I

Theoretical Simulation of Solar Chimney

Asst.Prof. Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen Dr. Kayser Aziz Ameen
Dies and Tools Eng. Dept. Dept. of Power Eng.
Technical College – Baghdad College of Engineering
University Of Baghdad

Keywords: thermodynamics, solar chimney, power plant , turbine, collector


Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the solar chimney
performance theoretically. A mathematical model was developed to
estimate the effects following parameter (height of chimney, floor
diameter, height of air inlet, height of turbine and efficiency of deck
(collector)) on the power output and it found that when increasing the
floor diameter and when increasing the height of chimney, obtained
increasing the power output, but the effect of height of air inlet on the
power output. The results showed that when increase the height of air
inlet this lead to decreasing in power output. The effect of position of
turbine is less than others parameters, when increasing the height of
turbine that lead to little increasing in power output. Finally the effect of
efficiency of deck or collector, when increasing the efficiency of deck
that leads to increasing in power output.

Nomenclature
A surface area, m
2

c
D
chimney wall thickness coefficient
c
p
specific heat at constant pressure, J/(kg K)
D diameter, m
E energy, W
g
o
gravitational acceleration, m/s
2

H height or altitude, m
H
e
height of air inlet, m
H
T
height of turbine, m
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h convective heat transfer coefficient, W/(m
2
K)
K thermal conductivity W/(m K)
M air mass flow rate, kg/s
Nu Nusselt number
P power, W
Pr Prandtl number
P absolute static pressure, Pa
R 287.04 J/(kg K), individual gas constant (for air)
Re Reynolds number
S solar radiosity, W/m
2

SCPP solar chimney power plant
T absolute temperature, K
v flow velocity, m/s

Greek
α
Absorptivity
β
angle, deg
ε
emissivity
ϕ
view factor
η
efficiency
η
T
internal efficiency of turbine
ν
kinematic viscosity coefficient, m
2
/s
ρ
density, kg/m
3

σ
= 5.6693 × 10−8 W/(m
2
K
4
): Boltzmann constant for black
radiation
τ
Transmissivity

Subscripts
a Air
ch chimney
d Deck
eff effective
f Floor
P turbine power
Q Heat
sky Sky
T turbine
x, y different surface
o environment
1, 2, 3 localities shown in Figure 2-1


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III
1-1 Introduction
A solar updraft tower power plant – sometimes also called 'solar
chimney' or just ‘solar tower’ – is a solar thermal power plant utilizing a
combination of solar air collector and central updraft tube to generate a
solar induced convective flow which drives pressure staged turbines to
generate electricity.
Sensible technology for the wide use of renewable energy must be
simple and reliable, accessible to the technologically less developed
countries that are sunny and often have limited raw materials resources. It
should not need cooling water and it should be based on environmentally
sound production from renewable or recyclable materials
[1]
.
A technology of solar chimney power generation is not new in
power generation sector, world over as shown in figure (1-1) . The Sun’s
radiation heats a large body of air, which is then forced by buoyancy
forces to move as a hot wind through large turbines to generate electrical
energy. Solar chimney power plants, with an output of 5-200 MW,
require a transparent roof several kilo meters in diameter, and the tube has
to be as high as possible to achieve a large output. With the use of
materials of better absorbing radiation, both the diameter of the base of
the chimney as well as its height may be substantially reduced. On this
basis, solar chimney plants are appropriate on land with no natural
vegetation, such as desert regions
[2]
.
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Figure (1-1) Solar Chimney


The solar tower meets these conditions. Economic appraisals based
on experience and knowledge gathered so far have shown that large scale
solar towers are capable of generating electricity at costs comparable to
those of conventional power plants. This is reason enough to further
develop this form of solar energy utilization, up to large, economically
viable units. In a future energy economy, solar towers could thus help
assure the economic and environmentally benign provision of electricity
in sunny regions.

1-2 History Review
The solar updraft tower’s three essential elements – solar air
collector, chimney/tower, and wind turbines - have been familiar for
centuries. Their combination to generate electricity has already been
described in 1931 by Günther,. Then at (1983, 1984) Haaf gives test
results and a theoretical description of the solar tower prototype in
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Manzanares, Spain with an output from 50 to 200 MW. For Australia, a
200 MW solar tower project is currently being developed. Conditions in
Australia are very favorable for this type of solar thermal power plant:
Insulation levels are high, there are large suitably flat areas of land
available, demand for electricity increases, and the government’s
Mandatory Renewable Energy Target (MRET), requires the sourcing of
9,500 gig watt hours of extra renewable electricity per year by 2010
through to 2020
[1]
.

