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allowances applicable to the job and production standards. Although, the same information can be obtained by time study procedures, work sampling frequently provides the same information faster and at considerably less cost. (Niebels, 2007)
Stated by Niebel (2007) The accuracy of data determined by work sampling depends on the
number of observations and the period over which the random
observations are taken. The analyst should design an observation form to record the data to be gathered during the work sampling study. A standard form is usually not acceptable, since each work sampling study is unique from the standpoint of the total observations needed, the random times that observations are made, and the information being sought.
(Niebel. the analyst must also determine the reason for idleness and mark this on the form (Niebel. the analyst must not anticipate the expected recording.In approaching the work area. age. fitness and trainings (Miller & Freivalds.2007) If the operator to be studied is idle. .2007) Individual factors that affect performance: gender. 1987). handedness.
It also made use of a control limits that evaluate the variations in quality from subgroup to subgroup. according to Deming (1988) is a means of visualizing the variations that occur in the central tendency and dispersion of a set of observations. (Niebel.The control chart techniques used in statistical quality control work can readily be applied to work sampling studies to identify problem areas and be used to show the progressive improvement of work areas.2007) The control chart. .
.Natural requires variation is the result of chance causes that management intervention to achieve quality improvement. difficult to detect and identify. causes these can be readily identified and Chance causes these are random causes that are inevitable. Unnatural variation is the result of assignable causes requires corrective action by people close to the process such as operators. clerks and any other workers Assignable predictable.
Assignable Cause Present Chance Cause Present .
The control chart techniques used in statistical quality control work can readily be applied to work sampling studies to identify problem areas and be used to show the progressive improvement of work areas. (Niebel.2007) The control chart. . according to Deming (1988) is a means of visualizing the variations that occur in the central tendency and dispersion of a set of observations.
the control limits become closer to the central value.It is very important to take note of the subgroup size. which makes the control chart more sensitive to small variations in the process average (Deming. 1988). As it increases. .
2011) Labor intensive Frequently focused on unique individual attributes or desire Often an intellectual task performed by professionals Often difficult to mechanize and automate Often difficult to evaluate for quality To create a customer value in an efficient and sustainable way is an idea of a competitive advantage. It is difficult to improve because of the following factors: (Heizer and Render. (Heizer and Render.2011) .The service sector provides a special challenge to the accurate measurement of productivity and productivity improvement.
The new number of observations was obtained through the used of nomogram. The proponents also made thorough research in constructing a work sampling form and the process of work sampling method. .The proponents made a preliminary work sampling of 30 observations in which the result of idle percentage was used for another work sampling activity.
Quantitative approach is being used in gathering and analyzing the data. The control chart was constructed as to the details of per random times and per day performance. . Only one person is being considered as the subject of the study. In which. the out-of-control conditions gathered were the bases for generating recommendations for improvement.
What are the problems or causes for the non – productive occurences of the worker? 3.2 Idle time 1.1 Working time 1.This study will deal accordingly to answer the following questions: 1. What are the possible recommendations that will improve the productive occurrence of the worker? .3 Standard time 2.How economical is the use of work sampling in determining the following: 1.
000php – 15. Inc.La-Fortuna Bakery.000php • Estimated sales per day on regular basis . • Name of the company Carmen Sy • Owner Marfe Ancit • Cashier/ all-around • 200 per day –wage 12.
1% 15% .Information Total Time Expended by Operator (Working time and Idle time) Working time in percent Data for 6 Days 282 min 58% Total Number of Times Working Idle time in percent Average Performance index Total Allowances 3600 times (6 days) 42% 37.
)x(Working time in%)x(Performance Index in %) x Allowance Total number of times working (282 x 0.58 x 3.20 min = 12 sec. .71) = ( x 100 ) 3600 (100 – 15) = 0.Standard time (Total = time in min.
= 118= 0. = number of days studied 282 = 6 47 p = No. of “idle” obs.Control limits p = p +3 √p(1-p) / n N = 282 observations n = total number of obs. 282 . of obs.42 total no.
42+3√(0.42 x 0.42 +0.20 .58) / 47 = 0.22 UCL LCL = 0.CL for p = 0.64 = 0.
“Idle” % of Day “Idle” March 8 March 9 47 47 17 22 0.34 = 34% 0.34 = 34% .Date of Study Total Number of Obs.43 = 43% 0. 0.36 = 36% 0. Number of Obs.51 = 51% .47 = 47% March 12 March 13 March 14 March 15 47 47 47 47 24 16 20 16 0.
