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VALIDATE Sw MODEL FROM NEURAL NET

PROCESSED OLD LOGS. LA CEIBITA FIELD, EASTERN

VENEZUELA, CASE STUDY.

R. Panesso – PDVSA GAS, A. Quaglia – PDVSA GAS

ABSTRACT

La Ceibita field is located in the Oficina area in the Eastern Venezuela Basin. A total of

63 wells have been drilled, 48 (76%) with “old logs”, prior to 1968, only 15 (24%) have

logs between 1968 and 1982, including modern porosity logs. Production began in 1957,

and 11 wells have been completed. A gas injection program was implemented in 1960 in

order to maintain reservoir pressure. The purpose of the study was to generate a reliable

Sw model using a methodology based on Neural Net technology, SCAL (Pc, wettability),

rock type characterization, old and recent logs, production data, and, geological and

reservoir information, in order to validate reserves and optimize exploitation plans.

The petrophysical characterization was aimed at the definition of rock types, which were

classified based on pore throat radius estimated from mercury injection capillary pressure

data. Pore throat radii corresponding to a mercury saturation of 45% represented the

dominant interconnected pore system. Ranges of rock types from mega to nano porous

were used to define flow units, with pore throat radius being the dominant control on

permeability, flow capacity and water saturation.

Due to the lack of modern porosity logs it was necessary to apply alternate technologies

such as Neural Net and modeling softwares to model resistivity curves and estimate

porosity, which was related to core porosity. The detailed upscaling from core to log was

performed using the relation found between pore throat radius obtained from cores and

“true” formation modeled resistivity from electrical logs in the key well. Once porosity

and resistivity were established, the Sw model was built and validated with SCAL data

(Pc, wettability), fluid contacts and structural closure. One Acre/ft based calculations

were made to re-estimate reserves, which in some cases reached up to 25% above the

previous OOIP.

Detailed reservoir upscaling and the application of new technologies will always be more

reliable as long as we demonstrate that uncertainty is diminished with real data, such as

core, fluids and reservoir information. In this specific case the uncertainty that might be

introduced by numerical processes as neural net technology and modeling software, was

diminished using SCAL data such as capillary pressure and wettability.

INTRODUCTION

The studied reservoir is located in La Ceibita Field, Major Oficina Area, Eastern

Venezuela Basin (Figure 1). High pressures and high initial production rates, as well as a

quick production decline characterize it.

SCA2002-47 2/6

SUCRE

MAR CARIBE N

Venezuela

PLC

MIRANDA JOSE

MONAGAS

ANZOÁTEGUI

PTA. MATA

MATURIN

GUARICO ANACO

SAN TOME

Sur

America U.E. LIVIANO / MEDIANO

CAMPOS LA CEIBITA - 50 km

SOTO NORTE

Rock type characterization was based on the integration of capillary pressure data, thin

sections, SEM and XRD in core samples from key wells. This allowed the determination

of the dominant pore throat radius of the interconnected porous system. For the sands

studied, the dominant pore throat radius corresponds to a mercury saturation of 45%. This

information was related to porosity and permeability based on Pittman’s R45 equation,

and allowed the classification of the rock according to pore throat size and definition of

different rock types, from mega to nano porous.

RESISTIVITY MODELING

Resistivity inversion modeling was necessary because of the high proportion of logs from

old resistivity tools. These logs rarely measure true in situ formation resistivities.

Measurements from all resistivity tool configurations are inaccurate due to bed shoulder

effects, apparent bedding dip angles, invasion effects, resolution limitations and wellbore

environmental conditions (mud properties, hole rugosity, mudcake thickness).

Rt-Mod uses forward and inverse modeling methods to correct these effects, giving an

accurate representation of true formation resistivity (Rt) at a bed boundary resolution of

less than 2 feet for most logs.

The input data required for the resistivity modeling process are: deep & shallow

resistivity curves, mud resistivity, borehole size information and tool transmitter-receiver

spacing information.

Impact of Using Resistivity Modeling

Deep resistivity logging tools are used to measure formation resistivity, but they have

poor vertical resolution. In thin beds, this results in bypassed pay and under estimation of

reserves. Even in thick zones it is difficult to correctly identify reserves using

conventional methods. Processing resistivity logs using Rt-Mod will significantly

improve hydrocarbon reserve calculations and will help identify bypassed and untested

pay zones.

SCA2002-47 3/6

Figure 2 shows the comparison between original and modeled resistivities, where it’s

noted that an “improvement” in resolution, minimizing the thin bed effect, results in

increases in hydrocarbon saturation and therefore reserves.

LCV10 LCV05

OLD LOGS POROSITY ESTIMATION FROM NEURAL NETWORK

Artificial Neural Networks ‘learn’ the nature of the dependency between input log and

core data (the data that is abundantly available) and output curves (the curves you need),

through a carefully selected and representative set of training examples. The Neural net

uses a multi-layer backpropagation architecture to apply knowledge gained from training,

allowing them to make new decisions, classifications, and predictions.

