1&2 D D D D

Farend alarm 2) D D D D D AIS D D D D D

10H 9AH 8CH 8DH

Main function inhibited Fault in receiver 1) Excessive unit Forced control of Teleprotection alarms Other alarms Forced indication Equipment reset Run diagnostic test Invalid incoming signal Event register full Settings unfinished Set date and time Real time clock fault

AS AS B A B B B AS B B B B

yel red yel yel yel # yel yel yel yel yel yel

95H 94H 9FH

Used symbols: # D 1) 2)

State determined by forced control Alarm No alarm Command outputs will be locked See text

Table 4

Control Unit faults (SB000) Equipment configuration includes only Control Unit A or the redundant control unit is sending protection lost alarm

The alarm main function inhibited is given if the equipment is set to secure state. An equipment being in secure state transmits the AIS. The transmitter locking has the same consequences, the main function inhibited alarm is given and the AIS transmitted. Command output locking also causes alarm main function inhibited but in this case a far-end alarm is sent instead of the AIS. It is important to note that locking the transmitter or command outputs disables the teleprotection commands but only in one direction. Note also that all three controls mentioned above must be executed in both control units in order to disable the teleprotection commands. See also part Operation of this manual. These three controls are not deactivated by the control time-out because this could cause unwanted commands. The fault excessive unit is possible only in Control Unit A. It arises if Control Unit B is inserted into the cartridge and it does not belong to the equipment configuration of Control Unit A. This fault can be cancelled by removing Control Unit B from the cartridge or by changing the equipment configuration settings of Control Unit A so that Control Unit B belongs to the equipment configuration. The fault forced control on arises if one of the alarm outputs is forced into state alarm or into state no alarm. The fault forced indication results if one of the LEDs at the front edge of the control unit is forced to blink.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

The alarm run diagnostic test is given in the following cases: 1. The teleprotection code or the number of channel groups expected by the receiver does not correspond to the teleprotection code or number of channel groups of the incoming signal. Running the diagnostic test displays: Invalid incoming signal. Fault status is in this case A because teleprotection commands cannot be transmitted if the incoming signal is invalid. The number of channel groups and the teleprotection codes of the incoming signal can be viewed with a Service Terminal command available for this purpose. This alarm disappears if the receiver settings of the concerned equipment or the transmitter settings of the remote-end equipment are changed so that the incoming signal and receiver settings correspond to each other. If this fault suddenly appears during the normal operation of the teleprotection system, it is most probably due to a connection error in the telecommunication network and the incoming signal is transmitted by a wrong TPS 64. To avoid any unwanted commands it should be carefully ensured that this is not the case.

Caution

2.

The event register is full. Running the diagnostic test will display in this case:
Event register full. This alarm is initiated when there is space for ten events in the event register and it can be cancelled with the command 8,1,7 Erase event register completely. Before deleting the register, be sure that no valuable in-

formation is lost when doing so. 3. One of the settings requiring confirmation has been changed since command Confirm settings was last executed. Running the diagnostic test will display in this case: Settings unfinished. This alarm can be cancelled by the command Confirm settings which takes the new settings into use or with the command Cancel settings which cancels the changes made to the settings. If the rechargeable battery of the real-time clock has been discharged during transportation, the diagnostic fault Set date and time is initiated. The purpose with this alarm is to make sure that the equipment is not operated if the date and time of the clock are not valid. The alarm can be made to disappear by setting both the date and the time using the appropriate Service Terminal commands. If the real-time clock is faulty, the diagnostic fault Real-time clock failure is initiated. If the fault does not disappear within a few minutes, the control unit requires service.

4.

5.

If the equipment configuration includes two control units and the main function of the other control unit is in order, the alarms are given as shown in Table 5.

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Fault code

Fault

Fault status

LED

Tele- Protecprotection tion lost alarm alarm # 3) D D D D

Farend alarm 2) D D D D AIS D D D D D

10H 9AH 8DH

Main function inhibited Fault in receiver 1) Forced control of Teleprotection alarms Other alarms Forced indication Equipment reset Run diagnostic test Invalid incoming signal Event register full Settings unfinished Set date and time Real time clock fault

B B A B B B B B B B B

yel red yel yel # yel yel yel yel yel yel

95H 94H 9FH

Used symbols: # D 1) 2) 3)

State determined by forced control Alarm No alarm Command outputs will be locked See text Must be forced in both control units

Table 5

Control unit (SB000) Equipment configuration includes two control units and the main function of the redundant control unit is in order

The alarm main function inhibited is given if the equipment is set to secure state. An equipment being in secure state transmits the AIS. The transmitter locking has the same consequences, the main function inhibited alarm is initiated and the AIS transmitted. Command output locking also causes the alarm main function inhibited but a far-end alarm is sent instead of the AIS. It is important to note that locking the transmitter or command outputs disables the teleprotection commands but only in one direction. Note also that all three controls mentioned above must be executed in both control units in order to disable the teleprotection commands. See part Operation of this manual. These three controls are not deactivated by the control time-out because this could cause unwanted commands. The control unit faults that could not be included in the preceding alarm tables are explained in the next items. 1. If the equipment configuration includes two control units and either of them has failed, the control unit which is still functioning properly gives the alarm no redundant connection. The alarm status is then B. If the equipment configuration includes two control units but either one of them has been removed from the cartridge, the remaining control unit gives the alarm missing unit. The alarm status is then B.

2.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

3.

If the supply voltage of the control unit disappears, the following alarms will be initiated by an auxiliary +5 Vdc voltage supplied by the PSA cartridge: A-rack alarm, the red LED and the programmable alarm PA1. The Transmission Maintenance Computer detects this fault because the control unit does not answer the polling commands. The Protection Lost Alarm will also be initiated because its electrical implementation is such that the corresponding signal has the state alarm if no supply voltage is available. The fault installation error arises if Control Unit A is displaced from location A to location B or vice versa. It can be cancelled by means of the equipment configuration settings.

4.

2.5.7

Channel Unit Faults


The channel unit faults are shown in Table 6. The supervision block name indicates which one of the two channel units is faulty.
Fault code

Fault

Fault status

LED

Teleprotection alarm 1/2 1/2 1) 2

Farend alarm D D D D

00H 07H 8BH 8CH

Power supply fault Incorrect crit. voltage Missing unit Excessive unit Alarm See text

AS AS AS B

red red red yel

Used symbols: D 1)

Table 6

Unit faults of Channel Unit 1 (SB001) and Channel Unit 2 (SB002)

The alarm power supply fault will be initiated if the +5 Vdc supply voltage falls below +4.5 Vdc or the + 24 Vdc supply voltage falls below 21 Vdc. The alarm incorrect criteria voltage is initiated if one of the command inputs has lost its operating voltage due to a failure in the DC/DC converter. These two faults will initiate Teleprotection alarm only in the faulty channel unit (1/2). The red LED of the Control Unit A is turned on because there is no LED display on the channel unit. The alarm missing unit will be initiated if a channel unit belonging to the equipment configuration is removed from the cartridge. The red LED of the Control Unit A is turned on. The teleprotection alarm output of the removed channel unit is in the state alarm. The alarm excessive unit is initiated if Channel Unit 2 does not belong to the equipment configuration but is inserted in the cartridge.

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2.5.8

Cancelling of Alarms
Rack alarms A and B can be cancelled via the service interface of the equipment; alarm D is obtained as a reminder of the cancellation.

2.5.9

Filtering of Alarms
The response time of the rack alarms is user-definable. By default, these alarms are initiated when the fault causing the alarm has been active for 3 seconds, but the user can select any value within the limits 0...15 seconds.

2.6

Service Interface (MI)


Via the service interface (Maintenance Interface, MI) on the front edge of the TPS 64 control unit, the processor is connected to the service bus. Via the service bus the equipment can be controlled either locally or remotely by means of a Service Terminal or a Transmission Management Computer, TMC. When using a TMC, a Service Terminal Emulator program must be started to give the commands. Commands which are intended to affect the remote-end TPS 64 are conveyed via the auxiliary channel in the 64 kbit/s signal. Note The term Maintenance Interface is sometimes used interchangeably with the term Service Interface.

When a Service Terminal is connected to the Service Interface of the equipment, the green LED is turned on both in the near-end and in the remote-end equipment. When being connected to an equipment, the Service Terminal continuously sends LED refresh commands. Accordingly, the LEDs remain lit until the Service Terminal is disconnected from the TPS 64 or the Service Terminal power is switched off. If the connection has been created with a Transmission Management Computer by means of a Service Terminal Emulator, the green LED of the near-end equipment remains off. The remote-end LED is turned on for a few seconds each time the near-end equipment receives a command from the Service Terminal Emulator. The functional differences explained above are due to the fact that the Service Terminal Emulator does not send any LED refresh commands. Thus, the equipment being controlled does not become aware of the connection created by the Service Terminal Emulator until a command is sent. Each equipment connected to the service bus has its own address. On the basis of this address, the equipment recognizes which messages are directed to it. Then it performs the required functions and generates a response message, if needed. If the TPS 64 includes two control units, they both must be connected to the Transmission Management System via the Service Interface. Accordingly, they also must have an individual address. Connecting the two control units separately to the service bus is necessary because there is no service connection between the two control units located in the same cartridge. The Service Interface can be connected to the data channel via the data hybrid by giving the data hybrid an activation command as explained later in conjunction with the data hybrid.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

2.7

Data Interface (DI)


In the TPS 64, the data channel can be connected to the Data Interface only. No connection (comparable to the 2 Mbit/s connections in other ND4 equipment) to the 64 kbit/s signal exists. Instead, the remote-end TPS 64 is accessed by means of menu commands as explained in the part Operation with Service Terminal.

Data Hybrid
Figure 16 shows how the Service Interface and the Data Interface can be connected inside of the TPS 64 by closing the switch shown in the figure. This can be done by issuing the menu command TOP 6,1,8,1 RET. The switch shown in Figure 16 is then closed and the system operates as follows: Any command entered into the Service Interface reaches the control processor as before but it also goes simultaneously out via the Data Interface. The answer message from the control processor is returned as before. The answer messages from any equipment being connected to the Data Interface also appear at the output of the Service Interface. Therefore, the Service Interface output remains now continuously active and it is not possible to have other Service Interfaces connected in parallel with the Service Interface of the TPS 64 when the data hybrid has been switched on. Figure 16 shows an AND gate inside of the control processor. The displayed logic operation is performed in the software. It can be concluded from the figure that the Data Interface is taken into use when two conditions are true: The data hybrid must be switched on by making the proper settings and the PIN signal must be high. Thus, grounding the PIN signal disconnects the Data Interface irrespective of the settings related to it. This allows the units to be monitored locally in fault situations with the Service Terminal.

MI

&

Control processor
DH on/off setting DH on/off control

&

DI
+5 V

PIN Figure 16 Data hybrid and its control

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Equipment Operation

2.8

Programmable Alarm Outputs


A detailed circuit diagram of the programmable alarm outputs is shown in Figure 17. It can be seen that the programmable alarm output PA1 is supported with an auxiliary 5 Vdc voltage (VAP5) generated in the PSA/PIA. Note that this difference of the two outputs PA1 and PA2 has been omitted in Figure 15 for simplicity only. Both outputs can be thought of as simple ground switches that operate with negative voltage only, i.e. they are capable of shorting a negative external voltage to ground. This means that the operation can be described with the very simple model of Figure 18. From Figure 17 it can be seen that both outputs have been protected against over-currents with a current limiting connection which guarantees that the current at the alarm output never exceeds 10 mA.

TPS 64

VAP5

+5V

475 W PA1 +5V 681 W


Control register

PA2

Figure 17

Programmable alarm outputs electrical circuitry

If the output is in state no alarm, the switch is open (passive state). Then, the leakage current is I < 50 mA if the absolute value of the external voltage is j Udc j < 75 Vdc. When an alarm is initiated, the switch is closed (active state). Then, the absolute residual voltage over the closed switch is j Udc j < 2 Vdc if the load current is I < 5 mA.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

TPS 64

I Udc
+

Figure 18

Programmable alarm outputs electrical model and an application example

Figure 18 shows an application. The programmable alarm output has been used to energize a relay. When designing such applications it should not be forgotten that only very few relays are sensitive enough to be energized with a current as low as I = 5 mA. However, some reed relays with a coil voltage of 48 Vdc can be used as shown in the example. Also, a wide variety of solid state switching devices are available that can be controlled with a current of 5 mA or less.

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Equipment Operation

2.9
2.9.1

Command Inputs
In Unit CU 24202
Channel Unit CU 24202 has four identical command inputs. The operating voltage needed to transfer the teleprotection command from the command output of the protection relay to the command input of the TPS 64 is always generated in the TPS 64 by a DC/DC converter in each command input. The purpose of the DC/DC converter is to achieve the required galvanic isolation. Providing each command input with a separate DC/DC converter has made it possible to isolate the command inputs galvanically not only from ground but also mutually. The electrical circuitry of the command input is shown in Figure 19.

Teleprotection command
OC1 Z1 R2 L1

+
U

DC

R3 R1 Z2 TZ OC2 VDR

DC

L2

Input voltage alarm

Figure 19

The command input of the TPS 64 in Channel Unit CU 24202

The operating voltage of the command input is U = 24 Vdc. The teleprotection command is applied into the command input by short-circuiting the two poles + and - shown in Figure 19. This causes typically a current I = 15 mA in the circuit used to transfer the teleprotection command from the protection relay to the TPS 64. If there is a small leakage current from pole + to pole -, the current flows through resistor R1 because the voltage over R1 caused by a small leakage current is less than the zener voltage of Z1. Accordingly, there is no current flow through the diode of the optocoupler OC1 and the command input is still considered to be in state no command. When the current I becomes high enough, part of it starts to flow through the diode of the optocoupler OC1 and the command input is considered to be in state command. This change occurs typically when the current has reached the value I = 10 mA. The components R3, Z2 and OC2 comprise a voltage monitoring circuit. If the output voltage of the DC/DC converter becomes so low that there is not enough current flow through the diode of optocoupler OC2, an alarm is initiated as explained in the chapter dealing with the signalling of various alarm conditions.

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TPS 64 Functional Description The suppressor diode TZ and the metal oxide varistor VDR together with the inductors L1 and L2 protect the circuitry of the command input against transverse overvoltages.

2.9.2

In Unit CU 24203
Channel Unit CU 24203 has four identical command inputs. The command input voltage level is selectable by jumpers. There are four different nominal voltages: 32 Vdc, 48 Vdc, 110 Vdc and 230 Vdc. The electrical circuit of the command inputs is shown in Figure 20.

I
R4 R5 R3 R2 NR1 TZ

L1

+
R6

VDR

R1 L2

Figure 20

The command input of the TPS 64 in Channel Unit CU 24203

The teleprotection command is applied into the command input by applying a nominal voltage level (dc) to the + and pole as shown in Figure 20. It is important that the polarity of the command is correct. If the polarity is incorrect, the command will not be accepted. The current in the circuit is approximately 20 mA, depending on the level of the command voltage. Resistors R1, R2, R3, and R4 select the level of the input command voltage. FET Q1 regulates the voltage over R5 around 10 Vdc, and the other components therefore function in the same way irrespective of the selected input voltage area. The input voltage area can be set at NR1. When the current through the Q1 FETs drain to source pole becomes high enough, some of this current starts to flow through the diode of optocoupler OC1, and the command input is considered to be in the command state. This change takes place typically when the current has reached the value I = 20 mA. If there is a small leakage current from pole + to pole , the current flows through resistor R5. In such a situation, the current flow through the diode of octocoupler OC1 is too small to set the command input into command state, and the input is thus considered to be in no command state. The transient voltage suppressor diode (TZ) the metal oxide varistor (VDR) and the inductors (L1 and L2) protect the circuit against transverse overvoltages.

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Equipment Operation

2.10 Command Outputs


The Channel Unit CU 24202 has four identical command outputs. The electrical circuitry of the output is shown in Figure 21. The teleprotection alarm output and the monitoring output are electrically identical with the command outputs. The main component of the output is a fast mercury-wetted reed relay which has one change-over contact. In addition to the common contact, both the normally open and the normally closed contacts of the relay have been connected to the front connector of the channel unit. The output state command corresponds to the energized state of the relay. The nominal contact voltage of the relay contact specified by the manufacturer is 500 Vdc. Because the nominal voltage of the front connector is 250 Vac, the nominal operating voltage of the command output is specified as U = 250 Vdc or ac. The current flow through the relay contact is not allowed to exceed 2 A when the contact is opened. The maximum switching power is 100 VA at resistive load.

+24 Vdc A R Z D C

Teleprotection command from receiver

B C

Figure 21

The command output of the TPS 64

The purpose of the zener diode Z connected in series with the flyback diode D is to decrease the release time of the relay. This has made the specified teleprotection equipment time of less than 6 ms possible not only for the change from state no command to state command but also vice versa.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

Spark Quenching
The contacts of all output relays have been protected with spark quenching circuitry comprising a resistor and a capacitor connected in series. The resistor has a resistance of 150 W and the capacitor a capacitance of 4.7 nF. The purpose of the spark quenching is to protect the relay contacts when breaking inductive loads. The operation of the spark quenching is explained by means of an example shown in Figures 22 and 23. In the illustrated example the external load (typically the coil of a relay) has been connected so that the load current is flowing when the command output relay of the TPS 64 is energized, i.e. the command output is in state command. Accordingly, the spark quenching jumper is in position OCL which is a mnemonic abbreviation for On Command Load. The first figure of the example, Figure 22, shows the current flow in the command output circuit when the command output relay is energized corresponding to state command. Note that in contrast to the common practice in electrotechnical drawing of representing relays in non-energized state, the relay is shown energized as required by the case.
A

R C

IL

ZL

OCL NCL

B C

Figure 22

Current flow of the command output circuit output relay energized corresponding to the command state

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Equipment Operation

At the end of the teleprotection command, the state of the command output is changed from state command to state no command which means that the load current is broken. Due to the energy stored in the inductive load, the current cannot go to zero immediately after the relay contact has opened. For a short time the current flows through the serial circuit consisting of the resistor R and capacitor C as shown in Figure 23.
A

R C

IL

ZL

OCL NCL

B C

Figure 23

Current flow of the command output circuit immediately after breaking off the load

This example makes it apparent why the correct position of the spark quenching jumper is of vital importance. If the jumper in Figure 23 would be in position NCL there would be no current flow through the resistor R and capacitor C corresponding to the case that the spark quenching is totally out of use. Practical instructions on how to select the correct jumper position are contained in the Installation part of this Operating Manual.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

2.11 Monitoring Output


The monitoring output is electrically identical with the command outputs. The principle of operation of the monitoring output is shown in Figure 24. The monitoring output is mainly intended to be connected to a fault recorder if one is available, but it can be used for any purpose enabled by the function of the output.

Command output 1

Command output 2

Command output 3

Command output 4

1

Monitoring output

Figure 24

The operating principle of the monitoring output

In the example of this figure only one of the four strappings is closed but they can be connected as desired. It can be directly seen that the state of the monitoring output is affected only by those command outputs which have been connected to the logic OR circuit by closing the corresponding strapping. The monitoring output relay is energized (corresponding to state command) as soon as the receiver sets one or more of these command outputs into state command. Note! If only one of the strappings is closed as in Figure 24 the strapping of command output 4, the resulting operation can be compared with an equipment which has one command output with two change-over contacts and three command outputs with one change-over contact. The locations of the strappings on Channel Units CU 24202 and CU 24203 are shown in the part Installation in this Operating Manual.
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2.12 Loopback
The TPS 64 includes only one loopback facility. The 64 kbit/s signal can be looped back to the equipment so that teleprotection commands applied into the command inputs will be directed to the command outputs of the same equipment. The purpose of the loopback is to enable the testing of those parts of the equipment that cannot be monitored continuously during normal operation. These parts are typically located very close to the protection relay interface, i.e. command outputs and command inputs. Descriptions of the loopback facility can also be found in the parts Operation and Operation with Service Terminal in this Operating Manual.

2.13 Power Supply and Grounding


The TPS 64 Teleprotection Equipment uses decentralized PCB-specific power supply. All units generate their operating voltages from the central battery voltage 20...72 Vdc. The equipment is connected to the battery voltage by means of a PSA cartridge or a PIA unit depending on the installation mechanics. The main functions of this interconnecting unit are: 1. 2. 3. 4. It contains an overcurrent protection switch which is also used to isolate the equipment from the battery voltage if needed. It provides the equipment with overvoltage protection and battery voltage filtering. It generates the auxiliary voltage which is used to retain some alarm functions in case one of the card-specific power supply modules fails It contains lamps and relays for signalling of alarm conditions.

The unit ground is connected via the motherboard to the body of the equipment cartridge CF 24280 and from there further to the rack ground. When it is desired to separate the unit ground from the rack ground, cartridge CF 24280.08 is used. A more detailed description of the power supply is given in the General Description of the TM4 Construction Practice. In Channel Unit CU 24202, pin number 7 of the front edge connectors P2...6 is connected to ground.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

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Technical Specifications

Chapter 3 Technical Specifications

3.1

Main Characteristics
The Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 provides either 4 or 8 bidirectional command channels depending on whether one or two channel units belong to the equipment configuration. All command channels are operationally independent from each other and they meet the following performance characteristics
D D D

Equipment operating time Equipment operating time Mean Time Between Unwanted Commands (at tses < 0.005 % and tes < 0.1 %) Probability of missing command Pmc (at BER < 103)

<6 ms (4 channels) <7 ms (8 channels) 100000 a <109

The error control procedure in the 64 kbit/s channel is based on the use of a block code specifically developed to be used for teleprotection signalling via telecommunication networks based on the ITU-T recommendations. The error control procedure includes a means to identify the origin of the incoming 64 kbit/s. This is achieved by using different teleprotection codes in each system. These teleprotection codes have the following characteristics
D D D

Word length Minimum distance Number of teleprotection codes

64 bits 32 bits 16

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TPS 64 Functional Description

3.2

Frame Structure
The Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 has a specific frame structure which is described in Chapter 2.2 of this Functional description. Basic Characteristics
D D D D D

Bit rate Bytes in frame Bits in frame Bits in byte Multiplexing principle

64 kbit/s 10 (2 x 10) 80 (2 x 80) 8 Block coding

If two channel groups are used, the second channel group is added to the 64 kbit/s signal by means of time division multiplexing. The data corresponding to this case are given in parentheses in the table above.

3.3

64 kbit/s Interface
The 64 kbit/s interface meets the requirements of the ITU-T Recommendation G.703. Both timing modes, codirectional and contradirectional, are provided.

3.3.1

Return Loss of the 64 kbit/s Interface


The return loss of all three inputs belonging to the 64 kbit/s interface of the TPS 64 is shown below. Frequency range
D D D

Return loss > 12 dB > 18 dB > 14 dB

1.6 kHz ... 3.2 kHz 3.2 kHz ... 256 kHz 256 kHz ... 384 kHz

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0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 4.29 s (3.9 + 0.39) 3.51 s (3.9 0.39) 3.12 s (3.9 0.78) 3.9 s

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3.3.2

Figure 25

The pulses of the data output conform to the masks of Figures 25 27.

Pulse Masks of the Outgoing Signal

0.5

1.0

Mask of the 64 kbit/s codirectional single pulse

0.1

0.1

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7.8 s (3.9 + 3.9)

6.5 s (3.9 + 2.6)

Technical Specifications

49


Figure 26
0.1 0.1 0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2


0.1 0.1 0.2 0.2 0.1 0.1 0.2 7.41 s (7.8 0.39) 7.02 s (7.8 0.78) 8.19 s (7.8 +0.39) 10.4 s (7.8 +2.6) 7.8 s

50
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TPS 64 Functional Description

Note

Figure 27

The time scale in Figure 27 differs from that in Figures 25 and 26. Mask of the 64 kbit/s contradirectional data pulse Mask of the 64 kbit/s codirectional double pulse
0.2 17.2 s (15.6 + 1.6) 18.8 s (15.6 + 3.2) 31.2 s (15.6 + 15.6) 14.0 s (15.6 1.6) 12.4 s (15.6 3.2) (7.8 + 3.9) 11.7 s 15.6 s

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Technical Specifications

3.4
3.4.1

Command Interfaces
Command Inputs, CU 24202
Each channel unit comprises four (4) galvanically isolated inputs which generate internally the operating voltage for the input circuit.
D D D

Nominal operating voltage Operating current Wetting current

24 Vdc 10 mA 15 mA

3.4.2

Command Inputs, CU 24203


Each channel unit comprises four (4) galvanically isolated inputs. The command voltage level can be set separately for each input. Nominal operating voltage Operating current 32 Vdc, 48 Vdc, 110 Vdc, and 230 Vdc 20...25 mA

3.4.3

Command Outputs
Each channel unit comprises four (4) galvanically isolated outputs. Each output has one mercury-wetted change-over contact.
D D D

Nominal operating voltage Maximum switching power Maximum switching current

250 V dc or ac 100 VA 2A

3.5
3.5.1

Maintenance Interfaces
Parameters of Service Interface (MI/MO)
The interface complies with CCITT Recommendation V.11.

Output
D D D

D D D

Output impedance Output differential voltage Logic states S 1 S 0 S 3-state Short-circuit current Rise and fall time between 10 % and 90 % pulse amplitudes Overshoot

< 100 ohms 2.0 V < UT < 4.0 V UT < 2.0 V UT > 2.0 V |I| < 100 mA; |U| < 5 V < 150 mA < 20 ns < 10 %

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TPS 64 Functional Description

Input
D D D

Input impedance Threshold voltage Logic states: S 1 S 0

> 4 kohms |UR| < 0.2 V UR < 0.2 V UR > +0.2 V

3.5.2

Data Channel Interface (DI/DO)


The interface complies with ITU-T Recommendation V.11. Its characteristics are similar to those of the service interface, but without the 3-state characteristics.

