(Business Research Methods)

Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan


Editing and Coding Data
 Editing is the process of checking data for errors such as omissions, illegibility and inconsistency, and correcting data where and when the need arises  Example 1: A questionnaire meant to be answered by adults over the age of 30 years has also been answered by some persons under the age of 30 years  Example 2: A respondent gives her birthday as 1865 or claims to have a car insurance but says she doesn‘t own a car

Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan


Field Editing and In-House Editing
 Field Editing is a prelimary form of data editing which is undertaken by the field supervisor on the day of the interview with a view to finding omissions, checking the legibility of handwriting, and clarifying responses by respondents that are logically or conceptually inconsistent  In-House Editing is a form of data editing which is more rigorous than field editing in nature, and which is performed by a centralized office staff
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 3

Data Consistency and Completeness
 The data obtained from a questionnaire must be logically consistent, especially when questions are related  Sometimes inconsistency of data may not be readily apparent. In this case, the data editor must judge what action to take (example: Salary of the CEO of a big corporation is given as USD 25,000 per annum)  Circumstances permitting, the data editor may have to insert data if answers to questions have been omitted by the respondent, but which can be answered on the basis of the other data obtained (example: respondent does not answer a question asking if his organization has a website, but somewhere later answers that the organization has three websites)
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 4

Non-Responses and Out-Of-Order Answers
 Often, questions are left unanswered by respondents (Item Non-Response). In such cases, where data must be inserted, the data editor has some options such as using a „plug value“ according to some prespecified rule  Sometimes respondents give answers to (openended) questions in other questions. In such cases, data has to be shifted around the questions
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 5

Some Observations on Editing
 Editing of data should, deally, be done wih a coloured pencil and the original data must not be erased in case it is required for future reference  Data editing should be conducted systematically on the basis of procedures made by professionals  Data editing should be included in the pretest phase of a questionnaire, in order to improve the quality of a questionnaire  Data editing has drawbacks, such as, the editor does not possess the required level of intelligence, experience and objectivity
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 6

Data Coding
 Data Coding follows data editing and is the means by which data can be converted into a format that enables its processing and analysis by the computer  Data Coding incorporates a number of technical steps and can be a tedious proceess  For details of data coding process, refer to your text book pp. 457 ff.
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 7

Research Report, Presentation, Follow-Up
 The research report is the crucial means for communicating the whole project to those individuals or entities who or which commissioned the research  A research report may be in writing, verbal, or a combination of both  It is essential that great effort is put into writing a good research report because it is often the only part of the research cycle that end users get to see!  A great research based on a well-conceived approach will go to waste if the research report leaves a bad impression on the end users of that research
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 8

 The business researcher should carefully consider how he or she is going to communicate the information to the end user  The business researcher should take pains to ensure that he/she and the research end-user are at the same communicational level, i.e., that the terminology used in the report is understandable and that the end-user is presented with all the information neded to make an informed decision
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 9

Communicating the Research Report

Research Report Templates
 There is no universally applied template for writing a research report, rather, there is a general consensus on what constitutes a good research report  Many organizations have designed their own in-house formats for reports and specified what aspects must be included
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 10

Research Report Design Template
Research Report

Prefatory Parts

Main Body

Appended Parts

Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan


Research Report Components (1)
Title Page Letter of Transmittal Letter of Authorization Table of Contents Summary Objectives Results Conclusions Recommendations
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Research Report Components (2)
Introduction Methodology Results Area 1 Area 2

Limitations Conclusions and Recommendations

Final Area
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 13

Research Report Components (3)

Data Collection Forms Detailed Calculations General Tables Bibliography
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 14

Graphic Aids in Research Reports
 In research reports, several types of graphical components may be used, including, for example: tables, charts and graphs in their diverse manifestations, diagrams, maps, photographic or computer-generated images, sketches etc.  Graphical components are a useful supplement to – but not a substitute for – written text because they can convey a lot of information and are visually appealing, particularly if they are in colour  Software programmes like MS Excel make the task of creating graphics from raw data easy and quick  See text book examples, pp. 506 ff.
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 15

Oral Presentations (1)
 Oral presentations are a useful supplement to written research reports because they enable the salient findings of the research to be presented at any time, and they give listeners the opportunity to raise questions and clarify any ambiguous issues or points  The researcher giving the oral presentation must be very well prepared to defend the results of his or her written report in a confident and competent manner so that the individuals who will be making decisions on the basis of the report are convinced of its importance and accuracy
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 16

Oral Presentations (2)
 The researcher should try to maintain good communication with the listeners by avoiding excessive technical jargon if and when dealing with persons from other disciplines  The researcher should avoid simply reading out text, maintain eye contact with his or her listeners, and gesture occasionaly  Multimedia aids can be considered as can posters or handouts
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 17

Research Follow-Up Work
 After the research has been completed, and information submitted to the manager or decision-makers concerned, follow-up work may be necessary  Follow-up includes recontacting the managers or decision-makers concerned and asking them if the research has met their informational requirements, or whether additional input is or may be needed
Course Instructor: Dr. Aurangzeb Z. Khan 18

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