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Planning Theory and Techniques MURP Sem I

Term Paper: Structure Plan

Tarisha Mehta Roll No. 03 M.S.University, Vadodara.

This paper describes about the structure plan prepared for the long term implementation and elements of the same. This study is supported by various literatures and report made by different governing bodies. Here the explanation is in reference to the various practices taking place in different countries. It describes various common parameters observed while study and allows one to understand what is structure plan?

By failing to prepare, you are preparing to fail. Benjamin Franklin

During our life time we spend maximum time for thinking or discussing on the matters that have gone wrong in the past. That is important but if we do not spent our time for planning intended for the future through learning lessons from past it leads us to a great failure. Structure plan can be identified as one of the appropriate reaction to the above mentioned line. A structure plan is initial form of development plan required by United Kingdom planning law. These plans set out strategic planning policies and form the basis for detailed policies in local plans. Structure plans were first introduced by the 1968 Town and Country Planning Act, as strategic level development plans, prepared either by a county council or by local authorities working jointly together. They consisted of a broad framework of policies looking forward up to 20 years ahead, supported by a "key diagram" showing land use, transport and environmental proposals diagrammatically. Structure plans were increasingly criticised in the 1980s and 1990s for the length of time taken in their preparation and adoption, their often abstract nature, and for imposing an unnecessary level of policy above the level of the local district council. This became increasingly apparent with the establishment of regional planning conferences and the development of Regional Planning Guidance after the mid-1980s.1

The Planning Model, Volume 3, structure plan guidelines, MAPLE and CERSGIS pg. 1,2

Planning Theory and Techniques MURP Sem I

Study and Understanding Structure Plan:

A structure plan provides long-term guide for changes to land use, buildings and public spaces in a given activity centre. The process of developing a structure plan produces both a framework how the centre will develop and the actions needed to realise that framework. A structure plan will usually require an amendment to the Council planning scheme as one of its implementation mechanisms. Here activity centres are the one that provide the focus for services, employment and social interaction in cities and towns. They are where people shop, work, meet, relax and often live. In Moreland, Coburg, has been designated a "Principal Activity Centre," and Brunswick and Glenroy have been designated as "Major Activity Centres" in the hierarchy of Melbourne's activity centres2 Structure plan comprises Plan and Report. The plan includes map or graphical and diagrammatic representation of proposal thought for the future. The report includes background studies, policies for the proposal, detailed description of the proposal along with influential factors involved in decision making process, economic solutions and implementation strategy. One can observe that worldwide different countries work with these two elements but the way of representation varies as per the location, context and type of plan. Structure plan can be for a small city area or it can be for entire city and sometimes at the regional level which is larger than a city depending upon nature of a project. Structure plan includes identification of areas of potential urban development, environmentally and ecologically significant areas, as well as areas in which elements of rural living and periurban activities should be retained. The plan includes a regional road network to ensure high levels of accessibility and public transport opportunities, in particular providing strong links to activity centres.3 Structural plans are prepared for following: 4 1. Towns having rapid urban growth. 2. Urban settlements that are subjected to redevelopment as a result of changing economic dynamics growth and employment. (e.g., the old dockland towns, or towns where the main industrial base has collapsed or changed) 3. New towns or urban settlements. 4. Parts of towns, or sectors, where development is to be phased over time 5. Areas likely to be affected by major industrial, communications or other development schemes (e.g. areas near planned new national or international airport sites, inland ports etc.) 6. Areas proposed for major tourism projects and development including near important heritage sites. 3 East Wanneroo Structure Plan report , June 2010 4 The Planning Model, Volume 3, structure plan guidelines, MAPLE and CERSGIS

Planning Theory and Techniques MURP Sem I

Certain councils use structure plans as an input for calculating the appropriate level of financial contributions or development contributions to be charged in areas subject to development or redevelopment pressures. Looking at the various structural plans key elements of the plan are Land use, Public utility, Ecology and Environment, Movement and Access, Economy and Employment. All these elements further include other subdivision which is discussed with an example in the next topic of this paper. Also for all the key elements at the proposal level concern of stakeholder is taken. The involvement of stakeholders serves the purpose of ensuring that the plan reflects the stakeholders needs but also that the stakeholders are aware of their obligation to invest in the realisation of the plan. The key stakeholders need to develop their own implementation strategies, financing concepts and process controlling systems. This is a step-by-step as well as a participatory process. 5 Based on the Structure Plan, the Physical Planning Department or private developers or other state institutions prepare detailed local plans, which comply with the Structure Plan. The detailed plans prepared by the Physical Planning Department according to that the phasing is proposed for the Structure Plan. The Physical Planning Department keep record on maps, which includes all development proposals for land, on, above and below ground. Thus when local plans are prepared and approved, these becomes important data base and area of concern. The Physical Planning Department make regular reports on the progress of the implementation of the Structure Plan to the Statutory Planning Committee, (SPC).and they evaluate the progress of the plans implementation against the Spatial Development Framework and the MTDP and pass on recommendations for action by the full Assembly. All technical Departments and Chairmen of Sub metros and Urban Councils have copies of the approved Structure Plan. This enables them to assist the Statutory Planning Committee to monitor the developments taking place in their area. Thus under the guidance of various bodies plans are implemented. The strategy and implementation varies at different places as per the priorities of the program.