Due to the lack of porosity logs, a Neural Net was trained in order to generate a porosity

curve from modeled resistivity and SP curves. Core porosity was also used as an

important input. The neural Net was configured with two invisible layers (16 neurons

each). It is important to mention that porosity ranges from this process were related, with

acceptable correlation coefficient, to those ranges obtained from deterministic rock

typing model, on wells with core and porosity log data available.

CAPILLARY PRESSURE

The following map (Figure 3) shows two key wells, which have different predominant

rock types and structural positions, representing not only estimated values of Height over

FWL, but also validating, with small error bar, the OWC. Sw values for each Rock type

sample, using modeled Rt and NN porosity, entered the Hg Pc chart to get Pc (lab)

(Figure 4,5). Amott & USBM wettability and PVT analyses information played an

important role in defining the assumptions necessary for estimations. This information

indicates the strong water wettability tendency of the rock types used and some ranges of

hydrocarbon densities, which go from 0.32 to 0.69 gr/cc, using an avg. value of 0.55

gr/cc to honor the predominant hydrocarbon component present in the reservoir.

In order to estimate the hydrocarbon column height, it was necessary to calculate Pc

(field), to which the following equation was used:

SCA2002-47 4/6

Pc field = Pc lab (1)

γ lab cosθ lab

Where: Pcfield is the o-w capillary pressure (psi), Pclab is the Hg capillary pressure (psi),

γfield is the Hg-air interfacial tension (dyne/cm), θfield is the Hg-air contact angle (radians),

γlab is the o-w interfacial tension (dyne/cm) and θlab is the o-water contact angle (radians).

-10600' D LCV 51

-105

LCV 33 -11 -111

00' L LCV 28 000

' 00'

-10400 -10

'

LCV 53

OO

WC

900

'

N

LCV 55 -10300' @ 00'

- 10

8 LCV 24

LCV 22 -10

665

-10200

LCV 54 ’ (E -10700'

' ST

-1

)

-10100' LCV 407500 -106

' 00'

-10000 -104

' 00'

LCV 15 LCV 9

LCV 61

- -1030

9900' 0'

LCV 58 LCV 57

LCV 52 -102

00'

5’

-980 LCV 38

’

0'

4

7

61

-9700'

11

-10

-960 100

0' '

h=

LCV 50

h=

LCV 13 LCV 23 LCV 49 LCV 20

LCV 26 -950 LCV 8

0' LCV 18

-100

00'

-940

0' LCV 5

-9 LCV 59

LCV 7 LCV 94040'

LCV 17 -9800'

LCV 31 -10051’

LCV 42

-970

ARENA L2M 0'

YAC. LCV-58 LCV 46 LCV 41

LCV 10 LCV 43 L

LCV 6 -9 LCV 11 LCV 40

SM 617 LCV 4600' L D

SM 618 -9490’

SM 616 D

LCV 48

S

SM 620SM LCV 1 LCV 29

624 LCV 14 LCV 12

F

SM 615 L

SM 619 LCV 34

LCV 19 LCV 36 LCV 39

LCV 35 LCVD16 LCV 32 LCV 45

0

SM 627SM 601 SM 632 LCV 30 m 500

SM 626

SM 628 LCV 27

SM 602 SM 613 LCV 25

LCV 63

LCV 21

ARENA L2M

SM 607 SM 611 SM 612

YAC. LCV-9

Hydrocarbon column height over FWL is determined using the following equation:

Pc field

h= (2)

0.433 * ( ρ wet − ρ non − wet )

Where: h is the height above free water level (feet), Pcfield is the oil-water capillary

pressure (psi), 0.433 is a constant and is the gradient of pure water (psi/feet), ρwet is the

wet phase density (gr/cc) and ρnon wet is the non wet phase density (gr/cc).Equation 2 was

used to build a Height-Sw chart, considering the rock types, which at the same time

allows to identify the best estimate for hydrocarbon column height from a given Sw.

Well LCV-05

Table 1 – Parameters for studied reservoir estimations

Sw (%) 30 γfield (dyne/cm) 50

Meso Porous (pore throat

Rock Type θfield (degree/radians) 10 / 0.17

radii 0.5-2 microns)

γlab (dyne/cm) 480 ρwet (gr/cc) 1

θlab (degree/radians) 130 / 2.27 ρnon wet (gr/cc) 0.55

SCA2002-47 5/6

From a given Sw (30% using Rt modeled) and the specific Pc test on the studied rock

type, Pclab = 800 psi, (figure 4), then, using equations 1 & 2, Height above FWL is

calculated. (h) = 655 ft. Figure 4 also shows a Height vs. Sw chart for Meso Rock Type

which would allow the determination of the hydrocarbon column Height over FWL at

any Sw for Meso rock in the studied reservoir. For this “Meso rock Type” Swi was

estimated to be 25%, indicating a 5% difference in Sw with the LCV-5 well location.