3.5.3

Programmable Alarm Outputs PA1 and PA2


D D

Active state: Passive state:

I < 5.0 mA, Udc < 2 V I < 50 mA, 75 V < Udc < 12 V

3.5.4

Teleprotection Alarm Output


Each channel unit includes one teleprotection alarm output. For electrical characteristics, see command outputs.

3.5.5

Monitoring Output
Each channel unit includes one monitoring output. For electrical characteristics, see command outputs.

3.6

Power Supply
Supply voltage Power Consumption
D D

20...72 Vdc

Control Unit Channel Unit

3W 4...8 W

The minimum value of 4 W for the Channel Unit is valid if the system is used to transfer short teleprotection commands only. In applications where the command channels are continuously in state command, 0.7 W and 0.3 W must be added to the minimum consumption for each command input and command output respectively. All values given above are typical values.

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Technical Specifications

3.7

Mechanical Dimensions
Cartridge
D D

20 T 20 T

262 x 112 x 219 mm (basic version) 306 x 112 x 221 mm (EMC version)

Unit (EURO-2 sized PCB, 6 U)


D D D D

Height Width Depth Weight S Control Unit CU 24201: S Channel Unit CU 24202:

233 mm 26 mm 160 mm 430 g 350 g

3.8
3.8.1

Environmental Requirements
General Requirements
The Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 is available in two versions. The basic version (Cartridge CF 24280.09) has been designed to comply with the standard TM4 Construction Practice. The EMC version (Cartridge CF 24284.09) complies with the TM4-EMC Construction Practice and meets the requirements of the EMC directive of European Community. The general environmental requirements are defined in a separate document Environmental Specification for ND Equipment. The environmental categories for Teleprotection Equipment TPS 64 are N1 and K1.

Climatic Conditions Low temperature C High temperature C Low relative humidity % High relative humidity % Low absolute humidity g/m3 High absolute humidity g/m3

Transportation 40 +70 5 98 0.02 35 50 106

Operation 10 +50 5 95 1 29 0.5 70 106

Rate of change of temperature C/min Low air pressure kPa High air pressure kPa

Table 7

Environmental specifications for transportation and operation

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TPS 64 Functional Description

+80 +70 +60 +50 +40 +30 +20 +10 0 -10 -20 -30 -40 -50 -60 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 35 29

1. 2. 3.

recommended conditions for high long-term reliability operating conditions transportation

T C

1. 2.
1

H.A. g/m 3

3.
0.02

H.R. %

Figure 28

Climatogram for transportation and indoor stationary installation (environmental classes N1/K1 and N3/K3)

3.8.2

Command Interface-related Requirements


All interfaces with the protection relay logic comply with the following requirements of IEC 255 / IEC 8341.

Command Inputs
D D D D D

Insulation resistance Isolation voltage test voltage Impulse test voltage 1.2/50 ms High frequency disturbance test High frequency disturbance test

>100 MW (measured at the voltage of 500 VDC) 1 kVac / 1 minute 5 kV (differential and common mode) 1 kV (differential mode) 2.5 kV (common mode)

Command Outputs
D D D D

Insulation resistance Isolation voltage test voltage Impulse test voltage 1.2/50 ms High frequency disturbance test

>100 MW (measured at the voltage of 500 VDC) 2 kVac / 1 minute 5 kV (common mode) 2.5 kV (common mode)

Monitoring and Alarm Outputs


Same as for command outputs.

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Equipment Composition

Chapter 4 Equipment Composition


The Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 consists of the following products:
D D D D D D D D D D

CF 24280 CF 24280.09 CF 24284.09 CU 24201 CU 24202 CU 24203 CX 24240 CX 24250 TX 21470.01 TX 21470.11

20 T Cartridge (yellow cover) 20 T Cartridge (grey cover) 20 T Cartridge EMC (grey cover) Control Unit (contains three programs) Channel Unit (contains no programs) Channel Unit (contains no programs) Connector Set for Channel Unit Cable Grounding Assembly TPS 64 Connector Set for Service Interface Connector Set for 64 kbit/s Interface

The three programs belonging to the Control Unit are:


D D D D

CS 24260 CS 24260.10 CS 24261 CS 24262

Control processor program (English) Control processor program (Finnish) Receiver program (no language versions) Teleprotection codes (no language versions)

To meet the requirements given in the EMC directive of European Community the Cartridge with type designation CF 24284.09 must be used. Together with CF 24284.09 the Cable Grounding Assembly CX 24250 is always needed. One CX 24250 contains two identical assemblies: one for the top of the cartridge and one for the bottom. Accordingly, only one piece of CX 24250 is needed to accomplish one TPS 64 terminal. For equipment configurations with 64 kbit/s signal duplication, two pieces of the following products are needed: CU 24201, CS 24260.xx, CS 24261, CS 24262, TX 21470.01 and TX 21470.11. For equipment configurations with eight command channels, two pieces of the following products are needed: CU 24202 or CU 24203 and CX 24240.

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TPS 64 Functional Description

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Customer Documents

Chapter 5 Customer Documents

General Description

II Operating Manual
The descriptions are available in English.

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TPS 64
TELEPROTECTION SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT Installation

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TPS 64 Installation

E COPYRIGHT Nokia Telecommunications Oy 1997, 1998 All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may be copied, distributed, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language without the prior written permission of Nokia Telecommunications Oy. The manufacturer has made every effort to ensure that the instructions contained in the documents are adequate and free of errors and omissions. The manufacturer will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the documents. The manufacturers liability for any errors in the documents is limited to the correction of errors and the aforementioned advisory services. The documents have been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using them.The manufacturer welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continual developmentand improvement of the documentation in the best way possible from the users viewpoint. Please submit your comments to the nearest Nokia sales representative. NOKIA is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Any other trademarks mentioned in the documents are the property of their respective owners.

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Document History
Document DTPS6-0827-SEB1 C33258003SE_00 Date 1 Oct 1997 8 Jun 1998 New document numbering scheme adopted (previous number DTPS6-0827-SEB1). Comment

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Contents

Chapter 1 Cartridge Equipping . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 Cabling of Units . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.1 2.2 2.2.1 2.2.2 2.2.3 2.2.4 2.3 2.3.1 2.3.2 2.3.3 2.3.4 2.3.5 2.3.6 2.4 2.4.1 2.4.2 2.5 Cabling of the Service Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cabling of the 64 kbit/s Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connector for the 64 kbit/s Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cable for the 64 kbit/s Interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection in Case of Codirectional Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection in Case of Contradirectional Timing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Cabling of Channel Unit Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connector Set for Channel Units CU 24202 and CU 24203 . . . . . . . . Cable for Channel Unit Interfaces . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection of Command Inputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection of Command Outputs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Connection of Monitoring Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Alarm Output . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Installation of EMC Version . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Unit Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Channel Unit Cables . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Marking of Cabling . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 5
5 8 9 9 10 10 11 11 11 11 12 12 12 13 14 14 14

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Chapter 3 Jumper Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.1 3.2 3.2.1 3.3 3.4 3.4.1 3.4.2 Information on Jumper Settings on Marking Card . . . . . . . . . . . . Jumper Settings on Control Unit CU 24201 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Battery Voltage Jumpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jumper Settings on Channel Unit CU 24202 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Jumper Settings on Channel Unit CU 24203 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Spark Quenching Jumpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Monitoring Output Jumpers . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Cartridge Equipping

Chapter 1 Cartridge Equipping


The TPS 64 Teleprotection Signalling Equipment is installed into a cartridge that is mounted into a rack. The installation and cabling of the rack are described in the Operating Manual for the TM4 Construction Practice. The cartridge size is 20 T and it comprises 4 unit locations as shown in Figure 1. Note TPS 64 cartridge CF 24280 or CF 24280.08 is mechanically identical with other cartridges of the ND4 equipment family, but includes a motherboard specific to the TPS 64. To avoid electrical failures, only TPS 64 units should be inserted in TPS 64 cartridges. For the same reason, TPS 64 units should not be inserted into any other cartridge.

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TPS 64 Installation

NOKIA

Rack

20 T Cartridge

1
1 2 3 4

3
UNIT

LOCATION

Control Unit A Control Unit B (optional) Channel Unit 1 Channel Unit 2 (optional)

Figure 1

Location of TPS 64 units

Figure 1 shows the most extensive configuration of the TPS 64 including both options, Control Unit B (to duplicate the 64 kbit/s interface) and Channel Unit 2 (to increase the number of command channels to eight). The basic configuration includes only Control Unit A and Channel Unit 1.

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Cartridge Equipping

Power supply and rack alarm interfaces


It is recommended that the TPS 64 be connected to the Power Supply Adapter, PSA with a cable that is not shared with any other equipment installed into the same rack. Because the TPS 64 does not need ringing or criterion voltages, the four-pole ribbon cable, normally used to supply these voltages, is not needed. Inserting a unit into the cartridge connects it to the central battery voltage and rack alarm bus.

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Cabling of Units

Chapter 2 Cabling of Units


This description explains the cabling of the TPS 64 units. General cabling instructions for the TM4 Construction Practice and connection instructions for Euroconnectors can be found in the Operating Manual for the TM4 Construction Practice.

2.1

Cabling of the Service Interface


Service connector P2 is located in the Control Unit. It includes the TPS 64 service interface (MI), the data interface (DI), the programmable alarm interfaces (PA1 and PA2) and the PIN signal. The service interface is used to connect the TPS 64 to the Service Terminal or to the centralized Transmission Management System (TMS).

abc
Service interface, Input A Service interface, Input B Data channel interface, Input A Data channel interface, Input B Programmable alarm output 1 +5V test point (1 kohm serial resistor)

MIA MIB DIA DIB

a7 a6 a5 a4

c7 c6 c5 c4

MOA Service interface, output A MOB Service interface output B DOA Data interface, output A DOB Data interface, output B
Programmable alarm output 2 PIN signal

PA1 a2 +5V a1

c2 PA2 c1 PIN

b1...7 GND Ground

Figure 2

Service connector P2

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Control Unit CU 24201 P2


SERVICE IN DATA IN MIA MIB DIA DIB PA1 a7 a6 a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 a b c c7 c6 c5 c4 c3 c2 c1 b1...7 GND MOA MOB DOA DOB PA2 PIN SERVICE OUT DATA OUT

Channel Unit CU 24202 P2

Channel Unit CU 24203 P2

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMIN1A COMIN1B

1 2 3 4 5 6

COMIN1+ COMIN1-

COMIN2A COMIN2B

COMIN2+ COMIN2-

PROT. EARTH

PROT. EARTH

P3

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMIN3A COMIN3B

P3

1 2 3 4 5 6

COMIN3+ COMIN3-

COMIN4A COMIN4B

COMIN4+ COMIN4-

PROT. EARTH

PROT. EARTH

P4
RED YELLOW GREEN

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMOUT1A COMOUT1B COMOUT1C COMOUT2A COMOUT2B COMOUT2C PROT. EARTH

P4

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMOUT1A COMOUT1B COMOUT1C COMOUT2A COMOUT2B COMOUT2C PROT. EARTH

P5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMOUT3A COMOUT3B COMOUT3C COMOUT4A COMOUT4B COMOUT4C PROT. EARTH

P5

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMOUT3A COMOUT3B COMOUT3C COMOUT4A COMOUT4B COMOUT4C PROT. EARTH

P6 P4
RECEIVE DATA 64KBIT/S TIMING SIGNAL FOR RECEIVE DATA RDA RDB GND RCA RCB GND a7 a6 a5 a4 a3 a2 a1 a c c7 c6 c5 c4 c3 c2 c1 TDA TDB GND TCA TCB GND TRANSMIT DATA 64 KBIT/S TIMING SIGNAL FOR TRANSMIT DATA

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ALARMA ALARMB ALARMC MONITORA MONITORB MONITORC PROT. EARTH

P6

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ALARMA ALARMB ALARMC MONITORA MONITORB MONITORC PROT. EARTH

Figure 3

Front connectors of the TPS 64

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Cabling of Units

A symmetrical pair cable with two pairs and a 1/4 Euroconnector of wire-wrap type are recommended for the cabling: Cable: Connector: Shielded symmetrical pair cable NOKIA KLVMAAM 2x(2x0,4+0,4)+0,4 NOKIA TX 21470 (includes one connector set) 1/4 Euroconnector, 3x7 pin, wire-wrap, female

Alternative connector: NOKIA TX 21470.01 (includes one connector set) 1/4 Euroconnector, 2x7+2 pin, wire-wrap, female The alternative connector set NOKIA TX 21470.01 makes the wiring work easier. It has two pins in the middle row and can thus be used in installations where only two wires are connected to ground. Service Interface (MI) is needed if Transmission Maintenance System (TMS) is used for monitoring and controlling of the TPS 64.

Interface Pin a7 a6 b7 c7 c6 b6

Cable Symbol MIA MIB GND MOA MOB GND 2 1 Pair Colour blue white clear blue white clear

Table 1

Cabling of the service connector P2 Service Interface (MI)

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Data Interface (DI) can only be used for electrical buffering of the TMS bus.

Interface Pin a5 a4 b5 c5 c4 b4

Cable Symbol DIA DIB GND DOA DOB GND 2 1 Pair Colour blue white clear blue white clear

Table 2

Cabling of the service connector P2 Data Interface (DI)

2.2

Cabling of the 64 kbit/s Interface


The 64 kbit/s interface of the TPS 64 has two alternative timing modes either codirectional or contradirectional. The timing mode is thus determined solely by the Data Interface Unit to be used at the other end of the connection. If the Data Interface Unit supports both timing modes (for example NOKIA TU 21120 and TU 21120.7), then codirectional timing is recommended, because this results in lower wiring cost and higher reliability do to the fact that a cable with two pairs can be used instead of a cable with four pairs required in the case of contradirectional timing. The 64 kbit/s signal is connected using connector P4 at front edge of the Control Unit CU 24201. In both timing modes, the data signal from the TPS 64 to the Data Interface Unit (called transmit data in this text) is connected to pins c7 and c6 and the data signal from the Data Interface Unit to the TPS 64 (called receive data in this text) is connected to pins a6 and a7. In case of contradirectional timing the separate timing signal for the transmit direction data signal (transmit clock) is connected to pins c2 and c3, and the separate timing signal for the receive direction data signal (receive clock) is connected to pins a2 and a3. In case of codirectional timing the pins a2, a3, c2 and c3 remain unconnected. None of the signals belonging to the 64 kbit/s interface is polarity-sensitive, which means that exchanging the wires belonging to the same pair is allowed.

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Cabling of Units

a c
Receive data A Receive data B Ground Receive clock A Receive clock B Ground

RDA a7 RDB a6 GND a5 RCA a3 RCB a2 GND a1

c7 TDA c6 TDB c5 GND c3 TCA c2 TCB c1 GND

Transmit data A Transmit data B Ground Transmit clock A Transmit clock B Ground

Figure 4

Connector P4 for the 64 kbit/s signal

2.2.1

Connector for the 64 kbit/s Interface


Irrespective of the timing mode to be used, the connection is performed using 1/4 Euroconnector of wire-wrap type. The following connector set is recommended: NOKIA TX 21470.11 (includes one connector set) 1/4 Euroconnector, 2x7 pin, wire-wrap, female The connector in TX 21470.01 has only two rows of pins. The absence of the unnecessary middle row greatly facilitates the assembly of the cable.

2.2.2

Cable for the 64 kbit/s Interface


The cable used to interconnect the TPS 64 with the Data Interface Unit should be a shielded symmetrical pair cable with an impedance of 120 W. The number of pairs required depends on the timing mode to be used. Codirectional timing requires two pairs and contradirectional timing four pairs. In case of contradirectional timing, two cables, each with two pairs, can be used if no cable with four pairs is available. Codirectional timing: Shielded symmetrical pair cable NOKIA KLVMAAM 2x(2x0.4+0.4)+0.4 Contradirectional timing: Two cables of the above type. These cables with a wire cross section of 0.4 mm2 have an attenuation of 3.7 dB/100m at 1 MHz.

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2.2.3

Connection in Case of Codirectional Timing


If codirectional timing is used, the connection is performed according to Table 3.

Interface Pin a7 a6 a5 c7 c6 c5 c1

Symbol RDA RDB GND TDA TDB GND GND

Cable : KLVMAAM 2x(2x0.4+0.4)+0.4 Pair Colour blue 1 white clear blue 2 white clear clear

Table 3

Wiring of 64 kbit/s connector in the case of codirectional timing

2.2.4

Connection in Case of Contradirectional Timing


If contradirectional timing is used, the connection is performed according to Table 4.

Interface Pin a7 a6 a5 a3 a2 a1 c7 c6 c5 c3 c2 c1

Symbol RDA RDB GND RCA RCB GND TDA TDB GND TCA TCB GND

Cable: KLVMAAM 2x(2x0.4+0.4)+0.4 Pair Colour blue 1 white clear blue 2 white clear blue 2 white clear blue 2 white clear

Table 4

Wiring of the 64 kbit/s connector in the case of contradirectional timing

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Cabling of Units

2.3
2.3.1

Cabling of Channel Unit Interfaces


Connector Set for Channel Units CU 24202 and CU 24203
The cabling of Channel Unit CU 24202 and CU 24203 is always performed using connector set CX 24240. This connector set includes five connectors. Accordingly, only one connector set is needed for the installation of one Channel Unit. In addition to the connectors, CX 24240 includes the following material: Marking strips for the connectors. Coding pieces used to mechanically encode the connectors in such a manner that the connectors cant be plugged into the wrong place. A tool for easy extraction of the connectors and a tool for removing the Channel Unit from the cartridge. The connector set CX 24240 also includes instruction pictures that show how to encode the connectors and a picture with three alternative marking examples.

2.3.2

Cable for Channel Unit Interfaces


The connectors have screw connections with a clamping range up to 2.5 mm2. The connections can adapt solid and fine-strand wires. A flexible cable with fine-strand wires is recommended. Considering the space available between the Channel Unit front edge and the equipment cover, the wire cross-section should not exceed 1.5 mm2. If the equipment comprises two Channel Units (eight command channels), the maximum recommended cross-section is 0.75 mm2. The command inputs of Channel unit CU 24202 have a rated operating voltage of 24 Vdc. The operating voltage of the command input in CU 24203 can be selected to be in the range 32 V and 230 V. The rated voltage of the cable connected to the command outputs of the TPS 64 (CU 24202 or CU 24203) is determined by the voltage used to sense the contact position. Depending on the application, this voltage may range from 24 V to 250 V ac or dc.

2.3.3

Connection of Command Inputs


The command inputs of Channel Unit CU 24202 are of active type. This means that they generate internally the 24 Vdc operating voltage as shown in Figure 5.

DC DC

24 VDC
-

Figure 5

TPS 64 command input, CU 24202

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TPS 64 Installation

The command inputs of Channel Unit CU 24203 are of passive type. This means that they do not generate the operating voltage internally, see Figure 6.

Figure 6

TPS 64 command input, CU 24203

The command is applied to the command input of the CU 24202 with a closing relay contact that short circuits the command input poles. A shorted input corresponds to command input state command. If the contact is polarity-dependent (some solid state relays), the correct polarity must be ensured at installation. The connections of the four command inputs are presented on the Channel Unit CU 24202 marking card (Figure 9). The command is applied to the input of the CU 24203 with a voltage (dc). The connections for the four command inputs are presented on the Channel Unit CU 24203 marking card, see Figure 10. Note The correct polarity must be ensured at installation because the input of Channel Unit CU 24203 is polarity-dependent.

2.3.4

Connection of Command Outputs


The command outputs are change-over relay contacts. The contacts are shown in the marking card . The relay contacts are presented in the non-energized position of the output relay, corresponding to command output state no command.

2.3.5

Connection of Monitoring Output


The monitoring output is a change-over relay contact. It is presented in the marking card (Figure 8) in the non-energized position of the monitoring relay corresponding to monitoring output state no command. The monitoring output can be connected to any number of command outputs with logical OR-connection using jumper settings on the Channel Unit printed circuit board.

2.3.6

Alarm Output
The alarm output is a change-over relay contact. It is presented in the marking card in the non-energized position of the alarm relay corresponding to alarm output state alarm. The non-energized relay position was chosen to correspond to alarm

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Cabling of Units

output state alarm to ensure that supply voltage faults of channel units CU 24202 and CU 24203 can also be indicated.

2.4

Installation of EMC Version


General instructions regarding EMC installations can be found in the Operating Manual for the TM4-EMC Construction Practice. The following text deals mainly with the features which are specific to the EMC installation of TPS 64. To implement an installation that meets the requirements given in the EMC directive of the European Community a cartridge, product code CF 24284.09, must be used. In conjunction with this cartridge the Cable Grounding Assembly, product code CX 24250, is always needed. Note! The ferrite tubes of the Cable Grounding Assembly are made of extremely fragile material. Therefore, special attention is required when handling the ferrite enclosure. For the same reason the installer should inspect the ferrite tubes visually when starting the work and finally before taking the equipment into use.

Channel unit connector

Control unit connector Cable tie for fastening and grounding

Ferrite tube for non shielded cables

Figure 7

Passing of cables through Cable Grounding Assembly

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Grounding plate for shielded cables

EMC gasket

Shrink sleeve

Ferrite enclosure

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TPS 64 Installation

2.4.1

Control Unit Cables


The cross sectional view in Figure 7 shows the construction of the Cable Grounding Assembly. The grounding keeps the outgoing electromagnetic radiation level low. In the EMC protected installations the shielded cables must be used for the Control Unit (TMS and 64 kbit/s interfaces). The protective shields of the cables are connected to the equipment cartridge by means of the EMC gasket. Additionally, the cables are fastened with cable ties to the grounding plate, which secures the galvanic contact with the shield and the cartridge. If the cable grounding shield is made of aluminium foil, it is recommended to cover the uninsulated foil with an additional braid sleeve shield as shown in the Figure 7. Prior to this it must be secured that all insulating layers have been removed so the braid shield comes into good contact with the aluminium foil. Both ends of the braid sleeve must be secured with a piece of shrinking sleeve to prevent it from being frayed.

2.4.2

Channel Unit Cables


In most installations the Channel Unit cables are typically non-shielded pair cables. To enable the use of such cables the Cable Grounding Assembly comprises a ferrite enclosure with four ferrite tubes that effectively filter out all radio frequency signals without affecting the DC signals used to convey teleprotection commands. If the outer diameter of the cable is larger than the inner diameter of the ferrite tube, the insulating shield must be removed as shown in Figure 7. It is recommended that the wires belonging to the same cable go through the same ferrite tube. If this is not possible, dividing wires to different tubes does not affect the EMC filtering performance or the main function of the equipment. The number of wires which can be installed in one ferrite tube can not be specified accurately because it depends on both the cross section of the wires and the thickness of the insulation. The eight ferrite tubes provided in the assembly secure that there is space enough available for most cases, even if the cartridge contains two Channel Units.

2.5

Marking of Cabling
Cables shall be marked so that it is later possible to see where they lead. The markings should specify the equipment and connectors concerned. The cabling information is also recorded on the marking card delivered with the equipment. Instructions regarding the markings can be found in the Operating Manual for the TM4 Construction Practice. All plug-in units have a marking card in their package. One side of the card is reserved for cabling information and the other side for strapping information. If carefully filled out, the card will be a great help in the operation and service of the equipment.

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Cabling of Units

TPS 64 CU 24201 Unit location: Equipm. ID: Address:


MARKING OF THE CABLE END CONNECTED TO UNIT

Cable identification: This end Other end


TPS 64 CU 24201
MOA MOB DOA DOB PA2

MARKING INDICATING THE CONNECTION POINT FOR THE OTHER CABLE END

a b c MIA MIB DIA DIB PA1 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

MIR MIT DIR DIT PA1 PA2

EXAMPLE OF MARKING 1 B 02 S Rack row Rack Cartridge location Cartridge shelf (R = cables from above, S = cables from below into cartridge Unit location Connector for the other cable end

4 xxx

a RDA 7 RDB 6 RDG 5 4 RCA 3 RCB 2 RCG 1

c TDA TDB TDG TCA TCB TCG

RD TD RC TC

Figure 8

Marking card of Control Unit CU 24201

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TPS 64 CU 24202 Unit location: Equipm. ID: Address: Cabel identification: This end Other end Internal Connection
TPS 64 CU 24202
COMMAND INPUT 1 (5) COMMAND INPUT 2 (6)

MARKING OF THE CABLE END CONNECTED TO UNIT

MARKING INDICATING THE CONNECTION POINT FOR THE OTHER CABLE END

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMMAND INPUT 3 (7) COMMAND INPUT 4 (8) EXAMPLE OF MARKING 1 B 02 S Rack row Rack Cartridge location Cartridge shelf (R = cables from above, S = cables from below into cartridge Unit location Connector for the other cable end

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMMAND OUTPUT 1(5) COMMAND OUTPUT 2 (6)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMMAND OUTPUT 3 (7) COMMAND OUTPUT 4 (8)

4 xxx

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ALARM OUTPUT MONITOR OUTPUT

Figure 9

Marking card of Channel Unit CU 24202

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Cabling of Units

TPS 64 CU 24203
Unit location: Equipm. ID: Address: Cable identification

Marking of the cable end connected to unit

This end
TPS 64 CU24203

Other end

Marking indicating the connection point for the other cable end.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMMAND + INPUT1(5) COMMAND + INPUT2(6)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMMAND + INPUT3(7) COMMAND + INPUT4(8)

EXAMPLE OF MARKING
COMMAND OUTPUT1(5) COMMAND OUTPUT2(6)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

1 B 02 S

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

COMMAND OUTPUT3(7) COMMAND OUTPUT4(8)

4 xxx

Rack row Rack Cartridge location Cartridge shelf (R = cables from above, S = cables from below into cartridge Unit location Connector for the other cable end

1 2 3 4 5 6 7

ALARM OUTPUT MONITOR OUTPUT

Figure 10

Marking card of Channel Unit CU 24203

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Jumper Settings

Chapter 3 Jumper Settings

3.1

Information on Jumper Settings on Marking Card


A marking card is delivered with the equipment. One side of the card is reserved for information on jumper settings (see Figures 11 to 13) and the other for cabling information. The card contains concise instructions for setting the jumpers, a drawing of the locations of the jumper settings on the PCB and space for marking the jumper settings in effect. It also shows the factory settings (jumpers) of the equipment. Properly filled out, the card also facilitates servicing, testing and installation at a later stage. The marking principle of the two cards is different. In the marking card of the Control Unit CU 24201, the selected jumper settings are marked just like in any other equipment of the ND 4 equipment family. The basic idea with the marking of the Control Unit CU 24201 is that the possible jumper position combinations are shown on the marking card and the user just indicates, by filling in the appropriate area, which one of the two possibilities is selected. In the marking cards of Channel Units CU 24202 and CU 24203, this marking principle could not be applied because the number of possible jumper position combinations is extremely high (any combination of the settings is possible). Therefore, the selected setting is indicated by filling the appropriate symbols on the unit. The marking card includes one example on how this should be done.