1-3 Advantages and Disadvantages of Solar Chimneys
Advantages of solar chimneys are:
• solar chimney power stations are particularly suitable for generating
electricity in deserts and sun-rich wasteland,
• it provides electricity 24 hour a day from solar energy alone,
• no fuel is needed; it needs no cooling water and is suitable in extreme
drying regions,
• it is particularly reliable and a little trouble-prone compared with other
power plants,
• the materials concrete, glass and steel necessary for the building of solar
chimney power stations are everywhere in sufficient quantities, and
• no ecological harm and no consumption of resources.

Disadvantages are:
• some estimates say that the cost of generating electricity from a solar
chimney is five time higher than produced by gas turbine; although fuel
is not required, solar chimneys have a very high capital cost.
• The structure itself is massive and requires a lot of engineering expertise
and materials to construct
[3]
.

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1-4 The Characteristics of This Solar Chimney
The characteristics of this solar chimney power plant are listed
below
[4]
.
• Efficient solar radiation use. The hot air collector used in the system,
can absorb both direct and diffused radiation. Thus the solar chimney
can operate on both clear and overcast days. The other major large-scale
solar thermal power plants, which are often driven by high temperature
steam generated from solar concentrators, can only use direct radiation.
• Free dual functions, natural energy storage, and greenhouse effect. The
collector pro-vides storage for natural energy, as the ground under the
transparent cover can absorb some of the radiated energy during the day
and releases it in the collector at night. Thus solar chimneys also
produce a significant amount of electricity at night. The collector it-self
can also be used as a greenhouse, which will benefit agriculture
production accordingly.
• Low operation cost. Unlike conventional power stations, and also other
solar. Thermal type power stations, solar chimneys do not need cooling
water. This is a key ad-vantage in northwestern China where there have
already been problems with drinking water.
• Low construction cost. The building materials needed for solar
chimneys, mainly concrete and transparent materials are available
everywhere in sufficient quantities. Particularly important is that no
investment in a high-tech manufacturing plant is needed, as both wind
turbine and solar collectors are well developed industrial products.

1-5 Functional Principle
The solar tower’s principle is shown in figure (1-1). Air is heated
by solar radiation under a low circular transparent or translucent roof
open at the periphery; the roof and the natural ground below it form a
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solar air collector. In the middle of the roof is a vertical tower with large
air inlets at its base. The joint between the roof and the tower base is
airtight. As hot air is lighter than cold air it rises up the tower. Suction
from the tower then draws in more hot air from the collector, and cold air
comes in from the outer perimeter. Continuous 24 hours operation can be
achieved by placing tight water-filled tubes or bags under the roof. The
water heats up during day-time and releases its heat at night. These tubes
are filled only once, no further water is needed. Thus solar radiation
causes a constant updraft in the tower. The energy contained in the
updraft is converted into mechanical energy by pressure-staged turbines
at the base of the tower, and into electrical energy by conventional
generators
[1]
.

1-6 The Maintenance of Solar Chimney
In terms of operation and maintenance, solar updraft towers and
solar panels are the easiest plants to run. Neither requires any consumable
input. Both are very resistant to environmental exposure. Solar panels
have no moving parts, and a broken unit can simply be wired out of a
system. The one delicate part of a solar updraft tower, the turbine, is
protected from the worst environmental effects at the base of the
chimney. The rest of the plant also has very low failure rates.
Glass panels from the collector are relatively easily replaceable by
local materials, and the plant can function acceptably with a low number
of missing panels. Because of these infrequent failure and minimal input
requirements, neither type of plant requires the attentions of a group of
service personnel. While it is desirable to have a full time maintenance
staff, these plants could be tended very infrequently.
The low maintenance requirements may also be an important factor
in the decision to construct solar updraft towers in remote communities.
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Specialty replacement parts are not required for these plants; basic
maintenance of the collector can be performed by those skilled in
construction labor. The feathering turbine of a solar updraft tower is the
only complex, actively controlled part in the system, but the turbine can
function with the blades set at a fixed angle with a reduction in efficiency.
In general, solar updraft towers are very robust.
On the other hand power towers share many of the same issues as
trough plants; water use for evaporative cooling, maintenance costs for
cleaning and operating the mirrors, and the inability to operate in cloudy
conditions. Additionally, power towers have the disadvantage that they
typically have to be built as large units, as opposed to many other solar
technologies
[2]
.

1-7 The Aims of Study
High solar radiation and ambient temperature, and large desert in
Iraq are excellent conditions to install efficiently solar chimney power
plants there. Therefore this research aimed to develop a validated
mathematical model of solar chimney. It is proposed to improve the
performance of solar chimney under effects of various parameters. The
mathematical simulation of the solar chimney has been developed
including all its performance parameters, dimensions (of deck (collector),
chimney, etc). The mathematical model has been used to predict the
performance of the solar chimney power plant.

