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) BY GIBBERELLIC ACID
Joan F. Agustin and Dr. Justo G. Canare Jr
The study was conducted to determine the growth and yield response of pickling cucumber to GA3 concentration ,with emphasis on sex expression and fruit set. The experiment was set up following RCBD with four replications. The treatments were T1-0 ppm (control), T2-50 ppm, T3-100 ppm, T4-200 ppm, T5-300 ppm. Treatment 2 (50 ppm) produced the highest average number of female flower, female flower to male ratio and average number of ruits. Lowest number of female flower, female flower to male flower ratio and average number of fruits were produced in untreated plants (T1-control).
The cucumber (Cucumis sativus L.) belongs to family Cucurbitaceae. It is an annual herbaceous crop with a vining type of growth, which results from the branching of the main stem into several trailing laterals. It is a monoecious plant that is cultivated for its immature fruits. The male flowers have very short stems borne in clusters of three to five. These are located mostly on the main stem, while female flowers are located on the
This advantage is more pronounced in pickling cucumber than in table cucumber because the fruits are harvested when still small and harvesting is more frequent. which will develop into fruit. then extracting and purifying the GA3. In 1998. Cucumber. a monoecious crop. which affects the yield of cucumber. in which seedlings grow elongated and die. In 1938. Shotoro Hori demonstrated that it was caused by a fungus. . Objective of the Study The objective of the study is to determine the growth and yield response of pickling cucumber to GA3 concentration. with emphasis on sex expression and fruit set. the chance of more fruits being produced would also be increased.. produces more male flowers than female flowers. now known as Gibberella fujikoroi. 1991).2 laterals as well as the main stem and can be recognized by the ovary at the base of the flower. Yabuta and Yusuke Sumiki first isolated a crystalline compound from the cultured fungus (Takahashi et al. If the female to male flower ratio and the fruit set can be increased. Gibberellins were discovered by Japanese plant pathologists studying “bakanae” disease (“foolish seedling”) of rice. Gibberellic acid occurs naturally in the seeds of many species and is produced commercially by growing Gibberella fujikoroi fungus cultures in vats. In 1935 Teijiro Yabuta first isolated a non-crystalline solid and named it Gibberellin.
Seedlings were transplanted at the age of 13 days at a distance of 50 cm. For transplanted seedlings. 28. the area was divided into four blocks representing the replications. 3 grams of potassium nitrate was applied each seedlings. three granules of complete fertilizer covered with soil were applied in each hole before sowing one seed per hill. unproductive branches were also removed. The experimental area was prepared using a rotavator until the soil was pulverized. Pruning was done 16 days after transplanting removing leaves 50 cm above the ground (mostly 3-5 leaves). . For fertilizer management.3 METHODOLOGY Cultural Management Practices The cucumber variety Ambassador seedlings were raised in seedling trays with mixture of 1:1:1 ratio of garden soil. Each block was further subdivided into five plots. 21 days. organic fertilizer. Other plants in adjacent plots were covered by plastic while spraying to prevent contamination. each measuring 3 meters long and 1 meter wide. At 20 days after transplanting. At 6 days after sowing. Training was done vertically using string at 12 days after transplanting. Potassium Nitrate was applied following the rate of 116kg/ha at 7 days. After thorough land preparation. A GA3 commercial product with a concentration of 10% was sprayed at 14 days after transplanting. Pruning of branches was done regularly leaving only the main branch. Plants were sprayed up to point of runoff.35.
21 days. 14 days. average number of fruits per plant. average number of female flowers per plant. 28. Application was done 30 and 40 days after transplanting. Gherkins 3 inches long were harvested every day in the morning and late afternoon and everyday thereafter for a period of one month. . and 63 days after transplanting and complete fertilizer at a rate of 300kg/ha at 7 days. Data Gathered The following data were gathered in this study: days to flowering. average number of male flowers per plants. Treatment means were compared using Duncan’s multiple range test (DMRT). 49. irrigation was done when the plants showed sign of wilting or at five days interval depending upon the occurrence of rainfall. female flower to male flower ratio. average number of flowers per plant.4 42. Cucumbers were protected from the attack of pests like leaf miners and aphids by spraying hot pepper with water. tabulated and analyzed using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) of Randomized Complete Block Design (RCBD). 35 and 42 days after transplanting For proper growth and development. days to first harvest. Hand weeding was done regularly to keep the area clean and to prevent weed competition. The data collected were organized. percent fruit set and weight of fruits in grams.
