Some Concepts to Develop a Strategic Planning

April 2008 Mário Luís Tavares Ferreira

Strategic planning


TOWS matrix

S-O strategies pursue opportunities that are a good fit to the companies strengths. W-O strategies overcome weaknesses to pursue opportunities. S-T strategies identify ways that the firm can use its strengths to reduce its vulnerability to external threats. W-T strategies establish a defensive plan to prevent the firm's weaknesses from making it highly susceptible to external threats.

PEST analysis

A scan of the external macro-environment in which the company wants to operate (or operates) and can be expressed in terms of the following factors:
• Political • Economic • Social • Technological

Ninety ways to measure demand (6 x 5 x 3)
Geographical Level
World Region Country Territory Client Total sales Sector sales

Produc t Level

Company’s sales Product lines Product config Product items Short term Medium term Long term

Timing Level

Porter 5 Forces

Value Chain

Innovation Process Identification of client’s necessities

Operation Process

Post Sales Process Satisfaction of Client’s necessities

Market products / Delivery identification products products / services and services creation services definition

Services to the clients

Life cycle

Sales & profit


Profit Invest & expenses

i Product ntr od development uc tio







Boston matrix – Product life cycle

Directional policy matrix or GE-McKinsey matrix

The diameter of each pie is proportional to the Volume or Revenue accruing to each Segment, and the solid slice of each ‘pie’ represents the share of the market enjoyed by the Company.

S curve



Management, control and evaluation

Keys of Success - Facts of Failure

Keys of Success - Facts of Failure

Keys of Success - Facts of Failure

Keys of Success - Facts of Failure

Keys of Success - Facts of Failure

Keys of Success - Facts of Failure

Keys of Success - Facts of Failure

Measurement and evaluation – BSC

Measurement and evaluation – BSC

Measurement and evaluation – BSC

Measurement and evaluation - BSC

Five disciplines – Peter Senge

Personal Mastery:
• Aspiration involves formulating a coherent picture of the results people most desire to gain as individuals, alongside a realistic assessment of the current state of their lives today. • Learning to cultivate the tension between vision and reality can expand people's capacity to make better choices, and to achieve more of the results that they have chosen. • Reflection and inquiry skills is focused around developing awareness of the attitudes and perceptions that influence thought and interaction. • By continually reflecting upon, talking about, and reconsidering these internal pictures of the world, people can gain more capability in governing their actions and decisions.


Mental Models:

Five disciplines – Peter Senge

Shared Vision:
• Establishes a focus on mutual purpose. • People learn to nourish a sense of commitment in a group or organization by developing shared images of the future they seek to create, and the principles and guiding practices by which they hope to get there.


Team Learning:

• Group interaction. • Through techniques like dialogue and skillful discussion, teams transform their collective thinking, learning to mobilize their energies and actions to achieve common goals, and drawing forth an intelligence and ability greater than the sum of individual members' talents.

Five disciplines – Peter Senge

Systems Thinking:
• People learn to better understand interdependency and change, and thereby to deal more effectively with the forces that shape the consequences of our actions. • Systems thinking is based upon a growing body of theory about the behavior of feedback and complexity - the innate tendencies of a system that lead to growth or stability over time. • To help people see how to change systems more effectively and how to act more in tune with the larger processes of the natural and economic world.

Project management - processes

Project management – a process

Project management – process chain

Project management – risk analysis

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