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TPS 64 Installation

TPS 64 CU 24201 Unit location: Equipm. ID: Address:


Selections:
No connections Connection (with U-link) Connected at factory Connection made at installation (fill the right box) BATTERY VOLTAGE TO MAINTENANCE INTERFACE: VNBM VPBM a b
NR1

INSTRUCTIONS FOR MARKING THE JUMPER SETTINGS

CONNECTION INSTRUCTIONS OF JUMPER SETTINGS

Alternatives: a: Battery voltage connected to maintenance interface b: Battery voltage not connected to maintenance interface

Battery voltage to maintenance interface: LOCATIONS OF JUMPER SETTINGS ON PCB CU 24201 a b MARKING OF JUMPER SETTINGS IN EFFECT/ FACTORY SETTINGS

VPBM NR1 VNBM

Figure 11

Information on jumper settings - Control Unit CU 24201

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Jumper Settings

TPS 64 CU 24202 Unit location: Equipm. ID: Address: Connection of jumppers:


Indication of factory connection for spark quenching strappings

To confirm the acceptance of factory connection fill in the shaded area with black colour To indicate the alternative selection, fill in this area All command outputs are connected to monitoring output at factory. To indicate which strappings remain connected fill in with black colour. Example: Outputs 1(5) and 3 (7) connected to monitoring output

INSTRUCTIONS FOR MARKING THE JUMPER SETTINGS

CU 24202

MARKING OF JUMPER SETTINGS IN EFFECT/ FACTORY SETTINGS

LOCATIONS OF JUMPER SETTINGS ON PCB

COM1 OCL NCL

COM2 OCL NCL

COM3 OCL NCL

COM4 OCL NCL

ALARM NAL OAL

MONITOR OCL NCL

COM_CHAN: 1234

COMMAND MONITORING

Figure 12

Information on jumper settings - Channel Unit CU 24202

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TPS 64 Installation

TPS 64 CU 24203
Unit location: Equipm. ID: Adress:
Connection of jumpers:
Indication of factory connection for sparc quenching strappings To confirm the acceptance of factory connection, fill in the shaded area with black colour To indicate the alternative selection, fill in this area All command outputs are connected to monitoring output at factory. To indicate, whitch strappings remain connected, fill in with black colour. Example: Outputs 1(5) and 3(7) connected to monitoring output CU24203
INPUT 1 INPUT VOLTAGE

INPUT 2 INPUT VOLTAGE

INPUT 3 INPUT VOLTAGE

INPUT 4 INPUT VOLTAGE

COM 1
OCL NCL

COM 2
OCL NCL

COM 3
OCL NCL

COM 4
OCL NCL

ALARM
NAL OAL

MONITOR
OCL NCL COM_CHAN: 1 2 3 4

COMMAND MONITORING

Figure 13

Information on jumper settings - Channel Unit CU 24203

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Jumper Settings

3.2

Jumper Settings on Control Unit CU 24201


Figure 14 shows the locations of the jumper settings on TPS 64 Control Unit CU 24201.

P2

CU 24201
P1

Red Yellow Green VPBM

NR1
VNBM

P4

Figure 14

Locations of jumper settings on Control Unit CU 24201

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TPS 64 Installation

3.2.1

Battery Voltage Jumpers


The two jumpers marked VPBM and VNBM determine whether the battery voltage is connected to the Service Interface (connector P2) or not. If the jumpers are closed as in Figure 15 (alternative a on the marking card), the battery voltage is connected to the Service Interface. This means that Service Terminals rechargeable battery is being charged when the Service Terminal is connected to the Service Interface of the TPS 64.
P2 CU 24201 PSA or PIA unit

VPBM

VNBM

Power supply block

Figure 15

Battery voltage jumpers on the Control Unit CU 24201

As can bee seen from Figure 15, the battery voltage is connected directly to P2; there are no over-current protection devices of any kind. Accordingly, connecting a faulty (short circuit in the recharge circuit) Service Terminal to the TPS 64 can cause an operation of the electromagnetic protection switch located in the PSA cartridge (PIA unit). This event, though very improbable, is extremely harmful because it would also cause a supply voltage break in the TPS 64. This should be kept in mind when considering the practice accepted in this issue. Warning Do not ever insert the jumpers in the upright position because this would short circuit the battery voltage. If the jumpers are left open, they should be inserted so that only one of the pins on the printed circuit board penetrates into the jumper.

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Jumper Settings

3.3

Jumper Settings on Channel Unit CU 24202


Figure 16 shows the locations of the jumper settings on TPS 64 Channel Unit CU 24202.

CU 24202
P2 P1

P3

COM1

COM2 OCL NCL

COM3 OCL NCL

P4

OCL NCL

COM4 OCL NCL

ALARM NAL OAL

MONITOR OCL NCL

P5

COM_CHANN:

1234 P6
COMMAND MONITORING

Figure 16

Locations of jumper settings on Channel Unit CU 24202

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TPS 64 Installation

3.4

Jumper Settings on Channel Unit CU 24203


Figure 17 shows the locations of the jumper settings on TPS 64 Channel Unit CU 24203.

CU 24203
P2

INPUT VOLTAGES
1 2 3 4 5 6

Input 1

1 2 3

4 5 6

Input 2

P1

1 2 3

4 5 6

Input 3

P3

1 2 3

4 5 6

Input 4

COM1

COM2 OCL NCL

COM3 OCL NCL

P4

OCL NCL

COM4 OCL NCL

ALARM NAL OAL

MONITOR OCL NCL

P5

COM_CHANN:

1234 P6
COMMAND MONITORING

INPUT VOLTAGE SETTING ALTERNATIVES:


1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 4 5 6

= JUMPER IS CONNECTED

32 V

48 V

110 V Factory setting

230 V

Figure 17

Locations of jumper settings on Channel Unit CU 24203

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Jumper Settings

3.4.1

Spark Quenching Jumpers


The general operating principle of the spark quenching has been explained in the Functional description part of this manual. The purpose of the following text is only to clarify which one of the two possible jumper positions must be selected. It is to be expected that in most applications the load is connected, as in Figure 18 in such a manner that the load current is flowing when the output is in state command corresponding to the case where the output relay is energized. Accordingly, the factory position of the spark quenching jumpers of the command outputs and monitoring output is OCL.
A

R C

ZL

OCL NCL

B C

Figure 18

Installation that requires jumper position OCL

In those applications where the load current is flowing when the command output is in state no command, the jumper position NCL (mnemonic abbreviation for No Command Load) must be selected. The spark quenching circuit was equipped with the jumper because the space available on the printed circuit board did not allow the use of a separate spark quenching for both branches of the output contacts.

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TPS 64 Installation

R C

ZL

OCL NCL

B C

Figure 19

Installation that requires jumper position NCL

The previous description can be directly applied to the command outputs and to the monitoring output. Because the two states of the alarm output are called alarm and no alarm, the mnemonic abbreviations used for the jumper positions are different. It is to be expected that in most applications the connection is such that the load current is flowing when the alarm output is in state alarm corresponding to the case where the alarm relay is non-energized. In this case the jumper must be in position OAL which is the mnemonic abbreviation for On Alarm Load. In those applications where the load current is flowing when the alarm output is in state no alarm, the jumper must be in position NAL which is the mnemonic abbreviation for No Alarm Load.

3.4.2

Monitoring Output Jumpers


The channel unit includes four jumpers that determine which command channels are monitored by the monitoring output. For example, if the jumper marked with 1 is closed and the other jumpers are open, the monitoring output relay will operate just like command output 1. If more jumpers are closed, then the monitoring output relay will be energized if at least one of the command output relays is energized. A detailed description of the operation can be found in the part Functional description of this manual.

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TPS 64
TELEPROTECTION SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT Operation

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E COPYRIGHT Nokia Telecommunications Oy 1993, 1998 All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may be copied, distributed, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language without the prior written permission of Nokia Telecommunications Oy. The manufacturer has made every effort to ensure that the instructions contained in the documents are adequate and free of errors and omissions. The manufacturer will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the documents. The manufacturers liability for any errors in the documents is limited to the correction of errors and the aforementioned advisory services. The documents have been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using them.The manufacturer welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continual developmentand improvement of the documentation in the best way possible from the users viewpoint. Please submit your comments to the nearest Nokia sales representative. NOKIA is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Any other trademarks mentioned in the documents are the property of their respective owners.

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Document History
Document DTPS6-0828-SEA1 C33258004SE_00 Date 24 Aug 1993 8 Jun 1998 New document numbering scheme adopted (previous number DTPS6-0828-SEA1). Comment

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Contents

Chapter 1 Introduction . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


2.1 2.2 Electrical Safety . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Avoiding Unwanted Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 3
3 3

Chapter 3 Start-Up of the TPS 64 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


3.1 3.1.1 3.1.2 3.2 3.3 Identifications and Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Erasing the Event Register . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Resetting Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

5
5 5 5 7 7

Chapter 4 Equipment Configuration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


4.1 Equipping the Cartridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

9
9

Chapter 5 Command Output Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


5.1 5.2 5.2.1 5.2.2 5.2.3 5.3 5.3.1 5.3.2 5.3.3 General Operation Principle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Mode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State Diagram Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Characteristics of Control Mode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Giving Value to Parameter r . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Control Mode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . State Diagram Consideration . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Characteristics of Control Mode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Giving Values to the Parameters of Control Mode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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11 13 13 14 15 16 16 17 18
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5.4 5.4.1 5.4.2 5.4.3

Command Output Control . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . How to Read the Sample Diagrams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples Related to Control Mode 1 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Examples Related to Control Mode 2 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

19 19 20 23

Chapter 6 Blocking Teleprotection Commands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 7 Changing the Number of Correctable Errors . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 8 Form for TPS 64 Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

27 29 31

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Introduction

Chapter 1 Introduction
The purpose of this part of the Operating Handbook is to provide the user with information that is needed during commissioning and in conjunction with various operational measures. When the cartridge has been installed and the cables have been prepared, the commissioning is started by setting the jumpers into proper positions. The instructions for the jumper settings can be found in the part Installation of this manual. The selected jumper positions are marked on the marking cards supplied together with the units. When the jumpers are in the correct positions, the units are inserted into the cartridge and the supply voltage is connected by closing the protection switch on the PSA cartridge (PIA unit). After switching the battery voltage on, the settings of the equipment have the default values if the control unit is new so that the settings have not been changed since the unit was delivered from factory to customer. Sometimes the default settings can be accepted as such but if this is not the case, the settings must be changed to achieve the desired operation. Note, however, that the teleprotection codes must always be changed if several teleprotection systems are installed in the same telecommunication network. The time of the real time clock must be checked and corrected if needed. When the settings have been given proper values and the system is ready for operation, the main function should be tested by applying one teleprotection command to each command input to verify that the commands appear at the command outputs of the other TPS 64. The test must be done in both directions. The test can also be done by looping the 64 kbit/s back to the equipment before applying the test commands. If this is done at both ends, the effect of the test is practically identical with the test done by verifying that the commands pass through the system end-toend. Note: Most of the TPS 64 hardware is monitored continuously and an appropriate alarm initiated in case a fault is detected. Accordingly, if there are no alarms active, it is highly probable that all command channels are in order and the test mentioned above is only intended to check those few components that cannot be monitored by the equipment itself. When the correct operation of the teleprotection system has been verified, the event register is erased. If it is desired that the last test commands remain in the
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register, it should be erased before the last testing of the command channels. Leaving the last test commands in the event registers of the two terminals is recommended because they can serve as evidence that the commissioning has been executed in an adequate manner. If there are no active alarms in the teleprotection system, it can be taken into use by connecting it to the protection system.

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General

Chapter 2 General

2.1

Electrical Safety
The operating voltage of the command output circuit is determined by the application. The isolation level of the command output relay and connector enable operation with a voltage up to 250 Vac. The pins of the front edge connectors on the channel unit penetrate the printed circuit board and can therefore be easily touched when the cover of the cartridge is open. These two facts together can cause a danger to personal safety. If the application designed by the user is based on the use of command output circuit voltages higher than 24 Vdc, appropriate measures should be taken to diminish the danger of personal injury. What is required depends on the local regulations. The following is a list of the most important safety precautions:
D

The system should be provided with a multi-pole switch that can be used to isolate the TPS 64 from any external voltages. Any maintenance work should be started by using this switch before opening the cover of the cartridge. Proper warning signs should be used. It should be ensured by means of training that the operating personnel is aware of the danger.

D D

2.2

Avoiding Unwanted Commands


During commissioning and any service operations it should be kept in mind that the command input of the TPS 64 works with an operating voltage which is generated by the command input itself. This means that the equipment sends a teleprotection command any time the two poles of the command input are short-circuited irrespective of whether the command input has been disconnected from the protection relay or not. This operational feature is not found in teleprotection equipment having command inputs which work with an operating voltage generated outside of the command input. To make sure that the servicing person does not cause an unwanted command in conjunction with maintenance work, it is recommended to start any maintenance operation by isolating the teleprotection system from the overall power system protection at both ends.

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Start-Up of the TPS 64

Chapter 3 Start-Up of the TPS 64

3.1

Identifications and Settings


At commissioning, the following equipment identifications and settings shall be checked and the required changes be made. The menu command through which the change is made as well as the possible default or factory setting are given in parentheses.

3.1.1

Identifications Equipment ID (4,8,2/TPS64XXX)


Used, when necessary, in network management to identify a set of equipment, in addition to the address. The ID is also shown on the Fault Display. The identification may be, for example, the equipment type and an abbreviation related to the route (altogether max. 15 characters).

64 kbit/s interface IDs (4,8,4/ )


Connection-specific identifications that can be used in network management. Example: HEL 91-->ESP 10

3.1.2

Settings Baud rate (6,1,1/9600 bit/s)


If the equipment is not connected to a bus, it is advisable to use a rate as high as possible (9600). When the bus is used, the highest rate is determined by the slowest connection, e.g. a data channel in the network concerned.

Address (6,1,2/1)
Each equipment on the bus shall have its own address by means of which it can be accessed separately. A piece of equipment which is not on the bus does not need an

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address, since the connection can be established using the address 4095 (OBJ 7) common to all equipment.

Rack alarm functions (6,1,3/normal)


If the rack alarms are not to be given in the normal way, e.g. during commissioning, the alarms can be disabled or urgent alarms A can be replaced by less urgent alarms B.

Rack alarm delay (6,1,4/3 s)


If short, individual alarms are to be filtered, that is, if they are to be prevented from causing rack alarm A, a time > 0 is set here. However, continuous short alarms will even then cause a rack alarm.

Programmable alarm output PA1 and PA2 functions (6,1,5 and 6,1,6/activated by alarms A and B)
An alarm is selected by these settings to activate the outputs PA1 and PA2. By means of these alarm outputs, alarm data can be collected with a fault monitoring system.

Time-out for controls (6,1,7/10 min)


A time is selected during which the controls remain active. Normally, the time is short (< 10 min) but if one wishes to keep a certain control (e.g. loopback in connection with testing) active for a longer period, the time-out can be set to be greater (max. 65000 min).

Data hybrid configuration (6,1,8/OFF)


The use of the data hybrid depends on the structure of the service network. The operating principle of the data hybrid has been explained in the part Functional description of this manual.

Timing mode of the 64 kbit/s interface (6,3,)


The timing mode of the 64 kbit/s interface must correspond to the timing mode of the Data Interface unit which is used to connect the 64 kbit/s signal to the higherorder telecommunication signals.

Default settings (6,6,147)


With this command, the so-called default settings can be restored to the equipment. Does not affect Baud rate, Address, Data hybrid configuration, 64 kbit/s timing mode, TPS 64-specific service options, event register-related settings and Calibration of voltage measurement.

Protections (10,4,2/no protection)


Some of the transmission management functions of the equipment can be protected against misuse. The protection is implemented by setting either a password (remote operation possible) or PIN signal as the condition for operation. Settings and controls can be performed only locally if the PIN signal is required, and thus

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Start-Up of the TPS 64

the possibility of misuse is smaller but, on the other hand, the remote-controlled network management becomes more difficult.

Password (10,4,3/ )
The password may consist of 1...7 characters. The protection is activated with option 10,4,2 Protections. It is recommended that the password be set only after the commissioning of the equipment and when the connection functions without faults.

Date (11,1,2,ddmmyy)
The date is checked and the correct date entered if needed. If the Set date and time alarm is active, the date must be entered anyway because the alarm cannot be cancelled by any other means.

Time (11,1,1,3,hhmmss)
The time is checked and the correct time entered if needed. If the Set date and time alarm is active, the time must be entered anyway because the alarm can not be cancelled by any other means.

3.2

Erasing the Event Register


During commissioning several test commands are normally transferred in order to verify that the system operates as required. These test commands may reserve an essential part of the space available in the event register. Therefore, when the commissioning has been completed, the event register should be erased.

Erase event register (8,1,7)


When this has been done at both ends, one test command may be applied into each command input of the system. In this way it is possible to verify afterwards that all command channels were in order when the system was taken into operation.

3.3

Resetting Statistics
The signal quality counters and error counters of the TPS 64 start their operation from the beginning each time the battery voltage is switched on. However, resetting the counters with Service Terminal commands is recommended because commissioning often includes operations that can affect them. An example of this is the octet disturbance counter. If the 64 kbit/s signal cable is unplugged for a while, it is very probable that the octet disturbance counter counts up by one or two.

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Equipment Configuration

Chapter 4 Equipment Configuration


The purpose of this chapter is only to describe how to achieve the desired equipment configuration. The characteristics of the different equipment configurations are described in the part Functional description of this manual. Here it is supposed that the cartridge (CF 24280 or CF 24280.08) has been installed and is ready for insertion of the units. The instructions for the installation of the cartridge can be found in the document Operating Handbook for the TM4 Construction Practice.

4.1

Equipping the Cartridge


Warning: The appearance of the TPS 64 cartridge is identical with the cartridges of many other kinds of telecommunication equipment of the ND 4 equipment family. However, the cartridge of the TPS 64 contains a specific motherboard of its own. Therefore, it is neither allowed to insert TPS 64 units into any foreign cartridges nor to insert any foreign units into the cartridge of the TPS 64. At the time of delivery the settings of the control unit correspond to the basic equipment comprising one control unit and one channel unit. Therefore, when taking equipment with this basic configuration into use, the user only has to insert the units into the cartridge and the equipment will be ready for operation and no other measures with regard to equipment configuration are needed. If other equipment configurations are desired, the equipping is started by inserting all units into the cartridge. After switching the supply voltage on, some alarms related to the equipment configuration will be active. There are two possible ways to make these alarms disappear: The equipment configuration-related settings can be changed so that they correspond to the current equipment configuration. The same result can be achieved simply by executing the DEFAULT SETTINGS command TOP 6,6,147 RET. When this command is executed, the control processor changes the settings so that they correspond to the existing equipment configuration. If the equipment configuration includes two control units, the DEFAULT SETTINGS command must be executed in both of them. Using the DEFAULT SETTINGS command is recommended if all other settings are identical with the default settings because then no changes made by the user are lost.

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Command Output Control

Chapter 5 Command Output Control


To ensure that the TPS 64 is capable of providing proper teleprotection service in any conditions, the user should be thoroughly acquainted at least with the command output control mode which he is going to take into use. In the worst case, selecting an inappropriate command output control mode or parameters might result in what can be considered an Unwanted command or Missing command in relation to the requirements of the application.

5.1

General Operation Principle


The command output control mode determines how the TPS 64 turns the output relays on and off in response to the various events in the incoming signal. The general operation principles of the command output control modes are explained here. Detailed information about the two selectable control modes can be found in the succeeding chapters. The activation of the desired control mode and the setting of the parameters is described in the part Operation with Service Terminal of this manual. Each command output has a control state, which is determined by the history of the incoming signal. The control states of all command outputs are updated regularly with an interval of 1.25 ms, corresponding to the duration of one teleprotection frame. This is true also when two channel groups are in use, although the sampling interval is then 2.5 ms. In this case every received message is used twice, i.e. every other state determination is based on the old sampling result. The new state is determined immediately after the reception of the codeword. Updating of the command output control states continues also when the receiver has lost the frame alignment. However, when the receiver is searching for the frame alignment word, small irregularities in the update intervals are possible. In case of electrical disturbance in the cable interconnecting the TPS 64 to the telecommunication equipment data interface unit, all command outputs are immediately turned to state no command irrespective of the command output control states.

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The following three incoming signal events are used as a basis for the determination of the new command output state: 1. The received codeword indicated that the command input corresponding to the command output under consideration was in state command when the transmitter started to send the codeword just received. This event is represented with com in the state model diagrams on the following pages. The received codeword indicated that the command input corresponding to the command output under consideration was in state no command when the transmitter started to send the codeword just received. This event is represented with com in the state model diagrams. The number of errors in the received codeword exceeded the acceptable value determined by the receiver settings. The default value of acceptable errors is five. This event is represented in the state model diagrams with nacw. This abbreviation was chosen to give resemblance to the term non-acceptable codeword. This event is also used during loss of frame alignment.

2.

3.

The ovals used to represent the states in the diagrams are of two different types. Shaded ovals are used for those command output control states in which the command output relay is energized, corresponding to command output state command. Clear ovals are used for those command output control states in which the command output relay is non-energized, corresponding to command output state no command. Note that above, as well as elsewhere in this text, the terms command output control state and command output state are used in definitely different meanings. Where no confusion is possible these terms are simply replaced with the word state.

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Command Output Control

5.2

Control Mode 1
Control mode 1 is an easy-to-understand basic control mode that has only one control parameter r. This mode is taken into use when the TPS 64 default settings are activated. The default value of the parameter r is 40. Control mode 1 is represented in Figure 1.

com

com com com

BASE
nacw nacw

com nacw

2
any_case

S r1

r
any_case

any_case

com

B
com

com any_case = com+ com +nacw

SUSP
nacw

START

Figure 1

State diagram for command output control mode 1

5.2.1

State Diagram Consideration


It is advisable to start the state diagram consideration from the state BASE, which is certainly active if for a while only events of type com have occurred as indicated by the transition arrow marked with com and leading back to the same state. The oval representing this state is clear, indicating that the command output relay is non-energized corresponding to command output state no command. Now, when one event com occurs, the new command output control state will be r. This state is represented by the shaded oval indicating that the command output is turned to state command, in conjunction with entering the command output control state r. The previous explanation can be expressed briefly as follows. While in state BASE, the command output relay is energized as soon as one codeword stating that the command input was found to be in state command has been received. After entering state r the command output control mode is decremented by one each time one teleprotection frame has elapsed, i.e. every 1.25 ms as explained before. This happens irrespective of the incoming signal event, whether com, com or nacw. The notation any_case is used for this. The command output relay remains continuously energized as can be seen from that the ovals are shaded. As soon as command output control state 1 has been reached, the incoming signal events will determine the next states. Receiving a non-acceptable codeword nacw

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TPS 64 Operation

transfers the control to state B where the output relay still remains energized. Receiving a valid codeword stating that the command input is in state no command (com) transfers the control to state BASE. The output relay is turned to state no command. If incoming signal event com occurs indicating that the command input is still in state command, both the command output control state and command output state are retained as shown by the arrow leading back to state 1. From state B the event com leads back to state 1 and the command output remains in state command. Event com leads to state BASE and the command output is turned to state no command. While in state B, receiving again a non-acceptable codeword nacw leads to state SUSP. The command output is turned to state no command. When state SUSP has been entered, this state is retained so far as non-acceptable codewords are received as indicated by the arrow marked with nacw and leading back to the same state. If com occurs the control is transferred to state BASE. The event com leads back to state 1 and the command output is turned again to state command. Finally, if the control state is BASE and a non-acceptable codeword is received, a transition to state SUSP occurs. The name of this state SUSP was chosen because the extension function of this control mode is suspended during this state.

5.2.2

Characteristics of Control Mode 1


The previous text was primarily intended to introduce the reader to the thinking of the teleprotection equipments command output control by means of state diagrams. This chapter is dealing with the behaviour of a command channel using control mode 1 to determine the command output state in more practical terms. The most important characteristic of control mode 1 is that commands have a minimum duration at the command output. If a command shorter than the minimum duration is directed to the command input, it will be extended to the minimum duration r x 1.25 ms at the command output. Commands that are longer than this minimum duration are not extended. If the teleprotection application is such in nature that the commands must always have the same duration at the command output, the parameter r can be given a value that corresponds to this required constant duration. By doing so it can be assured that the command passes the teleprotection system totally even if the transmission connection should be heavily corrupted by errors during the command. The connection must only be capable of transmitting the first codeword stating that the command input has been turned to state command so that the number of errors in the codeword doesnt exceed the number of acceptable errors. If the command is so long that the output control will remain in state 1 for some time, the command is broken only if two consecutive non-acceptable codewords have been received. The meaning of the state SUSP is that it prevents the unwanted extension of commands longer than the minimum duration in the following cases. If the control would stay in state BASE during an error burst that has a duration exceeding r x 1.25 ms, it might happen that a command with a duration longer than r x 1.25 ms is applied to the command input just after the beginning of the error burst. Now, when the error burst ends just before the end of the command, the command output control would go to state r and the command would be extended. This would also be the case if there would be a quite short error burst (two non-

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Command Output Control

acceptable codewords) close to the end of a command. The only drawback with suspending the extension function is that a command shorter than r x 1.25 ms is possible at the command output. Of course the probability of this event is extremely low. To control the command output this way was selected because the operation of the TPS 64 was designed in every detail to emphasize the low probability of Unwanted Command instead of the low probability of Missing Command.

