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# CVEN90024 DESIGN OF HIGH-RISE

STRUCTURES

MENGMENG DONG 324294

5/24/2011

CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures

Mengmeng DONG 324292

Table of Contents

INTRODUCTION ................................................................................................................................................................................................................. 2

PART B-CORE SYSTEM AND LATERAL LOAD DISTRIBUTION ............................................................................................................................................ 3

**PART C-WIND LOAD AND SEISMIC LOAD ............................................................................................................................................................ 12
**

THE LATERAL ALONG-WIND LOAD............................................................................................................................................................................ 12

THE LATERAL NORTH SOUTH DESIGN EARTHQUAKE LOAD ...................................................................................................................................... 23

PART D-SPACEGASS MODEL AND ANALYSIS .................................................................................................................................................................. 27

CONCLUSION ..................................................................................................................................................................................................... 32

1

CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures

Mengmeng DONG 324292

Introduction

Project 1 is about design a high-rise office building by analysis the core and floor system, lateral load distribution, wind and seismic load to determine how the

tall building behaviors under each cases.(e.g. the deflection of typical members, the force carried out by six different cells, the overturning bending moment

under wind and seismic load)

The perimeter of the building is as defined by floor system developed for Part A of this project. The floors crossing section of the tall building is 42*42m which

has a 19*19m core areas and has 42 floors in total. Project B is only consider one load condition being the wind from the south and the wind load for each of the

orthogonal directions can be based on the project area of building on to a surface perpendicular to the wind direction. For this load case determine manually the

percentage of wind load resisted by each of six core cells by hand calibration.

Part C is determine the lateral along-wind loads for the north south direction only up to the height of the building by using dynamic method and finds the baseoverturning moment. In addition, also determine the lateral north south design earthquake load up the height of building and compare which of the two loads is

dictates.

Part D is about developing a simple SpaceGass model using a column element for the two conditions. Carry out a lateral load analysis for the north south

direction with the appropriate eccentricity by applying the derived along-wind case from the Part C. First model will have just six column elements going up the

height of the building. The second model will have six columns linked by header beams. By using SpaceGass to analysis how the building behaviors under two

different models e.g. deflection at the top of the building and the forces at the base of the building.

2

CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Part B-Core System and Lateral Load Distribution Step 1: Find the Centroid of cells 1-6 and the second moment of area Ixx and Iyy about the centroidal axis The core layout is given below in Figure 1 Figure 1: Core layout The centroid of cell 1 is calculated in following steps The cell 1 is divided into 4 segments as shown in Figure 2 Taking the data from Figure 2. the calculations are tabulated as follows: 3 .

400 8.600 0. For Segment 1.378 0.710 0.178 -1.800 8.322 -0.150 1.200 Hence ∑ m 4 4 ̅-xi(m) 1.768 7.619 6.040 2.178 ̅-yi(m) Ixx(m4) 0.400 2.200 1.300 2.130 14.780 ∑ 7.140 -3.420 Note: xi and yi is the center of each segment Segment 1 2 3 4 b(m) 0.400 0.115 5.000 0.000 0.294 yiA(m3) 12.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Figure 2: Cell 1 configuration A(m2) 3.327 12.560 1.940 ∑ Iyy(m4) 17.628 -0.000 7.326 ∑ 11. Ixx = ̅ Iyy = yi(m) 4.164 9.156 ∑ 30.g.600 0.000 0.720 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ ̅-xi is the x-axis distance between centroid of cell 1 and center point of the segment 1 While ̅-yi is the y-axis distance between centroid of cell 1 and center point of the segment 1 Second moment of area Ixx and Iyy are calculated using formulas below: Ixx = ̅ Iyy = ̅ ̅ E.600 d(m) 8.300 xi(m) 0.140 3.200 1.700 Thus.464 ∑ .850 4.640 1.847 12. the centroid of cell 1 in x-direction ̅ The centroid of cell 1 in y-direction ̅ xiA(m3) 0.700 3.636 0.