2-1 Theoretical Analysis of Solar Chimney
Analysis of a solar chimney power plant (SCPP) is presented in
this chapter. The SCPP is typical of many possible examples of power
plants driven by solar radiation. The overall process of power generation
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in the SCPP is very complex. Up to the present date, only selected aspects
have been studied. The present study attempts to develop an analysis of
the total SCPP process. The complexity of such a thermodynamic object
forces many simplifying assumptions.
Although not easy to prove, it is supposed that the proposed
mathematical thermodynamic model has enough information to determine
the effects of varying input parameters on the SCPP output parameters,
especially determining the trends for these effects.
The proposed model involves some magnitudes that, although they
do not precisely determine a real situation (e.g., the effective temperature
of a surface or the average convective coefficients of heat transfer), they
must, however, not be assumed constant, i.e. they have a certain freedom
to vary and respond to show their approximate values and trends of
variation
(5)
.

2-2 Description of the solar chimney model
A typical SCPP consists of a circular greenhouse-type collector
with a tall chimney at its center. Air flowing radially inward under the
collector deck is heated from the collector floor and deck, and enters the
chimney through a turbine.
Figure (2-1) depicts an example of an SCPP selected for the
present study. Draft-driven environmental air (point 0) enters the
collector through the gap of height H
e
. The collector floor of diameter
(D
f
) is under the transparent deck, which declines appropriately to ensure
the constant radial cross-sectional area for the radially directed flow of
the air. The collector floor preheats air from state 0 to state 1 (state 1
prevails in the zone denoted by a dashed line). The preheated air (state 1)
then expands in the turbine to state 2. The turbine inlet and outlet
diameters are D
1
and D
2
, respectively. The height of the turbine is H
T
(H
1

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+ H
T
= H
2
). Expanded air leaves the SCPP (at point 3) through the
chimney at height H
3
. For the established geometrical parameters of the
collector– turbine–chimney system, and for the constant thermodynamic
input data such as solar radiation intensity and environment parameters,
the system spontaneously self-models itself in response to the actual
situation. This means that the buoyancy effect determines the flow rate of
air through the system as well as all the air parameters, temperature, and
pressure along the path of the air flow
[5]
.

Figure (2-1). Scheme of the considered SCPP
[5]


2-3 The Main Assumption for the simplified the model of SCPP
[5]

1- The floor has no heat loss to the soil. It is perfectly insulated and is
perfectly black (emissivity ε
f
= 1). Thus, there is no solar energy
reflected from the floor. It is worth noting that a further
simplification, not applied in the present consideration, could be
the assumption that the floor material be of almost infinitely large
conductivity, which then could motivate the assumption of a
constant temperature of the floor in the entire collector.
2- The deck material is prepared in such away that it is almost
perfectly transparent for solar radiation (transmissivity τ = 0.95)
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and the remaining part (5%) of solar radiation arriving at the deck
is reflected. However, the deck material absorbs perfectly
(absorptivity α = 1) any low-temperature radiation, e.g., from the
floor. Thus, consideration of multi-reflected radiation fluxes is
simplified. In addition, the deck is thin enough that heat conducted
through the deck occurs at a zero temperature gradient. The
properties of the deck are assumed so as to better expose the effect
of trapping solar radiation energy within the collector.
3- Chimney material is perfectly black. The chimney wall is thin, thus
there is no temperature gradient along the wall thickness and both
sides of the chimney (inner and outer) have the same temperature
constant along the chimney height.
4- Air is considered to be an ideal gas, the parameters for which fulfill
the state equation p = ρ × R × T, and the specific heat is assumed to
be constant (i.e., average, not varying with temperature).
5- Air is almost perfectly transparent for radiation (transmissivity τ
a

1 and emissivity ε
a
≈ 0). Air can exchange heat only by convection
or conduction.
6- Air flow in the entire SCPP is frictionless. The relative air pressure
drop r
T
during expansion inside a turbine is estimated differently
by many authors. The drop is considered in the range from 0.66 to
0.97 “for maximum fluid power, the optimum ratio” r
T
= 2/3.
7- Using average values of gravitational acceleration and air density
along the height H3
8- The momentum conservation equation for the air flow within the
collector is derived as:
p
0
− p
1
= ρ
a1
w
2
1

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where ρ
a1
and w
2
1
are the density and flow velocity, respectively, of air at
point 1.
9- In order to obtain the fair comparison basis, assume the
environment temperature T
0
= 288.14 K, (15◦C), and environment
pressure p
0
= 101.235 kPa.