5.2.3

Giving Value to Parameter r


When calculating the value for parameter r it must be kept in mind that it determines the minimum duration as multiples of the teleprotection equipment frame time 1.25 ms, not as milliseconds. This approach was chosen to avoid the problem How does the TPS 64 round the minimum duration given as milliseconds to frame time multiples? If we denote by tmin the minimum duration that the user wants to set , the value for the parameter r is calculated with the formula r = INT(tmin [ms] / 1.25), the desired duration given as milliseconds is divided with 1.25 and the result is rounded off to the closest integer. The lowest possible value for parameter r is 1. In this case the extension function is no more present and commands of any length will pass through the system with their duration unchanged. The highest value is r = 250 corresponding to a minimum duration of 312 ms. As noted before, the command output control mode 1 is the default control mode that is taken into use if the default settings of the TPS 64 are taken into use. The default value for parameter r is 40 corresponding to a 50 ms minimum duration of the command at the command output.

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TPS 64 Operation

5.3

Control Mode 2
Control mode 2 gives more possibilities to affect the command output control. Therefore, it is more complicated and somewhat more effort is required to get acquainted with its function so that the parameter values can be properly selected.

com

A_2
com

A_p

com

com+nacw com+nacw com any_case com com

com

BASE

1
com

2
any_case

r1

r
any_case

nacw

com

B_q
com+nacw

B_2
com+nacw

com+nacw

SUSP_1
nacw com nacw

SUSP_p

com

START

In case of q = 1
com

In case of p = 1
com

SUSP_1

BASE

Figure 2

State diagram for command output control mode 2

5.3.1

State Diagram Consideration


Also here the consideration is started from state BASE which is active if, for a while, only events of type com have occurred, as indicated by the transition arrow marked with com and leading back to the same state. When the first message of type com is received, the A-branch of the state diagram is entered. The new state is

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Command Output Control A_2. The command output state is still no command as indicated by the fact that the ovals of the A-branch are clear. When p consecutive messages of type com have been received, the state r is entered and the command output relay is energized corresponding to state command. If the parameter p has the value p = 1, the state r is entered when the first message of type com is received. If a message of type com or nacw is received while in the A-branch, the control is returned back to state BASE immediately. After entering state r the command output control mode is decremented by one each time one teleprotection frame time has elapsed, i.e. every 1.25 ms as explained before. This happens irrespective of the incoming signal event, whether com, com or nacw. The notation any_case is used for this. The command output relay remains continuously energized. When state 1 has been entered, it will be retained as long as messages of type com are received. If a message of type com or a non-acceptable codeword nacw is received (com + nacw), the B-branch of the state diagram is entered and the new state is now B_2. The command output state in the B-branch is command. When q consecutive events of type com + nacw have occurred, the control returns to state BASE or to state SUSP_1 depending on whether the last of those events is com or nacw, respectively. In both cases the command output state will be no command. From any state of the B-branch the control is returned to state 1 as soon as one message of type com is received. The meaning of the SUSP-branch is the same as the meaning of the SUSP-state in conjunction with command output control mode 1, i.e. to prevent an unintentional command extension if an error burst occurs quite close to the end of a teleprotection command.

5.3.2

Characteristics of Control Mode 2


The purpose of the A-branch is to ensure that very short teleprotection commands cannot pass through the command channel. This can be desirable if a contact bounce appears at the relay contact which is connected to the command input of the TPS 64. The contact bounce can be filtered out by giving the parameter p a proper value. Additionally, if there is any suspicion that the equipment being connected to the command input of the TPS 64 might cause short unwanted commands, they can be prevented from passing through the teleprotection system, i.e. they do not appear at the command output of the TPS 64. If desired, the A-branch can be omitted by giving the parameter the value p = 1. In this case the operation is identical with control mode 1 with regard to how the leading edge of the teleprotection command passes through the command channel. From the state diagram of control mode 2 it can be concluded that the minimum duration of the state command at the command output is r x 1.25 ms + (q - 1) x 1.25 ms. In contrast to control mode 1, any teleprotection command is extended at least with (q - 1) x 1.25 ms no matter how long the duration of the command is at the command input. The B-branch of control mode 2 has two functions. It determines how the errors of the 64 kbit/s signal affect the the command output and it filters the trailing edge of the teleprotection command, i.e. the change of state from state command to state no command.

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TPS 64 Operation

5.3.3

Giving Values to the Parameters of Control Mode 2


To ensure that commands having a duration less than tmax cannot pass through the command channel, the value of the parameter p has to be calculated using the formula p = 1 + INT(tmax [ms] / 1.25). The lowest value of the parameter is p = 1. This corresponds to a situation where the leading edge filtering is totally out of use and the command will pass through the system even if it has been detected in one sample. The highest value of the parameter is p = 250. The default value of parameter p = 5 which is expected to be a proper value in most applications using control mode 2. The excessive delay suffered by the leading edge of the teleprotection command is then 5 ms, a value that often can be accepted. Caution The highest value of the parameter p = 250 corresponds to a delay of 312 ms which is totally unacceptable in most applications. Therefore the user is prompted to extreme carefulness when giving a value to this parameter. If the system has two channel groups in use and parameter p has been given value p = 2, a teleprotection command shorter than 1.25 ms can still pass through the system. This is due to the fact that in this case all sampling results are used twice for control state determination.

Caution

To ensure that a break in the 64 kbit/s signal or in the teleprotection command at the command input with a duration not exceeding tmax does not cause a break in the teleprotection command at the command output, the value of the parameter q must be calculated from the formula q = 1 + INT(tmax [ms] / 1.25). The lowest value of parameter q = 1. This corresponds to a situation where the trailing edge filtering is totally out of use. This means that even one non-acceptable codeword or one event of type com causes a break at the command output. The highest value is q = 250 corresponding to a delay of 312 ms. When considering the value of this parameter it should be kept in mind that it affects not only the response to the error bursts and command breaks but also the minimum duration of the command together with the parameter r. Now that the value of the parameter q is known, to make sure that the duration of any teleprotection command at the command output is at least tmin, the value of the parameter r must be calculated using the formula r = INT(tmin [ms] / 1.25) - q The minimum value of this parameter is r = 1 and the maximum value is r = 250.

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Command Output Control

5.4

Command Output Control


On the following pages, the operation of the command output control is described by means of a few examples. The duration of the teleprotection commands in the shown examples is shorter than in typical applications. Using such short commands is necessary to make the details on the time axis visible. For the same reason, the value of the command output control parameter r is also very low in most examples. However, once the control behaviour has been understood, generalizing it to other parameter values and command lengths is very straightforward.

5.4.1

How to Read the Sample Diagrams


Each diagram describes the operation of one command channel. On the horizontal time axis are shown: Command input state, the behaviour of the 64 kbit/s signal and the command output state. The low level of the line describing the command input state corresponds to state no command (com in the state diagrams) and the high level to state command (com in the state diagrams). The behaviour of the 64 kbit/s signal is described as follows. A straight line indicates that the signal is either error-free or the number of errors in the 64 bit message does not exceed the limit of acceptance. The saw-tooth line indicates that the received 64-bit message contains more errors than the receiver accepts. This corresponds to event nacw in the previous state diagrams. The low and high levels of the line describing the behaviour of the command output correspond to states no command and command, respectively. The time between any two vertical lines in the diagrams is the frame time of the TPS 64 which is 1.25 ms. The diagrams have been simplified by omitting some of the delays of the teleprotection system. However, the one frame delay which is due to the operation principle of the equipment has been taken into account. Figure 3 shows how the diagrams (drawn with solid lines) are related to the real changes at the command outputs (drawn with dashed lines). Even this figure neglects one thing. The transmission delay and the very short delays at the 64 kbits/s interface of the TPS 64 are not shown. If desired, they can be taken into account just by shifting the command output describer properly to the right. Figure 3 describes how the teleprotection command passes through the command channel of the teleprotection system. At t1 the two command input poles are shortcircuited, resulting in a change of state from state no command to state command. This change is detected at t2 when the transmitter samples the command inputs and starts to send a new 64-bit message which conveys the state of the command input to the receiver of the other equipment. Because the transmission delay and the delays in the 64 kbit/s interfaces are neglected, it takes exactly 1 ms to transfer all the 64 bits. The receiver starts to decode the message as soon as the first byte of it has been received. The fact that the message transfer and decoding occur simultaneously makes the operation very fast and means that the decoding is completed practically immediately after the reception of the last bit of the 64-bit message. Now, the receiver has to update the command output states for all four/eight command channels. At t3 the new state has been calculated and a change of state from state no command to state command occurs at the receivers output. Because this change practically coincides with the next sampling at the transmitting end, the diagrams have been drawn as if these two events occurred simultaneously, thus making the diagrams easier to draw and read.

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TPS 64 Operation

1.25 ms Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

t1

t2

t3

t4

t5

t6

t7

t8

Figure 3

Timing details of the sample diagrams

In Figure 3 the line describing the behaviour of the 64 kbit/s signal does not contain any saw-tooth sequences which indicates that no severe error bursts have occurred. However, many of the following examples have been included to show how error bursts affect the operation of the command output. Then it is important to keep in mind how the line describing the 64 kbit/s signals quality and the line describing the state of the command output are related: The event nacw is used in the calculation of the new command output state if the preceding 1.25 ms is drawn with a saw-tooth line. At t3 the change of state occurs at the output of the receiver. The command output relay contact is closed at t4 when the operating time of the relay has elapsed. The trailing edge of the command, ie. the change of state from state command to state no command passes through the system in a similar way.

5.4.2

Examples Related to Control Mode 1


Figure 4 is a simple example that shows how the command extension operates. A short command with a duration of 3 x 1.25 ms is extended so that it has the duration of r x 1.25 ms at the command output.

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Command Output Control

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

13

12

11

10

BASE

Figure 4

Control mode 1, r = 13

From Figure 5 it can be seen that error bursts in the 64 kbit/s signal cannot affect the command output state during the command extension time if the leading edge of the command has passed through the system successfully.

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

13

12

11

10

BASE

Figure 5

Control mode 1, r = 13

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TPS 64 Operation

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

13

12

11

10

BASE

Figure 6

Control mode 1, r = 13

Figure 6 shows that a short break of the command at the command input when the command extension is active does not affect the command output.

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

SUSP

BASE

Figure 7

Control mode 1, r = 13

Figure 7 shows that the command extension is not applied if the leading edge of the command is detected while in state SUSP.

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Command Output Control

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

BASE

Figure 8

Control mode 1, r = 5

Figure 8 shows that an error burst which corrupts only one codeword does not break the command at the command output even if the command extension time is already over.

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

SUSP

BASE

Figure 9

Control mode 1, r = 5

Figure 9 shows that an error burst with a duration of two or more frames (four frames in the example) breaks the command at the command output if the command extension is no more effective.

5.4.3

Examples Related to Control Mode 2


The first example shown in Figure 10 reveals one of the basic characteristics of control mode 2; an excessive delay of two frame times (determined by the value of parameter p = 3) is suffered by the leading edge of the command. It can also be seen that the command extension is included. Note that in contrast to control mode 1, the amount of the extension is determined together with the parameters r = 11 and q = 3.

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TPS 64 Operation

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

A_2 A_3

11

10

B_2 B_3

BASE

SUSP_1

Figure 10

Control mode 2, p = 3, q = 3, r = 11

The second example shown in Figure 11 is included to emphasize the fact that short teleprotection commands do not pass through the command channel. Because the value of parameter p = 3, the commands must be so long that they can be detected at least in three consecutive samplings at the command input.

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

A_2 A_3

BASE

Figure 11

Control mode 2, p = 3, q = 3, r = 11

The next example in Figure 12 shows how the rapid changes of state at the command input, preceding the start of the command, are filtered out.

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Command Output Control

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

A_2 BASE

A_2

A_2 A_3

11

10

B_2 B_3 BASE

SUSP_1

Figure 12

Control mode 2, p = 3, q = 3, r = 11

From Figure 13 it can be seen that an error burst with a duration of three frame times does not affect the command output although the control state is already 1 when the error burst occurs. Note that in this example the value of the parameter q that determines the length of the error burst causing an interruption of the teleprotection command at the command output is q = 5.

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

A_2

B_2 B_3 B_4

1 B_2

B_3 B_4 B_5 SUSP_1 BASE

Figure 13

Control mode 2, p = 2, q = 5, r = 7

By comparing Figures 13 and 14, it can be seen that the effect of a short command break at the command input is identical with the effect of a short error burst. If the duration of the break is so short that the control remains in the B-branch of control mode 2, the command output remains in state command.

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TPS 64 Operation

Command input 64 kbit/s signal

Command output

Control state

BASE

A_2

B_2 B_3 B_4

1 B_2

B_3 B_4 B_5 SUSP_1 BASE

Figure 14

Control mode 2, p = 2, q = 5, r = 7

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Blocking Teleprotection Commands

Chapter 6 Blocking Teleprotection Commands


There are three Service Terminal commands that enable the teleprotection commands to be blocked. If only one control unit belongs to the equipment configuration, these three facilities operate just like expected but in case of two control units it is extremely important to understand that the effect of these facilities is control unit-internal. Figure 15 shows the switches that are responsible for the command output locking and transmitter locking. It can also be seen that locking the transmitter means that the outgoing 64 kbit/s signal is replaced with an all-ones (1) sequence. In Figure 15 control unit A is in secure state, i.e. both command output locking and transmitter locking are active but control unit B is in normal state. It can be clearly seen that the teleprotection commands can pass through the system in both directions in spite of the fact that control unit A is in secure state.

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TPS 64 Operation

Control unit A Motherboard signals Control Maintenance interface

Receiver Transmitter All ones generator Control unit B Control Maintenance interface 64 kbit/s interface 64 kbit/s

Receiver Transmitter All ones generator Channel unit 1 Command inputs 64 kbit/s interface 64 kbit/s

Command outputs

Figure 15

Operating principle of command output locking and transmitter locking, control unit A in secure state and control unit B in normal state

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Changing the Number of Correctable Errors

Chapter 7 Changing the Number of Correctable Errors


Normally the TPS 64 accepts teleprotection messages that have been corrupted by up to five bit errors, i.e. five is the default value of the error correction parameter. The user has the possibility to give any value to this parameter within the limits 0...7. However, if a value other than the default five is given it must be kept in mind that the performance parameters of the command channels (probability of missing commands and unwanted commands), given in the technical specification, are based on the assumption that up to five errors are corrected. Changing the number of correctable errors affects both the probability of missing commands and the probability of unwanted commands. The teleprotection equipment time remains unchanged. Increasing the number of correctable errors results in a lower probability of missing command and a higher probability of unwanted commands. Decreasing the value of correctable errors results in a higher probability of missing commands and a lower probability of unwanted commands. Because the probability of unwanted commands is extremely low (MTBUC > 100 000 years) even at the default value of five, there is no reason to select values lower than five. Selecting values higher than five results in a lower probability of missing commands. According to the technical specification the probability of a missing command is Pmc < 109 at continuous BER < 103. This value is also very low and it would hardly be reasonable trying to achieve lower probabilities. However, expressing the probability of missing commands at a continuous BER does not consider the effect of error bursts on the operation of the teleprotection system. If the 64 kbit/s connection is such that an error burst can occur, it is possible that accepting teleprotection messages corrupted by up to six or seven errors lowers the probability of missing commands. If the receiver accepts messages corrupted by up to six errors, the Mean Time Between Unwanted Commands is expected to be MTBUC > 7000 years and in case of seven errors MTBUC > 500 years. This change is quite considerable in comparison to the MTBUC > 100 000 years in case of five errors and must therefore always be taken into account when giving a value to the error correction parameter of the TPS 64.

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TPS 64 Operation

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Form for TPS 64 Settings

Chapter 8 Form for TPS 64 Settings


The following pages contain a form that can be filled out when taking a TPS 64 into use. The form includes all settings. If the equipment has two control units A and B, then they both should have a form of there own. In most cases the delivery and default values of the settings are shown with bold text or printed in parentheses. The setting selected by the user is indicated either by writing down the selected value or by encircling one of the alternative settings as shown in the example of Figure 16.

PA1 function: PA2 function:

A A

B B

D D

S S 1 ON 2 OFF

A&S A&S

A+S A+S

A+B+S A+B+S

Control time out:___________minutes (10) Data hybrid configuration:

Figure 16

Example on how to fill out the settings form

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TPS 64 Operation

SETTINGS OF TELEPROTECTION EQUIPMENT TPS 64


Equipment ID___________________Date of commissioning__________ Service Options Baud rate:_________ Rack alarm functions: 1 2 3 Address:_________ Normal Alarms inhibited A replaced by B

Rack alarm delay:______seconds (3) PA1 function: PA2 function: A A B B D D S S A&S A&S A+S A+S A+B+S A+B+S

Control time-out:___________minutes (10) Data hybrid configuration: 1 ON 2 OFF

Teleprotection alarm filtering on-delay:_______seconds (5) Teleprotection alarm filtering off-delay:_______seconds (5) BER > 1E3 consequences: Frame alignment lost consequences: AIS consequences: Menu reminders: Equipment ID: on Remote end: on Near end: on off off off 1 Command outputs locked 2 Command outputs not locked 1 Command outputs locked 2 Command outputs not locked 1 Fault status AS 2 Fault status BS Answer reminders: Equipment ID: Remote end: Near end: Short answer: on on on on off off off off

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Form for TPS 64 Settings

Equipment Configuration Cartridge ID: 1 CF 24280 2 CF 24280.08 A B yes yes

Location of this control unit:

Control unit B belongs to configuration: no Channel unit 2 belongs to configuration: no Transmitter Settings Number of channel groups: 1

Teleprotection code of channel group Teleprotection code of channel group Receiver Settings Number of channel groups: Teleprotection code of channel group Teleprotection code of channel group

1:_________ 2:_________ (only if used)

1:_________ 2:_________ (only if used)

Maximum number of errors corrected at reception:_______ (5) Command output control Command channel 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 (Default: Control mode 1 Control mode ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ ____ p _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ r = 40) q r _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____ _____

Registration Settings: 1 Both directions


2 Command outputs only 3 Command inputs only 4 No registration

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TPS 64 Operation

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TPS 64
TELEPROTECTION SIGNALLING EQUIPMENT Operation with Service Terminal

NTC DTPS6-0829-SEA2

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

E COPYRIGHT Nokia Telecommunications Oy 1993, 1998 All rights reserved.


No part of this publication may be copied, distributed, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system, or translated into any human or computer language without the prior written permission of Nokia Telecommunications Oy. The manufacturer has made every effort to ensure that the instructions contained in the documents are adequate and free of errors and omissions. The manufacturer will, if necessary, explain issues which may not be covered by the documents. The manufacturers liability for any errors in the documents is limited to the correction of errors and the aforementioned advisory services. The documents have been prepared to be used by professional and properly trained personnel, and the customer assumes full responsibility when using them.The manufacturer welcomes customer comments as part of the process of continual developmentand improvement of the documentation in the best way possible from the users viewpoint. Please submit your comments to the nearest Nokia sales representative. NOKIA is a registered trademark of Nokia Corporation. Any other trademarks mentioned in the documents are the property of their respective owners.

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Document History
Document DTPS6-0829-SEA1 Date Comment 24 Aug 1993 This description is valid for: CS 24260 Control processor program versions 03A and 03B, CS 24261 Receiver processor program version 02A. 8 Jun 1998

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

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Contents

Chapter 1 Service Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 2 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 3 Service Terminal Main Menu . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Chapter 4 Controlling the TPS 64 System . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
4.1 4.2 4.2.1 4.2.2 4.3 4.4 General . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Affecting the user interface . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Menu reminders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Answer reminders . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Two users trying to control the system . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Disorders in remote end communication . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

1 17 19 21
21 22 23 24 26 27

Chapter 5 TPS 64 Equipment Menus . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .


5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Fault display . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Local alarm cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Reset local cancel . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Identifications . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Controls . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Settings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Measurements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Statistics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Testing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .
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29 30 30 30 34 41 65 66 74

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5.10 5.11

User privileges . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . Miscellaneous . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . .

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Service Menus

Chapter 1 Service Menus

MAIN LEVEL MENU


2 3 TOP

TPS 64 (OK)

Done Done

Select operation: 1 Fault display 2 Local alarm cancel 3 Reset local cancel 4 Identifications 5 Controls (temporary) 6 Settings (permanent) 7 Measurements 8 Statistics 9 Testing 10 User privileges 11 Miscellaneous

Identifications: 1 Equipment type 2 Equipment ID 3 User manual 4 64 kbit/s interface ID 5 Unit ID 6 Program ID 7 Command interface IDs 8 Modify IDs 9 Remote end

See:
Page 3

Controls: 0 Display 1 TPS 64 to normal state 2 64 kbit/s looping 4 Forced indications 5 Forced alarm outputs 6 Secure state control 7 Command output locking 8 Transmitter locking 9 Remote end

Page 4

See page 2

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

Settings: 1 Service options 2 Equipment configuration 3 Timing mode 4 Transmitter settings 5 Receiver settings 6 Default settings 7 Confirm settings 8 Cancel settings 9 Remote end

Pages 5-10

Measurements: 1 Supply voltage 9 Remote end Statistics: 1 Event registration 2 Command input states 3 Command output states 4 CPU reset counter 5 Codeword counters 6 Second counters 7 Octet dist. counter 9 Remote end

Page 11

Page 12

Testing: 1 Fault display 2 Local alarm cancel 3 Reset local cancel 4 A/D tests 5 Memory tests 6 Memory operations 7 Diagnostic test 8 Help displays 9 Remote end

Page 13

10

User privileges: 1 Password for privileges 2 PIN for privileges 3 Cancel privileges 4 Setting parameters 9 Remote end

Page 14

11

Miscellaneous: 1 Real time clock 9 Remote end

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Service Menus

IDENTIFICATIONS: 4,7 4,9


4 Identifications: Identifications: 1 Equipment type 2 Equipment ID 3 User manual 4 64 kbit/s interface ID 5 Unit ID 6 Program ID 7 Command interface IDs 8 Modify IDs 9 Remote end 4,7 Select channel group: 1 Channels 1...4 2 Channels 5...8 4,8 Modify IDs: 2 Equipment ID 4 64 kbit/s interface ID 5 Unit ID 7 Command interface IDs 4,8,2 Equipment ID: 0 Display 1 Modify 4,8,2,1 Give ID string: 1...16 char. 4,8,4 64 kbit/s interface ID: 0 Display/own 1 Modify/own 2 Display/conn. 3 Modify/conn. 4,8,4,1/3 Give ID string: 1-16 char. 4,8,5 Unit ID: 0 Display 1 Modify 4,8,5,1 Give ID string: 1-16 char. 4,8,7 Command interface IDs Select channel 1...8

4,9 Remote end

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Command interface IDs: 0 Display input ID 1 Modify input ID 2 Display output ID 3 Modify output ID Give ID string: 1-16 char. 4,8,7,1...8,1/3

4,8,7,1...8

TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

CONTROLS: 5,2 5,9


5 Controls: Controls: 0 Display 1 TPS 64 to normal state 2 64 kbit/s looping 4 Forced indications 5 Forced alarm outputs 6 Secure state control 7 Command output locking 8 Transmitter locking 9 Remote end 5,2 64 kbit/s looping: 0 Display 1 To normal state 2 Loop to equipment 5,4 Forced indications: 0 Display 1 Normal indic. 2 Forced red indic. 3 Forced yellow indic. 4 Forced no indic. 5,5 Forced alarm outputs: 1 To normal states 2 A-rack alarm 3 B-rack alarm 4 D-rack alarm 5 PA1-alarm 6 PA2-alarm 7 TPA1-alarm 8 TPA2-alarm 5,6 Secure state control: 0 Display 1 To normal state 2 To secure state 5,7 Command output locking: 0 Display 1 To normal state 2 Lock outputs 5,8 Transmitter locking: 0 Display 1 To normal state 2 Lock transmitter 5,9 Remote end 5,5,2...8 Alarm output state: 0 Display 1 To normal state 2 Alarm 3 No alarm

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Service Menus

SETTINGS: Service options 6,1


6 Settings: Settings: 1 Service options 2 Equipment configuration 3 Timing mode 4 Transmitter settings 5 Receiver settings 6 Default settings 7 Confirm settings 8 Cancel settings 9 Remote end 6,1 Service options: 1 Baud rate 2 Address 3 Rack alarm functions 4 Rack alarm delay 5 PA1 function 6 PA2 function 7 Control timeout 8 Data hybrid configuration 8 TPS 64 specific 6,1,1 Baud rate: 0 Display 75...9600 6,1,2 Address: 0 Display 1 Modify 6,1,3 Rack alarm functions: 0 Display 1 Normal 2 Alarms inhibited 3 A replaced by B 6,1,4 Rack alarm delay: 0 Display 1 Modify 6,1,5 PA1 function: 0 Display 1A 2B 3D 4S 5 A&S 6 A+B 7 A+B+S 6,1,6 PA2 function: 0 Display 1A 2B 3D 4S 5 A&S 6 A+B 7 A+B+S 6,1,7 Control time-out: 0 Display 1 ...65000 min 6,1,8 Data hybrid config.: 0 Display 1 ON 2 OFF 6,1,9 TPS 64 specific: 1 TPA filtering 2 Fault consequences 3 Menu reminders 4 Answer reminders 6,1,4,1 Delay? 0...15 s 6,1,2,1 Address? 0...4095

See page 6

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

SETTINGS: Service options, TPS 64specific


6 Settings: Settings: 1 Service options 2 Equipment configuration 3 Timing mode 4 Transmitter settings 5 Receiver settings 6 Default settings 7 Confirm settings 8 Cancel settings 9 Remote end 6,1 Service options: 1 Baud rate 2 Address 3 Rack alarm functions 4 Rack alarm delay 5 PA1 function 6 PA2 function 7 Control timeout 8 Data hybrid configuration 9 TPS 64 specific 6,1,9 TPS 64 specific: 1 TPA filtering 2 Fault consequences 3 Menu reminders 4 Answer reminders 6,1,9,1 TPA filtering: 0 Display 1 Modify on delay 2 Modify off delay 6,1,9,1,1 TPA on delay ? 3...30 seconds 6,1,9,1,2 TPA off delay ? 3...30 seconds 6,1,9,2 Fault consequences: 1 BER > 1E-3 2 Frame alignment lost 3 AIS 6,1,9,2,1 BER > 1E-3 consequences: 0 Display 1 Command outputs locked (fault status AS) 2 Command outputs not locked (fault status B) 6,1,9,2,2 Frame alignment lost consequences: 0 Display 1 Command outputs locked 2 Command outputs not locked 6,1,9,2,3 AIS consequences: 0 Display 1 Fault status AS 2 Fault status BS 6,1,9,3 Menu reminders: 0 Display 1 Equipment ID 2 Remote end 3 Near end 6,1,9,4 Answer reminders: 0 Display 1 Equipment ID 2 Remote end 3 Near end 4 Short answer 6,1,9,3,1-3 Reminder: 0 Display 1 On 2 Off 6,1,9,4,1-4 Reminder: 0 Display 1 On 2 Off

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Service Menus

SETTINGS: 6,2 6,9


6 Settings: Settings: 1 Service options 2 Equipment configuration 3 Timing mode 4 Transmitter settings 5 Receiver settings 6 Default settings 7 Confirm settings 8 Cancel settings 9 Remote end 6,2 Equipment config.: 0 Display 1 Cartridge ID 2 Control unit location 3 Control unit B 4 Channel unit 2 6,3 Timing mode: 0 Display 1 Codirectional 2 Contradirectional 6,4 Transmitter settings: 0 Display 1 Teleprotection code 2 Number of channel groups 6,5 Receiver settings: 0 Display 1 Teleprotection code 2 Number of channel groups 3 Error correction 4 Command output control 6,6 Cancel: <UP> Confirm: 147 <RET> 6,7 Cancel: <UP> Confirm: 147 <RET> 6,8 Done 6,9 Remote end

See page 8

See page 8

See page 9

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

SETTINGS: Equipment configuration 6,2 and Transmitter 6,4


6 Settings Settings: 1 Service options 2 Equipment configuration 3 Timing mode 4 Transmitter settings 5 Receiver settings 6 Default settings 7 Confirm settings 8 Cancel settings 9 Remote end 6,2,1 Cartridge ID: 0 Display 1 CF 24280 2 CF 24280.08 6,2,2 This control unit is inserted in: 0 Display 1 Location A 2 Location B 6,2,3 Control unit B: 0 Display 1 Belongs to config. 2 Does not belong to config. 6,2,4 Channel unit 2: 0 Display 1 Belongs to config. 2 Does not belong to config.