602 32.944 -0.048 30. Figure 3: Cell 2 configuration Segment 1 2 3 4 5 b(m) 0.300 7.800 25.050 xiA(m3) 15.670 10.200 0.400 8.863 0.750 9.500 the centroid of cell 2 in x-direction ̅ The centroid of cell 2 in y-direction ̅ ∑ m4 ∑ m4 yi(m) 4.560 30.403 ∑ 97.200 0.800 25.641 .500 9.248 12.166 ∑ 64.600 0.475 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 5 ̅-xi(m) -3.850 4.400 2.150 d(m) 8.468 9.600 19.435 ∑ 43.250 9.368 3.300 6.400 1.958 -0.000 0.368 -4.300 6.000 ̅-yi(m) Ixx(m4) Iyy(m4) -0.372 4.500 12.233 yiA(m3) 9.250 0.860 1.248 12.000 0.216 7.250 0.235 xi(m) 6.480 2.200 4.095 ∑ 10.000 23.002 ∑ 93.600 17.000 3.000 0.198 4.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures ∑ Mengmeng DONG 324292 m4 Similar to cell 1 calculation.300 A(m2) 2.000 0. the centroid and Ixx and Iyy about the centroidal axis of cell 2 to cell 6’s calculation is showing below.000 7.487 5.

097 .600 0.686 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 56.978 12.800 17.600 d(m) 8.000 0.344m4 13.040 ∑ 7.850 4.000 0.619 ∑ 56.400 A(m2) 2.000 7.780 3.300 2.400 0.400 2.178 1.038 0.600 6.322 -0.628 -0.839 6.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Figure 4: Cell 3 configuration Segment 1 2 3 4 b(m) 0.300 The centroid of cell 3 in x-direction ̅ The centroid of cell 3 in y-direction ̅ ∑ ∑ yi(m) 4.348 0.128 17.178 ̅-yi(m) Ixx(m4) Iyy(m4) 0.097m4 6 yiA(m3) 9.160 17.494 60.731 ̅-xi(m) -1.850 17.200 xiA(m3) 38.992 ∑ 129.128 12.208 ∑ 28.300 18.378 3.119 5.672 14.344 ∑ 13.420 xi(m) 15.800 0.300 8.000 0.636 -3.123 12.464 0.200 1.040 13.

178 -1.700 the centroid of cell 4 in x-direction ̅ The centroid of cell 4 in y-direction ̅ ∑ 56.178 ̅-yi(m) Ixx(m4) 0.249 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 7 ̅-xi(m) 1.552 36.400 0.097 .636 0.344 ∑ 5.628 -0.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Figure 5: Cell 4 configuration Segment 1 2 3 4 b(m) 0.300 A(m2) 3.800 15.697 ∑ 112.560 1.600 0.400 2.040 2.200 1.300 2.150 1.768 7.294 yiA(m3) 48.420 xi(m) 0.978 ∑ Iyy(m4) 17.700 3.000 8.322 -0.672 0.119 14.128 3.619 6.097m4 yi(m) 15.400 8.038 12.640 1.344m4 ∑ 13.000 18.464 13.326 ∑ 11.780 ∑ 7.200 1.378 0.128 -3.348 56.000 19.000 11.600 d(m) 8.000 0.000 0.150 xiA(m3) 0.839 12.

000 11.739 16.403 ∑ 97.863 0.250 0.216 12.800 25.200 0.116m4 ∑ 64.235 xi(m) 6.300 6.500 9.500 The centroid of cell 5 in x-direction ̅ The centroid of cell 5 in y-direction ̅ ∑ 93.750 9.368 4.216 12.500 12.584 31.066 30.670 10.950 xiA(m3) 15.944 0.000 0.400 2.400 8.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Figure 6: Cell 5 configuration Segment 1 2 3 4 5 b(m) 0.958 0.000 20.480 2.000 -3.233 yiA(m3) 36.300 7.368 -3.116 ∑ 64.760 5.000 23.400 1.300 6.250 9.150 d(m) 8.733 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 8 ̅-xi(m) 3.300 A(m2) 2.266 4.860 1.600 17.800 25.641m4 yi(m) 15.893 7.000 ̅-yi(m) Ixx(m4) Iyy(m4) 0.000 0.000 0.800 15.370 ∑ 155.095 ∑ 10.560 30.150 14.000 18.641 .250 0.200 0.624 36.002 ∑ 93.000 46.