while plants sprayed with 100 ppm GA3 flowered significantly earlier than those sprayed with 300 ppm GA3. which flowered from 38 to 43 days (Table 1). Days to flowering and days to first harvest as influenced by different concentrations of GA3.RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Days to Flowering and Days to First Harvest The untreated plants flowered significantly earliest at 32 days compared to all plants treated with GA3. Other pairs of means were not significantly different. TREATMENT DAYS TO FLOWERING 32 a 38 b 39 bc 40 c 43 d DAYS TO FIRST HARVEST 51 a 57 b 60 bc 63 c 68 d T1 – Control T2 – 50 ppm T3 – 100 ppm T4 – 200 ppm T5 – 300 ppm Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different using DMRT at 5% level . Plants sprayed with 50 ppm GA3 flowered significantly earlier than those sprayed with 200 ppm and 300 ppm GA3. Table 1.
respectively. followed by T2 (500 ppm). This agrees with the findings of Levitt (1969) that application of GA3 delayed flowering due to continuous cell enlargement and stem elongation. resulting to late harvesting. had the significantly longest days to first harvest ( 68 days). 60. T5 (300 ppm). and 4 with means of 57. T3 (100 ppm) and T4 (200 ppm) with means of 38. the trend of days to first harvest was exactly similar to the trend of days to flowering. Plants from Treatment 5 (300 ppm) were observed to have the longest days to first harvest with a mean of 68 days. This indicates that days to flowering is related to days to first harvest. 36. Average Number of Flowers per Plant Table 2 shows the average number of flowers per plant as influenced by different concentrations of GA3. The number of days to first harvest as influenced by different concentrations of GA3 shows that untreated plants exhibited the shortest days to first harvest with a mean of 51 days. while plants treated with highest concentration of GA3. Comparison among means shows that T1 (control) had the significantly shortest number of days to first harvest (51 days). and 63 days. This was followed by plants from Treatments 2. 3. . Furthermore. T5 (300 ppm) had the lowest average number of flowers per plant with 33. It shows that untreated plants have the highest average number of flowers per plant with 44 flowers.6 The general trend was that flowering was delayed as GA3 concentration increased. respectively. and 36. This is similar to the findings of Castañeda (1998) that application of different concentrations of GA3 prolongs the growth of the crops.
5 a 8.0 a 7.2 a 6. The average number of male flowers per plant as influenced by different concentrations of GA3 revealed that untreated plants obtained the highest number of male flowers per plant followed by T2 (50 ppm). However.7 Comparison among means shows that untreated plants produced significantly more flowers per plant than those treated with 100 ppm. and T4 (200 ppm) with . T3 (100 ppm). plants treated with 50 ppm GA3 had comparable number of flowers as the control plants. and 300 ppm GA3. Table 2. 200 ppm.8 a TREATMENTS T1 – Control T2 – 50 ppm T3 – 100 ppm T4 – 200 ppm T5 – 300 ppm Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different using DMRT at 5% level The results indicate that the concentration 50 ppm of GA3 was too low to have an effect on number of flowers. However. which had comparable number of flowers per plant. Average number of flowers per plant as influenced by different concentrations of GA3 AVERAGE NUMBER OF FLOWERS PER PLANT 44 a 38 ab 36 b 36 b 33 b AVERAGE NUMBER OF MALE FLOWERS PER PLANT 40 a 31 b 28 b 28 b 26 b AVERAGE NUMBER OF FEMALE FLOWERS PER PLANT 3.8 b 6. GA3 concentrations of 100 ppm and above depressed flowering of cucumber.
It can also be noted in both average number of flowers and number of male flowers per plant. while they had comparable numbers of male flowers. while Bautista et al. T5 (300 ppm) obtained the fewest male flowers per plant with 26. and 28. respectively. Comparison among means revealed that plants treated with GA3 had significantly fewer male flowers than untreated plants. Meanwhile. 28. The reduction in male flowers was brought about by an increase in femaleness as will be shown in the next section.0 flowers followed by 200 ppm with a mean of 7.2 flowers and 300 ppm (6. Riley (1990) reported that formation of the male flower is generally promoted by concentrations of 10-20 ppm and female flowers by concentrations of 200-300 ppm. (1983) reported that GA3 used at concentrations from 100-240 ppm were found adequate to effect a shift in sex expression to femaleness.8 flowers. The lowest number of female flower was noted from the untreated plant with a mean of 3. The average number of female flowers per plant as influenced by different concentrations of GA3 shows that 100 ppm obtained the highest number of female flower with a mean of 8.8 means of 31.8 flowers). The results imply that GA3 reduces both the total number of flowers and the number of male flowers. It is apparent in this study that femaleness was promoted at the expense of male flowers. that numerically. . the results showed a decreasing number of male flowers relative to increasing concentration of GA3.