6,2 Equipment config.: 0 Display 1 Cartridge ID 2 Control unit location 3 Control unit B 4 Channel unit 2

6,4 Transmitter settings: 0 Display 1 Teleprotection code 2 Number of channel groups

6,4,1 Select channel group: 1 Channels 1...4 2 Channels 5...8

6,4,1,1 Com. chan. 1...4 Give teleprotection code: 1...8(16) Display with 0 6,4,1,2 Com. chan. 5...8 Give teleprotection code: 9...16 Display with 0

6,4,2 Number of channel groups: 0 Display 1 One group 2 Two groups

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Service Menus

SETTINGS: Receiver settings 6,5


6 Settings Settings: 1 Service options 2 Equipment configuration 3 Timing mode 4 Transmitter settings 5 Receiver settings 6 Default settings 7 Confirm settings 8 Cancel settings 9 Remote end 6,5 Receiver settings: 0 Display 1 Teleprotection code 2 Number of channel groups 3 Error correction 4 Command output control 6,5,1 Select channel group: 1 Channels 1...4 2 Channels 5...8 6,5,1,1 Com. chan. 1...4 Give teleprotection code: 1...8(16) Display with 0 6,5,1,2 Com. chan. 5...8 Give teleprotection code: 9...16 Display with 0 6,5,2 Number of channel groups: 0 Display 1 One group 2 Two groups 6,5,3 Maximum number of errors corrected at reception: 0 Display 1 Default 5 2 Setting 6,5,3,2 Give number: 0...7

6,5,4

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

SETTINGS: Command output control 6,5,4,1,x and 6,5,4,2,y


6,5,4 Command output control: 0 Display 1 Select channel 2 Select channel group 6,5,4,1 Select channel 1...8 6,5,4,1,1 Select control mode: 1...2 6,5,4,1,1,1 Control mode 1 parameters: 0 Display 1 Default 4 Set r 6,5,4,1,1,1,1 Done 6,5,4,1,1,1,4 Give parameter value: 1...250 6,5,4,1,1,2,1 Done 6,5,4,1,1,2,2-4 Give parameter value: 1...250

6,5,4,1,1,2 Control mode 2 parameters: 0 Display 1 Default 2 Set p 3 Set q 4 Set r 6,5,4,2 Select channel group: 1 Channels 1...4 2 Channels 5...8 6,5,4,2,1 Select control mode: 1...2 6,5,4,2,1,1 Control mode 1 parameters: 0 Display 1 Default 4 Set r

6,5,4,2,1,1 Done 6,5,4,2,1,1,4 Give parameter value: 1...250 6,5,4,2,1,2,1 Done 6,5,4,2,1,2,2-4 Give parameter value: 1...250

6,5,4,2,1,2 Control mode 2 parameters: 0 Display 1 Default 2 Set p 3 Set q 4 Set r

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Service Menus

MEASUREMENTS: 7,1 and 7,9

7 Measurements: Measurements: 1 Supply voltage 9 Remote end

7,1 Voltage measurements: 1 +5 V 2 -5 V

7,1,1/2 Supply voltage +/- 5 V 1 Display voltage (float) 2 Calibration 7,1,1/2,2 Give measured supply voltage mV (without sign)

7,9 Remote end

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

STATISTICS

8 Statistics: Statistics: 1 Event registration 2 Command input states 3 Command output states 4 CPU-reset counter 5 Codeword counters 6 Second counters 7 Octet dist. counter 9 Remote end

8,1 Event registration: 1 Registration settings 3 Start viewing with newest event 4 Start viewing with oldest event 6 Show free memory 7 Erase register completely

8,1,1 Registration settings: 0 Display 1 Both directions 2 Command outputs only 3 Command inputs only 4 No registration 8,1,3/4 0 Begin Forward n<RET> Backward -n<RET> (n=1...999)

8,4 CPU reset counter: 0 Display 1 Reset counter 8,5 Codeword counters: 0 Display 1 Reset counters 8,6 Second counters: 0 Display 1 Reset counters 8,7 Octet dist. counter: 0 Display 1 Reset counter 8,9 Remote end

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Service Menus

TESTING
9 Testing: Testing: 1 Fault display 2 Local alarm cancel 3 Reset local cancel 4 A/D test 5 Memory tests 6 Memory operations 7 Diagnostic test 8 Help displays 9 Remote end 9,5 Memory tests: 1 RAM 2 EPROM

9,6 Memory operations: 1 Read byte 3 Read 8 bytes

9,6,1/3 Give memory address: 0...65535

9,7 No diagnostic faults 9,8 Help displays: 1 General 2 Diagnostic 3 Incoming signal 9,9 Remote end

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

PRIVILEGES
10 User privileges: User privileges: 1 Password for privileges 2 PIN for privileges 3 Cancel privileges 4 Setting parameters 9 Remote end 10,1 Give password: 1...7 char. 10,2 Ground local PIN 10,4 Setting parameters: 1 Timeout 2 Protections 3 Password 10,4,1 Timeout: 0 Display 1...1000 min 10,4,2 Protections: 0 Display 1 No protection 2 Password required 3 Local PIN required 10,4,3 Give password: 1...7 char. 10,9 Remote end

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Service Menus

MISCELLANEOUS: 11,1,1 11,1,6

11 Miscellaneous: Miscellaneous: 1 Real time clock 9 Remote end

11,1,1 Time setting: 0 Display time 1 Start LED indication 2 Stop LED indication 3 Set time 11,1,2 Give date in format: dd-mm-yy

11,1,3 Give time in format hh-mm-ss hh=00...23

11,1 Real time clock: 0 Display 1 Set time 2 Set date 3 Summertime practice 4 Skip to summertime 5 Skip to wintertime

Give day of week Sunday: 1 Monday: 2 Tuesday: 3 Wednesday: 4 Thursday: 5 Friday: 6 Saturday: 7

11,1,3 Summertime practice: 0 Display 1 Manual skippings 2 EC summertime 11,9 Remote end

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

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General

Chapter 2 General
Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 is controlled by the Service Terminal, the use of which is described in the Operating Manual of Service Terminal TC 21700. By means of the Service Terminal, the basic settings of the equipment can be performed and stored into the permanent storage (replaces strapping), maintenance-related measures, e.g. loopback signals back to the equipment, can be taken, and identifications, statistics, etc. can be read from the equipment.

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

OFF

ON

Select function: 1 Fault display 2 Cancel local alarm 3 Reset local cancel

F1 MODE HELP

F2 OBJ

F3 TOP

F4 UP >...

STO 7 D 4 A 1 EXP -

RCL 8 E 5 B 2 . 0

DEF 9 F 6 C 3 # ,

DATA ASCII

INV

DEL AUTO RET

Figure 1

Service Terminal keys

Command parameter separator


The Service Terminal functions are menu-based. The menu levels can be bypassed if the operator knows the required command strings. The , key is used as a command parameter separator. For example, if TOP 5,2,2 RET is given from the main level, the red service LED on the equipment blinks.

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Service Terminal Main Menu

Chapter 3 Service Terminal Main Menu


When the Service Terminal is switched on, it shifts into mode Use of equipment/ Select operation, which is the default setting. The main menu common to all equipment, offered by the Service Terminal, is displayed:
Select operation: 1 Fault display 2 Local alarm cancel 3 Reset local cancel 4 Identifications 5 Controls (temporary) 6 Settings (permanent) 7 Measurements 8 Statistics 9 Testing 10 User privileges 11 Miscellaneous

Fault display

The fault display indicates the fault status of the equipment. The fault data indicates:
D D D D

equipment ID (e.g. STATION_01 ABC) fault status (A, B, D, S or combination of these) supervision block indicating the part of the equipment being faulty fault type

The equipment ID is given by the operator in the Identifications menu.

Local alarm cancel

In case of fault, local alarm cancel disables rack alarms A and B. As a reminder of the local alarm cancel, a D-alarm is activated. Local alarm cancel on an equipment with fault status OK produces alarm B.

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

Reset local cancel

Normal operation is restored.

Identifications

Under this function, the equipment identification data, such as equipment type, the name given to the equipment and the type and version of the program used, can be read. Some of the identifications can be changed by the operator.

Controls

Under this function, the controls are given that temporarily change the operating mode of the equipment, for example for testing of functions.

Settings

The settings determine the operating mode of the equipment. They are stored in the equipment into a non-volatile memory and therefore retain their values in the event of a supply voltage break.

Measurements

Under this function, various internal measurements are performed by the equipment (without external measuring instruments).

Statistics

Reading and emptying of event register and other statistics collected by the equipment.

Testing

Automatic tests performed by the equipment.

10 User privileges
The users access to the equipment can be defined under this function. Part of the equipment settings can be protected (e.g. Settings). The equipment can be given a password that must be known if protected functions are to be changed.

11 Miscellaneous
The functions related to the control of the real time clock can be found here.

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Controlling the TPS 64 System

Chapter 4 Controlling the TPS 64 System

4.1

General
The purpose of this chapter is to clarify how the operation of the TPS 64 is affected by the fact that it is not a stand-alone terminal but rather a system formed by two terminals connected by a 64 kbit/s signal. The baud rate in the serial link connecting the two ends is 1200 Bauds. Therefore, some time is required when menu texts are returned from the remote end terminal. The user can affect the appearance of the TPS 64 menus by means of several menu reminders which will be explained in the following item. This description is based on the assumption that the menu reminder related settings of both terminals coincide with the delivery settings. At the main menus 4...11 there is a selection 9 Remote end available by means of which the remote end TPS 64 terminal can be entered. For users familiar with Dynacard products it might be helpful to note that entering remote end in the TPS 64 corresponds to entering an interface unit of a Dynacard product. The following is an example of the main level menu Controls: containing selection 9 Remote end.
Controls: 0 Display 1 TPS 64 to normal state 2 64 kbit/s loopback 4 Forced indications 5 Forced alarm outputs 6 Secure state control 7 Command output locking 8 Transmitter locking 9 Remote end

The top level selections 1 Fault display, 2 Local alarm cancel and 3 Reset local cancel inherently differ from the other top level selections in that they do not return any menu but directly start an operation. Thus, there is no possibility to enter the

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

remote end. However, under the menu branch 9 Testing you can find three commands that can be used instead as described in chapter 5.9. When a user, having first made some of the selections 4...11, selects 9 Remote end, a similar menu is returned. However, the selection 9 Remote end is no more visible and a text, also called tag or reminder in this manual, is shown in the upper right corner (Remote end). It reminds the user that he/she has entered the remote-end terminal. All succeeding commands will now affect the remote-end terminal. For example, the previous Controls menu will look as follows when the remote end terminal has been entered:
Controls: (Remote end) 0 Display 1 TPS 64 to normal state 2 64 kbit/s loopback 4 Forced indications 5 Forced alarm outputs 6 Secure state control 7 Command output locking 8 Transmitter locking

If the user now tries to select 9 again, the following text is displayed:
Selecting remote end not allowed while in remote end

The reason for this message is quite apparent: The mentioned selection would connect the user back to the near-end TPS 64 terminal which was previously left by selecting 9.

4.2

Affecting the user interface


Because both TPS 64 terminals serve the same commands, the TPS 64 helps the user in being aware of to which one of the two terminals he/she is connected. The degree of this help can be affected by several reminders, which can be switched on or off in any combination. The appearance of the menus is determined by menu reminders which can be found under the item 6,1,9,3 (Settings, Service options, TPS 64-specific, Menu reminders). The appearance of answers is affected by answer reminders which can be found in the TPS 64-specific service options under sub-item 4 Answer reminders. How to affect the reminders with menu commands is explained in conjunction with other menu commands in the next chapter. The purpose of this chapter is to clarify the effect of the reminders on the user interface. Note that the word reminder is used here and elsewhere in this manual in two different meanings. Firstly, it refers to the reminding texts, also called tags, appearing on the Service Terminal (emulator) display; secondly, it refers to the internal on/off flags in the non-volatile memory of the TPS 64 that are affected by means of settings.

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Controlling the TPS 64 System

The possibility to affect the user interface is undoubtedly a great help in the operation of the TPS 64. However, the operating personnel might be confused if the TPS 64s that they operate do not have an identical user interface. To avoid this problem it is recommended that a standard practice in this issue be created before the commissioning of the first systems. It is especially important to have identical reminder settings in both terminals belonging to the same system. All display examples in this document are based on this assumption.

4.2.1

Menu reminders
The appearance of the menus is determined by three reminders, which can be displayed with command 6,1,9,3,0 Menu reminders: Display. The following sample display corresponds to the delivery settings:
Menu reminders: Equipment ID: Off Remote end: On Near end: Off

If the reminders have the above values, the menus of the near-end and remote end equipment look like in the two examples presented in 4.1 General. When the equipment ID reminder has been switched on, the equipment identification string, i.e. the name of the equipment will be displayed above the menu text. If the user definable names of the two terminals of a TPS 64 system are TPS 64 MAXWELL and TPS 64 KIRCHOFF, and the Service Terminal (emulator) is connected to TPS 64 MAXWELL, the Settings menu returned by selection 6 will look like this:
TPS 64 MAXWELL Settings: 1 Service options 2 Equipment configuration 3 Timing mode 4 Transmitter settings 5 Receiver settings 6 Default settings 7 Confirm settings 8 Cancel settings 9 Remote end

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

Entering the remote end terminal by selecting item 9 Remote end returns the following display:
TPS 64 KIRCHOFF (Remote end) Settings: 1 Service options 2 Equipment configuration 3 Timing mode 4 Transmitter settings 5 Receiver settings 6 Default settings 7 Confirm settings 8 Cancel settings

In considering the practice to be adopted with respect to equipment ID reminder it should not be forgotten that several menus have been carefully designed to fit onto the four by twenty character display of the Service Terminal. If the equipment is mainly operated with a Service Terminal emulator, the use of equipment ID reminder can be strongly recommended.

Remote end reminder


The two remote end menus shown in the preceding text are based on the assumption that the remote end reminder has been switched on which is the delivery value of this flag. It is possible to switch this reminder off but the users are discouraged from doing so.

Near-end reminder
Switching near-end reminder on makes the (Near-end) tag visible on the near-end menus. On the one hand, this increases the amount of text to be displayed, on the other hand it creates some visual symmetry to the user interface.

4.2.2

Answer reminders
The answer reminders can be used to remind the user of which equipment returned the answer. The answers have been placed in two categories that can be affected separately. Simple, mostly one-line, messages belong to short answers. A typical example is the done text returned upon execution of a user-specified command that brings about some change in the equipment. The other group is formed by some more complex answers typically returned upon execution of a Display command. It should be noted that some of the answers returned by the TPS 64 do not contain any reminding text irrespective of the values of the reminders described here. A typical example of this is the System reserved message.

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Controlling the TPS 64 System

All answer reminders can be displayed with command 6,1,9,4,0 Settings: Service options: TPS 64 specific: Answer reminders: Display. At the moment of delivery these reminders have the values shown in the following display:
Answer reminders: Equipment ID: Off Remote end: On Near end: Off Short answer On

When the reminders have the values shown above, executing the command 6,4,0 Settings: Transmitter settings: Display in the remote end equipment could return e.g. the following display:
Two channel groups (Remote end) Group Code 1...4 1 5...8 9

The answers returned by near-end commands do not contain any reminding text if the reminders have the delivery values.

Equipment ID reminder
If equipment ID reminder has been switched on, the name of the equipment will be displayed on the topmost line of some answers. Executing in the near-end equipment e.g. the previous transmitter settings display command could then return the following:
TPS 64 MAXWELL Two channel groups Group Code 1...4 1 5...8 9

It should be noted that many of the answers have been carefully designed to fit onto the four by twenty character display of the Service Terminal. The above display is an example that shows how one important line bleeds out of the Service Terminal display due the equipment ID reminder. Of course the lost line can be simply regained by typing <DOWN ARROW>.

Remote end reminder


Remote end reminder determines whether the (Remote end) tag will be displayed in conjunction with answers returned by remote end equipment. This is the only answer reminder being switched on at the moment of delivery. If it is also switched off, no reminding text of any kind will be displayed with the answers.

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

Near-end reminder
If near-end reminder has been switched on, the (Near-end) tag will appear so that a visual symmetry with the corresponding answers returned by the remote end equipment results. For example:
TPS 64 MAXWELL (Near end) Two channel groups Group Code 1...4 1 5...8 9

Short answer reminder


The short answer reminder determines whether the (Near-end)/(Remote end) tag will be added to the short answers. Note that the tag is only displayed if the corresponding remote end reminder or near-end reminder has also been switched on. For example:
done (Remote end)

Equipment ID is never displayed with short answers.

4.3

Two users trying to control the system


When the user connects a Service Terminal (emulator) to one of the two TPS 64 terminals belonging to the same system, i.e. being connected by a 64 kbit/s channel, he/she gets the right to control both terminals. If somebody else is now trying to get access to the remote end terminal by connecting a Service Terminal (emulator) to it, the later user can execute only the fault display command. If he tries to execute any other command, the following is displayed:
System reserved

If the later user is on site, he/she also can see that the green led of the control unit is lit to indicate that somebody is controlling the system. If the 64 kbit/s connection is now broken, the later user gets access to the TPS 64 terminal after a few seconds. The terminal will, however, remember that the primary right to give commands belongs to the first user. Therefore, if the 64 kbit/s connection is restored and the first user is still there, the later user will again get the System reserved message.

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Controlling the TPS 64 System

4.4

Disorders in remote end communication


If the 64 kbit/s connection between the two terminals is not in order, so that the near-end terminal knows that remote end commands cannot be executed, the following display is returned:
No connection to remote end Reason(s): Transmitter locked No incoming signal (AS)

As can be seen, the reason is also displayed. The notation (s) is used because there can be several simultaneous reasons, as in the sample display, that prevent the user from entering the remote end terminal. The notation (AS) indicates the status of the corresponding fault. If you do not know how to fix the problem, you can execute the command 9,8,1 Testing: Help displays: General. It will return a list of things that should be checked or even suggests some measures to be taken in order to regain the connection to the remote end. The possible reasons for the above display are: There is no incoming signal. The error rate of the incoming signal exceeds 1E-3. Frame alignment is lost due to very high error rate. There is no octet timing in the incoming signal, which might be due to wrong timing mode in the 64 kbit/s interface. The alarm indication signal AIS is received. The user has locked the transmitter or activated the secure state. Note, however, that the fault Invalid incoming signal does not prevent the execution of remote end commands. The reason for this is that this fault is related to the main function of the TPS 64 only and does not affect the operation of the auxiliary channel used for the communication between the control processors of the two terminals. Finally, if you are connected to a terminal which does not have any connection to the remote end terminal, it is possible that you obtain the following message:
No connection to remote end Reason(s): You are a secondary user

This can happen just upon the restoration of the the 64 kbit/s connection. Now, if there is a user at the other end, the next message will be System reserved. If there is nobody at the other end, the repeated execution of the command will give you access to the remote end. Although the previously described No connection to remote end message is certainly what the user most probably will encounter when the execution of a remote end command fails, there are two more possible cases which may occur if the incoming 64 kbit/s is in order at the moment the near-end terminal starts to send the command given by the user to the remote end terminal. If the 64 kbit/s signal is continuously broken in the other transmission direction or if the command is corrupted by an error burst, the following will be displayed:
Remote end equipment did not receive your command

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

If an error burst occurs when the near-end terminal is waiting for an answer from the remote end terminal or when it has started to receive an answer, the following will be displayed:
Communication disturbance

Note that in this case it is possible that a coincident error burst in the other transmission direction caused the remote end terminal not to receive the command which accordingly is not executed. In this case the previous display would, of course, be the correct answer but is inherently impossible to return because the near-end equipment does not know whether the remote end equipment did receive the command or not.

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TPS 64 Equipment Menus

Chapter 5 TPS 64 Equipment Menus


Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 is controlled via the service interface in the control unit CU 24201. If the equipment configuration includes two control units, they must both be controlled via their own service interfaces. The only TPS 64 internal communication between the two control units is an on/off motherboard signal that enables the appropriate alarm status to be determined in conjunction with incoming signal and control unit faults as explained in the part Functional description of this manual. Channel unit CU 24202 does not have a maintenance interface of its own. The fault data of the channel unit(s) can be read via control unit A.

5.1

Fault display
The control unit monitors, in addition to its own operation, the state of both channel units. These three units comprise a functional entity that is divided into three supervision blocks.
TPS 64 MAXWELL (AS) Control unit: D Loss of incoming signal TPS 64 MAXWELL is the name of the equipment, Control unit: is the name of the concerned supervision block. Loss of incoming signal is the fault that has been detected. The notation (AS) indicates the fault status of the equipment.

The information displayed by command 1 Fault display is based on the fault codes of the TMS system. The texts corresponding to each fault case have been stored into the memory of the Service Terminal and are therefore common to all types of equipment that can be controlled with the TMS. Due to this fact, the display obtained with command 1 Fault display does not describe the situation in an optimum manner in all fault cases. For user convenience there is an additional command 9,1 Fault display that essentially supplies the same information but with somewhat different terms. Most users will probably find the display returned by the latter command easier to understand. Additionally, the latter command can also be executed in the remote end equipment by typing 9,9,1 Testing: Remote end:

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal

Fault display. This is, of course, possible only if the fault does not break the

64 kbit/s signal which is used to access the remote end terminal.

5.2

Local alarm cancel


In a fault situation, rack alarms A and B are removed by the command Local alarm cancel. As a reminder of the cancellation, alarm D is given. A local alarm cancellation when the equipment is OK produces a B-alarm. The local alarm cancel function replaces the conventional acknowledgement switch. This command can be executed in the remote end TPS 64 by selecting 9,9,2 Testing: Remote end: Local alarm cancel.

5.3

Reset local cancel


Giving the command Reset local cancel restores the normal alarm functions after the fault has been repaired. This function can be executed in the remote end equipment by selecting 9,9,3 Testing: Remote end: Reset local cancel.

5.4

Identifications
Identifications: 1 Equipment type 2 Equipment ID 3 User manual 4 64 kbit/s interface ID 5 Unit ID 6 Program ID 7 Command interface IDs 8 Modify IDs 9 Remote end

Selections 1...7 enable the user to display the various identifications of the equipment, via item 8 the identifications can be changed and via item 9 Remote end the identifications of the remote end equipment can be accessed.

