Motorola BTS

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Objective
To be able to understand the functional areas of Motorola Horizon I&II macro cabinet, description of their digital modules and cabinet RF components Introduction & description of VSWR, RF feeder cables and antennas To understand BTS Command Interface with Procom plus TX Calibration of single/double density DRIs

Table of Contents
• Introduction to BSS • BTS Basics • HMAC II & I features • VSWR, Antenna Tilting • DRIs TX/RX Calibration • Command interface • Tools Required
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Introduction to BSS .

Base Station Subsystem VLR BTS BTS BTS BTS BTS BSC PSTN ISDN PSPDN OMC HLR BSC MSC IWF EIR AC NSS .Network Management System .Network Subsystem MS Air Abis A SC Transcoder NMS .GSM Architecture BSS .

Transcoder function Although transcoder is considered to be a part of BSS. it is most often located closer to MSC. Basic function is to reduce the data rate of the signals from MSC .

.BTS Site A base transceiver station (BTS) or cell site is a piece of equipment that facilitates wireless communication between user equipment (UE) and a network.

BTS Site Block Diagram .

. This signal type is still as an electrical signal. controlling expansions and interface panels Clock source unit Deliver a stable clocking source to all digital equipments Interface Panel Translate the source data (Abis) to BTS Format digital data Base Band Unit the digital data is processed following the GSM standard. have a function to convert electrical signal to electromagnetic signal. this unit creates a data which ready to be feed to RF Unit Power Supply Unit produces a power for whole equipments in the BTS RF Unit converts the digital signal to Radio Frequency Signal (air interface signal) following the GSM Standard. Antenna Unit Antenna as a traditional unit. software download.• • • • • • • Main Processor Alarms collection and management. transceivers management.

3. Digital Cards Radios (CTU/CTU2) RF equipment RF interface to Antenna ( Transmit .Combining and filtering) (Receive – Amplification and filtering) DRI DRI DRI DRI DRI DRI E1 Link Digital Cage == Controls the cabinet Alarms Power Supplies . 2.Basic block diagram of cabinet Antenna Three Main Functional areas: 1.

HMACII Front View Alarm Board Circuit Breaker Card (CBC) Site Controller (HIISC) Power Supply Units (PSU) Cooling Fans CTU2 .

HMAC II Front view Power Supply SURF2 Site I/O Panel Link Interface Board Tx Blocks EAS Alarm. PIX 0 & 1 .

Power Supply Unit Maximum 4x PSU per cabinet – One for Redundancy Depends on the number of Radios fitted. The Cabinet can support the three types of power supply • +27V (negative earth) • -48V (positive earth) • Nominal 120/240V AC .

Power Supply Unit Nominal Voltage Voltage supply range Current supply maximum +27 V dc +19.5 to +30 V 204A (at nominal (negative earth) dc voltage) -48 v dc -39 to –72 V dc 99A (at nominal voltage) (Positive earth) 120/240 V ac (50 to 60 Hz) 88 to 270 V 45A (at nominal voltage) .

-48 VDC Power Supply Unit Alarm LED Attachment screw Active LED Output Disable switch Air Vent Handle .

. • Over temperature. • I/P under voltage. • Internal Fan failure.PSU Alarms All three unit types support the same PSU Alarms: • O/P over/under voltage.

Circuit Breaker Card (CBC) 6x CCB for CTU2 2x Push Button HIISC 2x Push Button SURF2 1x Tx RF Blocks 1x FAN trays .

HIISC Controller Status LEDs HIISC controller acts as a main processor for horizon macro II cabinet. Its main features include •Backward compatible with MCUF •Integrated NIU •Integrated FMUX •E1 Support •Enhanced E1 redundancy •Removable flash media capacity Compact Flash Slot TTY MMI Reset Buttons .

Expanding a BTS XMUX Locatio n XMUX in slot 0 Fibre connections IN/OUT .

Components interconnections Horizon II Cabinet CTUII radio(s) H-II Radio TDM H-II Expansion Cabinet Alarm Site IO XMUX XMUX HIISC NBSC Site IO Horizonmacro Cabinet FMUX FMUX Alarm .

Input/Output I/O Card Connects up to 3x extra cabinets Fibre optic connections GPS connector (not supported) Site Expansion Board .

. expanded to a Horizon II macro and a Horizonmacro.Expansion configurations E1 Horizon II macro (6xCTU2) X M U X Horizon II macro (6xCTU2) Two Horizon II macro’s expanded. Horizon II macro (6xCTU2) X M U X E1 Horizon II macro (6xCTU2) F M U X Horizonmacro (6 x CTU) Horizon II macro. Horizonmacro controlling a Horizon II macro and another Horizonmacro.

Cabinet Temperature Control • Operating range -5 C to +45 C • Three Internal FAN units – speed controlled • 3x Cabinet Temperature Sensors – » 1x (70 C) for cabinet alarm » 2x (85 C) to shutdown the cabinet. . reset at 55 C.

