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Where is water found?

Water covers 71% of the Earths surface.

Total water

We can find two groups:

* Salt water (in oceans and seas) 97% of total water * Fresh water (in rivers, lakes, glaciers , groundwater and at the poles) 3% of total water

Salt water

Fresh water

The water cycle

Water is always moving
1. Water from seas evaporates. 2. Water vapour rises, cools and condenses. Clouds form.

and changing its physical state. This process is called

3. Wind moves the clouds.

4. Condensed vapour falls: rain, snow or hail.

5. Some water infiltrates into the ground.


6. Groundwater goes into the sea. 7. River water goes into the sea and other rivers.

What are rivers?

Rivers are permanent currents of water from:
Source: The place where a river starts

Tributaries: small rivers flowing into a larger river

Groundwater Glaciers Lakes Rainfall or melting snow

Basin: The area occupied by a river and its tributaries

Flow of a river: it refers to

the amount of water it carries.

The importance of rivers

Used to transport people and

It can vary with the seasons:

From snow: the flow is larger


We build canals to transport

in spring season

river water, and artificial lakes (reservoirs) hydroelectric power stations on rivers to produce electricity.

From rainfall: in the rainy Some rivers are dry. They only

We build dams and

have water when it rains.

What are oceans and seas?

They hold almost all the
The importance of oceans

worlds liquid water They contain salt but their salinity varies. Why?
The heat makes more water evaporate so warm seas have a higher salt content.

and seas
They provide us with food They provide us with raw materials and energy (gas, petroleum, salt, ) They attract tourism , which creates many jobs. They are used for transport

What are currents, tides and waves?

Currents Oceans currents are large masses of water which circulate through oceans. Warm Cold Tides They are the daily rise and fall of the water level. They are caused by the gravitational forces of the Moon and the Sun. Waves They are undulations of the surface of the water produced by wind. They go up and down in circular motion. Their shape changes when they come into contact with the sea floor.

Higher temperature than the water around it

Colder temperature than the water around it

High tide Low tide

the water level rises the water level falls

What are lakes?

Lakes are permanent masses of water which have accumulated inland.

The water in lakes has When they are small, they are

different origins: Precipitation

called lagoons.
If their water is salt water,

they are called inland seas.

The largest lake in the world

Rivers and groundwater Glaciers

is The Caspian Sea.

Where are groundwater and glaciers found?

It runs and is stored under the

ground. 25% of the water on the continents. Most groundwater comes from precipitation. When it rains, some of the water penetrates the ground. When it reaches impermeable rocks, it forms aquifers and underground rivers and lakes. When groundwater finds a way to the surface, it forms cold and hot springs.

It is very valuable because: 1. 2. 3.

It is a source of drinking water. It runs into rivers and lakes. It enables plants to grow.

They are masses of ice created

Parts of a glacier:
They start at the tops of mountains The force of ice excavates the land and forms depressions. The ice flows slowly downhill. The ice pulls away fragments of rock as it flows and deposits them along the sides or at the end of the glacier.

by the accumulation of snow. They are found in polar regions and at the top of the mountains. Glaciers which reach the sea break and form icebergs (a floating mass of ice). They cover 10% of the Earths surface.

What problems are related to water today?

Water comsuption and distribution Only 3% of the water on Earth is fresh water. Most of it is retained in glaciers. Only a very small proportion, 0.014% can be used for comsuption. The growth of population have increased water comsuption. Some areas have abundant water while others very little. The consequences can be catastrophic:
A shortage of water can produce droughts. An excess of water can produce floods.

Water pollution
Water pollution occurs when

large amounts of materials are added to a body of water. This can happen in two ways: Harmful substances are released directly into the water. Water can be polluted indirectly.

Acid rain

Acid rain contains harmful

chemicals (sulphur and nitrogen). These chemicals are released into the atmosphere as gases. They undergo a chemical transformation and are absorbed by the water in clouds. They become part of rainfall and enter the water cycle. Acid rain can have adverse effects on:

Soils Human health Fish and insects Buildings

acid rain aquifer basin canal consumption dam directly drought flood flow fresh water glacier groundwater high tide iceberg indirectly inland sea lagoon low tide ocean current reservoir salinity salt water/sea water source spring tide tourism tributary wadi water cycle water pollution water supply wave