4,1

Equipment type

Fixed designation describing the equipment type, on the basis of which the equipment being operated by the Service Terminal can be separated from other similar equipment and from possible later versions of the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment. Answer displayed:
TPS 64

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4,2

Equipment ID

The equipment ID is an individual equipment name, given by the operator, that can be used for network management. This designation is also displayed in the fault display answer. Sample reply:
TPS 64 STATION_1

4,3

User manual

The code of the document Operation with Service Terminal - relating to the program; fixed. Sample reply:
DTPS6-0829-SEA

4,4

64 kbit/s interface ID

Connection-specific identifications, given by the operator, that can be used for network management. Sample reply:
EDEFORS > PORSI

4,5

Unit ID

Unit type designation and version code. Set at factory, but the operator can change it e.g. in connection with repair. Sample reply:
CU 24201 02A

4,6

Program ID
Control: CS 24260 03A Receiver: CS 24261 02A

The type designation and version of both programs are fixed. Displayed answer:

4,7

Command interface IDs

This selection shows the identifications given for each command interface by the operator. The identifications indicate the installation environment of the equipment. Viewing of the identifications is started by selecting the command channel group:
Select channel group: 1 Channels 1...4 2 Channels 5...8

Since the output and the input of a command channel are not always connected to the same protection relay, both the command output and the command input con-

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nection have been presented for each command channel. When channel group 1...4 is selected, the following sample reply is displayed:
Command interface IDs: Interface 1: Input: DISTANCE RELAY 1 Output: DISTANCE RELAY 1 Interface 2: Input: OR WITH 1 Output: OR WITH 1 Interface 3: Input: BACKUP TRIPPING Output: BACKUP TRIPPING Interface 4: Input: AND WITH 3 Output: AND WITH 3

The sample display shows one possible practice to denote command channels that are used to increase the dependability or security of the application by means of a wired OR and wired AND connection, respectively.

4,8

Modify IDs

By this selection (4,8), identifications can be modified. First, a menu is obtained by means of which the identification to be changed is selected:
Modify IDs: 2 Equipment ID 4 64 kbit/s interface ID 5 Unit ID 7 Command interface IDs

4,8,2

Modify equipment ID

By this selection, the equipment identification can be modified:


Equipment ID: 0 Display 1 Modify

Selection 0 displays the equipment ID and selection 1 gives the text:


Give ID string 1...16 char.

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4,8,4

Modify 64 kbit/s interface ID

By this selection, the identification of the 64 kbit/s interface can be modified:


64 kbit/s interface ID: 0 Display/own 1 Modify/own 2 Display/conn. 3 Modify/conn.

Selections 0 and 2 display the identification, selections 1 and 3 give the following text:
Give ID string 1...16 char.

4,8,5

Modify Unit ID
Unit ID: 0 Display 1 Modify

By this selection, the control unit identification can be modified:

Selection 0 displays the control unit ID and selection 1 gives the text:
Give ID string 1...16 char.

4,8,7

Modify command interface IDs

By this selection, the command channel identifications can be modified. The following text is displayed:
Command interface IDs Select channel 1...8

When the command interface whose identifications are to be changed is selected, the following menu is displayed:
Command interface IDs: 0 Display input ID 1 Modify input ID 2 Display output ID 3 Modify output ID

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Selection 0 displays and selection 1 modifies the command input identification. Selection 2 displays and selection 3 modifies the command output identification. Selections 1 and 3 give the following text:
Give ID string 1...16 char.

4,9

Remote end identifications

See chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE TPS 64 SYSTEM.

5.5

Controls
Controls: 0 Display 1 TPS 64 to normal state 2 64 kbit/s loopback 4 Forced indications 5 Forced alarm outputs 6 Secure state control 7 Command ouptut locking 8 Transmitter locking 9 Remote end

Controls are intended for temporary modification of the operating mode of the equipment. They can also be used to test several functions of the equipment.

5,0

Display active controls

By this selection, all active controls in the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment are displayed. Sample reply:
Active controls: Command outputs locked

When no controls are active, the reply Normal is obtained.

5,1

TPS 64 to normal state

Forces all controls of the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 to normal state. User-activated controls can also be cancelled by the control time-out as explained later. However, the controls 5,6,2 To secure state, 5,7,2 Lock outputs and 5,8,2 Lock transmitter remain active despite the command 5,1 or control time-out.

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5,2

64 kbit/s looping

Selection 5,2 returns the following menu:


64 kbit/s looping: 0 Display 1 To normal state 2 Loop to equipment

Selection 5,2,2 Loop to equipment reminds the user of the potential danger of unwanted commands that may be caused by looping the 64 kbit/s signal back to the equipment and requires the user either to confirm or to cancel the command.
WARNING! Looping may cause UNWANTED COMMANDS Cancel: <UP> Confirm: 147 <RET>

If both control units A and B have been inserted into the TPS 64 cartridge, loopback is not allowed. The following text will appear:
Looping is not allowed with two control units in the cartridge Remove other Control Unit

The reason for this is explained in the part Operation of this manual. To enable the loopback, one of the control units must be removed from the cartridge. Executing command 5,2,2 Loop to equipment in the remote end equipment would disconnect the the user from the remote end equipment. Therefore, the command is not executed and the text Looping is not allowed in remote end is returned. Loopback the 64 kbit/s signal back to the equipment is also forbidden if one or more of the following controls is active: Secure state, Command output locking and Transmitter locking. The texts returned are Looping is not allowed together with secure state, Looping is not allowed together with command output locking and Looping is not allowed together with transmitter locking, respectively. The three controls mentioned above are, of course, forbidden if the loopback is active. When the 64 kbit/s signal is looped the equipment starts to send the alarm indication signal AIS to the remote end equipment. Therefore, if the user tries to execute remote end commands when the loopback is active, the text No connection to remote end is returned. The purpose of the loopback facility is to enable the testing of those parts of the equipment that are not continuously monitored by the control processor. To diminish the danger of unwanted commands, the loopback is provided with a filtering that prevents short commands (in many applications the commands have a duration not exceeding a few hundred milliseconds ) from passing the looped equipment. Accordingly, the command input must be turned to the state command for at least one second to turn the corresponding command output to the state command.

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The initiation and the cancellation of the 64 kbit/s loop to equipment are registered because the loop prevents the normal operation of the teleprotection system. The command registration is not in use when the loopback is on. Accordingly, the test commands used to verify the operation cannot be found in the event register.

5,4

Forced indications

The controls under this function are time-controlled. They can be used e.g. to check that the control unit LED display is OK. The selection provides the following display:
Forced indications: 0 Display 1 Normal indic. 2 Forced red indic. 3 Forced yellow indic. 4 Forced no indic.

Selection 0 (5,4,0) displays the active forced controls of the control unit LED display. Selection 1 (5,4,1) removes the forced controls of the LEDs. The state of the display is determined by the fault conditions. Selection 2 (5,4,2) makes the red service LED blink. Activating this control causes a Forced indication alarm to be given. The alarm status is B. Selection 3 (5,4,3) makes the yellow service LED blink. When this control is active, it also causes a Forced indication alarm to be given. The alarm status is B. Selection 4 (5,4,4) turns off the LEDs (the green service LED is, however, on if the equipment is connected to the Service Terminal). The alarm Forced indication is given. In this case the alarm status is A.

5,5

Forced alarm outputs

The controls under this function are time-controlled. They can be used to check that the equipment rack alarm outputs, programmable alarm outputs and teleprotection alarm outputs are OK. The selection provides the display:
Forced alarm outputs: 1 To normal states 2 A-rack alarm 3 B-rack alarm 4 D-rack alarm 5 PA1-alarm 6 PA2-alarm 7 TPA1-alarm 8 TPA2-alarm

Selection 1 (5,3,1) resets all forced alarm output controls, in which case the state of the outputs is determined by the fault condition.
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Selections 2...8 give the following menu:


Alarm output state: 0 Display 1 To normal state 2 Alarm 3 No alarm

In several applications, the teleprotection alarms TPA1 and TPA2 may cause a power system protection scheme reconfiguration. To avoid unintended operations, the user is reminded of this and prompted to confirm the command.
WARNING! This operation may cause power system protection scheme re-configuration Cancel: <UP> Confirm: 147 <RET>

When teleprotection alarms TPA1 and (in the case of eight command channels) TPA2 are forcibly-controlled it must be noted that the output cannot be forced to the alarm state if there is one control unit in the cartridge sending a no alarm signal to the channel unit concerned. In order to force the alarm output to the alarm state in the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment composed of two control units, the command 5,3,7/8 must be issued in both control units.

5,6

Secure state control

This control is used to ensure that nothing can be done that would result in an unwanted command at the command output of the near- or remote- end equipment. The control processor executes this command by locking the near-end command outputs and by forcing the outgoing 64 kbit/s to an all-ones string (AIS). In accordance with the nature of this control, its effect is permanent, i.e. it can be reset only by Service Terminal command (5,6,1) Controls: Secure state control: To normal state. The selection produces the following display:
Secure state control: 0 Display 1 To normal state 2 To secure state

Caution

The effect of secure state is control unit internal. This means that if the equipment configuration includes two control units, the teleprotection commands can pass in both transmission directions of the system even if one of the control units is in secure state because the redundant control unit is still in operation. This is explained in greater detail in the part Operation of this manual. To block the transmission of teleprotection commands, the command 5,6,2 To secure state must be executed in both control units belonging to the equipment. To diminish the danger of unwanted commands due to

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misunderstandings, a text reminding of this feature will appear when command 5,6,2 To secure state is executed.
See WARNING in the manual! Cancel: <UP> Continue: 1 <RET>

Executing command 5,6,2 To secure state in the remote-end equipment would disconnect the the user from the remote end equipment. Therefore, the command is not executed and the text Secure state is not allowed in remote end is returned instead. Secure state and 64 kbit/s signal loopback are not allowed simultaneously. Therefore, the text Secure state is not allowed together with 64 kbit/s looping is returned if the user tries to activate the secure state when the 64 kbit/s signal is looped back to the equipment. When the equipment is in secure state, it sends an alarm indication signal AIS to the remote-end equipment. Therefore, if the user tries to execute remote-end commands when the equipment is in secure state, the text No connection to remote-end is returned. The execution of the command 5,6,2,1 To secure state and the cancellation of the secure state are registered into the event register. If teleprotection commands are supplied to the command inputs of an equipment that is in secure state, they are registered.

5,7

Command output locking

This control ensures that nothing can be done that would result in an unwanted command at the command output of the teleprotection equipment. This control is used instead of the secure state control when the user wants to ensure that no unwanted command can occur at the command output of the teleprotection equipment, but cannot lock the transmitter, because the access to the remote-end equipment must be retained. By executing this command also in the remote-end equipment, it is possible to block the transmission of teleprotection commands in both directions without losing the access to the remote-end equipment.
Command output locking: 0 Display 1 To normal state 2 Lock outputs

If the equipment has been forced to secure state by command (5,6,2) To secure state, the locking of the command outputs cannot be reset by command (5,7,1) To
normal state

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Caution

The effect of command output locking is control unit internal. This means that if the equipment configuration includes two control units, the teleprotection commands can pass in both transmission directions of the system even if one of the control units is in state command outputs locked because the redundant control unit is still in operation. This is explained in greater detail in the parts Operation and Functional description of this manual. To block the transmission of teleprotection commands in the direction considered, the command 5,7,2 Lock outputs must be executed in both control units belonging to the equipment. To diminish the danger of unwanted commands due to misunderstandings, a text reminding of this will appear when command 5,7,2 Lock outputs is executed.
See WARNING in the manual! Cancel: <UP> Continue: 1 <RET>

Command output locking and 64 kbit/s signal loopback are not allowed simultaneously. Therefore, the text Command output locking is not allowed together with 64 kbit/s looping is returned if the user tries to lock command outputs when the 64 kbit/s signal is looped back to the equipment. In contrast to the controls Secure state and Transmitter locking, this control is also allowed in the remote-end equipment. In fact, locking of the command outputs at both ends is recommended to make sure that no unwanted commands are produced. In doing so, the maintenance connection to both ends is retained and no teleprotection command can still pass through the system. The execution of the command 5,7,2,1 Lock outputs and the cancellation of the command output locking are registered into the event register. If teleprotection commands are received by an equipment when the command output locking is on, they are registered.

5,8

Transmitter locking

This control ensures that nothing can be done that would result in an unwanted command in the command output of the remote-end equipment. The control processor executes this command by forcing the outgoing 64 kbit/s to an all-ones string. This control is used instead of secure state control when the user wants to ensure that no unwanted command can occur at the command output of the remote-end equipment. In accordance with the nature of this control, its effect is permanent, i.e. it can be reset only by Service Terminal command (5,8,1) Transmitter locking: To normal state. The selection produces the following display:

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Transmitter locking: 0 Display 1 To normal state 2 Lock transmitter

If the equipment has been forced to secure state by control (5,6,2) To secure state, the locking of the outgoing signal cannot be removed by command (5,8,1) To normal state. Caution The effect of command output locking is control unit internal. This means that if the equipment configuration includes two control units, the teleprotection commands can pass through the system in both transmission directions even if one of the control units is in state transmitter locked because the redundant control unit is still in operation. This is explained in greater detail in the parts Operation and Functional description of this manual. To block the transmission of teleprotection commands in the direction considered, the command 5,8,2 Lock transmitter must be executed in both control units belonging to the equipment. To diminish the danger of unwanted commands due to misunderstandings, a text reminding of this will appear when command 5,8,2 Lock transmitter is executed.
See WARNING in the manual! Cancel: <UP> Continue: 1 <RET>

Executing the command 5,8,2 Lock transmitter in the remote-end equipment would disconnect the the user from the remote-end equipment. Therefore, the command is not executed and the text Transmitter locking is not allowed in remoteend is returned instead. Transmitter locking and 64 kbit/s signal loopback are not allowed simultaneously. Therefore, the text Transmitter locking is not allowed together with 64 kbit/s looping is returned if the user tries to lock the transmitter when the 64 kbit/s signal is looped back to the equipment. When the transmitter is locked, the equipment sends an alarm indication signal AIS to the remote-end equipment. Therefore, if the user tries to execute remoteend commands when the transmitter is locked, the text No connection to remoteend is returned. The execution of the command 5,8,2,1 Lock transmitter and the cancellation of the transmitter locking are registered into the event register. If teleprotection commands are supplied to the command inputs of an equipment when the transmitter locking is on, they are registered.

5,9

Remote-end controls

See chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE TPS 64 SYSTEM.

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5.6

Settings
The settings determine the operation of the equipment. They are saved in an electrically erasable nonvolatile memory and will therefore remain unchanged when the battery voltage (power supply) is switched off. By command (6,6), the settings can be given default values. When the user starts to change the settings of the TPS 64, the changes do not affect the operation of the equipment right away. When changing the settings of the TPS 64, most of the changes must be confirmed with command (6,7) Confirm settings to make the new settings effective. This ensures that the operation of the equipment is always determined by a consistent group of settings. When the user confirms the settings in order to take them into use, the consistency of the new settings is checked. In case of any inconsistency, the user is alerted and the new settings are not taken into use. To understand the operation of the TPS 64, the user is encouraged to think of the settings facility in the internal terms of the equipment. In the memory of the TPS 64 there are two memory areas reserved for the settings. These areas might be called effective settings and editing settings. Under normal operation their contents are identical. When the user starts to change settings, the editing settings memory area is affected. The display commands used to view the settings always show the editing settings. The effective settings determine the operation of the TPS 64 at any time. Upon execution of the command 6,7 Confirm settings, the contents of the editing settings memory area is transferred into the effective settings memory area. Starting to change the settings activates the run diagnostic test alarm with fault status B. Running the diagnostic test with command (9,7) Diagnostic test will then display: Settings unfinished. This alarm is reset by taking the new settings into use with command (6,7) Confirm settings. Should it happen that the user does not want to take the new settings into use, the alarm can be reset with command (6,8) Cancel settings. The changes will then be lost and the display commands will again show the effective settings. What actually happens when command 6,8 Cancel settings is executed, is that the contents of effective settings is transferred into the editing settings.

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Settings are accessed by selecting the main menu item 6, which produces the following display:
Settings: 1 Service options 2 Equipment configuration 3 Timing mode 4 Transmitter settings 5 Receiver settings 6 Default settings 7 Confirm settings 8 Cancel settings 9 Remote end

6,1

Service options

The service options affect the functions relating to the fault monitoring of the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment and to the use of the Service Terminal. The selection provides the following display:
Service options: 1 Baud rate 2 Address 3 Rack alarm functions 4 Rack alarm delay 5 PA1 function 6 PA2 function 7 Control timeout 8 Data hybrid configuration 9 TPS 64 specific

Any change of service settings becomes effective immediately. The execution of command (6,7) Confirm settings is not needed.

6,1,1

Service interface baud rate


Baud rate: 0 Display 75...9600

The baud rate between the Service Terminal and the equipment is set as desired.

Selection 0 (6,1,1,0 ) displays the selected baud rate. The desired baud rate is selected within the given limits. Possible rates are 75, 150, 300, 600, 1200, 2400, 4800, 9600 bit/s. Sample reply:
9600

The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect the setting of the baud rate. Delivery setting: 9600.

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6,1,2

Address

The equipment is given an individual address that is used when the equipment is connected to the same bus together with other pieces of equipment. The default value for the address is 4095, which is a common address for all equipment.
Address: 0 Display 1 Modify

Selection 0 (6,1,2,0 ) displays the address given to the equipment. Sample reply:
20

By selection 1 (6,1,2,1 ), a text prompting for the address selection is obtained:


Address? 0...4095

The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect the setting of address. Delivery setting: 1.

6,1,3

Rack alarm functions

Under this function, the operating mode for the rack alarms is selected:
Rack alarm functions: 0 Display 1 Normal 2 Alarms inhibited 3 A replaced by B

Selection 0 (6,1,3,0 ) displays the selected operation mode for the rack alarms. Sample reply: Normal. Selection 1 (6,1,3,1 ) Normal activates the normal mode of operation for the rack alarms. Selection 2 (6,1,3,2 ) is used when rack alarms are to be totally prevented, e.g. during the installation stage. By selection 3 (6,1,3,3 ), urgent alarms (A) are changed into less urgent alarms (B). This can be used e.g. during the test operation stage of the equipment. The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect the setting of the rack alarm functions. Delivery setting: Normal.

6,1,4

Rack alarm delay

Under this function, the time constant for rack alarm filtering is affected. The rack alarm turns active when the alarm condition has continued for a set time constant.

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The rack alarm is removed when normal condition has continued for the alarm concerned for the time set without a break. In a changing alarm condition, the reading of the time constant counter is always increased during an alarm and when the alarm is gone, the counter reading remains. If the normal condition continues for the set time constant, the counter is reset and time counting is restarted. Thus, the alarm turns active when it has lasted the time of a preset time constant, either without a break or with breaks.
Rack alarm delay: 0 Display 1 Modify

By selection 0 (6,1,4,0 ), the preset time constant for rack alarms is displayed. Example: 3. The delay is displayed in seconds. By selection 1 (6,1,4,1 ), a text guiding the selection of time constant for rack alarms is displayed:
Delay? 0...15 s

The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect the setting of the rack alarm delay. Delivery setting: 3.

6,1,5

PA1 function

Under this function, the alarm signal to be connected to Programmable Alarm output PA1 is selected. The output of PA1 is also active when the control unit supply voltage is lost due to a failure in the units power supply block.
PA1 function: 0 Display 1A 2B 3D 4S 5A&S 6A+B 7A+B+S

Selection 0 (6,1,5,0 ) displays the logic combination of alarms selected to be used for the control of alarm output PA1. By selection 1, alarm A is selected to directly control the alarm output PA1; by selection 2, alarm B; by selection 3, alarm D and by selection 4 alarm S. By selection 5 (6,1,5,5 ), the combined alarm A & S is selected for the output: alarm PA1 is obtained when both alarm A and alarm S are active simultaneously. The selection means that the output is active when a serious fault preventing the operation of the equipment is detected.

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Selection 6 (6,1,5,6 ) activates the output every time a fault is detected in the equipment. Selection 7 (6,1,5,7 ) activates the output under every fault condition (also when the fault has been detected elsewhere, e.g. AIS). The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect the setting of the PA1 function. Delivery setting: A.

6,1,6

PA2 function

Under this function, the signal to be connected to Programmable Alarm output PA2 is selected. The output is similar to the PA1 output except that it is not active during a control unit power fault.
PA2 function: 0 Display 1A 2B 3D 4S 5A&S 6A+B 7A+B+S

Selection 0 (6,1,5,0 ) displays the logic combination of alarms selected to be used for the control of alarm output PA2. By selection 1, alarm A is obtained for the output; by selection 2, alarm B; by selection 3, alarm D and by selection 4, alarm S. By selection 5 (6,1,6,5 ), the combined alarm A & S is selected for the output: alarm PA2 is obtained when both alarm A and alarm S are active simultaneously. The selection means that the output is active when a serious fault preventing the operation of the equipment has been detected. Selection 6 (6,1,6,6 ) activates the output every time a fault is detected in the equipment. Selection 7 (6,1,6,7 ) activates the output under every fault condition (also when the fault has been detected elsewhere, e.g. AIS). The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect the setting of the PA2 function. Delivery setting: A.

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6,1,7

Control time-out

Under this function, the time during which the controls are active without refreshing is selected.
Control time-out: 0 Display 1...65000 min

Selection 0 (6,1,7,0 ) displays the time-out selected for the controls. Another selection within the allowed limits sets the time-out in minutes. The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect the setting of control time-out. Delivery setting: 10.

6,1,8

Data hybrid configuration

With the data hybrid, it is possible to connect the service interface and the data interface.
Data hybrid config.: 0 Display 1 ON 2 OFF

Selection 0 (6,1,8,0 ) displays the operating mode of the data hybrid. The configurations of the data hybrid have been presented in the Functional Description part of this operating handbook. By selection 1 (6,1,8,1 ), the service interface and the data interface are connected. By selection 2 (6,1,8,2 ), the connection between the service interface and the data interface is disconnected. The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect the data hybrid configuration. Delivery setting: OFF.

6,1,9

TPS 64-specific

Under this item the user can affect the behaviour of the teleprotection alarm output and the response of the TPS 64 to some fault conditions. The selection returns the following menu:
TPS 64 specific: 1 TPA filtering 2 Fault consequences 3 Menu reminders 4 Answer reminders

6,1,9,1

TPA filtering

By selecting (6,1,9,1 ) TPA filtering , the user can affect the filtering of the teleprotection alarm output. If the equipment has two channel units, i.e. both channel

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groups are in use, the same filter affects both teleprotection alarm outputs. A detailed description of the filtering can be found in the part Functional description of this manual. Selection 1 displays the menu:
TPA filtering: 0 Display 1 Modify on delay 2 Modify off delay

By selection (6,1,9,1,0 ) Display the recent values of the filters on-delay and offdelay can be viewed. Sample display:
On delay: 5 seconds Off delay: 10 seconds

Selection (6,1,9,1,1 ) Modify on-delay gives the following display:


TPA on delay ? 3...30 seconds

Now the user can give the desired delay within the specified limits 0...30 seconds. Selection 6,1,9,1,2 Modify off-delay gives a corresponding display prompting the user to give the off-delay:
TPA off delay ? 3...30 seconds

The execution of command 6,7 Confirm settings is not required to change the TPA filtering delays. The execution of command 6,6 Default settings does not affect these two delays. Delivery setting for both delays: 5 seconds.

6,1,9,2

Fault consequences

By selecting 6,1,9,2 Fault consequences, the user can affect the consequence of some fault conditions. The selection returns the menu:
Fault consequences: 1 BER > 1E-3 2 Frame alignment lost 3 AIS

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6,1,9,2,1

BER > 1E3 consequences

Selection 6,1,9,2,1 BER > 1E3 enables the user to determine what will happen if the error rate of the incoming 64 kbit/s signal exceeds 1E3. The selection returns the menu:
BER > 1E-3 consequences: 0 Display 1 Command outputs locked (fault status AS) 2 Command outputs not locked (fault status B)

Selection 0 displays the current mode of operation. Example:


Command outputs not locked

If the user selects 1, the command outputs will be locked at BER > 1E3. Because the teleprotection commands cannot be transmitted when the command outputs are locked, the status of the fault will be AS. If the user selects 2, the command outputs are not locked in case of BER > 1E3. Because the teleprotection commands can be transmitted at such a low error rate, the fault status will now be B. The fact that the main function of the TPS 64 is not affected by error rates lower than 1E3 is due to the error correction applied in reception. Therefore, when selecting this mode of operation, the user should ensure that the number of errors corrected at reception has the default value 5. If the receiver has been set to accept less than 5 errors, it would be inappropriate to use the alarm status B because the probability of missing commands could exceed the value being acceptable in the particular application. To change the consequence of the fault BER > 10E3, the execution of command 6,7 Confirm settings is not required. The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect this setting. Delivery setting: 2 Command outputs not locked (fault status B).

6,1,9,2,2

Frame alignment lost consequences

Selection (6,1,9,2,2 ) Frame alignment lost enables the user to determine what happens if the error rate of the incoming 64 kbit/s signal is so high that the frame alignment is considered to be lost. The selection returns the menu:
Frame alignment lost consequences: 0 Display 1 Command outputs locked 2 Command outputs not locked

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Selection 0 displays the current mode of operation. Example:


Command outputs not locked

If the user selects 1, the command outputs will be locked when the frame alignment is lost. If the user selects 2, then the command outputs will not be locked in conjunction with the fault frame alignment lost. If the application is such that one or more of the command channels is continuously in state command, the user should be aware of one subtle detail explained in the part Operation of this manual. To change the fault consequence of the fault frame alignment lost, the execution of command 6,7 Confirm settings is not required. The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect this setting. Delivery setting: 1 Command outputs locked.

6,1,9,2,3

AIS consequences

Selection (6,1,9,2,3 ) AIS enables the user to determine the fault status in case an alarm indication signal is received. The selection returns the menu:
AIS consequences: 0 Display 1 Fault status AS 2 Fault status BS

Selection 0 displays the current mode of operation. Example:


Fault status BS

If the user selects 1, the fault status will be AS if an alarm indication signal AIS is received. If the user selects 2, the fault status will be BS if an alarm indication signal AIS is received. To change the fault status, the execution of command 6,7 Confirm settings is not required. The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect this setting. Delivery setting: 2 Fault status BS.