150 xiA(m3) 38.140 17.300 2.619 13.160 17.327 ∑ 56.300 8.494 60.140 12.710 14.800 15.300 18.800 17.992 ∑ 129.419m4 13.628 0.847 -3.664 48.419 ∑ 6.000 11.420 xi(m) 15.000 18.178 ̅-yi(m) Ixx(m4) Iyy(m4) -0.000 14.000 11.596 ∑ 110.636 0.686 yiA(m3) 36.400 2.040 13.115 -0.322 0.400 0.600 d(m) 8.400 A(m2) 2.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Figure 7: Cell 6 configuration Segment 1 2 3 4 b(m) 0.130 3.378 0.000 0.178 -1.040 ∑ 7.300 The centroid of cell 6 in x-direction ̅ The centroid of cell 6 in y-direction ̅ ∑ ∑ yi(m) 15.097m4 9 ̅-xi(m) 1.097 .464 5.780 3.260 ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 56.940 12.200 1.850 17.000 0.600 0.

2. the center of stiffness of the core will be around the geometrical center of the core.5. Kxxj and Kyyj is the lateral stiffness of each core in the x and y direction respectively. all dimensions and sizes are symmetrical about two axes. which represents the height of the building are constant for all elements.5.5m ̅ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ Look at Figure 1 that given core and arrangement and sizing of cells.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Step 2: find the center of stiffness of the core The center stiffness of the core is found using: ̅ ∑ ̅ ∑ ∑ ∑ Note: 1. ̅ ∑ ∑ ∑ ∑ 9. Hence. Consequently. 9.665) is really close to the geometrical center of the core (9. The center stiffness of the core calculated above (9. 10 .Element stiffness is proportional to the second moment of area if the elements that is found the first step: . 9. Ixxi and Iyyj can be used as K is proportional to I.5). where E is the modulus of elasticity and H.

4 22.166 56.978 0.758 1896.419 ∑ 411.500 17.978 0.263 100 .6 9.g.128 0.128 15.872 15.669 ∑ 11 Kxxj*xj2 Kyyj*yj2 Fyj(%) 3590.05=2.067 5472.417 5.809 Iyyj=Kyyj (m4) 13.075m toward the east from the center of the core Step 4: find the element forces in the north direction by using the equation ∑ ∑ Kxxj and Kyyj is the lateral stiffness of ach core in the x and y direction which can be taken as Ixxj and Iyyj eccentricity ex is the distance from the center of stiffness to the load applied which equal 2.458 ∑ 18.00 18.967 439.344 56.463 -5.097 64. The point of application of the load shall be offset from the centroid of the projected surface by 5%.860 ∑ xj= ̅ (m) 7. from the center of stiffness and the centroid of each core In this case.000 3586. This refers to the projected surface which designed in Part A.128 3586.419 93.978 7.097 13.793 -5. the 1 cell Fyi = Centroid Y (m) 4.6 9.4 22.5m Hence.478 1. respectively.478 E.344 93.116 56.491 390.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Step 3: find the center of area of the wall perpendicular to the N-S wind.905 0. Part A the width of the projected surface is 41.978 yj= ̅ (m) 5. given that the proportion of the load distributed by each is element is to be calculated The first term of the equation represents the translational force and the second term is the rotational force due to the eccentricity of the load Table below sum up all the values need to calculate the Fyj Cell 1 2 3 4 5 6 Centroid X (m) 1. For this project consider the load wind from the south only.876 1991.500 17.248 3.641 13.00 ∑ 14354.000 3590.216 14.000 -7.712 353.000 -7.5*0.195 Ixxj=Kxxj (m4) 56. Vy can be assumed to be 1.641 13.525 5.522 9.097 64.551 -5.075m xj and yj are the distance in the x and y direction.097 ∑ 181. the wind force is applied 41.140 4.905 ∑ 399.522 9.

