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Unit 1 MIET Engineering College-Trichy
Created by:- S Renold Elsen Asst Prof/Dept of Mech Engg
• In the case of a single isolated atom, there are various discrete energy levels. • In solids, the atoms are arranged in a systematic space lattice and each atom is influenced by neighboring atoms. • The closeness of atoms results in the intermixing of electrons of neighboring atoms. [cont]
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• A set of such closely packed energy levels is called an energy band. • Hence in the case of a solid. instead of a single energy level associated with single atom. S Renold Elsen . there will be bands of energy levels. number of permissible energy levels increases.• Due to this.
Difference b/w energy level and band Energy levels of a single isolated atom Energy bands in a solid S Renold Elsen .
• A band which is occupied by the valence electrons or a band having highest energy is defined as valence band . • The valence band may be partially or completely filled.Valence band • The electrons in the inner shells are strongly bound to the nucleus. • This band can never be empty S Renold Elsen .
some of the valence electrons can leave the valence band. These are called as free electrons.Conduction band • Even at room temperature. S Renold Elsen . • They are responsible for conduction of current in a conductor and are henceforth called as conduction electrons. • This band may be an empty band or partially filled band. • The band occupied by these electrons is called conduction band.
• If an electron is to be transferred from valence band to conduction band. which is equal to the forbidden energy gap.Forbidden energy gap • The separation between valence band and conduction band is known as forbidden energy gap. external energy is required. S Renold Elsen .
conduction band and forbidden energy gap S Renold Elsen .Valence band.
S Renold Elsen . The resistivity of insulator approximately lies between 1011 and 1016 Ω m.Insulator The forbidden energy gap is more than 3eV and almost no electrons are available for conduction.
1eV for Si. S Renold Elsen .Semiconductors • In semiconductors the forbidden gap is very small. • The conductivity of a semiconductor is of the order of 102 mho m–1. the electrons can easily jump from the valence band to the conduction band. • With a small amount of energy that is supplied.7eV for Ge and 1. • The forbidden gap energy is of the order of 0.
S Renold Elsen .Conductors • In conductors. • Due to the overlapping of the valence and conduction bands. • The electrons from valence band freely enter into the conduction band. a very low potential difference can cause the continuous flow of current. the valence and conduction band overlap each other. there is no forbidden gap available.
Classifications of Semi conductors Semi Conductors Intrinsic semiconductor Extrinsic semiconductor N-type semiconductor S Renold Elsen P-type semiconductor .
Intrinsic semiconductor S Renold Elsen .
S Renold Elsen .Electrons and holes in semiconductors The energy band diagram of an intrinsic semiconductor with charge carriers at absolute zero temperature (a) and at room temperature (b) respectively.
• The impurity atoms are called dopants.Doping • The process of addition of a very small amount of impurity into an intrinsic semiconductor is called doping. S Renold Elsen . • The semiconductor containing impurity atoms is known as impure or doped or extrinsic semiconductor. • The impurity to be added is of the order of 100 ppm (parts per million).
S Renold Elsen .Doping material Pentavalent atoms (which have five valence electrons) The pentavalent doping atom is known as donor atom. Eg:-bismuth. phosphorous. since it donates one electron to the conduction band of pure semiconductor. antimony. arsenic.
aluminium. indium. boron which S Renold Elsen .Trivalent atoms (have three valence electrons). The trivalent atom is called an acceptor atom. gallium. because it accepts one electron from the pure semiconductor atom. Eg:.
Extrinsic semiconductor • Is one in which an impurity with a valency higher or lower than the valency of the pure semiconductor is added. an extrinsic semiconductor can be classified as N-type or P-type. • To increase the electrical conductivity of the semiconductor. S Renold Elsen . • Depending upon the type of impurity atoms added.
the resulting crystal is called N-type semiconductor.N-type semiconductor • When a small amount of pentavalent impurity such as arsenic is added to a pure germanium semiconductor crystal. S Renold Elsen .
S Renold Elsen .• The four valence electrons of arsenic atom form covalent bonds with electrons of neighbouring four germanium atoms. • This electron can move about almost as freely as an electron in a conductor and hence it will be the carrier of current. • The fifth electron of arsenic atom is loosely bound.
S Renold Elsen . • Free electrons are the majority charge carriers and holes are the minority charge carriers.Energy band of N-type semiconductor • The energy state corresponding to the fifth valence electron is in the forbidden gap and lies slightly below the conduction band • This level is known as the donor level.
P-type semiconductor • When a small amount of trivalent impurity such as arsenic is added to a pure germanium semiconductor crystal. S Renold Elsen . the resulting crystal is called P-type semiconductor.
S Renold Elsen .• Trivalent boron impurity is added with pure germanium crystal. • In the fourth covalent bond. • The three valence electrons of the boron atom form covalent bonds with valence electrons of three neighbourhood germanium atoms. only one valence electron is available from germanium atom and there is deficiency of one electron which is called as a hole.
• Since the holes can accept electrons from neighbourhood.• Hence for each boron atom added. the impurity is called acceptor. one hole is created. S Renold Elsen .
Energy band of P-type semiconductor • In P-type semiconductors. holes are the majority charge carriers and free electrons are the minority charge carriers. S Renold Elsen .
S Renold Elsen .Reference  TN 11 std book physics book.
All the best S Renold Elsen .