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6,1,9,3

Menu reminders

By means of menu reminders the user can determine whether excessive guiding text is added to the menus or not. This facility is explained in full detail in chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE TPS 64 SYSTEM. The purpose of the following text is only to represent the menus and to explain how to switch the various reminders on and off. Selection 6,1,9,3 returns the following display:
Menu reminders: 0 Display 1 Equipment ID 2 remote end 3 Near end

Selection 0 displays the states of the reminders. The following sample display corresponds to the delivery settings:
Menu reminders: Equipment ID: Off remote end: On Near end: Off

Selections 1...3 enable the user to affect the reminders one at a time. They all return the following display:
Reminder: 0 Display 1 On 2 Off

Selection 0 can be used to display the state of the selected reminder. Selection 1 is used to switch the reminder on so that the corresponding tag will be visible on the menus, and selection 2 is used to switch it off. To change the value of any menu reminder, the execution of command 6,7 Confirm settings is not required. The menu reminders are not affected by command 6,6 Default settings. The delivery settings are shown in the previous sample display.

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6,1,9,4

Answer reminders

By means of answer reminders the user can determine whether excessive guiding text is added to the answers returned by the TPS 64 or not. This facility is explained in full detail in chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE TPS 64 SYSTEM. The purpose of the following text is only to represent the menus and to explain how to switch the various reminders on and off. Selection 6,1,9,4 returns the following display:
Answer reminders: 0 Display 1 Equipment ID 2 remote end 3 Near end 4 Short answer

Selection 0 displays the states of the reminders. The following sample display corresponds to the delivery settings:
Answer reminders: Equipment ID: Off remote end: On Near end: Off Short answer On

Selections 1...4 enable the user to affect the reminders one at a time. They all return the following display:
Reminder: 0 Display 1 On 2 Off

Selection 0 can be used to display the state of the selected reminder. Selection 1 is used to switch the reminder on so that the corresponding tag will be visible on the answers, and selection 2 is used to switch it off. To change the value of any answer reminder, the execution of command 6,7 Confirm settings is not required. The answer reminders are not affected by command 6,6 Default settings. The delivery settings are shown in the previous sample display.

6,2

Equipment configuration
Equipment config.: 0 Display 1 Cartridge ID 2 Control unit location 3 Control unit B 4 Channel unit 2

Under this function, the control unit is given the equipment configuration of the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment, so that the monitoring of equipment status
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can function properly in all situations. The possible equipment configurations of Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 are described in part Operation of this operating handbook. By command (6,6) Default settings, the equipment configuration is set to correspond to the equipment configuration at the moment of the command execution. If there are no channel units in the cartridge, their number is set to one. When the customer receives the control unit, its equipment configuration settings correspond to an equipment comprising one control unit and one channel unit. Therefore, the need to change the settings under the item 6,2 typically arises when other equipment configurations have to be implemented. Even then, the user can first insert the desired additional units into the cartridge and then execute the command 6,6 Default settings. But do not forget that doing so will affect a major part of the settings of the TPS 64, not only the equipment configuration. By selection 0 (6,2,0), the equipment configuration is displayed. Note that the displayed configuration corresponds to the editing settings memory area and not to the effective settings, which differ from each other if the configuration has been changed since the command (6,7) Confirm settings was last executed. Example:
Equipment configuration: Cartridge: CF 24280 This control unit is in location: A Control unit B: Does not belong to configuration Channel unit 2: Does not belong to configuration

6,2,1

Cartridge type designation


Cartridge ID: 0 Display 1 CF 24280 2 CF 24280.08

Selection 6,2,1 Cartridge ID returns the following menu:

By selection 0 (6,2,1,0 ), the type designation in effect is displayed. By selection 1 (6,2,1,1 ), the cartridge type designation CF 24280 can be set. By selection 2 (6,2,1,2 ), the cartridge type designation CF 24280.08 can be set. The cartridge type designation can be seen on a sticker on the cartridge side wall.

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6,2,2

Control unit location

By this selection, the control unit is told whether it is in location A or B. Location A is the leftmost location when the cartridge is viewed from the front and location B is adjacent to location A. The selection gives the following display:
This control unit is inserted in: 0 Display 1 Location A 2 Location B

The selection made by the user is compared with the actual location of the unit. If they do not correspond to each other, the TPS 64 displays the fault message Wrong control unit location, and the settings remain unchanged. In other words, a contradiction between the actual unit location and this setting can only arise when the unit is transferred from location A to location B or conversely. Doing so typically causes several alarms. One them, installation error, is then due to wrong control unit location.

6,2,3

Control unit B

This function, which can be used only when control unit A settings are being performed, indicates whether another control unit B belongs to the equipment configuration. The selection gives the following display:
Control unit B: 0 Display 1 Belongs to config. 2 Does not belong to config.

6,2,4

Channel unit 2

Under this function, the control unit is told whether the equipment configuration also comprises channel unit 2, i.e. whether command channels 5...8 are also in use. Even if channel unit 2 is not in the cartridge, setting 1 Belongs to config. can be used. This causes, however, the alarm missing unit when the settings are later confirmed by command (6,7) Confirm settings.
Channel unit 2: 0 Display 1 Belongs to config. 2 Does not belong to config.

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6,3

Timing mode

By this function, the timing mode of the 64 kbit/s interface can be selected.
Timing mode: 0 Display 1 Codirectional 2 Contradirectional

Do not change the timing mode while in the remote-end equipment! See item 6,9. It should be noted that there is no need to change the timing mode of the remoteend equipment because the 64 kbit/s connection must be in order for the execution of remote-end commands to be possible. The execution of command (6,6) Default settings does not affect the setting of timing mode. Delivery setting: Codirectional.

6,4

Transmitter settings

By the transmitter settings, the teleprotection code used by the transmitter is defined. If two channel groups corresponding to two channel units are used, both must be given their own teleprotection code number. Transmitter settings come into effect only when command (6,7) Confirm settings is given. Execution of this command includes the checking of the transmitter settings against receiver settings to ensure that both settings comply with each other. When the changes in settings are later confirmed, a change in the Tx direction teleprotection codes or in the number of channel groups causes alarm A in the remoteend equipment if the new settings do not correspond to the remote-end Rx direction settings. The alarm can be removed by changing the remote-end equipment Rx direction settings to correspond to the near-end equipment transmitter settings. Selection (6,4) provides the following display:
Transmitter settings: 0 Display 1 Teleprotection code 2 Number of channel groups

Selection 0 (6,4,0) displays the number of channel groups used by the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment and the identification numbers of the teleprotection codes used in these channel groups. Example:
Two channel groups Group Code 1...4 5 5...8 14

6,4,1

Setting of teleprotection codes

Under this function, the teleprotection code(s) used by the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment in the Tx direction is (are) selected. If only one channel group (channels 1...4) is used, one of the teleprotection codes 1...16 is selected. If two
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channel groups are used, different teleprotection codes must be used to ensure that the receiver does not confuse the channel groups with each other. In channel group 1 (command channels 1...4) one of teleprotection codes 1...8 is selected and in channel group 2 (command channels 5...8) one of teleprotection codes 9...16 is selected. A selection deviating from this principle will later prevent the confirmation of the settings. In addition, it should be taken into account that different codes must be used in different transmission directions. Thus, if two channel groups are used, four different teleprotection codes must be used in the system. Deviation from this principle also prevents confirmation of changed settings. The selection provides the following display:
Select channel group: 1 Channels 1...4 2 Channels 5...8

By selection 1 (6,4,1,1 ), the teleprotection code identification number used for encoding the states of command channels 1...4 (channel unit 1) can be set and by selection 2 (6,4,1,2 ), the teleprotection code number of command channels 5...8 (channel unit 2) can be set. Selection 1 provides the following display:
Com. chan. 1...4 Give teleprotection code: 1...8(16) Display with 0

In connection with this display, the teleprotection code identification number 1...8 (16) can be given. The maximum value is 8 if two channel groups will be used and 16 if only one channel group will be used. By selection 0, the setting made can be checked. It should be noted that selection 0 displays the code in effect only if the code number has not been changed since command (6,7) Confirm settings was executed. When command (6,6) Default settings has been given, the teleprotection code identification number in the Tx direction of channel group 1 (command channels 1...4) is set as 1 and the code number in the Tx direction of channel group 2 (command channels 5...8) is set as 9. When command (6,9,6) Default settings has been given in the remote-end equipment, the teleprotection codes mentioned above are set as Rx-direction codes.

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6,4,2

Number of channel groups

Under this function, the number of channel groups in use is confirmed. If this setting does not correspond to the equipment configuration settings under item (6,2), the settings cannot be confirmed with command (6,7) Confirm settings. The message Wrong number of channel groups will be obtained. The selection provides the following display:
Number of channel groups: 0 Display 1 One group 2 Two groups

By selection 0 (6,4,2,0 ), the number of channel groups in use is displayed and by selections 1 (6,4,2,1 ) and 2 (6,4,2,2 ), the number of channel groups is set as desired. When command (6,6) Default settings is given, the number of channel groups is set to correspond to the number of installed channel units at the moment the command is executed. If the equipment comprises no channel units, the number of channel groups is set as one.

6,5

Receiver settings

By the receiver settings, the number of Rx direction channel groups and the teleprotection codes to be used are determined. In addition, they can be used to affect the operating mode of the command output controls and the number of bit errors per message accepted at the reception of the incoming 64 kbit/s signal. Here like elsewhere in this manual the expression to accept is used interchangeably with the expression to correct to indicate that received messages are considered valid even if they are corrupted by errors. When the changed settings are later confirmed, a change in the Rx direction teleprotection codes or in the number of channel groups causes the alarm run diagnostic test if the new teleprotection code identification numbers or the number of channel groups do not correspond to the incoming signal teleprotection code identification numbers and the number of channel groups. Executing the diagnostic test with command 9,7 gives a message Invalid incoming signal. If desired, the number of channel groups and the teleprotection code(s) detected in the incoming signal can be seen by executing the command 9,8 Display incoming signal. The alarm can be removed by changing the Tx direction settings of the remote-end equipment to correspond to the Rx direction settings of the near-end equipment or vice versa. Selection (6,5) provides the following display:
Receiver settings: 0 Display 1 Teleprotection code 2 Number of channel groups 3 Error correction 4 Command output control

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Command 0 (6,5,0) displays the number of channel groups and the teleprotection code(s) used by the receiver together with the maximum number of errors corrected at reception.
Two channel groups Group Code 1...4 1 5...8 9 Maximum number of errors corrected at reception: 5

6,5,1

Code setting

Under this function, the teleprotection code(s) used by the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment in the Rx direction is (are) selected. If only one channel group (channels 1...4) is used, one of teleprotection codes 1...16 is selected. If two channel groups are used, different teleprotection codes must be used to ensure that the receiver does not confuse the channel groups with each other. In channel group 1 (command channels 1...4), one of teleprotection codes 1...8 is selected and in channel group 2 (command channels 5...8), one of teleprotection codes 9...16 is selected. A selection deviating from this principle will later prevent the confirmation of the settings. In addition, it should be taken into account that different teleprotection codes must be used in different transmission directions. Thus, if two channel groups are used, four different teleprotection codes must be used in the system. Deviation from this principle also prevents confirmation of the changed settings. The selection provides the following display:
Select channel group: 1 Channels 1...4 2 Channels 5...8

By selection 1 (6,5,1,1 ), the teleprotection code number used in the reception of command channels 1...4 (channel unit 1) can be set and by selection 2 (6,5,1,2 ), correspondingly, the teleprotection code number used in the reception of command channels 5...8 (channel unit 2) can be set. Selection 1 provides the following display:
Com. chan. 1...4 Give teleprotection code: 1...8(16) Display with 0

In connection with this display, the teleprotection code identification number 1...8(16) can be given. The maximum value is 8 if two channel groups will be used and 16 if only one channel group will be used. By selection 0, the setting made can be checked. It should be noted that selection 0 displays the code in effect only if the code number has not been changed since command (6,7) Confirm settings was executed.

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When command (6,6) Default settings has been given, the teleprotection code identification number in the Rx direction of channel group 1 (command channels 1...4) is set as 2 and the code number in the Rx direction of channel group 2 (command channels 5...8) is set as 10. When command (6,9,6) Default settings has been given in the remote-end equipment, the teleprotection codes mentioned above are set as Tx-direction codes.

6,5,2

Number of channel groups

Under this function, the number of channel groups in use is specified. If this setting does not correspond to the equipment configuration settings under item (6,2), the settings cannot be confirmed with command (6,7) Confirm settings. The message Wrong number of channel groups will be obtained. The selection provides the following display:
Number of channel groups: 0 Display 1 One group 2 Two groups

By selection 0 (6,5,2,0 ), the number of channel groups in use is displayed and by selections 1 (6,4,2,1 ) and 2 (6,5,2,2 ), the number of channel groups is set as desired. When command (6,6) Default settings is given, the number of channel groups is set to correspond to the number of installed channel units at the moment the command is executed. If the equipment comprises no channel units, the number of channel groups is set as one.

6,5,3

Number of accepted errors

This function is used to determine how many errors are accepted in the received 64-bit message. If the number of errors in the teleprotection message (codeword), received by the receiver, exceeds the number given here, the message is considered non-acceptable. Selection (6,5,3) provides the following display:
Maximum number of errors corrected at reception: 0 Display 1 Default 5 2 Setting

By selection 0, the number of acceptable errors in the selected channel group is displayed. The displayed value corresponds to the acceptable number of errors in effect only if it has not been changed since command (6,7) Confirm settings was executed. By selection 1, the number of corrected (accepted) errors is set as the default value 5, which is also set by command (6,6) Default settings. This number of acceptable errors has been used as the basis for the definition of the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment performance characteristics.

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By selection 2, the number of acceptable errors can be given a value between 0...7. Selection 2 provides the following display:
Give number: 0...7

Note

When the number of acceptable errors is given a value deviating from the default value, it should be especially noted that increasing this number results in a very considerable increase in the Probability of Unwanted Command, PUC. This issue is dealt with in greater detail in the Operation part of this Operating Handbook.

6,5,4

Command output controls

By this function, the operating mode of the command output controls, i.e. the way command outputs respond to incoming signal events, can be affected. These settings determine e.g. what happens if, in the middle of a command, a message is received which contains more than the accepted number of errors. The selectable operating modes of the command output controls are described in the Operation part of this Operating Handbook. Here, only the setting of the desired operating mode and control parameters by means of the Service Terminal is described. The setting modifications can be directed either to each command channel separately or to one channel group at a time. All eight possible command channels can also have the same operating mode for the command output controls, but the setting must be made one channel group at a time. Selection (6,5,4) provides the following display:
Command output control: 0 Display 1 Select channel 2 Select channel group

By selection 0 (6,5,4,0 ), the command output controls and parameter values of all command channels are displayed. The display corresponds to the settings in effect only if the control mode or parameters have not been changed since command (6,7) Confirm settings was executed. Example:
Cc 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Cm 1 2 2 2 1 1 1 1 p *** 3 3 3 *** *** *** *** q *** 7 7 7 *** *** *** *** r 40 10 10 150 40 40 40 40

Note

All parameter values indicate time as multiples of the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment frame duration 1.25 ms. The duration corresponding to the parameter value is always obtained by multiplying the parameter value with the frame duration 1.25 ms.

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal The first column gives the number of the command channel (Cc), the second column gives the number of control mode (Cm). The following three columns give the parameter values p, q and r relating to the control mode selected. In the sample display, the control mode number of command channel 1 is 1. Since control mode 1 only has one parameter, the columns of parameters not used in control mode 1 contain three asterisks ***. The value of parameter r in command channel 1 is 40, which corresponds to the minimum duration of 50 ms. The command outputs of command channels 2 and 3 have the same control mode and all three parameters have the same values. Command channel 4 also uses control mode 2 but there parameter r has the value 150.

6,5,4,1/2

Selection of channel or channel group

By selection 1 (6,5,4,1 ), the number of the control mode used and its parameters can be set for one command channel at a time. The selection provides the following display:
Select channel 1...8

By selection 2 (6,5,4,2 ), the number of the control mode to be used and the parameters can be determined for all four command channels belonging to same channel group at a time, thus saving the user from the effort of changing each channel separately. Naturally, this command can be used only if all four channels will have identical control modes and parameters. This selection gives the following display:
Select channel group: 1 Channels 1...4 2 Channels 5...8

6,5,4,1/2,1/2 Setting of control mode and parameters


Regardless whether you modify these settings for each command channel separately or for all command channels belonging to same channel group at a time, changing the parameters proceeds in the same way. First, the following display is obtained:
Select control mode: 1...2

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6,5,4,1/2,1

Setting of parameters for control mode 1

When number 1 is selected in the previous display, control mode number 1 is selected and the following display is obtained for the setting of parameters relating to this control mode:
Control mode 1 parameters: 0 Display 1 Default 4 Set r

By selection 0, the command output control modes and parameters of all command channels are displayed with the same format as with command 6,5,4,0 which was explained before. The values in this display correspond to the settings in effect only if no changes have been made since command (6,7) Confirm settings was last executed. By selection 1, the parameter r can be given a value corresponding to the default value: r = 40, which corresponds to the command minimum duration 50 ms. By selection 4, the desired value can be given to parameter r. The selection provides the following display:
Give parameter value: 1...250

The parameter value is given as an integer, the maximum value being 250. The minimum value is 1. Giving a value outside of these limits produces the error message: illegal command.

6,5,4,1/2,2

Setting of parameters for control mode 2

If control mode 2 is selected to be used, the following display is obtained:


Control mode 2 parameters: 0 Display 1 Default 2 Set p 3 Set q 4 Set r

By selection 0, the command output control modes and parameters of all command channels are displayed with the same format as with command 6,5,4,0 which was explained before. The values in this display correspond to the settings in effect only if no changes have been made since command (6,7) Confirm settings was last executed. By selection 1 all three parameters can be given the default values which are: p = 5, q = 5 and r = 40.

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By selections 2, 3 and 4 the parameters can be given values other than the default. All selections give the display:
Give parameter value: 1...250

The parameter value is given as an integer, the maximum value being 250. The minimum value is 1. Deviating from these limits produces the error message illegal command. No change in the editing settings occurs until some of the parameter values p, q or r have been changed. If control mode 1 is replaced by control mode 2, it is necessary to define a value for both the parameter p and the parameter q before the settings can be confirmed. This means that the user has to execute both the command 2 Set p and 3 Set q in order to enable the confirmation of the settings. Of course, the execution of command 1 Default alone is enough to make confirmation possible. If an undefined parameter is found when the settings are checked in conjunction with the execution of the command 6,7,147 Confirm settings, the parameters needing definition are displayed. If the settings unfinished alarm has not been initiated before, the execution of any of the parameter definition commands will do it. The selection of control mode that precedes the parameter definition does not cause any change in the editing settings, instead, the selected control mode is stored into the editing settings when the first parameter definition command is executed.

6,6

Default settings

Because the execution of default settings replaces a major part of the previous settings that may have required a great effort to edit, the unintentional execution of the command Default settings is prevented by the following display which requires the user to confirm the command:
Cancel: <UP> Confirm: 147<RET>

The command can now be cancelled by keying UP when working with the Service Terminal or with three back spaces BS BS BS RET when working with a Service Terminal Emulator. The default settings are taken into use immediately after the confirmation given here. The command 6,7 Confirm settings is not needed. By the default settings, the equipment is set into the following mode: 1. 2. All settings under item (6,1) Service options remain unchanged. The equipment configuration is set to correspond to the cards present in the cartridge at the execution moment of the command. If there are no channel units in the cartridge, their number is set as one. The timing mode of the 64 kbit/s interface is not affected.

3.

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4.

The number of transmitter channel groups is set to correspond to the number of channel units in the cartridge. When the default settings are taken into use in the near-end equipment, the Tx direction teleprotection code of channel group 1...4 will be code number 1 and the teleprotection code of channel group 5...8 will be code number 9. When the default settings are taken into use in the remote-end equipment, the Tx direction teleprotection code of channel group 1...4 will be code number 2 and the teleprotection code of channel group 5...8 will be code number 10. The number of receiver channel groups is set to correspond to the number of channel units in the cartridge. When the default settings are taken into use in the near-end equipment, the Rx direction teleprotection code of channel group 1...4 will be code number 2 and the teleprotection code of channel group 5...8 will be code number 10. When the default settings are taken into use in the remote-end equipment, the Rx direction teleprotection code of channel group 1...4 will be code number 1 and the teleprotection code of channel group 5...8 will be code number 9. The receiver is set to accept messages corrupted by up to 5 errors. In all command channels, the command output control mode is set as 1 and the parameter of this control mode is given the value r = 40. Registration of events is not affected. The settings relating to registration can be found in connection with other registration functions under item (8,1,1). Summertime practice is not affected. This setting can be found under item (11,1) Real time clock.

5.

6. 7.

The execution of the command 6,6,147 Default settings: Confirm is registered into the event register.

6,7

Confirm settings

The changes of the settings are not taken into use until they are confirmed with the command (6,7) Confirm settings. The TPS 64 was provided with this facility to enable the checking of the new settings before taking them into use, among other things. Note that the checking of the new settings is not possible before all changes have been made because during the changing work inconsistent settings combinations inevitably occur. The unintentional execution of this command has been prevented by asking the user to confirm the command itself. The following display will appear:
Cancel: <UP> Confirm: 147<RET>

The command can now be cancelled by keying UP when working with the Service Terminal or with three back spaces BS BS BS RET when working with a Service Terminal Emulator. When this command is executed, the new settings are checked before they are taken into use. If they are not consistent, they cant be taken into use. An error message will appear helping the user to locate the invalid setting. If the settings contain several inconsistencies, only the first one encountered is reported. Accordingly, when the problem has been fixed and the settings are confirmed again, a different error message may appear. The error messages are very selfexplanatory. Therefore, they are not explained here.
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If the settings have not been edited since the previous execution of this command, it will not be executed. The user will get the the following message:
No change since pre vious confirmation

Note, however, that the execution of this command does not necessarily mean that the effective settings are changed. It is possible that the settings have been edited without actually changing them. The current editing settings are not compared with the effective settings when the decision is made to return the above message, it is the settings unfinished alarm that determines whether the effective settings are replaced with the editing settings or not. The execution of the command 6,7,147 Confirm settings: Confirm is registered into the event register.

6,8

Cancel settings

As soon as some of the settings requiring confirmation have been changed, the diagnostic alarm Settings unfinished will be initiated. The purpose of this alarm is to remind the user that the settings have been modified since the previous execution of the command 6,7 Confirm settings. The user might not want to take the modified settings into use. In this case the changes must be cancelled with the (6,8) Cancel settings. There are no other means to make the alarm Settings unfinished disappear. What actually happens when this command is executed is that the editing settings are overwritten with the contents of the effective settings. When this has been done, the settings displayed with various settings display commands again coincide with the actual state of the TPS 64.

6,9

Remote-end settings

See Chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE TPS 64 SYSTEM. When modifying the settings of the remote-end equipment, the timing mode of the 64 kbit/s should not be changed because the timing mode must be correct if the user has access to the remote-end equipment and changing the timing mode would thus disconnect the two TPS 64 terminals from each other. If the user tries to change the timing mode in the remote-end terminal, the command is not executed. The following message is returned instead:
Changing timing mode is not allowed at re mote end because it would break the 64 kbit/s signal (remote end)

The user might find the location of the (Remote-end) tag somewhat unexpected. This is quite normal, however, and is due to the fact that this message belongs to the short answers.

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5.7

Measurements
Under this function the user can measure the supply voltages of the control unit.
Measurements: 1 Supply voltage 9 Remote end

7,1

Voltage measurements

Selection 1 gives the following display:


Voltage measurements: 1 +5 V 2 -5 V

Both selections (7,1,1) and (7,1,2) provide the following display:


Supply voltage +/- 5 V 1 Display voltage (float) 2 Calibration

Selection 1 displays the voltage. Exceptionally, the (Remote-end)/(Near-end) tag is not displayed in conjunction with this command. Selection 2 (7,1,1,2 ) Calibration gives the following display:
Give measured supply voltage mV (without sign)

The user is expected to type the measured supply voltage in millivolts and without sign.

7,9

Remote-end measurements

See Chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE TPS 64 SYSTEM.

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5.8

Statistics
Under this function, the registration of command events and battery voltage outages and the CPU-reset counter can be found. Deviating from the practice followed with other settings, the settings relating to registration are placed under this same item. These settings are taken into use immediately when modified. The execution of the command (6,7) Confirm settings is not required. Selection (8) Statistics provides the following display:
Statistics: 1 Event registration 2 Command input states 3 Command output states 4 CPU reset counter 5 Codeword counters 6 Second counters 7 Octet dist. counter 9 Remote end

8,1

Event registration

By this function, the event register can be viewed, registration settings can be changed and the register can be erased. The selection provides the following display:
Event registration: 1 Registration settings 3 Start viewing with newest event 4 Start viewing with oldest event 6 Show free memory 7 Erase register completely

8,1,1

Registration settings

By this function, the operation of the registration can be affected. The selection provides the following display:
Registration settings: 0 Display 1 Both directions 2 Command outputs only 3 Command inputs only 4 No registration

By means of the registration settings only the registration of command events can be affected. Battery voltage breaks, counter resets and changes of time are always registered. By selection (8,1,1,1 ) Both directions, the registration is set to function so that the state changes of both command outputs and command inputs are registered.
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TPS 64 Equipment Menus By selection (8,1,1,2 ) Command outputs only the TPS 64 is set to register the state changes at command outputs only. By selection (8,1,1,3 ) Command inputs only the TPS 64 is set to register the state changes at command inputs only. By selection (8,1,1,4 ) No registration the command registration is inhibited in both transmission directions. This mode of operation may be desirable e.g. in applications where commands are transmitted extremely frequently. This is possible for example in conjunction with experimental installations. The changes of the registration settings are taken into use immediately. They do not require the command (6,7) Confirm settings. Registration settings are not affected by command (6,6) Default settings. Delivery settings: Both.