1 Design wind pressure 12 .1 as follows: 2.2) Relevant information follows: Location and Terrain: Terrain category 3 zone with no shielding in Melbourne (Region A5) Topography: assume ground to be flat Dimensions: Average roof height 168m (Number of floors=42 and height of each floor is 4m) Horizontal directions: 42m*42m square section Building orientation: Major axis North-South In order to calculate the wind load. Cl.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Part C –Wind load and seismic load Design wind loads for a tall building in Melbourne area (AS1170.4.2. calculate the wind pressure according to AS1170.4.2.

2: 13 . β according to Cl. determine Vsit.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Step 1: Calculate the design wind speed Note: The orientation of the building major axis is specified for this project: North-South Direction Next. 2.

Md.2 According to the Building Code of Australia (BCA). 3. Mz. Ms = 1. this corresponds to Cl. 4.4 (b) 14 . Hence take average recurrence interval. Note: -V1000 is a common return period for buildings -1000 year return period: 1/1000 probabilities that the wind speed is exceeded From Table 3. 3. Shielding multiplier (Ms) Cl.0 Topography multiplier (Mt) Cl.cat is obtained from Table 4. the structure should be treated as Level 3. there are no other buildings of greater height in any direction – therefore. the shielding multiplier is taken as 1.1(A): Mz. Ms and Mt are defined from the relevant sections as pointed.3 Shielding may be provided by upwind buildings or other surrounding structures.2.1(c).cat . B is being calculated. 4. cat =1. In this exercise. each of VR.22 Note: Mz.2 Terrain category is Category 3. 4. cat) Cl. This actual value of Mz. R.2) Terrain/Height Multiplier (Mz.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Next.1 in AS/NZS1170. cat value is for the top floor and needs to be obtained by interpolation at other levels where Vsit. V1000 = 46 m/s (Region A) Wind direction multiplier (Md) Cl. 4.2. Region wind speed (VR) Mengmeng DONG 324292 Cl.3 Md = 1 for Region A5 with direction of wind is N (Table 3. for loading and overall structural response equal to 1000 years.

4. the lee multiplier shall be 1.4.4. For calculating pressures. Mt =1. The value is determined by the Cl. suction). i.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Elsewhere (i. 4. ridge or escarpment Lu= horizontal distance upwind from the crest of the hill. This takes into account the most adverse topographic cross-section that occurs within the range of directions within 22. ridge or escarpment to a level half the height below the crest Ground is flat.e. 15 .2(a): (a) For H/ (2Lu) < 0.1 (ii) Mt= Mlee-defined by Cl. hence H/ (2Lu) =0 Mh =1.0 Hence. the larger value of the following: Mengmeng DONG 324292 (i) Mt= Mh-defined by Cl.4.4 (a) Where H= height of the hill.0.0 Topography multiplier (Mlee) The lee (effect) multiplier (Mlee) shall be evaluated for New Zealand sites in the lee zones. Mh = 1. positive values indicating pressure acting towards the surface and negative values indicating pressure acting away from the surface (less than ambient pressure.5°on either side of the cardinal direction.. Australia). Mlee =1.2 Hill shape multiplier (Mh) The hill shape multiplier (Mh) is to be assessed for each cardinal direction.0 Step 2: Calculate the Aerodynamic shape factor.05. For all other sites. 4. Cfig Values of Cfig are used in determining the pressures applied to each surface. 4.0 Cl. the sign of Cfig indicates the direction of the pressure on the surface or element.4.e.

CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures The aerodynamic shape factor (Cfig) is to be determined for specific surfaces or parts of surfaces as follows: Cfig. i= combination factor applied to internal pressures Kl= local pressure factor Kp= porous cladding reduction factor Aerodynamic shape factor for internal pressure (Cp. i Kc. 5. for internal pressures Cl. 5. ignored since d/h < 4. e= external pressure coefficient Cp. i) Table.eKlKp. Cl.5 Where: Cp. i= internal pressure coefficient Ka= area reduction factor Kc. e= combination factor applied to external pressures Kc. i= Cp.2(2) Cfig = Frictional drag forces. i. 5.read. 5.1(A) Assume the building is sealed: 16 Mengmeng DONG 324292 .e = Cp.eKaKc.2(1) Cfig. for external pressures Cl.

