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One calorie is the amount of heat which will rise the temperature of 1 gm of water by 1 degree celsius.   SI unit of heat is joule.NATURE AND TRANSFER OF HEAT  Heat is a form of energy which can be transformed from one place to another  If a hot body and a cold body are placed in close contact the hot body will transfer some of its heat energy to cold body until temperature of 2 becomes equal.2 Joules .  1 calorie = 4.

. winds . 3 methods of heat transfer are : Conduction : It is the process in which heat energy transferred without visible motion of particles of the heated body. 2. Convection : It is the process in which heat is transferred by actual motion of particles of the occurs in liquids & gases e. .it takes place in solid .x. e.liquid & gases.HEAT TRANSFER  1. . heat reaches the earth from the & sea breezes 3 Radiation : It is the process by which heat energy is transmitted from one place to another without the aid of any material medium.

. it increases in size.only expansion in volume is possible. area or volume.PHYSICAL EFFECTS OF HEAT ON MATTER 1) Expansion : when a body is heated . 2) Acceleration of chemical action Production of potential difference Thermionic Emission Fluid Viscosity Reduction 3) 4) 5) .In liquids & gases . increase will be in length.In case of solids . .

. they possess kinetic energy .  So.  Temperature is measured in degrees with the help of thermometers.which is responsible for the hotness and coldness of the body.  The measurement of temperature of a body is called the thermometry. Atoms and molecules are in regular movements in solids and random movements in liquids and gases.TEMPERATURE AND MEASUREMENTS   Matter is made up of atoms or molecules.

of the boiling point of water is taken as 100˚C.SCALES OF TEMPERATURE  1.The 0 K temp.The absolute zero is the temp. 2. . at which the molecules will have zero speed. . . Absolute scale : In this scale . .This scale is also called as Celsius scale. .the temperature of the melting point of ice is taken as 0˚C and the temp.In SI system . is equal to 273˚C in centigrade scale.This scale is also known as ‘Kelvin scale’.0 degree is named as absolute ‘0’ and it is denoted as 0 K. . There are three scales of temperature : Centigrade scale : In this scale .the absolute scale is used to specify temperature.

6˚F. of steam as 212˚ . 3. 2. is 98.In this scale . # Clinical Thermometery : 1. Fahrenheit Scale : . Mercury in glass thermometer : uses Fahrenheit scale system Thermister Thermo couple .3. the temperature of melting ice is taken as 32˚ and the temp.Relationship between Celsius ‘C’ and Fahrenheit scale is given by : C = F-32 100 180 # The normal body temp.

Let ‘Q’ – quantity of heat given to body of mass ‘m’ & rise in temp. depends on the quantity of heat given to the body and nature of its material.  For a given substance .SPECIFIC HEAT   When a body is heated. its temperature rises. Rise in temp. .then Q=mSθ ‘S’ is constant depends upon nature of substance known as “specific heat” ( expressed as JKgˉ¹Kˉ¹ )   It is defined as quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gm of substance through 1˚C. is ‘θ’ . it is not a constant and it is different at different temperatues.

invisible process which takes place from the surface of all liquids at all temperatures. Relative humidity = m/M .RELATIVE HUMIDITY       Hygrometry is the science which deals with the study of water vapors in the atmosphere. Quantity of water vapor required to saturate the air depends on the temperature. Relative humidity : It is defined as the ratio of water vapor (m) actually present in the air at certain temperature to the quantity of water vapor ( M) required to saturate air at the same temperature. Evaporation is a slow .rivers . The vapor that is produced when water evaporates from sea .is called water vapor. It is called humidity. It mixes with air.

    Humidification of inspired air is important for conserving heat.   The oxidation of food stuffs in tissues provide heat energy. of the human body is maintained by balancing the heat energy gained and heat energy lost. Skin plays a major role in transferring heat by radiation. .REGULATION OF BODY TEMPERATURE  The temp. Body also loses heat by expiration. Heat energy is lost by conduction . Human body radiates heat energy by the rate of & KJ/min.convection .radiation and evaporation.

 So. 120˚C temperature for about 30 mins.USE OF HEAT FOR STERILIZATION  The sterilizer works on the principle of chales law in which the volume is kept constant and the pressure is increased.  Dry heat is also used for sterilization of glass wares and powders.  As pressure increases .proportionally temperature increases . is 160˚C for effective killing) . is the ideal temperature for complete sterilization. 9optimal temp. This is sufficient to destroy microorganisms.  In general non-spore forming bacteria needs 52-70˚C and spore forming bacteria needs 110-120˚C for effective killing.

Hot and cold water bath. The water bottles . 3.APPLICATIONS IN NURSING 1. Clothes Cooking utensils Thermoflask Icebox 4. material with low thermal conductivity. 6. .blood bag are made with 2.saline bottles . 5.