This difference is equivalent to 982 additional feet up dip, if one well should be at Swi

conditions.

PORE THROAT PROFILE HEIGHT ABOVE FREE WATER LEVEL

Mercury Injection

PORE TYPE 10000.00

10000 .01

.025

.05

1000.00

1000 .1

(800) (655)

.25

.5

Height 100.00

Pc 100

1 (ft)

(psi)

2.5

10 10 10.00

25

1 100 1.00

100 90 80 70 60 50 R45 40 30 20 10 0 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Water Saturation %

Pore Volume Entered %

203 phi=.106 k=4.88 md R45 Height (Hc column)

Well LCV-10

Table 2 – Parameters for studied reservoir estimations.

Sw (%) 21 γfield (dyne/cm) 50

Macro Porous (pore throat

Rock Type θfield (degree/radians) 10 / 0.17

radii 2-10 microns)

γlab (dyne/cm) 480 ρwet (gr/cc) 1

θlab (degree/radians) 130 / 2.27 ρnon wet (gr/cc) 0.55

The second case tells from a given Sw (21% using Rt modeled) and the specific Pc test

on the studied rock type, Pclab = 1400 psi, (figure 5), then, using equations 1 & 2 , Height

above FWL is calculated. (h) = 1146 ft. Figure 5 also shows a Height vs. Sw chart for

Macro Rock Type which would allow to determine hydrocarbon column Height over

FWL at any Sw for Macro rock in the studied reservoir. For this “Macro rock Type” Swi

was estimated to be 18%, indicating a 3% difference in Sw with the LCV-10 well

location. This difference is equivalent to 491 additional feet up dip, if one well should be

at Swi conditions.

There is a 5% average error in Height calculations between the ones measured from

OWC in the map and those calculated from the PC derived chart. Besides that, an avg. of

25% increment in total reserves (OOIP) was obtained, using representative wells from the

studied reservoir in La Ceibita Field.

SCA2002-47 6/6

Mercury Injection

PORE TYPE 10000.00

10000 .01

.025

.05 (1146)

(1400) 1000.00

1000 .1

.25

.5

1 (ft)

(psi)

2.5

10 10 10.00

25

1 100

1.00

100 90 80 70 60 50 R45 40 30 20 10 0

0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100

Water Saturation %

Pore Volume Entered %

103 phi=.157 k=75.4 md R45 Height (Hc column)

Table 3 – Comparison between different calculated hydrocarbon column heights and

OOIP increments from the application of this methodology in La Ceibita Field.

h (from

Sw with h (from OOIP OOIP %

Rock Pc (from Hg Capillary

Well RT Structural % Error (before) (after) Increment

Type Injection) psi Pressure)

model Map) feet bls/ac-pie bls/ac-pie OOIP

feet

LCV-05 0.30 MESO 800.00 614.00 655.00 -6.26 205.00 489.00 138.54

LCV-10 0.21 MACRO 1400.00 1175.00 1146.00 2.53 619.00 781.00 26.17

LCV-53 0.26 MEGA 300.00 259.00 245.00 5.71 582.00 863.00 48.28

LCV-22 0.36 MESO 360.00 282.00 294.00 -4.08 271.00 296.00 9.23

LCV-47 0.26 MACRO 300.00 241.00 246.00 -2.03 702.00 807.00 14.96

LCV-09 0.35 MESO 420.00 324.00 344.00 -5.81 447.00 508.00 13.65

LCV-57 0.26 MACRO 300.00 234.00 246.00 -4.88 515.00 633.00 22.91

LCV-38 0.28 MESO 1100.00 893.00 900.00 -0.78 423.00 611.00 44.44

LCV-07 0.21 MACRO 1200.00 1022.00 982.00 4.07 698.00 737.00 5.59

REFERENCES

1. Franklin, M., Resistivity/SP Modeling and Neural Network Synthesis of Log and

Core Properties, Rocky Mountain Petrophysics, LLC, Aurora, U.S.A. 2001.

2. Hartmann, D. J., Petrophysical Integration, PDVSA, Workshop, Puerto La Cruz,

Venezuela, 2000, Sections: 1-10.

3. Pittman, E. D., “Relationship of Porosity and Permeability to Various Parameters

Derived From Mercury Injection – Capillary Pressure Curves for Sandstone”, AAPG

Bulletin, Tulsa, U.S.A., 1992, pp. 191-198.

4. Potter, G. F., Relative Permeability & Capillary Pressure, Amoco Exploration &

Production Company, Tulsa, U.S.A., 1999, pp. 1-43.

5. Sneider, R. M., Sneider, J. S., Geoscience-Petrophysical-Petroleum Engineering

Concepts to Improve Wellbore Evaluation & Hydrocarbon Recovery, Amoco

Exploration & Production Company, Tulsa, U.S.A., 1999, pp. 1.1 – 1.43.

6. Tiab, D., Donaldson, E., Petrophysics, Gulf Publishing Company, Houston, U.S.A.,

1996, pp.233-302.

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