Cp. 5.eKlKp.2*1 = -0. for external pressures 17 .e = 0.(A) Cfig.e and Kc.e = Cp.i= -0.i) Kc.2 Aerodynamic shape factors for external pressure (Cfig.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Note: When calculating the base overturning moments Cp.eKaKc.i=0*1 = 0 OR Cfig.iKc.i will cancel out as the above Figure points out.e ) Table.0 Cfig.i = 1.9 Kc. Combination factor applied to external and internal pressure (Kc.i is a useful parameter when estimating the external pressure on the surfaces.i= Cp.

the forces on the side walls are not included.8 Cp. e =-0.e=0.65 Note: when calculating the along wind base overturning moment. 18 .5 Cp.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Cp. e =-0.

the forces on the roofs are not included.2 Ka = 0.8 Local pressure factor for cladding (Kl) Cl. 5.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Cp.0 in all cases except when determining the wind forces applied to cladding. Area reduction factor for roofs and side walls (Ka) Cl. Kl = 1. 5.4 The local pressure factor (Kl) shall be taken as 1.3 Note: When calculating the along wind base overturning moment. their fixings. e =-1. the members that directly support the cladding. and the immediate fixings of these members.4.4.0 19 .

9*1.2.2 Turbulence intensity z=h.0 Windward wall Cfig.e = -0.e and Cfig.4.e are parameters used to calculate the pressure at different levels on the Windward and the leeward walls Step 3: Calculation for Dynamic response factor (Cdyn) √ Cl.0 na = 46 / H =46/168 =0.36 Note: Cfig.5 The permeable cladding reduction factor (Kp) shall be taken as 1. s=0 (for base bending moment).5*0. Ih = 0.2.1134 (Table 6. Cl.27 20 .e = 0.9*1.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Permeable cladding reduction factor (Kp) Mengmeng DONG 324292 Cl.0*1.2 √ Hs =1.1 by interpolation) Background factor. √ (Equation 6. 5.8*0.0 except that where an external surface consists of permeable cladding Kp = 1.8*0.8*0.2(2)) For b=42m.576 Leeward wall Cfig. 6. 6.0 = -0.0 = 0.0*1.

θ(m/s) Windward Leeward qz*Cfig(kPa) qh*cfig (kPa) 21 Windward Leedward Moment qz*Cfig*Cdyn*A(kN) qz*Cfig*Cdyn*A(kN) Contribution (MNm) . [ Mengmeng DONG 324292 ][ ] For b=42m [ ][ ] [ ][ ] Reduced frequency.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures √ √ Size reduction factor.03 for concrete structures √ Cl. Height of sector(m) Mz.2 For b=42m √ √ Step 4：Calcualtion of base moment Calculations were carried out by spreadsheet. 6. ξ(ration of structural damping to critical): take as 0.2.cat 3 Vdes. Summaries of the results are given in the following tables.

040 1.030 18.668 48.102 150.664 34.680 -0.680 -0.157 94 1.800 165.035 167.758 -109.680 -0.058 133.758 -109.758 -109.999 0.680 -0.680 -0.951 .849 0.039 135.190 126 1.680 -0.758 -109.758 -109.195 20.206 142 1.220 162 1.717 147.758 -109.330 52.758 -109.758 -109.680 -0.680 -0.758 -109.758 -109.624 52.874 0.033 9.213 52.758 -109.162 98 1.372 54.078 70 1.758 -109.108 54.758 -109.680 -0.150 90 1.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures 166 1.217 158 1.186 122 1.094 58 1.758 -109.636 53.093 127.680 -0.680 -0.476 55.071 1.277 160.942 0.680 -0.680 -0.116 1.758 -109.680 -0.058 1.070 135.292 55.580 163.430 38.525 153.676 44.058 42 1.198 134 1.144 86 1.441 43.758 -109.758 -109.918 52.837 0.159 -109.953 0.758 -109.166 102 1.035 51.692 50.047 1.991 55.102 55.680 -0.429 14.758 -109.184 159.680 -0.972 0.979 0.758 -109.188 54.680 -0.924 54.212 150 1.881 55.869 172.215 154 1.916 166.316 13.061 130.220 12.125 74 1.911 0.138 82 1.916 45.680 -0.680 -0.741 49.758 -109.189 171.019 1.806 0.067 1.680 -0.078 50 1.170 106 1.588 49.137 16.758 Mengmeng DONG 324292 46.680 -0.086 54 1.773 29.046 56.574 28.567 22.324 49.788 -0.775 23.998 24.475 162.837 0.982 30.013 1.062 1.452 53.770 55.556 54.139 139.588 50.220 48.704 39.987 40.054 1.688 164.211 41.158 169.070 46 1.680 -0.194 130 1.992 0.058 135.809 152.097 137.165 36.026 1.758 -109.837 0.210 146 1.680 -0.680 -0.680 -0.824 0.680 -0.006 0.910 35.202 25.680 22 172.078 66 1.427 33.758 -109.374 21.758 -109.862 0.680 -0.740 54.963 0.758 -109.758 -109.202 138 1.004 53.758 -109.200 31.094 158.932 0.174 110 1.559 15.178 114 1.102 62 1.511 170.141 11.956 49.680 -0.758 -109.116 17.374 161.033 1.182 118 1.660 55.926 155.921 0.588 49.985 0.058 141.758 -109.680 -0.820 53.680 -0.834 170.383 27.131 78 1.008 156.758 -109.758 -109.680 -0.405 148.