2-4 Calculation the pressure inside the SCPP
[5]

According to the assumption (9), the environment pressure ( p
0
)
equal (101.235 kPa) and temperature environment (T
o
) equal (15°C).And
according the assumption (8), it can find the value of pressure in point
(1).
p
1
= p
0


ρ
a1
w
2
1
(2-1)
According the assumption (7), it can be find the pressure in point (3)
3
03 3 0
0 3
2 2
H
g g
p p
o
ρ ρ + +
− · (2-2)

Where the following approximations, used by [5], were applied :
g
3
= g
0
- 3.086*10
-6
*H
3

ρ
3

0
- 9.973*10
-5
*H
3
(2-3)

Where : p
0
= 101.235 kPa
g
0
= gravitational acceleration = 9.81 m/s
2


According the assumption (6) the air flow in entire SCFF is
frictionless. The relative air pressure drop (r
T
).
3
2
3 1
2 1
· ·


T
r
p p
p p

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( )
3 1 1 2
3
2
p p p p − − · (2-4)

2-5 Calculation the density inside the SCPP
[5]

According to the assumption (4), the environment density (ρ
0
) can
be calculated by Appling the ideal gas equation
p
o
= ρ
o
× R × T
o

o
o
o
RT
p
· ∴ρ (2-5)
Where :
R :- Gas Constant and equal = 287 kJ/kg.K

From assumption (4), and by using the perfect gas law in part (1),
p
1
= ρ
1
× R × T
a1
, and in environment part (o) p
o
= ρ
o
× R × T
o
, and when
dividing the two equation obtain.
1
1
1
a
o
o
o
T
T
p
p
ρ ρ · (2-6)
Calculation of density (ρ
2
) is based on the equation for the
isentropic expansion in a turbine, then the density in part (2) can be
obtain.
1
1
2
1
2
` 1

,
_

¸
¸
·

,
_

¸
¸

k
k
k
p
p
ρ
ρ
(2-7)
Where : k :- specific heat ratio = 1.4
The density in part (3) can be calculated by using equation (2-3).

2-6 Calculation the velocity inside the SCPP
[5]

To calculate the equivalent velocity of air inside each part of the
SCPP, using the Bernoulli equation (BE) with frictionless in each part.
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And the environment velocity is known and equal to zero (v
o
=0). Appling
BE between (o-1) obtain.
2
2
1
1
1
2
2 2
z
g
v p
z
g
v p
o
o
o
o
+ + · + +
γ γ

,
_

¸
¸
− × ·
1
1
1
2
γ γ
p p
g v
o
o
(2-8)
Appling BE between (1-2) obtain.
T o
H
g
v p
z
g
v p
+ + · + +
2 2
2
2
2
2
2
1
1
1
γ γ

,
_

¸
¸
− − × ·
T
o
o
H
p p
g v
2
2
2
2
γ γ
(2-9)
Appling BE between (2-3) obtain.

,
_

¸
¸
− − × ·
3
3
3
3
2 H
p p
g v
o
o
γ γ
(2-10)

2-7 Calculation the temperature inside the SCPP
[5]

The calculation of temperature depends upon the energy analysis is
based on energy conservation equation. The energies E are used in six
equations written successively for: floor surface, air in collector, collector
including floor, air, and deck), turbine, chimney, and chimney surface.

2-7-1 Calculation the air temperature inside the SCPP
The energy calculations were carried out with additional
assumptions. The air temperature distribution in the collector (part (1))
was assumed to be linear and thus
T
a
= (T
o
+ T
a1
)/2.
T
a1
= 2T
a
– T
o
(2-11)

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Calculation of temperature T
a2
(part (2)) is based on the equation
for the isentropic expansion in a turbine,
k
k
p
p
T T
a a
1
1
2
1 2

,
_

¸
¸
· (2-12)

Based on additional calculations the air temperature drop in the
chimney (part (3)) can be estimated as proportional to the chimney
surface and inversely proportional to the air mass rate,
T
a2
− T
a3
= 0.154 × D
2
× H
3
/m.
( )
m
H D
p
p
T T T
k
k
o a a
3 2
1
2
3
154 . 0
2
1 −

,
_

¸
¸
− · (2-13)
Where :-
T
a
= effective air temperature
m = air mass flow rate, kg/s and equal =
1 1
2
1
4
a
v D ρ
π

D
1
= diameter of part (1)
D
2
= diameter of part (2)
H
3
= height of the chimney

To calculate the effective air temperature (T
a
) write the energy
collector equation (the total energy sum of the enthalpy of the air, kinetic
energy ,and the potential energy in part (1) equal to the total energy sum
of the enthalpy of the air, kinetic energy, the potential energy in part (2),
and turbine power).
E
a1
+ E
v1
+ E
p1
= E
a2
+ E
v2
+ E
p2
+ E
P
(2-14)
Where : -
E
a1
= m.c
p
.(T
a1
-T
o
) = m.c
p
.(2T
a
-2T
o
) (2-15a)
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E
a2
= m.c
p
.(T
a2
-T
o
) = m.c
p
.(T
a
k
k
p
p
1
1
2

,
_

¸
¸
-T
o
) (2-15b)
E
v1
= m.
2
2
1
v
(2-15c)
E
v2
= m.
2
2
2
v
(2-15d)
E
p1
= ( ) ( )
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
1
]
1