Observation revealed that untreated plants had the lowest female to male flower ratio with a mean of 0. Female Flower to Male Flower Ratio Table 3 presents the female flower to male flower ratio as influenced by different concentrations of GA3. and T5300 ppm and T3-100 ppm with means of 0. et al. 1990. Leopold and Kriedemann. However. Riley.25. the low number of female flowers per plant was brought about by pruning out of lateral branches leaving only the main stem to avoid shading effect.21. this study showed that even the low concentration of 50 ppm promoted femaleness. Furthermore. respectively. 0. followed by T2-50 ppm.26.09. Meanwhile. 0. While Bautista et al (1983) and Riley (1990) said that formation of female flowers is promoted at GA3 concentrations of 100-300 ppm.9 Comparison among means revealed that plants treated with GA3 produced significantly more female flowers than untreated plants. The results corroborated previous findings (Bautista. all GA3-treated plants had number of female flowers that were comparable. and 0. 1990) that GA3 can induce femaleness. 1983.28. T4-200 ppm. the concentrations at which femaleness is promoted differed. .
10 Table 3. the female to male flower ratio of the GA3-treated plants with concentrations of 50 ppm to 300 ppm were not significantly different. The increase in female to male flower ratio in the GA3-treated plants was brought about by the combination of reduced number of male flowers and increased number of female flowers.26 a Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different using DMRT at 5% level Comparison among means revealed that GA3 treatment significantly increased female to male flower ratio. .21 a 0. The female to male flower ratio of the control plants was comparable to that reported by Tiedjens (1928) who stated that the ratio between staminate and pistillate flowers in cucurbits is 10:1.25 a 0. Female flower to male flower ratio as influenced by different concentrations of GA3 TREATMENT T1 – Control T2 – 50 ppm T3 – 100 ppm T4 – 200 ppm T5 – 300 ppm MEAN 0.09 b 0. However.28 a 0. On the other hand. the female to male flower ratio of the GA3-treated plants was 2 to 3 times that of the control plants.
respectively. It can be noted.11 Percent Fruit Set Presented in Table 4 is the percent fruit set as influenced by different concentrations of GA3. Results revealed that (T5) 300 ppm and T4 (200 ppm) gave the highest fruit set with a mean of 99 %. Untreated plants were observed to have the lowest percent fruit set of 90 %. Table 4. that there was a numerical increase in percent fruit set as GA3 concentration increased. however. 1998. followed by T3 (100 ppm) and T2 (50 ppm) with means of 98 % and 94 %. 1990). Riley. This could be due to the low number of female flowers per plant produced in the study. the effect was not demonstrated in this study. Percent fruit set as influenced by different concentrations of GA3 TREATMENT T1 – Control T2 – 50 ppm T3 – 100 ppm T4 – 200 ppm T5 – 300 ppm MEAN 90 94 98 99 99 Although GA3 is known to promote fruit set (Taiz and Zeiger. .
1 b 6.9. and 6. Observation revealed that plants sprayed with 100 ppm of GA3 gave the highest number of fruits per plant with a mean of 7. respectively.1. Table 5.9 a Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different using DMRT at 5% level . T4 (200 ppm) and T5 (300 ppm) with means of 6. This was followed by T2 (50 ppm). Comparison among means revealed that GA3-treated plants had significantly more marketable fruits per plant than untreated plants.9 fruits. numbers of marketable fruits per plant were comparable. Among the GA3-treated plants.12 Average Number of Fruits per Plant Table 5 shows the average number of fruits per plant as influenced by different concentrations of GA3. 6.9 a 6.1 fruits. while the untreated plants (T1) produced the lowest number of fruits with a mean of 3. Average number of fruits per plant as influenced by different concentrations of GA3 TREATMENT T1 – Control T2 – 50 ppm T3 – 100 ppm T4 – 200 ppm T5 – 300 ppm MEAN 3.9 fruits.1 a 7.9 a 6.