680 -0.680 -0.896 43.830 2 0.496 -0.032 34 1.88ZS/T≤2.743 0.064 80.791 1.680 Note: qz=0.380 ∑ 938.878 10 0.969 116.811 6.370 .778 119.732 3.680 -0.555 0.758 Mengmeng DONG 324292 8.388 38.593 80.180 0.180 38.680 -0.472 46.976 22 0.1 For T≤1.016 30 1.920 14 0.652 0.680 -0.736 46.952 18 0.767 0.369 89.064 -109.830 6 0.180 38.830 47.680 -0.000 26 0.680 -0.000 44.0 C = 0.6* Vdes.746 2.686 0.496 0.758 -109.898 1.139 0.496 0.331 98.758 -109.758 -109.94Z Table 3.609 0.320 40.680 -0.792 42.758 -109.758 -109.709 105.5 sec 23 123.064 80.758 -109.758 -109.874 7.758 -109.220 110.758 -109.θ2 A = 42 * 4 = 168m2 Totoal along-wind base bending moment = 938.732 4.720 0.680 -0.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures 38 1.4) Find Base shear Design for 500 years return period The annual probability of exceedance factor Kp = 1.370 MNm for a 168m tall building Design the earthquake load for a tall building in Melbourne area (AS1170.779 5.

32ZS/T2 Mengmeng DONG 324292 Table 3.0/2.32*0.5 sec T(sec) = 1.32ZS/T2 For T≥1.25(0.75 for other structures (ultimate) H=168m T(sec) =1.05)H0.0124 Density of building ρ = 0.05)1680.75 = 2.08 for Melbourne S = 1 for rock sites Class Be C = 1.08*1.916 secs Hazard factor (Z) = 0.25*42*42*168*9.6 assume limited ductile shear wall Vertival distribution of VB the building will be divided into 42 nodes according to the number of floors auusing uniform distribution of mass ∑ for T>2.9162 =0.2 as T>1.5 sec =1.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures C = 1.81 =726800kN Rf = 2.5 sec 24 .25(0.35 tonne/m3 W =ρ *A*H*g =0.

