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Explain the term of functional grammar! Why does functional grammar relate with semantics? Explain the relationship between functional grammar and syntax! Explain briefly the terms of pragmatics, semantics, syntax and phonology! Make rules of grammar for the following terms: a. Phrases b. Clauses c. Sentences Explain briefly the terms of prefixes, infixes and suffixes! Make examples in the sentence forms! Make an example of descriptive focused on the use of functional grammar! Make an example of narrative text focused on the use of functional grammar! Make five examples of in the sentence forms of the zero clauses! Make two dialogue practices dealing with the use of grammar in the sentence forms!

1. Functional grammar or systemic functional grammar is a theory of grammar founded by Michael Alexander Kirkwood Halliday. The basic philosophy of this theory is a belief that language is a resource for making meaning. This theory also is a tool for understanding how language works, and for analyzing language in use. The basic assumption of functional grammar is that linguistic phenomena cannot be explained without examining their function. Thus, functional grammar offers an alternative to (post-) structuralist attempts at describing linguistic phenomena formally. 2. Functional grammar has a close relationship with semantics. As mentioned previously, functional grammar is a belief that language is a resource for making meaning. It is a tool for understanding how language works and for analyzing language in use. In the other hand we define semantics the study of meaning. Their close relationship bears from their work together in understanding the meaning of language in use. 3. 4. Pragmatics is a subdiscipline of linguistics developed from different linguistic, philosophical and sociological traditions that studies the relationship between natural language expressions and their uses in specific situations. It refers to the relationship of the sign to the sign user. Semantics is the study of meaning in human language. It is a subdiscipline of linguistics concerned with the analysis and description of the so-called literal meaning of linguistic expressions. Syntax is the subcategory of the grammar of natural languages: a system of rules which describe how all-well formed sentences of a language can be derived from basic elements. Phonology is linguistic subdiscipline concerned with semantically relevant speech sounds and their pertinent characteristics, relations, and systems viewed synchronically and diachronically. Phonology also can be defined as the component of a grammar made up of the elements and principles that determine how sounds pattern in a language. 5. Phrases Meaning: a group of words that form a constituent and so function as a single unit in the syntax of a sentence. It has no meaning. Example: The house at the end of the street is red. the house at the end of the street is a phrase. Classifications: Adverb phrase: The car moves too slowly. Adjective phrase: The students are very happy. Noun phrase: This quality water costs very expensive.

Preposition phrase: They meet each other at lunch. Verb phrase: I watch the TV Forms NP ~ Det N (PP) VP ~ V (NP) (PP) PP ~ P NP AP ~ Adj (PP)

Clauses Meaning: a group of words that has meaning. It is the smallest grammatical unit that can express a complete preposition. It contains both a subject and a verb. Examples: Before going to school they have had breakfast. A man who works every morning is my father Classification: There are two kinds of clauses: ~ principal (main) clauses ~ subordinate (dependent) clauses Subordinate clauses can be classified according to their function: Adverbial clause: functions like an adverb in modifying another clause. E.g: As soon Zaky entered the room, all were astounded. Noun clause: can be used as both subject and object. E.g. he said that Ahmad is smart. Relative clause: the house, which stands on the hill, is my fathers. Finite clause: contains a finite verb and, usually, a subject. It can be a principal clause or a subordinate clause. E.g. They say nice things about you Non-finite clause: contains a non-finite verb but does not contain a finite verb and cannot stand alone. E.g: singing dancing, he goes up stair.

Fomrs Sentences Meaning: a grammatical unit consisting of one or more words that bear minimal syntactic relation to the words that precede or follow it. 6. Prefix is an affix which is placed before the root of the word. Dissatisfactory satisfactory Invalid valid Infix is an affix inserted inside a word stem (existing word). English has almost no infix except in some slang languages, chemistry terms and colloquialism. E.g: lutidune which is derived from lupetidine. Shiznit ~ shit. Hizouse ~ House. Suffix is an affix which is placed after the stem of a word. Improvement improve Suitable - Suit

7. Example of Descriptive Text Pondok Pesantren Sunan Pandanaran Pondok Pesantren Sunan Pandanaran (PPSP) is a semi-modern Islamic boarding school (pesantren) located in Kaliurang, Yogyakarta. It has four campuses. Each campus has different focuses of study. The first campus focuses only on the practice of Quran memorization while the second is intended for male studying at high school level. The third campus is for female while the last is specialized for university students. PPSP has a unique curriculum which incorporates two different curriculums; Religious affair ministry curriculum and pesantren curriculum. The earlier is implemented in their formal schools; Madrasah Tsanawiyah and Madrasah Aliyah while the later is implemented in Diniyah School. The students are obliged to live in the dormitories so the educational process can be carried out 24-hours non-stop. The campuses are clean and there are some beautiful parks where students can spend their spare time. The dormitories are big and well-organized as the students are aware to keep their environment safe, comfortable and clean. The classrooms are not only large but comfortable as well. Every day and evening, some students clean and sweep their dormitories. The campus environment really gives the students the most comfortable place to study. 8. 9. Zero Conditional Clause - If you answer all math questions, you are smart. - I go shopping if it doesnt rain. - If you leave me, I do my housework alone. - If you can do these exercises, youre an expert. - I dont like coffee, if its bitter. 10.