The Planning Model, Volume 3, structure plan guidelines, MAPLE and CERSGIS pg. 10 to 13

Planning Theory and Techniques MURP Sem I

Understanding Structure plan through Example:

Further to understand structure plan this section explains one of the structure plan implemented at city of Maitland, Florida. Maitland is a suburban city in Orange County, Florida, United States, part of the Greater Metro Orland area with population of 15,751 as per 2010 census. Maitland is one of the oldest incorporated suburban municipalities in central Florida. The area Figure 1 Location of Maitland was previously inhabited by Native Americans. Maitland's "historical corridor" encompasses old residences still standing and occupied in the Lake Lily-Lake Catherine area and extending through the central portion of the city. The area has always been a vacation spot because of its climate, location to theme parks and people. However, Maitland has recently become a location where affluent individuals have come to reside.6 The Central Maitland Structure Plan sets out an ambitious vision, supported by key strategies to guide growth and development over the next 20 years. The vision for Central Maitland builds on the Citys existing strengths and aims to create a vibrant place and reinforce its role as the Major Regional Centre, This plan recognises that Maitland lies at the centre of the major growth corridor of the Hunter Valley. The city is sited at a junction in the rail network, close to the motorway and close to Newcastle Airport. Maitland stands in a similar relationship to Newcastle as Parramatta does to Sydney. However Maitland and the Hunter have the opportunity to improve on the patterns of Australias other metropolitan areas to become more sustainable and a more desirable place to live and to do business.7 10 key strategies to support the vision for Central Maitland is shown below. These strategies apply to the whole of the Central Maitland area. 1. Increase the Diversity of Activities in Central Maitland: This strategy aims to enhance and strengthen the vitality and vibrancy of Central Maitland through the provision of a variety of activities, including residential, community, commercial and cultural uses. With the increase in diversity and the range of activities, a greater level of social interaction can occur in Central Maitland which offers residents, workers and visitors opportunities to participate in community life.
Figure 2 Potential location for residential commercial and cultural activity

6 7

American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved 2008-01-31. 0Part%201.pdf

Planning Theory and Techniques MURP Sem I

The strategy falls under the key element of land use distribution and creates an opportunity to generate healthy and positive neighbourhoods. 2. Residential Led Recovery: A primary strategy proposed by this Structure Plan is to reverse the loss of residential population and transform Central Maitland into a living community. Growing the residential community will bring day-long activation; expand the walking community; support local businesses and vitally strengthen stewardship of the neighbourhoods, Figure 3 Potential location for residential growth leading to better utilisation of the already existing infrastructure (i.e. public space, railway) Therefore the Structure Plan proposes a target of minimum 3,700 additional residents (1,700 dwellings) by 2030 to be adopted. This target is to carry into all other relevant policies (Maitland Settlement Strategy, Maitland Centres Strategy, Lower Hunter Regional Strategy). The strategy falls under the key issue of Land use and it encourages the place to become a lively neighbourhood.

3. Protect and Promote the Heritage Character in Central Maitland: This strategy seeks to capitalize on Central Maitlands competitive advantages: its rich and varied urban fabric, its historic buildings and institutions, its transport infrastructure (road and rail), its natural and rural setting, the Hunter River and, crucially, the people and businesses that make up its community. These factors combine to give Central Maitland qualities that cannot be Figure 4 Locations with Potential Heritage values reproduced in a new centre. This allows a renewal of the center along with valuing its heritage and culture.

