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• Mauseth, J. D. 1998. Botany : An Introduction to Plant Biology. Jones & Bartlett Publishers, Inc. • Stern, Jansky, Bidlack. 2003. Introductory Plant Biology, Ninth Edition. The McGraw−Hill Companies • Lack, A.J. and D.E. Evans. 2005. Plant Biology – instants note. BIOS Scientific Publishers Ltd. • Campbell, N. A. 2008. Biology, Eight Edition. Pearson Education, Inc.
• Botany is the scientific study of plants. • Concepts "plants" and "scientific study." • What is a plant ? • Plants have so many types and variations that a simple definition has many exceptions, and a definition that includes all plants and excludes all nonplants may be too complicated to be useful.
It has an extensive root system. not visible here MRQ 2010 . • But you can think of exceptions immediately. It is a vine with long. stems.2). 1. Figure 1.What is a PLANT ? • Most plants have green leaves. 1. and many cacti and succulents do not appear to have leaves. slender stems and simple leaves that occur in pairs. and flowers (Fig. • Conifers such as pine. and fir have cones rather than flowers (Fig. spruce.1). roots.1 This morning glory (Ipomoea) is obviously a flowering plant.
together with the flowering plants and a few other groups. are known as seed plants MRQ 2010 . produce seeds in cones.2 Conifers.Is it a plant ? • But both conifers and succulents are obviously plants because they closely resemble organisms that unquestionably are plants Figure 1. like this spruce (Picea). the conifers.
Figure 1. they never produce are not the same as in flowering plants.Is it a plant ? • Similarly. Figure 1. They have structures plants. However.4 Of all terrestrial plants.3 and 1. they have leaves. 1. and they have neither flowers They have no roots at all. nor wood MRQ 2010 . seeds.4) are easily recognized as plants.3 Ferns have several mosses have the least in common with features in common with flowering flowering plants. and called "leaves" and "stems. ferns and mosses (Figs." but these roots. stems.
MRQ 2010 . were included in the plant kingdom because they are immobile and produce spores. such as mushrooms (Fig. Also.Is it a plant ? • Fungi.5) and puffballs.5 Fungi such as these mushrooms are not considered to be plants. Figure 1. which function somewhat like seeds. They are never green and cannot obtain their energy from sunlight. 1. their tissues and physiology are quite different from those of plants.
they are obviously closely related to plants MRQ 2010 .6 Algae do not look much like plants. although not considered to be true plants. Figure 1. the green algae (Fig. but many aspects of their biochemistry and cellular organization are very similar to those of plants.6). 1. One group.Is it a plant ? • Algae are more problematical. are similar to plants in biochemistry and cell structure. but they also have many significant differences. Some of the green algae were the ancestors of land plants.
• Until the 15th century. and speculative philosophy MRQ 2010 . metaphysics.What is a Scientific Method ? • The concept of a scientific study can be understood by examining earlier approaches to studying nature. three principal methods for analyzing and explaining the universe and its phenomena were used: religion.
• The important feature is that the actions of gods cannot be studied: • Agricultural studies would be useless because some years crops might flourish or fail because of weather or disease.Religious methods • The universe is assumed either to be created by or to contain deities. but in other years crop failure might be due to a god's intervention (a miracle) to reward or punish people. • A fundamental principle of all religions is faith: People must believe in the god without physical proof of its existence or actions MRQ 2010 .
and reliable methods for picking the winning numbers in a lottery MRQ 2010 . • The natural processes of physics and chemistry are believed to be controlled by unknown and unknowable forces. • Many people still believe in metaphysics without realizing it: accurate horoscopes. hidden forces that can never be observed or studied.Metaphysical system • Supernatural.
• Analyze the world involved thinking about it logically.Speculative philosophy • Greek philosophers. philosophical predictions were made. • Did not involve verification. • Develop logical explanations for simple observations. but no actual experiment or observation was performed to see if they were correct. only experimentation reveals which is actually true. then followed the logic as far as possible. MRQ 2010 . • A problem with this method is that often several alternative conclusions are equally plausible logically.
MRQ 2010 . • All proposed explanations of natural phenomena must be tested and verified.The scientific method Starting in the 1400s several fundamental tenets were established: • All accepted information can be derived only from carefully documented and controlled observations or experiments • Only phenomena and objects that can be observed and studied are dealt with.
a hypothesis.Scientific studies • Begin with a series of observations. is constructed to account for the observations MRQ 2010 . or model. followed by a period of experimentation mixed with further observation and analysis. • At some point.
(2) Plants do not need light to grow. hypothesis 2 would be rejected MRQ 2010 . some in light and others heavily shaded.Example • A pair of simple alternative hypotheses: (1) Plants need light to grow. some in the normal gloom and others illuminated by a window or a skylight. or it may involve several plants indoors. • The experimental testing may involve the comparison of several plants outdoors. • Such experiments give results consistent with hypothesis 1.