32 0.52 0.64 0.42 percent occurence 0.20 8-Mar 9-Mar 12-Mar 13-Mar 14-Mar 15-Mar .0.
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 17% 17% 17% 17% 17% 17% 17% 50% 83% 67% 67% 50% 67% 50% 50% 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 33% 17% 0% 17% 50% 50% 67% 33% 67% 50% 17% 33% 50% 100% 67% 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 33% 17% 33% 33% 33% 50% 33% 100% 83% 50% 17% 67% 33% 33% 33% . Obs. No.Obs. Obs. No %non-prod. %non-prod. %non-prod.
04 0.50 0.16 0.22 0.08 0.24 0.46 0.40 0.14 0.38 0.02 0.02 1.98 0.64 0.30 0.44 0.56 0.32 0.10 0.74 0.48 0. .20 0.60 0.92 0.06 0.34 0.26 0.80 0.36 0.04 1.54 0.12 0.UCL CL p LCL 1.76 0.66 0.00 0.78 0.86 0.52 0.68 0.82 0.42 0.84 0.88 0.72 0.18 0.58 0.94 0.28 0.96 0.90 0.00 Percetage occurence 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 Observation Nos.70 0.62 0.
Productive Occurrence 50 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 Occurrence 10 5 0 .
Non-Productive Occurrence 45 40 35 30 25 20 15 10 5 0 Occurrence .
Working time and Idle time almost got a closer result with 58% and 42% respectively. Based from the types of out-of-control condition: Trend or steady change in level --worker’s performance is affected due to boredom and inattention .
Change or jump in level --there was an unintentional change or minor failure made by the worker such as being late and going home (emergency cases). the co-worker is still attending the customer’s needs or questions. When it comes to service. . and the worker (subject) would have to wait.
This affects the condition in such a way that the result becomes bias. There are times when the observation took place (1 min.) after the previous observation.Recurring Cycle – idleness take most between 8 am – 10:30 am and 3pm downwards. Two populations – there is a large differences in the test method or the random times being used. Working time takes most when it’s mid-afternoon or the students are taking their lunch. Seasonal effects or peak hours cannot be avoided and so. and the next observation will be done after 5 minutes or more. . this affect the condition of the worker’s performance.
. or anticipate the recording of data. where the analyst have to assign other students to take records of the data. yet that student doesn’t have a background of work sampling and is careless with the random times. The points outside the control limits showed that there were chance causes present. In a case. such as going home for an emergency and the peak hour of students for taking a dinner or meal.Mistakes – this can be very embarrassing but there could be a mistake in recording the data.
. such as the service or product that they offer. Most of their products (foods) are identical with the other food shop in the canteen. has to offer a new product.Natural Variation – the management has to facilitate the performance of the worker when it comes to being late Assignable cause – although the plotted points where located inside the control limits there are still unnatural variation that is to be considered. the management then.
Work sampling can provide information about the productive and non – productive occurrence of the worker. . However. it does not provide a complete information about the method used by the worker. The behavior of the worker could also affect the data recorded especially when the observations are made too obvious of the worker and there is a shifting of performance.
not applicable for other workers present in the workplace. That resulted to a generalization of the work for a single subject only. .Work sampling tends to average and generalize the results. The control chart helps determine the percentage occurrence of the nonproductive work per random times given. there has to be a sample size per random times or subgroup. However. The variations of the results then will only lead to an inappropriate analyzation of the problems. when it is measured per day.
.The following recommendations are to be implemented: set – up the determined standard time Produce a new product or menu to improve marketing service Facilitate the performance and behavior of the worker when it comes to being late Increase the wage payment from 200 php to 305php in accordance to the labor code. to satisfy the workers performance and job security.
B. (1988). Improving Performance. K. New York Freivalds. Quality Control Handbook. (1982). Pearson Education. and Management of Work. Mc-Graw Hill Book Company. New York: Mc-Graw Hill Companies. and Niebel. M. Measurement. Mc-Graw Hill Book Company. . A. and Work Design. Niebel’s Methods. New York Deming. E.Groover. Inc. (2007). Safety Management. New Jersey Denton. Inc.Work Systems and the Methods. Standards. (2009).
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