Computer Generations

The history of computer development is often referred to in reference to the different generations of computing devices. Each generation of computer is characterized by a
major technological development that fundamentally changed the way computers operate, resulting in increasingly smaller, cheaper, more powerful and more efficient and reliable devices.

• Example of Computers: UNIVAC. magnetic tapes were used. IBM 650 etc . • The language used by these computers was machine language and assembly language. • The machine was capable to do one job at a time. • The input and output operations were done using punched card technology.First Generation(1945-1956) • The vacuum tubes were used in the circuits of these computers. • For external storage. therefore batch processing was adopted.

Vacuum Tube Picture .

size. • First device to hold a • Vacuum tubes burn memory. frequently. . large in device.e. • They were producing heat. • Maintenance problem.Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages:Disadvantages:• It was only electronic • Too bulky i.

punched cards and papers were used. • Example of Computers: IBM 1400 and 7000 series. • The input operations were performed using punched cards and magnetic tapes and for output operations.e. General Electric 635 etc. the machine was capable to process multiple tasks concurrently.Second Generation (1956-1963) • Transistors were used in the circuits. BASIC etc. • For external storage magnetic tapes were used. • The orientation was towards multiple users i. were used as the languages by the computer. . COBOL. • The high level languages like FORTRAN.

Transistor Picture’s .

• Very much reliable. Disadvantages:• They over quickly. • The very fast. heated . • Maintenance problem.Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages:• Size reduced considerably.

• Sophisticated operating systems. • Example of computers: IBM System .Third Generation (1964-1971) • Integrated circuits replaced transistors. • For data input and output operations monitors and keyboards replaced the punched cards. • For external storage magnetic disks were used. which were capable of handling several jobs concurrently were used. Inspire of their smaller size they were capable to perform better than transistors. • More advanced high level languages like PASCAL were used.

Integrated Circuit Picture .

size. .Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages:Disadvantages:• ICs are very small in • ICs are sophisticated. • Production cost cheap. • Improved performance.

• Magnetic disks were the primary devices used for external storage. • Micro computers have evolved. • The input output devices were the same monitors.Fourth Generation (1971-Present) • The circuits used VLSI and microprocessors of virtually microscopic size. printer etc. • The use of special software for maintaining large data bases became popular. which led to drastic cut on the size of computer. • The application software for micro computer essentially became popular in this generation. • Example of computers: IBM Systems . keyboard.

Integrated Circuit with VLSI Picture .

Advantages & Disadvantages Advantages:• It is a compact. • Disadvantages:• No artificial intelligent. is . • Production cost cheap. • Less owe consumption.

• Expert Systems are examples of systems implementing Artificial Intelligence (AI).Fifth Generation (Present and beyond) • The computers of this generation use optic fiber technology to handle Artificial Intelligence. • These computers have capacity to think and reason which can be used to solve problems where human intelligence is required. .

• Expert system.Advantages & Disadvantages • Advantages:• Artificial intelligence. .