Alarm Board Mains Provides External alarm monitoring from the cabinet via the backplane • Cabinet Power Supply Units • Environmental controlled devices(over temperature • Customer defined alarms(EAS) • Antenna VSWR monitoring(via TX blocks) ALL LEDs are GREEN when the equipment is OK RED when equipment is faulty Door 1 LVD Fan 0 Fan 1 & 2 .

Compact Transceiver Unit ( CTU2) Single Density Mode – High Power 63W (48dbm) 900MHz 50W (47dbm) 1800MHz Normal Power 20W (43dbm) 900MHz 16W (42dbm) 1800MHz Double Density Mode –Normal Power 20W (43dbm) 900MHz 16W (42dbm) 1800MHZ .

A CTU2 is backward compatible with HMAC I through software control.Compact Transceiver Unit 2 (CTU2) TRANSMIT RF OUT The CTU2 transceiver has the ability to support two logical carriers within a single transceiver unit. TTY INTERFACE Radio Status LED Tx Status A LED Tx Status B LED .

RF Equipment RF Equipment .

Sectorized Universal Receiver Frontend .

Diversity Antenna .

Cabinet TX Blocks Transmitter RF Blocks New RF Blocks: • DUP .Duplexer • HCU .Hybrid Combiner Unit • DHU .Dual Hybrid Combiner Unit Connecting Panels • Blanking Plate • Feedthrough plate .

SURF RX Connecto r Feedthrough and Connecting Plates Duplexer .

Blanking Plate Duplexer Feedthrough Plate .

DUP Block Diagrams .

DHU & HCU Block Diagrams .

Tx Tx Block Alarm Board CTU2 Signal .VSWR Monitoring To SURF Antenna VSWR Monitor Rx Filter Tx Filter • The Antenna VSWR monitoring function is used to detect faults in antennas or antenna path connections.

HMAC I HMAC I cabinet comprises of three main parts •Power Supply Module •Circuit Breaker Module •Binary PSM .

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via NIU modules .MCUF Controller Card Main features of MCUF Include • Maintenance and operational/control processing • Switching of traffic and control information • The functionality of two FMUX • Support up to six transceivers via backplane in first cabinet and up to an additional 18 transceivers via FMUX connections to other cabinets • Support of up to six E1 circuits.

• Handling the diversity process which will improve the reception process . Decoding.Compact Transceiver Unit 1 (CTU) It contains Digital Circuits which provide the following capabilities: • Handling the process of Encoding. • Handling of 8 time slot (1 carrier signal). • Transmit power control.

Power Supply Module BPSM Card Circuit Breaker Module .

TDF. HCU and DHU (6) Integrated in HIISC supplied via backplane CBC Internal NIU in HIISC Alarm Module *** CIM/T43 or BIM/BIB FMUX SURF (1) SURF harness DCF. DDF and HCU (3) BPSM (2) CBM NIU (4) Alarm Module CIM/T43 or BIM/BIB .HMAC II vs HMAC I Function Input power conversion units (max fitted) Power to transceivers and signal routeing Transceivers (max fitted) Main processor module (Max fitted) Horizon II macro component PSU (4) Backplane CTU2 (6) HIISC (2) Horizonmacro I equivalent PSM (3) BPSM and backplane CTU (6) MCUF (2) Processor module connection to transceivers in Internal XMUX in HIISC (1) and separate Internal FMUX in another cabinet site expansion boards MCUF (2) or (1 or 2) external FMUX (2) Slave cabinet multiplexer Rx components (Max fitted) Transceiver to Rx components TX blocks (Max fitted internally) DC power supply for digital modules (Max fitted) Equipment protection/isolation Links to terrestrial network (Max fitted) Alarm Handling E1/T1 links XMUX SURF2 (2) SURF2 harness DUP.

Voltage Standing Wave Ratio (VSWR) Voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) is the ratio of the maximum voltage amplitude of a reflected wave ( ) to the minimum voltage amplitude ( ). Reflections occur as a result of discontinuities. such as an imperfection in an otherwise uniform transmission line. ρ = | | (Reflection Coefficient) . in an electrical transmission line. or when a transmission line is terminated with other than its characteristic impedance.

09) .VSWR Standards DBC(DUAL BAND CMBINERS) ( MAX 1.

