VIRGINIA CONCRETE CONFERENCE

March 3-4, 2011
Presented by:

Teddy Theryo, P.E.
Parsons Brinckerhoff
SEGMENTAL BRIDGE GROUP

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Introduction Understanding of Creep & Shrinkage Code Development of Creep & Shrinkage Impact of Creep & Shrinkage on Post-Tensioned Bridges Conclusions

Definitions
 Creep is time dependent deformations of concrete

under permanent loads (self weight), PT forces and permanent displacement
 Shrinkage is shortening of concrete due to drying and

is independent of applied loads

Factors Affecting Creep  Concrete mix proportion  Cement properties  Curing conditions  Size and shape of members  Environment  Age at loading  Stress level .

Factors Affecting Shrinkage  Concrete mix proportion  Cement properties  Aggregate properties  Curing conditions  Size and shape of members  Environment .

000 days (27 years) after construction. Theoretically the creep and shrinkage are considered diminished at 10. The rate of both creep and shrinkage decrease with time. In structural concrete creep and shrinkage strains are     coexist and occur together. . exponential or logarithmic.000 days (11 years) is also commonly used in creep and shrinkage calculations . Mathematically the non linear shape of creep and shrinkage has been assumed as hyperbolic. For practical purposes the ending time of 4.

Strain Creep strain Instantaneous strain Time TYPICAL CREEP – TIMECURVE Strain Time TYPICAL SHRINKAGE – TIMECURVE .

Strain Drying creep Basic creep Shrinkage Total creep Nominal elastic strain t0 Time (t – t0) .

1 0 1000 Instantaneous recovery 500 Strain on application of load Creep recovery Residual deformation 0 50 100 150 200 Time since application of load .1500 -6 S tr a i n .days .

5. 2. 4. 3.1. Introduction Understanding of Creep & Shrinkage Code Development of Creep & Shrinkage Impact of Creep & Shrinkage on Post-Tensioned Bridges Conclusions .

Relationship between creep and elastic deformations cr = el = cr E28 where: = creep strain el = elastic strain = stress E28 = elastic modules of concrete at age 28 days = creep factor .

57 2.03 2.5 2.0 0 0 .70 1.0 2.5 2 Years 0.0 7 1 .TOTAL ELASTIC AND CREEP STRAIN 4.90 14 21 28 42 56 3 4 56 Months 9 1 1.5 3.5 0 3 7 Days 0 .0 3.2 0 1 .88 3 5 t DURATION OF LOADING .0 0.00 1. 9 4 1.9 6 0.0 3.5 1.22 2.9 1 0.72 3.44 1 .

Mcr(t) = (1 – e .(t)) (MII – MI) MFinal(t) = MII + (MI – MII) e.(t) where: (t) = creep factor at time t e = Base of Napierian logarithms = 2.7182 MI = Movement due to permanent loads before change of statical system MII = Movement due to the same loads applied on changed statical system (build on false-work) .

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q Fixed Fixed MI ½L ½L qL MI = 8 2 Free Cantilever Statical System MII qL 24 2 qL MII = 12 2 Changed Statical System (Midspan Continuous) MFinal (t) MI MII Mcr (t) .

Cantilever Beam el cr (t 0 ) (t ) Simple Beam P P Pef cr Pef (t ) el (t 0 ) .

Post-Tensioned Beam P PT Tendon el P (t0) P (t ) el (t0) el P P ef P ef .

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4. 5. Introduction Understanding of Creep & Shrinkage Code Development of Creep & Shrinkage Impact of Creep & Shrinkage on Post-Tensioned Bridges Conclusions . 3. 2.1.

CEB-FIP 1970 Model Code CEB-FIP 1978 Model Code CEB-FIP 1990 Model Code FIB 2010 Draft Model Code ACI-209 BP3 .

Introduction Understanding of Creep & Shrinkage Code Development of Creep & Shrinkage Impact of Creep & Shrinkage on Post-Tensioned Bridges Conclusions . 4. 5. 2. 3.1.

There are two major impacts of creep and shrinkage on structural concrete  Deformations (simply supported and indeterminate structures)  Redistribution of stresses / forces on indeterminate structure. including support reactions .

Bearing & Expansion Joint Bearing C L Mid-span Hinge In-span Hinge C L In-span Hinge .

Expansion Joint Bearing Old Generation of Midspan Hinge (not recommended) .

0 7.Mid-Span Hinge Deformation (cm) 2.5 5.5 S In-Span Hinge 1.8% 5.1% Span Length: 79m (260 feet) .

50 Deck Profile based on As-Built Dwgs C L PIER 9 STA.82’ STA. 68+16.46’ C L PIER 8 STA. 65+74 Reference Line Existing Deck Profile BEGIN S.C L EXP.36’ 0. NO. 68+18 . JT. TRANSITION STA. 67+16.59 0.E. 3 0.

35’ STA. 3 0. NO.59 C L PIER 8 STA.50 Deck Profile based on As-Built Dwgs C L PIER 9 0. 67+16. 65+74 Reference Line Existing Deck Profile . 68+16.49’ 0. JT.C L EXP.84’ STA.

Active hinge member Midspan expansion joint Typical internal diaphragm Hydraulic jack Active Hinge (proposed by Jean M. Muller) .

C L Mid-Span Fixed Expansion Joint Sliding Teflon Surface (typ) Elastomeric Bearing Steel Strong Back Mid-span Hinge with Strong Back .

75” vs 1” End Span Girder Rotation at Abutment 1 (Varina-Enon Bridge Case Study) 0.75” Elastomeric Bearing Abutment 29 = 3-3/8” .3 0.15 0.31” Point of rotation V creep 0.1 0. L o available gap at 60F in 2010 Abutment Back Wall Abutment 1 = 3-3/4” .5 x 12 = 3.05 0 200 400 600 800 Distance Along the Bridge (ft) Camber Diagram of Unit 1 at T = .09” vs 1.L L @ TF creep L o creep = 0.0.2 0.25 0.0.31) = 1.079 Degree 3’-6” 12’-0” 8’-6” Assuming 50% of the creep had been corrected camber during segment casting.079 x 3.5 (3.4 Vertical Displacement (in) 0.35 0.5 (3.05 0 -0.31) = 2.

Abutment Span 1 Expansion Joint at Abutment .

C L Top Plate e= creep at T = Correct bearing & joint expansion preset at construction C L Bottom Pot .X C L Expansion Joint Top Plate Bottom Pot Ideal/preferred position at T= >X C L Top Plate creep at T = Incorrect position at T= C L Bottom Pot X min.

Over Extended of Bearing Top Plate .

Top Abutment Elevation Roadway Axis Girder Axis A Support Axis BAD GOOD A SECTION A-A BAD STRATEGY GOOD STRATEGY Torsional Creep Deformation in Horizontally Curved Bridge .

 Introduction  Understanding of Creep & Shrinkage  Code Development of Creep & Shrinkage  Impact of Creep & Shrinkage on Post-Tensioned Bridges  Conclusions .

Implement simple structural details . Accurate estimation of creep and shrinkage on structural concrete design 3. Good understanding of creep and shrinkage behaviors 2.In order to avoid the negative impacts of long-term creep and shrinkage: 1. Proper counter measures of long-term creep and shrinkage effects 4.

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