183 35655456.862 37597475.798 3 2157.798 11 2157.752 42292844.442 157.349 1 2157.198 186.991 15225423.239 29.798 17 2157.037 39910634.954 21577981.809 16.674 13.688 9977658.199 37.202 11186025.670 .361 19.155 9.660 196.022 39.920 78.033 4.849 84.798 5 2157.560 58036139.798 25 2157.798 19 2157.138 33178304.572 122.964 139.822 27.798 8 2157.191 14.028 52512176.798 10 2157.881 16 2157.798 23 2157.890 18263603.716 Fi (kN) 179.492 7. Summaries of the results are given in the table following tables.050 44.587 31072293.876 65.798 15 3056.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Calculationd were carried out by spreadsheet.257 12463442.798 24 2157.513 6.798 7 2157.008 176.349 49.798 20 2157.798 12 2157.067 147.919 54.531 17.728 3.798 14 2157.255 11.613 5.783 32.758 228.552 8.267 25 Bending moment(MNm) 30.670 16709988.807 47264411. Stastic Analysis Nodes mi(kg) 0 1618.798 2 2157.268 106.089 166.798 4 2157.132 130.321 91.110 27067420.529 25.853 13809908.357 23.450 55239633.302 21.229 35353365.787 5.009 44744102.798 9 2157.262 71.651 19886267.798 22 2157.523 140.348 3.400 217.798 hi(m) 168 164 160 156 152 148 144 140 136 132 128 124 120 116 112 108 104 100 96 92 88 84 80 76 72 68 mihi2(kgm2) 45676271.762 59.931 15.394 206.798 6 2157.881 23338744.284 114.147 49853768.798 13 2157.458 34.170 2.578 29035332.798 18 2157.798 21 2157.

798 36 2157.947 MNm for a 168m tall building.743 863119.440 13.798 40 3056.798 28 2157.571 26.239 7043053.035 0.631 22.064 2796506.718 16.881 31 2157.394 6766855.770 0.000kPa The total base overturning moment for earthquke load =437.046 5834686.783 30.397 2. 26 .000 ∑ 880706759.696 6.194 1.223 0.186 0.321 1691713.174 1.834 1.658 4.000kN G+ΨQ(typical floors)=12.798 35 2157.798 29 2157.891 3.248 3452477.006 0.633 34.798 30 3056.798 34 2157.798 38 2157.367 34524.798 27 2157.226 1.962 27.370MNm for a 168m tall building.000 ∑ 437.798 32 2157.422 2209585.798 39 2157.000kPa G+ΨQ(Plant-room levels)=17.491 1. The along-wind base bending moment is obviously two times larger than the overturning moment.947 MNm while the totoal along-wind base bending moment = 938.068 0.587 11.117 0.330 0.761 1242891.798 Mengmeng DONG 324292 64 60 56 52 48 44 40 36 32 28 24 20 16 12 8 4 0 8838341.798 37 2157.278 0.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures 26 2157.798 33 2157.723 0.000 2.543 0.330 310722.396 0.936 195640.947 Note: A=42*42=1764.006 8.000m2(the cross sectional area of the floor plan) VB=3466.015 0. Note: The total base overturning moment for earthquke load =437. Hence the along-wind loads is dicates.798 42 2157.000kPa G+ΨQ(top floor)=9.771 0.266 552396.881 41 2157.001 0.284 7768073.136 0.211 4177497.

CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Part D.SpaceGass Model and Analysis The 3-D Models output from SpassGass are showing in Figure 8 and 9 Figure 9: 3-D view of Model B-with header beams Figure 8: 3-D view of Model A-without header beams 27 .

the extend of coupling action is limiting. Note: the deflection at the top of the building is hand calculated by using the formulas below: Where W is the force action on the top of the building. there will be a low flexural stiffness. Figure 10 graphically explain the above reason behind the header beam function. E is Young’s Modulus of the concrete. Figure 10: Schematic of a coupled core system 28 . Model A just thin slab acting between walls and due to the slim nature of the slab.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Result： Deflection at the top of the building for Model A and Model B The deflection at the top of the building is 850mm and 300mm respectively to Model A and Model B. It’s obviously that Model B gives a much smaller deflection compare to Model A. However in Model B by introducing beams between the cantilever elements this flexural stiffness can be greatly enhanced hence increasing the coupling action and hence improving the overall lateral resistance. l is the height of the building.