4. Strengthen Three Distinct Nodes: The aim of this strategy is to strengthen three activity nodes as a priority. The development within the three main activity nodes will act as a catalyst for development adjacent and between these nodes. These nodes are:

Planning Theory and Techniques MURP Sem I

(1) The intersection of High Street and Church Street; (2) The civic precinct on High Street near James Street and (3) The Maitland train station precinct. Each has existed and functioned in a similar way for more than a century. In recent decades however each of these nodes have failed to thrive or have declined. The Structure Plan recognises these Figure 5 Location of District nodes important nodes and establishes strategies to foster their sustenance and growth. Such nodes allow more public interaction through various activities and enhance the idea of healthy society. 5. Consolidate Arts, Cultural and Educational Opportunities: This strategy aims to retain Maitland as a competitive city in the 21st century, by attracting the creative class, those creative people who help the citys economy to be innovative and adaptive to changing global conditions. Cities also ought to create those conditions which encourage its residents to become creative. Central Maitland has a great potential to build upon its important civic Figure 6 Potential area for art cultural and educational functions and inherited built form of activity unique cultural significance as a basis for becoming a leading creative city. This creates opportunity to develop a sensitive and creative community.

6. Consolidate Government Function and Civic Identity: This strategy aims to strengthen Central Maitland as the focal point of governing and civic leadership. Participation in local governing is a fundamental privilege of all citizens, offering each willing person a stake in the future of Maitland, how it grows and how we evolve as a community. With the continued increase of residents moving into Maitland and the continued diversification of the population, Figure 7 Locations for civic identity it is critical that Central Maitland continue

Planning Theory and Techniques MURP Sem I

to be a civic icon and the place for effective governing of our City and local community. This strategy involves participation of public which again enhances the sociocultural value of society.

7. Improve Access, Circulation and Way Finding: Major strategic measures are required to improve the experience and movement through the town centre. Improve wayfinding in the city centre by establishing a clearly legible street hierarchy; promoting views and vistas; providing consistent signage and slow vehicular speed in the city centre; Promote sustainable transport modes through the improvement of the pedestrian and cycle environment in the Figure 8 Connection between river and hinterland town centre and links to public transport; Improve quality and frequency of train and bus services. This comes under the key issue of access and connectivity and that attracts more people to the place. 8. Organise Car Parking: The aim of this strategy is to reduce car dependency and dominance of vehicles in Maitland without adversely impacting the vitality and vibrancy of the area. The Structure Plan proposes a strategic change in the placement and operation of car parking in Central Maitland. This will see public car parking located at the entry points to the city. This will provide the dual benefit of reducing the distance that cars are drawn into the centre in Figure 9 Potential locations for public parking search of parking spaces, while freeing up the limited developable floor space in the city core for high-value uses. This gateways parking strategy will be combined with the wider circulation strategy that sees: the only cars in Central Maitland should be those that have a destination in Central Maitland. This environment of reduced traffic congestion will allow the raft of other initiatives set out in the Structure Plan Framework to be implemented. Car parking location plays an important role in integrated transport and land use planning and place making in the Maitland centre. 9. Enhance the Connection with the Hunter River: The creation of quality open spaces along the Hunter River will provide opportunities for passive recreation and reconnect the river to the advantage of residents, visitors and workers in Central Maitland. By better engaging the banks of the Hunter River,

Planning Theory and Techniques MURP Sem I

connections between the City and this impressive natural asset will be revealed and a unique and active space for community life and recreation on the south bank will be created. The redevelopment of Riverside properties with dual frontages to address both the river and High Street will improve passive surveillance and create a well integrated pedestrian network.
Figure10 Potential location for river front developments

10. Create a Safe and High Quality Public Realm: This strategy aims to strengthen the vitality and vibrancy of Central Maitland with spaces and places that offer visitors an exciting, memorable experience. With an increased diversity of people, participating in a range of activities, the provision of a high quality, interesting and safe public realm in Central Maitland aids greater social interaction offering residents, workers and visitors opportunities to participate in community life and build a strong identity and relationship with Central Maitland. The public realm is a shared resource and the provision of an interesting, high quality public realm enhances the everyday experience for visitors. It also contributes to further developing the distinct character of Central Maitland, creating a strong identity and a place that is memorable. The Figure 11 Locations for safe pblic Realm creation of an interesting and safe public realm is achieved when a combination of factors come together. This includes landscaping and natural elements, a well maintained and clean public domain, lighting, public art, places to sit and spaces to mingle and animate the public realm.

With the study of structure plan one can understand that the structural plan allows more detailed study along with the public participation as one of the stakeholder. This way of planning is more responsive to place, people and time with future considerations. As a result one can overcome the recent and past issues faced by all of us. One can say that it supports to the line given below: Think ahead dont let day to day operations drive out planning Donald Runsfeld