¸

− + − −
2
3 1
1
3
3 1
4
2
1 4
2 6
1
a
a
a
a
a
a
m ρ ρ
ρ
(2-15e)
E
p2
= ( ) ( )
¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
1
]
1

¸

− + − −
2
3 2
1
3
3 2
4
2
2 4
2 6
1
a
a
a
a
a
a
m ρ ρ
ρ
(2-15f)
ρ
1
is function to the effective air temperature (T
a
)
a
1
= constant and equal 9.7808 m/s
2

a
2
= constant and equal -3.086*10
-6
1/s
2

a
3
= constant and equal 1.217 kg/m
3

a
4
= constant and equal -9.973*10
-5
kg/m
4

E
P
= turbine power =
t chi
p A V ∆
3
3
2

Assume : KK = E
v2
+ E
p2
+ E
P
- E
v1
- E
p1


t
p ∆ : different pressure over the turbine
Sub. The equation of (2-15) into the equation (2-14), and
rearrangement obtain,

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸
− + ·

,
_

¸
¸

,
_

¸
¸

− −
k
k
k
k
p
p
T
mc
KK
p
p
T
o
p
a
1 1
1
2
1
2
2
1
1
2
1 (2-16)

The equation (2-16) is a nonlinear equation because the density of
air in part (1) is function to effective air temperature.
To write the equation of effective temperature of the floor (T
f
)
write the energy floor surface equation (The solar radiation arriving at
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the floor = convection heat from floor to air + energy exchanged by
radiation between floor and deck)
E
sf
= E
fa
+ E
fd
(2-17)
The total solar energy received by the floor is :-
d f d sf
SA E ε τ · (2-18a)
The convection heat from floor to air is :-
( )
a f fa d fa
T T h A E − · (2-18b)
The energy exchanged by radiation between the floor and deck is
( )
4 4
d f d fd
T T A E − · σ (2-18c)
Where :
τ
d
= transmissivity of deck
ε
f
= emissivity of floor =1
S = solar radiosity at the earth surface, W/m
2

A
d
= Area of deck = ( ) 4 /
2
1
2
D D
f
− × π
σ = 5.6693*10
-8
, W/(m
2
K
4
), Boltzmann constant for black radiation
h
fa
= convective heat transfer coefficient, W/(m
2
K)

Sub. Equation (2-18) into equation (2-17), and obtain the effective
temperature of the floor.
( )
a
fa
f d
d f f
T
h
S
T T T + · − +
ε τ
σ σ
4 3
1 (2-19)

To write the equation of effective temperature of the deck (T
d
)
write the energy equation of air in collector (convection heat from floor to
air + convection heat from deck to air equal to kinetic energies +
Enthalpy of the air + potential energy).
E
fa
+ E
da
= E
a1
+ E
v1
+ E
p1
(2-20)
Where :
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E
da
= A
d
.h
da
.(T
d
– T
a
) (2-21)
K1 = E
a1
+ E
v1
+ E
p1

Sub. Equation (2-18b) and equation (2-21), obtain

,
_

¸
¸
+ + · +
fa
da
a
fa d
d
fa
da
f
h
h
T
h A
K
T
h
h
T 1
1
(2-22)

To write the equation of temperature of the chimney (T
ch
), sky
(T
sky
), and ground (T
gr
), the energy equation collector
E
sf
= E
a1
+ E
v1
+ E
p1
+ E
dsky
+ E
do
+ E
dch
(2-23)
Where :
E
dsky
= energy exchanged by radiation between deck and sky
= ( )
4 4
sky d d dsky
T T A − σ ϕ (2-24a)
E
dch
= energy exchanged by radiation between deck and chimney
= ( )
4 4
ch d d dch
T T A − σ ϕ (2-24b)
E
do
= convection heat from deck to atmosphere
= A
d.
h
do
(T
d
– T
o
) (2-24c)
K2 = E
a1
+ E
v1
+ E
p1
– E
sf

f
3
D
H
2 ,
90
90
5 . 0 × ·

· β
β
ϕ
chd
(2-24d)
( ) [ ] ( )
2 3 2
2
2
2
4
H H D c D c D
d chd d f dch
− · − π ϕ
π
ϕ (2-24e)
dch dsky
ϕ ϕ − ·1 (2-24f)
chsky chd chgr
ϕ ϕ ϕ − − ·1 (2-24g)
5 . 0 ·
chgr
ϕ
Sub. Equation (2-24) into equation (2-23), obtain