Hypothesis to a theory • A hypothesis must continue to be tested in various ways. • Must be able to predict the results of future experiments • If a hypothesis continues to match observations. it may come to be called a theory MRQ 2010 . • Must be consistent with further observations and experiments.
and it can predict the outcome of these actions. measure. analyze.Areas Where the Scientific Method Is Inappropriate • Example : Science can study. • But science cannot say if such actions are right or wrong. and describe the factors that cause people to kill each other or to be racist or sexist. moral or immoral • It more important to have well-developed moral/religius and philosophical systems for assessing the appropriateness of various actions MRQ 2010 .
figures.Using Concepts to Understand Plants • These concepts will make plant biology more easily understoodthe numerous facts. and data will be less overwhelming when you realize that they all fit into the patterns governed by a few fundamental concepts MRQ 2010 . names.
passing their genes and information on to their descendants 4. change 5. Plants must have a means of storing and using information 3. Genes. Plants are highly integrated organisms 7. Plants do not have purpose or decisionMRQ 2010 making capacity . Plants must survive in their own environment 6. Plants reproduce. and the information they contain. An individual plant is the temporary result of the interaction of genes and environment 8.Fundamental concepts of Plant 1. Plant metabolism is based on the principles of chemistry and physics 2.
in the form of genes. MRQ 2010 .9 (a) The seeds of this tomato (Lycopersicon) have received. the information necessary to produce a new tomato plant. Each type of plant differs from other types in the information that it carries.Figure 1. whereas the peas (b) have received from their parents the information for growing into pea plants.
10 (a) A plant produces numerous offspring. MRQ 2010 and the plant population finally contains only the type with large leaves. many of which resemble it strongly (b). most or all of these mutants die and do not reproduce. leaves to be malformed and poorly shaped for photosynthesis (c). These may grow so well that they crowd out the original parental types. Mutations may occur that cause. but another mutation may occur that causes the leaves to be larger and more efficient at photosynthesis (e). The normal plants continue to reproduce (b and d).• Figure 1. for instance. .
and water are involved in growth.DIVERSIFICATION OF PLANT STUDY • Plant anatomy. why plants flower. was established through the efforts of several scientific pioneers • Plant physiology. including how plants conduct materials internally. to mention just a few. which is concerned with plant function . how temperature. which is concerned chiefly with the internal structure of plants. light. and how plant growth regulatory substances are produced. MRQ 2010 .
began in antiquity. MRQ 2010 . • For example.• Plant taxonomy (also called plant systematics). which is the oldest branch of plant study. pteridologists specialize in the study of ferns. while bryologists study mosses and plants with similar life cycles. Plant taxonomists often specialize in certain groups of plants.
MRQ 2010 . the study of the form and structure of plants. the study of how and why plants are distributed where they are • Plant ecology. which is the study of the interaction of plants with one another and with their environment • Plant morphology.• Plant geography.
and genetic engineering MRQ 2010 . which has greatly improved yields and quality of crop plants. who performed classic experiments with pea plants.• Genetics. was founded by the Austrian monk Gregor Mendel (1822–1884). the science of heredity. various branches of genetics include plant breeding. Today.
including that of sexual reproduction MRQ 2010 . received a boost from the discovery of how cells multiply and how their various components perform and integrate a variety of functions.• Cell biology (previously called cytology). the science of cell structure and function.
which involve practical uses of plants and plant products. had their origin in antiquity as humans discovered. medicines. used. and other purposes MRQ 2010 .• Economic Botany and ethnobotany. fiber. and eventually cultivated plants for food.
It is difficult to define a plant. It rejects any concept that can never be examined. and prokaryotes. fungi. 2. The differences are presented in later chapters. and it requires that all hypotheses be tested and be consistent with all relevant observations. repeatable observations and experiments.Summary 1. It is more important to develop a familiarity with plants and understand how they differ from animals. protists. The scientific method requires that all information be gathered through documented. MRQ 2010 .
Those whose features are best suited for the environment grow and reproduce best and leave more offpsring than do those that are poorly adapted. religion cannot explain physical processes. Living organisms have evolved by natural selection. 4. MRQ 2010 . some to be more fit. As organisms reproduce mutations cause some offspring to be less fit.3. Science cannot solve moral problems. Science and religion address completely different kinds of problems.
incompleteness diminishes and inaccuracies are corrected. MRQ 2010 .5. Our knowledge of the world is incomplete and inaccurate. For any particular environment. as scientific studies continue. 6. several types of adaptation can be successful.
BAHAN UTS • • • • • Introduction to botani (1x) Plant Cell Plant Tissue Cell development Plant structure 3x – Daun – Batang – Akar MRQ 2010 .
BAHAN UAS • • • • • • Taksonomy Taksonometri (2x) Chemistry of life Genetic inheritance Plant evolution Habitat MRQ 2010 .
• TERIMAKASIH MRQ 2010 .