8,1,3/4

Viewing of event register

By these selections, the event register can be viewed. By selection (8,1,3) Start viewing with newest event, the viewing of the event register is started from the newest event in the register. By selection (8,1,4) Start viewing with oldest event, viewing is started from the oldest event in the beginning of the register. Irrespective of the way the viewing is started, the viewing itself always takes place in the same way. Each of the selections described above first gives the viewing instructions display:
0 Begin Forward: n <RET> Backward: -n <RET> (n=1...999)

Viewing is started by writing 0 RET. Then the newest or the oldest event is displayed depending on the way viewing was earlier started. When viewing has been started, it is possible to move n events by specifying the jump length. This is done by writing n RET to move n events forward and by writing -n RET to move n events backward. Here n is an integer within the range n=1...999. If the specified jump length would lead beyond the beginning or the end of the register, the oldest or the newest event is displayed, respectively. The following is a sample display that is obtained if the viewing has been started by selection (8,1,3,0 ) Start viewing with newest event.
Event 173 (newest): Com out 134 nocom-> com Time: 17:35:03,567 Date: 06.07.93

Here, a state change has occurred simultaneously at the command outputs 1, 3 and 4 from the state no command into the state command. The topmost line shows that this is the newest event in the register. The time of occurrence is displayed with one ms resolution for command events. Other events are registered and displayed with a resolution of one second.

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If the register contains a great number of events, it may be somewhat elaborate to find one particular event. Therefore the automatic command execution feature of the Service Terminal may be of great help when searching for an event. The automatic viewing from the newest event backwards is started by keying first TOP 8,1,3,0 RET and then 1 INV RET. The automatic viewing from the oldest event forward is correspondingly started by keying first TOP 8,1,4,0 RET and then 1 INV RET. Changing from manual to automatic viewing can, of course, be done anywhere in the register. In addition to state changes of command channels, the same register also displays the battery voltage outage and recovery, resetting of statistical counters and changes of time or date. These events are registered with a one second resolution. The first event in the register is always an entry that indicates the time and date of the register erasing:
Event 1 (only): Register erased Time: 16:30:12 Date: 19.11.92

The sample display above corresponds to the case where there are no other events in the register. When additional events have been stored, the topmost line will contain (oldest) instead of (only). When the user enters a new time using command (11,1,1,3 ) Set time, two events are entered into the register:
Event 14: Old time Time: 16:38:01 Date: 19.11.92

and
Event 15: New time Time: 16:38:17 Date: 19.11.92

When a new date is entered, a corresponding pair of events is stored. The event labels are then Old date instead of Old time and New date instead of New time.

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If the EC summertime practice has been selected, the equipment will automatically change from summertime to wintertime and vice versa. The change from summertime to wintertime means that the time is decremented by one hour. The following pair of events is then stored into the register:
Event 26: Skip from summer to winter time Time: 03:00:00 Date: 27.09.92

and
Event 27: New time Time: 02:00:00 Date: 27.09.92

Now, if command events should occur during the two-hour time period from 02:00:00 summer time to 03:00:00 winter time, the events belonging to the first hour of this period can be distinguished from the events belonging to the second hour because they are separated by these two events. The corresponding events are also stored in conjunction with skipping from wintertime to summertime even if the problem described above is then not present. If the codeword counters are reset, the following register entry will be stored:
Event 112: Codeword counters reset Time: 13:08:14 Date: 19.11.92

The corresponding events are stored when the other statistical counters are reset. The event labels are then: Second counters reset and Octet dist counter reset. A battery voltage outage causes the following pair of events to be stored into the register:
Event 134: Battery voltage off Time: 16:38:01 Date: 19.11.92 Event 135: Battery voltage on Time: 16:40:17 Date: 19.11.92

If the moment of skipping from summertime to wintertime coincides with a battery voltage outage, it is done immediately after the battery voltage has been

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restored. If the user changes time or date so that the border between summertime and wintertime is crossed, the equipment evaluates whether the new point of time belongs to summertime or to wintertime and sets an internal flag to match the result of the evaluation. The automatic skipping is ignored in this case. Some important Service Terminal commands executed by the user are also registered. This makes it possible to verify afterwards when the settings were changed or the main function of the TPS 64 was inhibited. The following is a list of these commands: S S S S S S S S S
6,6 Settings: Default settings 6,7 Settings: Confirm settings 5,2,2 Controls: 64 kbit/s looping: Loop to equipment 5,2,1 Controls: 64 kbit/s looping: To normal state 5,6,2 Controls: Secure state: To secure state 5,6,1 Controls: Secure state: To normal state 5,7,2 Controls: Command output locking: Lock outputs 5,7,1 Controls: Command output locking: To normal state 5,8,2 Controls: Transmitter locking: Lock transmitter

If the registration-related settings are changed, the change is registered. For example, if the old setting is Both and the user executes the command 8,1,1,2 Command outputs only, the following event is registered:
Event 137: Command input registration off Time: 17:33:14 Date: 20.11.92

8,1,6

Showing free space in register

By selection (8,1,6) Show free memory, a display is obtained that shows how much free space is available in the event register. The amount of free space is displayed as a number of command events and as a relative proportion of free space in the EEPROM reserved for the register.
Free memory: 379 Events of 380 99%

In the sample display the register is practically empty and contains only one event which indicates the time and date of the register erasure.

8,1,7

Erasing of register

By selection (8,1,7) Erase register completely the EEPROM reserved for the event register can be erased.

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8,2

Displaying command input states

The current states of all command inputs can be displayed with command (8,2) Command input states. The states are displayed in the following format:
Command input states: Channel 1: No command Channel 2: Command Channel 3: No command Channel 4: No command Channel 5: Command Channel 6: No command Channel 7: No command Channel 8: No command

In this sample display the number of command channels is eight. Command channels 2 and 5 are in state command and all other command channels in state no command.

8,3

Displaying command output states

The current states of all command outputs can be displayed with command (8,3) Command output states. The states are displayed in the following format:
Command output states: Channel 1: Command Channel 2: No command Channel 3: No command Channel 4: No command

In this sample display the number of command channels belonging to the equipment configuration is four. Command channel 1 is in state command and all other command channels are in state no command.

8,4

CPU reset counter


CPU reset counter: 0 Display 1 Reset counter

Selection 0 displays how many CPU resets the control unit has had since the previous reset of the counter. Selection 1 resets the counter.

8,5

Codeword counters
Codeword counters: 0 Display 1 Reset counters

Selection (8,5) Codeword counters returns the following display:

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Selection 0 displays the values of all counters:


Codeword counters: EQ 0: 2343178 EQ 1: 148 EQ 2: 23 EQ 3: 3 EQ 4: 0 EQ 5: 0 EQ 6: 0 EQ 7: 0 EQ 8: 0 EQ 9: 0 GT 9: 152

The first line indicates the number of correct codewords received since equipment reset or since the counters were reset with command (8,5,1) Reset counters. The second line indicates the number of received codewords in which the number of errors was equal to 1, the third line indicates the number of received codewords in which the number of errors was EQual to 2 and so on. Finally there is a counter that indicates the number of received codewords in which the number of errors was Greater Than 9.

8,6

Second counters
Second counters: 0 Display 1 Reset counters

Selection (8,6) Second counters returns the following display:

Selection 0 displays the values of all counters:


Second counters: ES: 12 SES: 3 AIS : 10 NOS : 128 INVS : 25

The first line ES: 12 indicates the number of Errored Seconds since the equipment reset or since the counters where reset with command (8,6,1,) Reset counters. The line SES: 3 indicates the number of Severely Errored Seconds. The line AIS: 10 indicates the number of seconds during which the Alarm Indication Signal was received. The line NOS: 128 indicates the number of seconds during which No incoming Signal was available. The line INVS: 25 indicates the number of seconds during which an INValid incoming Signal was received.

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8,7

Octet disturbance counter


Octet dist. counter: 0 Display 1 Reset counter

Selection (8,7) Octet dist. counter returns the following display:

Selection 0 displays the value of the counter. Selection 1 resets the counter to zero.

8,9

Remote end statistics

See chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE TPS 64 SYSTEM.

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5.9

Testing
The selection 9 Testing returns the following menu:
Testing: 1 Fault display 2 Local alarm cancel 3 Reset local cancel 4 A/D test 5 Memory tests 6 Memory operations 7 Diagnostic test 8 Help displays 9 Remote end

9,1

Fault display

By executing the command 9,1 Fault display all faults of the TPS 64 are displayed. This command can always be used instead of command 1 Fault display. There are three major differences between the two commands: 1) Command 9,1 can also be executed in the remote-end equipment by first entering the remote end, that is, by giving command 9,9,1 Fault display. 2) Command 9,1 also displays diagnostic faults. 3) Command 9,1 specifies all faults exactly without making any reference to the supervision blocks of the TPS 64. The last difference between the two fault display commands is due to the fact that command 1 Fault display is based on the general fault messages being stored in the memory of the Service Terminal whereas all the information displayed by 9,1 Fault display comes from the TPS 64 itself and has accordingly been selected to describe the fault situations in an optimum manner. The following two examples clarify the above mentioned difference in the case where channel unit 1 has been removed from the cartridge of the TPS 64. The fault display obtained with command 1 Fault display would then be as follows:
* MAXWELL (AS) Channel unit 1: missing unit

In this display the text Channel unit 1: indicates the name of the supervision block coming from the TPS 64 and the text missing unit indicates the fault. The fault text has been pre-programmed in the memory of the Service Terminal which only gets a short fault code from the TPS 64. By means of this fault code, the Service terminal can select the text to be displayed. Note that in some cases the fault texts pre-programmed in the memory of Service Terminal differ from those being stored in the memory of the Transmission Maintenance Computer TMC. The concerned fault is an example of this. The fault text displayed by the TMC is Subrack is missing units. Unfortunately this would essentially diminish the logical coherence of the above message, making it difficult to understand. This problem can be avoided by using command 9,1 instead of command 1.

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In this same case, the display obtained with command 9,1 Fault display would be the following:
KIRCHOFF (Remote end) General faults: Channel unit 1 is missing (AS) No diagnostic faults

Here KIRCHOFF is, of course, the user-defined name of the equipment. In contrast to the overall principle of this manual, this sample display has been represented assuming that the answer reminder Equipment ID reminder has been switched on, a setting that does not correspond to the delivery setting of this reminder. The reason for this is to make the difference between the two commands as apparent as possible. As can be seen, the fact that it is channel unit 1 which is missing is now conveyed by the fault text itself and no reference to the supervision block is needed. Finally an example that shows one difference between the two fault displays: Command 9,1 Fault display displays all faults of the TPS 64 including the diagnostic faults which are not displayed by command 1 Fault display. This sample display is what the user typically might encounter in conjunction with the commissioning of the equipment.
KIRCHOFF (Remote end) General faults: Channel unit 1 is missing (AS) Current diagnostic faults: Set date and time (B)

The term general faults is used to denote the other fault category, i.e. the faults that are not diagnostic faults. As can be seen, the fault status is now itemized. This is in contrast to the command 1 Fault display which, by displaying for example (AB), only tells that there is at least one fault with status A and at least one fault with status B. The reason for the diagnostic fault shown in the above sample display is normally that the rechargeable battery of the control unit realtime clock has been discharged during the transport and the time and date of the clock are no more valid. The problem is fixed by setting the date and time by means of the appropriate menu commands which can be found under menu item 11. Note that in contrast to command 9,7 Diagnostic test the above command shows the current diagnostic faults only. The meaning of current in this context is explained in conjunction with the description of the command 9,7 Diagnostic test.

9,2

Local alarm cancel

The effect of this command is identical with that of command 2 Local alarm cancel. This selection has been included here to enable the execution of this command in the remote-end equipment.

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9,3

Reset local cancel

The effect of this command is identical with that of command 3 Reset local cancel. This selection has been included here to enable the execution of this command in the remote-end equipment.

9,5

TPS 64 memory tests


Memory tests: 1 RAM 2 EPROM

9,6

TPS 64 memory operations


Memory operations: 1 Read byte 3 Read 8 bytes

By selection 1 (9,6,1), a text prompting the user to enter the address is obtained:
Give memory address: 0...65535

When several bytes are to be read simultaneously, selection 3 (9,6,3) Read 8 bytes is made, in which case a text asking for the address of the first byte is obtained:
Give memory address: 0...65535

9,7

Diagnostic test

The diagnostic test is used to display the actual cause of a run diagnostic test alarm. This command displays, in addition to the active i.e. current diagnostic faults, the diagnostic faults which are no longer active but have not been displayed with this command since they disappeared. For example:
Old diagnostic faults: Invalid incoming signal Current diagnostic faults: Settings unfinished

The old diagnostic faults are, however, displayed only once. An immediate reexecution of the command 9,7 Diagnostic test would return the following display:
Current diagnostic faults: Settings unfinished

As noted before, the command 9,1 Fault display only shows the current diagnostic faults. Its execution does not cancel the old diagnostic faults as the command 9,7 Diagnostic test does.
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9,8

Help displays
Help displays: 1 General 2 Diagnostic 3 Incoming signal

The selection 9,8 Testing: Help displays returns the following menu

The purpose of the help displays is to supply the user with information that helps to restore normal operation. Accordingly, if no alarms are active, i.e. the fault status of the equipment is OK, these commands do not return any actual information but only remind the user that no help is needed.

9,8,1

General help

The command 9,8,1 Testing: Help displays: General shall be used if one of the general alarms is active. If for example channel unit 1 is missing and no other general faults are active, the following is displayed:
General help: Channel unit 1 is missing (AS) Insert channel unit 1

In this simple case the user is just reminded that the only way to make the alarm disappear is to insert the missing channel unit 1 into the cartridge. Other possibilities do not exist because channel unit 1 belongs to any possible equipment configuration. As can be seen, the display consists of the alarm text followed by an indented help item. The help displays also show the alarm status, in this case AS, of each alarm. The second example of the general help display corresponds to the case where following alarms are active: Run diagnostic test (B), No incoming signal (AS) and Channel unit 2 is missing. The following display is then obtained upon execution of 9,8,1 Testing: Help displays: General
General help: Run diagnostic test (B) Execute 9,8,2 Diagostic help No incoming 64 kbit/s signal (AS) Plug in 64 kbit/s cable connector Check TPS 64 and DIU timing mode Is the incoming signal an all zeros sequence ? Check cable wiring More help: 1 <RET>

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TPS 64 Operation with Service Terminal The first fault item Run diagnostic test (B) contains only one help item Execute 9,8,2 diagnostic help reminding the user of the fact that there is a separate diagnostic help available for the diagnostic faults. The second fault item is related to the fault No incoming 64 kbit/s signal (AS) containing several help items. Here as well as elsewhere in the help facility of the TPS 64, the help items, i.e. the suggested measures and check prompts, are listed in the order that corresponds to the presumed frequency of occurrence of the different cases. That is, the most probable case typically precedes the less probable case in the list. Note, however, that the effort required to take the suggested measure was considered as a factor that lowered its precedence when the order of the help items was considered. This means that measures which do not require a great effort typically appear before the more elaborate ones. The above sample display reveals one more subtle detail of the TPS 64 help facility. The last line of the display reads More help: 1 RET. This means that the help text was so long that it could not be returned in one transfer and there is more guiding text available. The user has now one minute to re-execute the command 9,8,1 Testing: Help displays: General if wishing to obtain the remaining help information. If the command is not repeated within one minute, a time-out occurs and the next execution of the command will start the display from the beginning.

9,8,2

Diagnostic help

The command 9,8,2 Testing: Help displays: Diagnostic is intended to be used if a diagnostic alarm is active. For example, if the only active diagnostic fault is Settings unfinished, the following is displayed:
Diagnostic help: Settings unfinished (B) Execute 6,7 Confirm settings or Execute 6,8 Cancel settings or Execute 6,6 Default settings

Note that the two uppermost help items end with the word or. This is due to the fact that the suggested commands are alternative so that executing any one of them is enough to make the alarm disappear. This example reveals one more principle that has affected the precedence of the various help items. An item that most probably corresponds to what the user is attempting to do typically precedes an item that can be considered a secondary solution to the present problem. For example, the command 6,7 Confirm settings is needed at any time the settings related to the main function are changed. The last help item of the above list can even be considered dangerous because the unintentional execution of the command 6,6 Default settings can be very harmful and should therefore be done after a careful consideration only.

9,8,3

Incoming signal help

If the run diagnostic test alarm proves to be caused by the fault Invalid incoming signal, the command 9,8,3 Testing: Help displays: Incoming signal should be executed. The alarm Invalid incoming signal indicates that the TPS 64 receiver is receiving a signal that has been transmitted by a TPS 64 transmitter but the number of channel groups or the teleprotection code(s) used do not match the receiver settings. By executing command 9,8,3 Testing: Help displays: Incoming signal, the
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number of channel groups and the teleprotection code(s) found in the incoming signal can be seen:
Invalid incoming signal: Two channel groups Group Code 1...4 4 5...8 10 Receiver settings: Two channel groups Group Code 1...4 5 5...8 9

The display indicates that the incoming signal has two channel groups. The teleprotection code in channel group 1 conveying command channels 1...4 is 4 and in the channel group 2 the code is 10. The display also shows the current receiver settings. The user has now two alternative ways to fix the problem: either by changing the receiver settings or by changing the remote-end transmitter settings so that they match each other. If the settings unfinished alarm is active, the receiver settings do not appear in this display. This is because the receiver settings display which is used here always displays the edit settings. It is now possible that user has changed the receiver settings and the above display would then be somewhat misleading. The reason for this apparent drawback is software technical. Note that the first part of the display obtained with this command is identical with the display that results if command 6,9,4,0 displaying the remote-end transmitter settings is executed. However, if the transmission is broken in another direction, the command 9,8,3 Testing: Help displays: Incoming signal can still be used. If the concerned command is executed when the diagnostic fault Invalid incoming signal is not active, the current state of the incoming signal is displayed instead. For example, if no faults related to the incoming signal are active, the following is obtained:
Incoming signal ok

9,9

Remote end testing

Although the command 1 Fault display cannot be executed in the remote- end equipment, the command 9,9,1 Testing: Remote end: Fault display is available instead. Correspondingly, the commands 2 Local alarm cancel and 3 Reset local cancel can be replaced with identical commands that can be found under menu branch 9. See also Chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE TPS 64 SYSTEM.

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5.10 User privileges


This function contains the data protection features of the equipment. If the reply missing rights is obtained when protected functions are used, the password must be known or local pin grounding (PIN) must be used to obtain the privileges.
User privileges: 1 Password for privileges 2 PIN for privileges 3 Cancel privileges 4 Setting parameters 9 Remote end

10,1

Password for privileges

By selection 1 (10,1), a text asking for the password is obtained:


Give password: 1...7 char.

Entering the correct password here gives the user the right to execute protected functions for a time determined by the time-out of the protections. If the password entered here does not match the one that has previously been set, the following message will appear:
Incorrect password

The user can now try again. When the correct password has been entered, the following message is obtained:
Correct password Privileges granted for 10 minutes

The displayed time corresponds to the value of the privilege timeout previously set by the user.

10,2

PIN for privileges

By selection 2 (10,2), the following is obtained:


Ground local PIN

This mode can be used even if the password protection is in use and the password has been forgotten.

10,3

Cancel privileges

By selection 3 (10,3), the privileges are cancelled. Otherwise, privileges are valid for a time determined by the time-out of the protections.

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10,4

Setting parameters

By selection 4 (10,4), a menu for setting the protection- associated parameters is obtained:
Setting parameters: 1 Time-out 2 Protections 3 Password

10,4,1

Time-out

The privileges obtained by a password or by the PIN signal are valid for a time determined by the time-out of the protections. By selection 1 (10,4,1), a text guiding the setting of the time-out is obtained:
Time-out: 0 Display 1...1000 min.

10,4,2

Protections

By selection 2 (10,4,2), a menu guiding the setting of the protection mode is obtained:
Protections: 0 Display 1 No protection 2 Password required 3 Local PIN required

Selection 1 (10,4,2,1 ) removes the protections, in which case no password or PIN signal is required for controls or settings. Selection 2 (10,4,2,2 ) Password required means that the next time the equipment is used, the password must be known or the PIN signal must be used if settings are to be changed or controls to be made (functions under protection). This selection assumes that a password has been given to the equipment. Selection 3 (10,4,2,3 ) Local PIN required means that protected functions can be performed only by connecting the PIN pin to ground.

10,4,3

Password

The new password is given by selecting item 3 (10,4,3) from the parameter setting menu, in which case a text guiding the entering of the new password is obtained:
Give password: 1...7 char.

10,9

Remote end privileges

See Chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE TPS 64 SYSTEM.

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5.11 Miscellaneous
This item covers the functions relating to the control of the Teleprotection Signalling Equipment real time clock.
Miscellaneous: 1 Real time clock 9 Remote end

11,1

Real time clock

By selection 1 (11,1) Real time clock, the following is displayed:


Real time clock: 0 Display 1 Set time 2 Set date 3 Summertime practice 4 Skip to summertime 5 Skip to wintertime

By selection 0 (11,1,0), the time and date are displayed. Example:


Time: 19:45:05 Date: 27.03.90

Due to the delay characteristic in the operation of the Service Terminal, the displayed time may differ from the actual time of the real time clock. The error due to the display delay does not exceed 2 seconds. When this command is given by the TMC service terminal emulator, the deviation may, depending on the amount of equipment connected to the service bus and on the bus rate, exceed the value mentioned above.

11,1,1

Setting of time

The selection (11,1,1) Set time returns a display which includes the facilities needed for the time setting of the real time clock:
Time setting: 0 Display time 1 Start LED indication 2 Stop LED indication 3 Set time

11,1,1,1/2

Start/Stop LED indication

By command 1 (11,1,1,1 ) Start LED indication, Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 can be forced into a state where the red LED of the control unit flashes every time a full 10-second period has elapsed. The LED turns on when the second changes and off after a few tenths of a second. In this operating mode,

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which does not affect the other operation of the equipment, the real- time clock can be compared with the actual time with an accuracy exceeding the accuracy achievable with the Service Terminal. To prevent erroneous conclusions, however, one must make sure that the real time clock does not deviate from actual time by more than two seconds. This arrangement ensures that the LED flashes are compared with the actual changing point of tens of seconds and a 10 s error can be avoided. The LED indication can be cancelled by command (11,1,1,2 ) Stop LED indication. If this command is not given, the operation returns to normal by itself after the time-out for controls has elapsed.

11,1,1,3

Set time

Selection 3 (11,1,1,3 ) Set time gives the following display prompting for the time entry:
Give time in format hh-mm-ss hh=00...23

Hours, minutes and seconds are given as integers separated by a hyphen () with integers smaller than 10 always preceded by a zero. Sample reply: 13-04-20 RET. The clock starts with the time given when the RET key is pushed. In accordance with the nature of this setting mode, the setting accuracy achieved is approx. one second. If the syntax of the time entry does not exactly match the required, the entered time is not accepted and the text Time syntax error is returned. Should this occur, the most probable reason is either a missing leading zero or an incorrect character instead of a hyphen (-). Even if the syntax is correct, it is still possible that the time is not accepted. In this case the text Invalid time is returned. The reason is then one of the following: the hh>23, mm>59 or ss>59.

11,1,2

Setting of date

By selection 2 (11,1,2), the date can be set:


Give date in format dd-mm-yy

The day, month and year are given as integers separated by a hyphen (-) with integers smaller than 10 always preceded by a zero. Sample reply: 07-12-91RET. A text asking for the day of week appears:
Give day of week: Sunday: 1 Monday: 2 Tuesday: 3 Wednesday: 4 Thursday: 5 Friday: 6 Saturday: 7

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The user has to enter an integer corresponding to the day of week in accordance with the displayed table. If an incorrect value is given here, the automatic summer time / winter time skippings will occur at wrong days. The syntax and validity of the date entry is checked but not until you have also entered the day of week. Therefore, the two error messages explained in the following will return the control one level up in the menu hierarchy. This means that the new date can be entered directly upon reception of the error message. You do not have to type UP. If the syntax of the date entry does not exactly match the required, the entered date is not accepted and the text Date syntax error is returned. Should this occur, the most probable reason is either a missing leading zero or an incorrect character instead of a hyphen (-). Even if the syntax is correct, it is still possible that the date is not accepted. In this case the text Invalid date is returned. The validity check is complete, including the consideration of the leap year analysis.

11,1,3

Summertime practice

By selection (11,1,3) Summertime practice, the summer time practice can be set. It determines whether shifts from summer time to winter time and vice versa take place automatically or by means of Service Terminal commands. The selection provides the following display:
Summertime practice: 0 Display 1 Manual skippings 2 EC summertime

By selection 0 the summer time practice in effect is displayed. By selection 1 (11,1,3,1 ) Manual skippings, the shifts are set to take place by means of Service Terminal controls. By selection 2 (11,1,3,2 ) EC summertime, Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 is set into a state where shifts from summer time into winter time and vice versa take place at 03-00-00 in the night between the last Saturday and Sunday in September and March, in accordance with the established practice in the European Community.

11,1,45

Skip into summer/winter time

By these commands, which are used only if selection (11,1,3,1 ) Manual skippings has been selected as the summer time practice, the real time clock of Teleprotection Signalling Equipment TPS 64 can be shifted into summer time (11,1,4) or winter time (11,1,5).

11,9

Remote end miscellaneous

See Chapter 4 CONTROLLING THE TPS 64 SYSTEM. Note that the setting and display of time are less accurate than the corresponding near-end functions.

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