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19

[ ]
4 4 3 3
ch d dch sky d dsky d d dch do d d d dsky d
T A T A T A h A T A T σ ϕ σ ϕ σ ϕ σ ϕ − − + +

o do d
T h A K + · 2 (2-25)
The energy equation of chimney
E
a2
+ E
v2
+ E
p2
+ E
dch
= E
a3
+ E
v3
+ E
p3
+E
cho
+ E
chsky
+ E
chgr
(2-26)
Where :
E
cho
= convection heat from chimney surface to atmosphere.
= A
ch
.h
cho
.(T
ch
– T
o
) (2-27a)
E
chsky
= energy exchanged by radiation between chimney surface
and sky
= ( )
4 4
sky ch ch chsky
T T A − σ ϕ (2-27b)
E
chgr
= energy exchanged by radiation between chimney surface
and ground
= ( )
4 4
gr ch ch chgr
T T A − σ ϕ (2-27c)
( )
2 3 2
H H D c A
p ch
− × × × ·π = chimney surface area
K3 = E
a2
+ E
v2
+ E
p2
- E
a3
- E
v3
- E
p3

[ ] [ ]
4 3 3
sky d chsky sky ch d dch ch ch chgr cho ch ch
T A T T A T A h A T σ ϕ ϕ σ ϕ − + +
[ ] [ ]
o cho ch gr ch chgr gr d d dch d d chsky d
T h A K T A T T A T A T + · + − + 3
3 3 3
σ ϕ ϕ σ ϕ (2-28)

The energy equation of chimney surface
E
ach
+ E
dch
= E
cho
+ E
dsky
+ E
chgr
(2-29)
Where :-
E
ach
= heat transferred from chimney air to the chimney surface
= ( ) ( )
1
1
]
1

¸


¹
;
¹
¹
'
¹
+

,
_

¸
¸
− −

ch o a ach
T
m
H D
p
p
T T h H H D
k
k
3 2
1
2
2 3 2
154 . 0
1 2
2
1
1
π
= K4 - ( )
ch ach
T h H H D
2 3 2
− π
(2-30)

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Sub. Equation (2-30), (2-27a,b,c) and equation (2-24b) into
equation (2-29) get.
( ) [ ]
3 3
2 3 2 ch ch chgr cho ch ch d dch ach ch
T A h A T A h H H D T σ ϕ σ ϕ π + + + −
[ ] [ ] [ ]
3 4 3 3
gr ch chgr gr sky d dsky sky d d d dch d d dsky
T A T T A T T T A T A σ ϕ σ ϕ σ ϕ σ ϕ + − − +
o cho ch
T h A K + · 4 (2-31)

Rearrangement the equation (2-19), (2-22), (2-25),(2-28) and (2-
31)in matrix form we get
( )
( )
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

+
+
+
+ +
+
·
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸

− + + + − −
− + + −
− − + +
− +
o cho ch
o cho ch
o do d
h
h
a h A
K
a h
S
gr
sky
ch
d
f
gr ch chgr sky d dsky ch ch chgr cho ch ch d dch ach d d dch d d dsky
gr ch chgr sky d chsky ch d dch ch ch chgr cho ch d d dch d d chsky
sky d dsky ch d dch d d dch do d d d dsky
fa
da
d f
T h A K
T h A K
T h A K
T
T
T
T
T
T
T
T A T A T A h A T A h H H D T A T A
T A T A T A T A h A T A T A
T A T A T A h A T A
h
h
T T
fa
da
fa d
fa
f d
4
3
2
1
0
0
0 0
0 0 0 1
0 0 0 ) 1 (
1
3 3 3 3
2 3 2
3 3
3 3 3 3 3 3
3 3 3 3
3 3
ε τ
σ ϕ σ ϕ σ ϕ σ ϕ π σ ϕ σ ϕ
σ ϕ σ ϕ ϕ σ ϕ ϕ σ ϕ
σ ϕ σ ϕ σ ϕ σ ϕ
σ σ

(2-32)

By using the iteration method (Newton Raphson methods) to solve
equation (2-32) and equation (2-16) as shown in Appendix (A), obtain the
all temperature in the SCPP. Where (h) is the respective coefficient the
coefficient (h
ach
) is determine as :

2
/ D k Nu h
ach
× ·
Where :
k :- thermal conductivity of air = 0.0267 ,W/(mK)
Nu :- Nusselt number =
4 . 0 8 . 0
Pr Re 023 . 0 × ×
Pr :- Prandtl number for air = 0.7
Re :- Reynolds number = ν /
2 2
D v
ν :- kinematic viscosity coefficient for air = 1.6×10
-5
m
2
/s
In the similar way (h
fa
) is determined and it was assumed that (h
ad
= h
fa
).