Application of 100 ppm of GA3 gave the heaviest fruit with a mean of 217 grams followed by 200 ppm (T4). The trend of number of marketable fruits per plant was similar to that of number of female flowers per plant. 300 ppm (T5). Untreated plants have the lightest weight with a mean of 84 grams. . Weight of Fruits Per Plant (g) Table 6 shows the weight of fruits per plant as influenced by different concentrations of GA3. It can be noted that plants treated with GA3 produced the heaviest fruit. the low response to GA3 was attributed to the pruning out of lateral branches leaving only the main stem to avoid shading effect. respectively.13 Small number of deformed fruits was observed in which out of 20 plots. and 50 ppm (T2) with means of 194. only 7 had deformed fruits. this suggests that the increase in number of marketable fruits per plant of GA3-treated plants was brought about by the increase in number of female flowers per plant. same with the results in the number of female flowers per plant. Since fruits develop from female flowers. 189. and 168 grams. Again.
Weight (g) of fruits per plant of GA3 TREATMENT I T1 – Control T2 – 50 ppm T3 – 100 ppm T4 – 200 ppm T5 – 300 ppm 103 156 195 225 223 II 69 145 259 168 142 III 72 193 236 180 167 IV 94 179 177 204 224 84 b 168 a 217 a 194 a 189 a as influenced by different concentrations REPLICATION MEAN Means followed by the same letter are not significantly different using DMRT at 5% level Treatments 2 to 5 had means that were comparable. . The results could be attributed to the number of fruits from each treatment since the fruits were harvested when they reached a certain length. Results revealed that application of GA3 significantly increased the weight of fruits compared to control plants.14 Table 6.
The study revealed that GA3 increased number of female flowers. but not by 50 ppm. and weight of fruits were increased by GA3 concentration in the same way. The study was conducted in a greenhouse using randomized complete block design (RCBD) with four replications. T4-200 ppm and T5-300 ppm. T2-50 ppm. number of fruits. . Finally. Under the conditions of this study. although the reduction was comparable in all GA3 concentrations. The four GA3 concentrations had comparable effects. Vine length at first and final harvest increased with GA3 concentration up to 200 ppm but was reduced to the 50 ppm level at 300 ppm. number of fruits and weight of fruits. The different concentrations were applied at 14 days after transplanting with the following treatments: T1-0 ppm (control). female to male flower ratio. Number of flowers per plant was reduced by GA3 concentrations of 100 ppm and above. The desirable response to GA3 concentration was up to the lowest concentration of 50 ppm only. It delayed flowering and first harvest and reduced number of flowers per plant and number of male flowers per plant. Number of female flowers. female to male flower ratio. However.SUMMARY AND CONCLUSION This study was conducted to determine the response of pickling cucumber (cv Ambassador) to different concentrations of GA3. it had no effect on percent fruit set. T3-100 ppm. the higher concentrations of 100 ppm to 300 ppm did not give any advantage over 50 ppm. number of male flowers was reduced by all GA3 concentrations.
PCCARD.170p. USA. 1965.320p. McGrawHill Book Company. VALMAYOR. TAIZ.A. L. JR. College of Agriculture. RILEY. C.1998.J. McGraw-Hill Book Company. A. New York. SpringerVerlag. Inc..J.220p.V.C. CASTAÑEDA. MACMILLAN. 3rd ed. 1991. D. Gibberellic acid in plants. U. LEVITT. Sinauer Associates. 1998.O.LITERATURE CITED AUDUS. Interscience Publisher.P. E. R. Department of Horticulture. Denmar Publisher. L. V. TAKAHASHI. Massachusetts. ESPINO. TABORA. Plant growth and development. 1990. P. UPLB. New York. 220p.1983 Introduction to tropical horticulture. and E. 1990.V. P.A.E.S. New york. Gibberellins. Plant Physiology. 545p.K. McGraw-Hill Book Company. and J.. Plant growth substances. TIEDJENS. Sex ratios in cucumber flowers as affected by different conditions of soil and light.. New York . 1969. ZEIGER. LEOPOLD.C and P. H. H. Gibberellic Acid Increases Garlic Yield. KRIEDEMAN.A. W. K. BAUTISTA. 60p. 125p. Introductory horticulture . New York. 1928. New York .
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