06 Arrestor s 1.35 DCS Measure Match = 1.09 DBC 1.16 1.08 1.GSM Measure Match = 1.04 Antenna BTS .45 Antenna Jumper 1.

R M C .1 1 .S E C .2 8 .2 VSWR 1 .8 1 .5 0 m e t e r s ( F u ll C a l) P S H .D C S .3 5 ) .0 0 1 4 . 1 .2 1 .S E C .Fault Location D ista n c e T o F a u lt D is t a n c e : 0 m e t e r s .4 0 0 M 1 : ( 3 2 . 1 .1 8 ) VSWR Measure Match F r e q u e n c y : 1 7 1 0 M H z .3 1 . D C S .0 0 5 10 15 20 25 D is ta n c e ( m e te r s ) 30 35 40 45 50 1 L im it: 1 .B 1 9 /1 1 /2 0 0 8 5 : 1 1 : 0 0 P M 1 .1 1 .0 1725 1750 1775 1800 F re q u e n c y (M H z ) 1825 1850 1875 1 V SW R M 1 : (1 8 7 9 .0 0 1 4 .4 1 .R M C .3 1 .1 8 8 0 M H z ( F u ll C a l) P S H .A 9 /1 1 /2 0 0 8 5 : 2 3 : 0 0 P M 1 .

The extra-precisely corrugated copper tube outer conductor. characteristic of low VSWR makes the cable a choice even in high-frequency applications. Excellent Electrical performances: 80% super-high degree foaming polyethylene insulation of features with low attenuation and stability in case of temperature variation. Ease of maintenance: The special structure presents premises for effective moistureproofing. thus assuring performances stability in terms of long period. .RF cable Advantages 50 ohm RF Communication feeder cable Advantages: 1. 3. Simple use and complete range: The light. flexible and easily-bending thin-wall corrugated copper conductor offers convenience for terminal work. 2.

Depending on the height of the tower run. additional ground points may be required (see table below).RF Cable Grounding Locations All outdoor antenna feeder runs should be grounded at their lowest point just prior to entering the base station or radio enclosure. .

Individual grounding Groundin g Kit Bundled grounding Grounding Kit .

Tools Required (VSWR) Insulation cutter Knife Warding Files Site Master Open End Spanners Closed End Spanners Adjustable Spanners Cable Cutter .

EMR Antennas .

an antenna is an arrangement of one or more conductors. antennas convert electromagnetic radiation into electrical current. In other words. with a center-fed driven element for transmitting or receiving radio frequency energy. or vice versa. . Physically. usually called elements A dipole antenna is an antenna that can be made by a simple wire.Antenna An antenna (or aerial) is a transducer that transmits or receives electromagnetic waves.

. the current direction.Emission (Radiation) Pattern Emission of a dipole is maximal in the plane perpendicular to the dipole and zero in the direction of wires. that is.

which oscillate in phase perpendicular to each other and perpendicular to the direction of energy propagation.Electromagnetic Radiation (EMR) EMR comprises electric and magnetic field components. The polarization of an electromagnetic wave is defined as the orientation of the electric field vector .

Simplest way is mechanical tilting. but it creates a back lobe More common is the electrical tilting.Beam Tilting Beam tilt is used in radio to aim the main lobe of the vertical plane radiation pattern of an antenna below (or above) the horizontal plane. where the phasing between antenna elements is tweaked to make the signal go down (usually) in all directions .

Tilt Vs Gain .

BTS Command Interface Procom Plus .

Display Alarms (EAS/IAS) .

DRI Status .

Radios Classification/Configuration SECTOR A GSM 900 DRI 0 0 0 DRI 0 1 0 DRI 0 2 0 DRI 0 3 0 SECTOR B GSM 900 DRI 1 0 0 DRI 1 1 0 DRI 1 2 0 DRI 1 3 0 SECTOR C GSM 900 DRI 2 0 0 DRI 2 1 0 DRI 2 2 0 DRI 2 3 0 SECTOR A DCS 1800 DRI 3 0 0 DRI 3 1 0 DRI 3 2 0 DRI 3 3 0 SECTOR B DCS 1800 DRI 4 0 0 DRI 4 1 0 DRI 4 2 0 DRI 4 3 0 SECTOR C DCS 1800 DRI 5 0 0 DRI 5 1 0 DRI 5 2 0 DRI 5 3 0 Common configuration with 3 DCS 1800 DRIs (one in each Sector) and 3 GSM 900 DRIs (one in each sector) GSM 2/2/2 DCS 2/2/2 .

Alarms Equipage .

BSC MMS Identifiers .

Site IDs/Status .

Site RSL Status .

BSC RSLs Status .

All Sites Status with codes .

All Sites Status with codes .

MMS Status .

BSC OML Status .

dl losses) + 105 where 105 is the optimum value for the path balance In case of -ve path balance. the DL losses are greater which means a TX calibration for the BTS is needed (adjust TX power) In case of +ve path balance this. the UL losses are greater which means RX calibration is needed to adjust the sensitivity of the RX of the BTS .Path Balance Path balance = (UL losses .

GSM Cell Data .

Display Intervals .

DRI Equipage .

Level 2 / Level 3 access

DRI Calibration Data

BSC MTLs Status

BSC XBLs Status .

BSS Test Equipments .

Thanks .

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