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2-8 Calculation the Power Output of the SCPP
[1]

The fundamental dependencies and influence of the essential
parameters on power output of a solar tower are presented here in a
simplified form: Generally speaking, power output P of the solar tower
can be calculated as the solar input solar Q and multiplied by the
respective efficiencies of collector, tower and turbine(s):
turb chi d solar
Q P η η η ⋅ ⋅ ⋅ · (2-33)
Tower efficiency is given in reference [1].
o p
chi
T c
H go


·
3
η (2-34)
chi t
P
turb
VA p
E

· η (2-35)
Where :
Q
solar
=
d f d
SA ε τ

3-1 Results and Discussion
The analytical method, which is expected to produce a solution of
SCPP in an analytical form (usually successful in a very simplified case).
Then, from the solution of the differential problem, ordinary solvable
equations can be obtained. Usually, the introduction of many simplifying
assumptions allows us to pass over the stage of formulating differential
equations and directly develop regular algebraic equations that can be
solved if the number of unknowns is not larger than the number of
derived equations. The present study belongs in this category.




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3-2 Reference case
The computation using the presented model as follows.
The floor diameter is D
f
= 240 m, and the chimney height is H
3
= 195m.
Other data are as follows :
S= 800 W/m
2
, k=1.4, h
cho
=7 W/(m
2
K)
T
gr
=T
o
C
D
=1.015 h
do
=5 W/(m
2
K)
R= 287.04 J/(kgK) H
e
=0.3 m H
T
= 1 m
The results computation can be show in Table (3-1). And in
Figures (3-1) and (3-2) respectively.
Table (3-1). The results of reference case
Power (W) D
f
(m) H
3
(m) H
e
(m) T
o
(K) d
η
H
T
(m)
74434.98 240 195 0.3 288 100% 1



Figure (3-1). Distribution of the absolute pressure in the SCPP







98.5
99
99.5
100
100.5
101
101.5
0 1 2 3 4
Loaction along the air flow
A
b
s
o
l
u
t
e

p
r
e
s
s
u
r
e

(
k
P
a
) Collector
Turbine
Chimney
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Figure (3-2). Distribution of the temperature in the SCPP

3-3 Effect of parameter on the power output
The results can be used to illustrate the tends of the output data in
response to changes in some input parameters. The effect of varying the
value of floor diameter on the power output as shown in Figure (3-3).
This figure illustrating when increase the floor diameter increase the
power output.















Figure (3-3). The effect of floor diameter on the power output

0
50
100
150
200
250
300
350
400
450
To Tf Td Ta Tch Tgr
Temperature location in SCPP
T
e
m
p
e
r
a
t
u
r
e

(
K
)
40000
45000
50000
55000
60000
65000
70000
75000
80000
0 100 200 300
Diameter of floor (m)
P
o
w
e
r

(
W
)
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The effect of height chimney on the power output can be shown in
the Figure (3-4). The results shown that when increase the height of
chimney this lead to increase in power output. The decreasing in power as
shown which is results from the nonlinearity equation.
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
0 50 100 150 200 250
Height of chimney (m)
P
o
w
e
r

(
W
)

Figure (3-4). The effect of height of chimney on the power output

The effect of height of air inlet on the power output can be shown
in the Figure (3-5). The results shown that when increase the height of air
inlet this lead to decreasing in power output.
0
20000
40000
60000
80000
100000
120000
140000
160000
180000
200000
0 0.1 0.2 0.3 0.4
Height of air inlet (m)
P
o
w
e
r

(
W
)

Figure (3-5). The effect of height of air inlet on the power output

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The effect of position of turbine is less than others parameters as
shown in Figure (3-6), when increasing the height of turbine that lead to
little increasing in power output.
74000
74050
74100
74150
74200
74250
74300
74350
74400
74450
74500
0 0.5 1 1.5
Height of turbine (m)
P
o
w
e
r

(
W
)

Figure (3-6). The effect of height of turbine on the power output

The effect of efficiency of deck or collector is shown in Figure (3-
7), when increasing the efficiency of deck that lead to increasing in power
output.
0
10000
20000
30000
40000
50000
60000
70000
80000
0 0.5 1 1.5
efficiency of deck (collector)
P
o
w
e
r

o
u
t
p
u
t

(
W
)

Figure (3-7). The effect of efficiency of deck on the power output

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4-1 Conclusions and Suggestions for Future Work
This research includes a mathematical model of solar chimney, the
theoretical analysis solved by using Newton Raphson methods as shown
in Appendix (A) and this work focus on the effect of dimensional
parameters of SCPP on the power output of this SCPP.

4-2 Conclusions
1- When increasing the floor diameter, obtained increasing the power
output
2- The effect of height chimney on the power output. The results
when increasing the height of chimney this lead to increasing in
power output. The decreasing in power as shown which a result
from the nonlinearity equation is.
3- The effect of height of air inlet on the power output. The results
showed that when increase the height of air inlet this lead to
decreasing in power output.
4- The effect of position of turbine is less than others parameters,
when increasing the height of turbine that lead to little increasing in
power output.
5- The effect of efficiency of deck or collector, when increasing the
efficiency of deck that lead to increasing in power output.