2 556.7 -137.9 3015.6 -8604.4 0.05 18. 29 .0 0.0 0.3 22.4 22.65 9.0 13289.5 85000.6 -7625.3 22.0 (kN) (kNm) (kNm) (kNm) 1133.6 -22.1 -117.9 3015.5 1133. The sum of overturning base moment in Model A is 939.0 0.6 9 18.5 85000.6 8604.9 171879.0 0.0 0. its can see the Model A is analysis is quite successful.6 -22.2 -23.5 2495.65 9.5 -13289.0 0.4 22. The moments for X and Y direction in Model B for each of the six columns are tabulate in the Table below.9 171879.6 9 100 100 Note: All the numbers are taking from the SpaceGass report.0 0.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Force at the base of the building for Model A and Model B The moments for X and Y direction in Model A for each of the six columns are tabulate in the Table below. Those two values are quite similar (almost the same).0 0.370MNm.05 18.3 39330.6 7625.0 18.0 128.3 -39330.3 212736.1 0. For the total base moment action on each column the percentages are also close to the Force percentages which find in Part B of the Project.2 -556.0 0.1 0.0 -128. Mengmeng DONG 324292 Model A Compare to Part B Force Percentage (%) X–Axis Force Y-Axis Force (kN) (kN) Z-Axis Force X-Axis Moment Y-Axis Moment Z-Axis Moment Total base Moment Percentage (%) Column 2 3 4 5 6 7 Load Total Reaction 117.2327MNm while the sum of overturning base moment finds in Part C is equal to 938. From above statement.0 0.0 0.2 -23.4 939232.5 2495.3 212736.6 -22.6 -22.

89 5.985 -7.8 5 -93.8 Load 0.1 2945.599 -7.31 7.370MNm which is approximately equal to the overturning moment in part C (938.3 12199.8 2541.4 37100.2 47899.96 0.3 -12199.499 -13139.2 -17802.8 2541. Because for Model B assumes that every floor has header beams.269 3031.370MNm) In additional.10 3.5 6 -559.05 119882.8 -17398.4 409951.0 7 -164.89 5.1 2945.0 4 162.269 2415. By add the sum of overturning moment to the moment due to these coupling forces.66% of the overturning moment while the coupling forces takes about 56. 30 .985 -7. get the sum of overturning moment that is equal 937.9 1187.34 43.66 Note: Due to header beams at Model B. but there are values in forces in y-direction compare to Model A.0 -13289.0 0. So in the Table above seeing decreasing values of overall moment compare to Model A. depends entirely on the number of header beams that chose.31 7.10 0.34% of the overturning moment.0 0.0 529281. the percentages of the core moment are smaller than the percentages of the coupling forces.330 Mengmeng DONG 324292 Total core Coupling Moment forces Percentage Percentage (%) (%) 10. the greater the coupling action.499 13139. the more header beams.0 Coupling forces Moment (kNm) 97917.269 -3031.4 17802.7 75021.599 -7.0 13289.370 -44.95 56.95 10.10 3.05 119882.2 47899.101 -7. the coupling effect will decrease the overturning moment at the base but activate the push and pull action on the cores.0 Total Reaction 0.9 1187.269 -2415.7 75021.99 12.6 92853. therefore.101 -7.96 97917.99 12.8 17398.4 0.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Model B X–Axis Y-Axis Z-Axis X-Axis Y-Axis Z-Axis Force Force Force Moment Moment Moment Column (kN) (kN) (kN) (kNm) (kNm) (kNm) 2 93.5 3 558.0 0.4 37100.6 92853.76 9. The base moment and coupling forces percentages are all in term the total overturning moment.76 9.0 0. The core moment takes approximately 43.

4. 22.66% and 56.4.947 MNm while the totoal along-wind base bending moment = 938. Therefore the Model B is a better model to be used. the overturning moment at base is all taking by the core cell and the values is 939.370MNm for a 168m tall building. 31 . 9. Find in Part D: For SpaceGass Model A. The along-wind loads is the one that dictates.370MNm which is nearly the same compare to Part C value.CVEN90024 Design of High-rise Structures Mengmeng DONG 324292 Conclusion Finding in Part B: The percentages of wind load resisted by six core cells in Part B is respectively to 18. 18. 22.34% respectively of the total overturning base moment. The header beams in the Model B is increasing the coupling action and hence improving the overall lateral resistance.6. the overturning moment at base is combining from the moment caused by core cell and coupling forces. The core cell and the coupling forces take approximately 43. The deflection at the top of the building is 300mm. and 9 Findng in Part C: The total base overturning moment for earthquke load =437. The deflection at the top of the building is 850mm.6. For SpaceGass Model B.