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HEAT

NATURE AND TRANSFER OF HEAT

Heat is a form of energy which can be transformed from one

place to another

If a hot body and a cold body are placed in close contact the hot body will transfer some of its heat energy to cold body until

temperature of 2 becomes equal.


SI unit of heat is joule. One calorie is the amount of heat which will rise the

temperature of 1 gm of water by 1 degree celsius.

1 calorie = 4.2 Joules

HEAT TRANSFER

1.

3 methods of heat transfer are :


Conduction : It is the process in which heat energy transferred

without visible motion of particles of the heated body.


- it takes place in solid ,liquid & gases.
2.

Convection : It is the process in which heat is transferred by actual

motion of particles of the body.


- it occurs in liquids & gases e.x. winds ,land & sea breezes
3

Radiation : It is the process by which heat energy is transmitted from

one place to another without the aid of any material medium. e.x.
heat reaches the earth from the sun.

PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF HEAT ON MATTER


1)

Expansion : when a body is heated , it increases in size.

- In case of solids , increase will be in length, area or volume. - In liquids & gases ,only expansion in volume is possible.
2)

Acceleration of chemical action Production of potential difference Thermionic Emission Fluid Viscosity Reduction

3)

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TEMPERATURE AND MEASUREMENTS


Matter is made up of atoms or molecules.

Atoms and molecules are in regular movements in solids and


random movements in liquids and gases.

So, they possess kinetic energy ,which is responsible for the

hotness and coldness of the body.

Temperature is measured in degrees with the help of thermometers.

The measurement of temperature of a body is called the


thermometry.

SCALES OF TEMPERATURE

1.

There are three scales of temperature :


Centigrade scale : In this scale ,the temperature of the melting point of ice is taken as 0C and the temp. of the boiling point of water is taken as 100C. - This scale is also called as Celsius scale.

2.

Absolute scale : In this scale ,0 degree is named as absolute 0 and it is denoted as 0 K. - The absolute zero is the temp. at which the molecules will have zero speed.

- The 0 K temp. is equal to 273C in centigrade scale.


- This scale is also known as Kelvin scale. - In SI system ,the absolute scale is used to specify temperature.

3.

Fahrenheit Scale :

- In this scale , the temperature of melting ice is taken as 32 and the temp. of steam as 212

- Relationship between Celsius C and Fahrenheit scale is given by : C = F-32 100 180

# The normal body temp. is 98.6F. # Clinical Thermometery :


1. 2. 3.

Mercury in glass thermometer : uses Fahrenheit scale system Thermister Thermo couple

SPECIFIC HEAT

When a body is heated, its temperature rises. Rise in temp. depends on the quantity of heat given to the body and nature of its material. Let Q quantity of heat given to body of mass m & rise in temp. is ,then Q=mS S is constant depends upon nature of substance known as specific heat ( expressed as JKgK )

It is defined as quantity of heat required to raise the temperature

of 1 gm of substance through 1C.

For a given substance , it is not a constant and it is different at different temperatues.

RELATIVE HUMIDITY

Hygrometry is the science which deals with the study of water vapors in the atmosphere. Evaporation is a slow ,invisible process which takes place from the surface of all liquids at all temperatures. The vapor that is produced when water evaporates from sea ,rivers ,is called water vapor. It mixes with air. It is called humidity. Quantity of water vapor required to saturate the air depends on the temperature. Relative humidity : It is defined as the ratio of water vapor (m) actually present in the air at certain temperature to the quantity of water vapor ( M) required to saturate air at the same temperature. Relative humidity = m/M

REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE

The temp. of the human body is maintained by balancing the heat energy gained and heat energy lost.

The oxidation of food stuffs in tissues provide heat energy. Heat energy is lost by conduction ,convection ,radiation and evaporation.

Humidification of inspired air is important for conserving heat. Body also loses heat by expiration. Skin plays a major role in transferring heat by radiation. Human body radiates heat energy by the rate of & KJ/min.

USE OF HEAT FOR STERILIZATION

The sterilizer works on the principle of chales law in which the

volume is kept constant and the pressure is increased.

As pressure increases ,proportionally temperature increases . This is sufficient to destroy microorganisms.

In general non-spore forming bacteria needs 52-70C and


spore forming bacteria needs 110-120C for effective killing.

So, 120C temperature for about 30 mins. is the ideal

temperature for complete sterilization.

Dry heat is also used for sterilization of glass wares and powders. 9optimal temp. is 160C for effective killing)

APPLICATIONS IN NURSING
1.

Hot and cold water bath. The water bottles ,saline bottles ,blood bag are made with

2.

material with low thermal conductivity.


3.

Clothes
Cooking utensils Thermoflask Icebox

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