4-3 Suggestions for future work
1- Study the effect of friction inside of collector and chimney on the
power output
2- Study the effect of type of floor (soil, rocket, etc) on the power
output
3- Study the effect of dust and fog on the environment and chimney
on the power output.
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4- Improve the ways to increase the power output of SCPP on the
night.
5- Improve the work of SCPP by using the geothermal.

Appendi x – A –
Sol ve t he Non- Al gebr ai c Equat i ons

A-1 I t er at i on Met hods f or Pol ynomi al Appr ox i mat i on
In this appendix shows the details used to solve the polynomial
equation (2-16) by Newton Raphson methods. Perhaps the most widely
used of all root locating formulae is the Newton Raphson equation
(Figure (A-1)). If the initial guess at the root is X
i
, a tangent can be
extended from the point (X
i
, F(x
i
)).



Figure (A-1). Graphical depiction of the Newton Raphson method. A
tangent to the function of Xi (that is F’(x
i
)) is extrapolated down to the X-
axis to provide an estimate of the root at X
i+1
[6]


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The point where this tangent crosses the X-axis usually represents
an improved estimate of the root. In the Figure (A-1) the first derivative
at Xi is equivalent to the slope:-

1
0 ) (
) ( '
+


·
i i
i
i
x x
x F
x F (A-1)

Which can be rearranged to yield

) ( '
) (
1
i
i
i i
x F
x F
x x − ·
+
(A-2)

This formula can be repeatedly used to find improved
approximations to the real root X
T
.
[6]


A-2 New t on’s Met hod For Syst em of Non-Li near
Equat i ons
The iteration forms of this method have the general form
[7]
.
K
J J
J
J
K
P
F
P
F
P
F
P
F
P
F
P
F
P
F
P
F
P
F
K
J
K
J
P P P F
P P P F
P P P F
P
P
P
P
P
P
J
J J J
J
J
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
1
]
1

¸


¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹
·
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
;
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
¹
'
¹



















+
) ,......, , (
) ,......, , (
) ,......, , (
2 1
2 1 2
2 1 1
1
2
1
1
2
1
2 1
2
2
2
1
2
1
2
1
1
1
M
M
M
O M M
O M M
O M M
L L L
L L L
M
M
M
M
M
M

(A-3)
Or on vector form
{P
K+1
} = {P
K
} – [J]
-1
{F(P
J
)} (A-4)

Where F(P
J
) is the vector represent the set of non-linear algebraic
equations need to solve (J equation), [J] is the Jacobean matrix of partial
derivatives for J equation defined as {F(P
J
)} and J independent variables.
{P
K+1
}, {P
K
} is the vector represented the root of {F(P
J
)} from iteration
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(K+1) and {P
K
} is the vector represent the roots of {F(P
J
)} from iteration
K. Those methods are used to solve the sets of equations (equation (2-32)).

Ref er enc es
1- Jörg Schlaich, Rudolf Bergermann, Wolfgang Schiel, Gerhard
Weinrebe; “Design of Commercial Solar Updraft Tower Systems –
Utlilization of Solar Induced Convective Flows for Power
Generation”; Schlaich Bergermann und Partner (sbp gmbh),
Hohenzollernstr. 1,70178 Stuttgrat, Germany.
2- Mohammed Awwad Al-Dabbas; “A Performance Analysis of Solar
Chimney Thermal Power Systems”; Thermal Science Journal; Vol.
15, No. 3, pp. 619-642, 2011.
3- T. Z. Ming, W. Liu, Y. Pan; “Numerical Analysis of the Solar
Chimney Power Plant With Energy Storage Layer”, ISES World
Congress, Vol. 5, pp. 1800-1805, 2007.
4- Y. Dai, “Case Study of Solar Chimney Power Plants in
Northwestern Regions of China”, Renewable Energy Journal, Vol.
(28), No. (8), pp. 1295-1304, 2003.
5- Richard Petal; “Engineering Thermodynamics of Thermal
Radiation For Solar Power Utilization” ; The McGraw Hill Ltd.;
1
st
edition; 2010.
6- Steven C. Chapra and Raymond P. Canale; “Numerical Methods
for Engineers”; 2
nd
edition; McGraw hill Ltd.; 1989.
7- Richard L. Burden and Douglas Faires; “Numerical Analysis”; 3
rd

edition; Prindle Weber and Schmidt Ltd; 1985.




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The Author
Dr. Hani Aziz Ameen , born in Iraq/Baghdad in 1971 was
awarded a degree of Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering –
Applied Mechanics – in the University of Technology,
Iraq/Baghdad (1998). He has more than 50 published
research articles and he has an expert in the ANSYS software and finite
element analysis. He worked in several universities and colleges
(Technology University- AlNahrain University- Tikrit University –
Technical College AlMusaib). now he is an assistant professor in the
Technical College – Baghdad / Dies and Tools Engineering Department.
E-mail: haniazizameen@yahoo.com




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