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Subject: Socio-Economic basis for planning

ABHISHEK JANI (01) 10/28/2013

First Semester Master of Urban and Regional Planning Department of Architecture Faculty of Technology & Engineering The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara.

WHAT IS SPATIAL PLANNING? This is an activity centered on making decisions relating to the location and distribution of land use activities. The challenges of spatial planning change as society develops. ROLE OF SPATIAL PLANNING Spatial planning aims to create and maintain the qualities of urban areas and the countryside. To provide a secure environment to every individual. Fulfilling the aims of efficiency and democracy through public participation. Meeting the challenge of sustainable development. To ensure that the utilization of land resources is planned and implemented in an organized manner to meet the needs of present and future generation.

SECURITY AND SPATIAL PLANNING Security is concern with the social belonging of every individual. A feel good factor for every individual, from every individual. Security in relation with spatial planning requires an integrative and comprehensive planning approach in order to rationalize the appropriate land use activities. It is suppose to facilitate the lives of every individual regardless of gender, age or levels of ability. It should promote and mandate the use of universal design principles to ensure that built environments are accessible, safe and secure to the widest possible range of individuals. Every social group that has any degree of cohesion also has norms. These norms regulate behaviour, dress, and forms of language and even in some cases define entirely local aspects of spoken language.

Social norms then are extremely powerful in that they give security to people in the group, allowing them to behave in a regulated way without fear of their behaviour being thought to be inappropriate by their neighbours, colleagues and friends. Social norms form some of the most fundamental components of the language of space.

There are different parameters to address diversified needs of safety and security in spatial planning: 1. Age group: the average citizen passes through a range of ages, each with their own spatial planning related needs. A. Children: safety measures for young children require wide foot path, cycle ways, or pedestrian zones to keep them separate from fast moving vehicles on road. Whether at park, school, or getting from here to there. They require safe and stimulating environment to play, an increasing priority to backyards, and easy access to public facilities such as school playgrounds, and libraries. (They need feeling of being watched by someone) B. Young people: regularly highlight the need for better facility for young ones. Creating safe places where young people are able to participate without fear- common shared areas like work places, educational institutions, shopping centers, sports ground, parks, cycling tracks, streets etc. C. Older people: both the likelihood and severity of disability increases with age. Spatial planning is critical to address many of the needs of older people. Vital issues include: providing a safe environments that are sensitive to the physical impact of ageing (impaired mobility, sight, hearing, cognition, need for toilets etc.) - including buildings complexes, and public spaces. a place that promotes intimate relationships, healthy ageing both physical and mental, such as age-friendly exercises, recreation facilities, walking networks, and places to socialize. Bringing basic services into neighborhoods and creating different levels of residential care close to existing services. Giving a feeling that they are been taken care of by creating age friendly transportation and infrastructure for older people who no longer drive.

2. Gender: gender sensitivity tends to be forgotten category in planning process, beyond the issue of distribution of public toilets. It is necessary to identify the expectations and needs both of men and women from planning system. The vital issues include: Gaining gendered understanding of safety and security in order to ensure places and spaces are safe for all. How people use those places and what constitutes effective that works well for everyone. How people want to live their lives and local facilities they need. For women risk of personal safety is a matter of concern, for instance vegetation is the biggest issue due to poor lighting and surroundings that might hide attackers. Disability: For individuals facing disability, the entire built environment, including transport has the potential to act as barrier to all form of social engagements. In fact everyone experiences problems in using the built environment at some time in their adult lives due to injuries, illness or pregnancy. That indicates with growing age we may face multiple impairments, like decreased mobility and visual/ hearing impairments. Provision of accessible features can benefit those carrying heavy loads and luggage, or pushing pram and bicycles. An inclusive approach to design therefore has the potential to bring benefits at one point or another to most users. A ramp over steps for wheel chair users will also be helpful someone pushing pram. For visually impaired pedestrians- change in pavement texture can be made into decorative elements for pavements. Co-housing to boost housing affordability can be valuable for individuals with mental illness or intellectual disabilities. Sufficient lighting for adequate visibility around the area, A clear spatial layout adjacent to housing to permit social monitoring

SOCIAL STRUCTURE AND SPATIAL PLANNING WHAT IS SOCIAL STRUCTURE? In basic term it is and abstract and intangible phenomenon. Social structure is the basic concept for the proper understanding of society. Social structure is concerned with the principal forms of social organization i.e. types of groups, associations, and institutions and the combination of these which constitute societies Social structure is a phenomenon that is closely associated with space. From ancient times, it can be observed that social structure has had definite spatial patterns. The group of belongin to the upper caste or the group that was predominant, occupied the area that surrounded the nucleus. As days progressed, the caste has remained but the occupational traits of the various caste groups have undergone definite changes. Spatial distribution of population in rural communities is influenced by castes and one tends to see cluster of population belonging to the same caste and social structure in a particular location.

In urban communities, however, with the increasing growth of urbanisation and increasing rate of migration, this relationship between social structure and space is less.
Another important characteristic that is tobe found inurban communities is that spatial locations arealso influenced by economicfactors.

Caste aslo influence in urban community . For suitable location for residence, the first question is normally asked by the person who is seeking the location is, who are the people living nearby and what are their castes?
Lands are costly or scare in urban area. Preferences of the consumer are only secondary whereas the availability of land assumes primary importance. Thus, social structure and spatial forms and patterns are irrevocably interwined with one another with the physical representation of the former giving rise to latter.