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# Differentiation

Prepared by Tasha
• A function f(x) is said to have a limit if f(x) approaches a
certain value as x approaches a particular value.
• Let the change in x and y be and respectively as point Q
moves towards point P.
• Then,

• Gradient of the chord PQ = =

• As point Q approaches point P, , then
• Gradient of the tangent at point P
= gradient of the chord PQ =

• Use to denote . Then, =
2 1
x x x o = ÷
2 1
y y y o = ÷
2 1
2 1
y y
x x
÷
÷
y
x
o
o
2 1
x x ÷
lim 0 x o ÷
0
lim
x o ÷ 0
lim
x
y
x
o
o
o
÷
dy
dx 0
lim
x
y
x
o
o
o
÷
dy
dx 0
lim
x
y
x
o
o
o
÷
dx
dy
represents the gradient of the tangent to the
curve y =f(x) at point P.

is known as the first derivative of the function y =f(x)
dx
dy
The gradient of the tangent to y=x
2
• Take point P as the general point P(x,y) on y=x
2

• put Q a "small distance δx away on the curve.

2
) ( x x y y o o + = +
2 2
2 x x x x y y o o o + + = +
2 2 2 2
2 , x y Since x x x x y x o o o + + = + =
2
2 x x x y o o o + =
x x
x
y
x o
o
o
o + = 2 , by sides both dividing
x
dx
dy
x
y
x As
x
2 , 0
lim
0
= = ÷
÷
o
o
o
o
2x is x y o tangent t the of gradient The
2
=
Example 1
Find the first derivative
of each of the
following functions
using the first
principle
a) y=5x
2

b)

c)
2
1
x
y =
x x y 2 3
2
÷ =
x
dx
dy
x
y
x x
x
y
x x x y
x x x x y x
x x x x y y
x x y y
x y a
x
10 lim
10
10
10 5 5
10 5
) ( 5
5 )
0
2
2 2 2
2 2
2
2
= =
+ =
+ =
+ + = +
+ + = +
+ = +
=
÷
o
o
o
o
o
o o o
o o o
o o o
o o
o
3 2 2
0
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2 2 2
2
2
2
) (
2
lim
) 2 (
2
) 2 (
) 2 (
1
2
1
2
1 1
) (
1
1
)
x x x
x
dx
dy
x
y
x x x x x
x x
x
y
x x x x x
x x x x x
y
x x x x x
y
x x x x
y
x
x x
y y
x
y b
x
= = =
+ +
+
=
+ +
+ + ÷
=
÷
+ +
=
+ +
= +
+
= +
=
÷
o
o
o o
o
o
o
o o
o o
o
o o
o
o o
o
o
o
o
2 6 lim
2 6
2 6
2 2 6 3 2 3
) ( 2 ) ( 3
2 3 )
0
2
2 2 2
2
2
÷ = =
÷ + =
÷ + =
÷ ÷ + + = + ÷
+ ÷ + = +
÷ =
÷
x
dx
dy
x
y
x x
x
y
x x x x y
x x x x x x y x x
x x x x y y
x x y c
x
o
o
o
o
o
o o o o
o o o o
o o o
o
First derivative of polynomial functions
If , where a and n are constants, then

If where k is a constant, then

If , then

If , then can be written as
1 n
dy
anx
dx
÷
=
0
dy
dx
=
y u v = ±
dy du dv
dx dx dx
= +
( ) y f x =
dy
dx
'
( ) f x
2 6
2 3
2
÷ =
÷ =
x
dx
dy
x x y
x
dx
dy
x y
6
3
2
=
=
0
3
=
=
dx
dy
y
2 6 ) ( '
2 3 ) (
2
÷ =
÷ =
x x f
x x x f
n
y ax =
y k =
Example 2
Find the first derivative of the following
2
2
2
5
2
4
2
)
) 2 3 ( ) ( )
) 2 )( 1 ( ) ( )
1
) ( )
2 5 )
)
x
x
y f
x x h e
x x x g d
x
x f c
x x y b
x y a
+
=
+ =
+ + =
=
+ =
=
3
4
4
)
x
dx
dy
x y a
=
=
2 10
2 5 )
2
+ =
+ =
x
dx
dy
x x y b
2
7
2
5
5
2
5
) ( '
) (
1
) ( )
÷
÷
÷ =
=
=
x x f
x x f
x
x f c
2 2 3 ) ( '
2 2 ) (
) 2 )( 1 ( ) ( )
2
2 3
2
+ + =
+ + + =
+ + =
x x x g
x x x x g
x x x g d
2
1
2
1
2
6 9 ) ( '
4 12 9 ) (
4 12 9 ) (
) 2 3 ( ) ( )
÷
+ =
+ + =
+ + =
+ =
x x h
x x x h
x x x h
x x h e
2
5
3
2
3
2
2
2
3
4
2
2
)
÷
÷
÷
÷
÷ ÷ =
+ =
+
=
x x
dx
dy
x x y
x
x
y f
Example 3
Find the value of the first derivative of each of the following
functions at the given value of x
2
1
;
3
) ( )
2 ; 4 )
4
2
= ÷ =
= =
x
x
x g b
x x y a
16 , 2
8
2 ; 4 )
2
= =
=
= =
dx
dy
x when
x
dx
dy
x x y a
384 )
2
1
( 12 )
2
1
( '
12 ) ( '
3 ) (
2
1
;
3
) ( )
5
5
4
4
= =
=
÷ =
= ÷ =
÷
÷
÷
g
x x g
x x g
x
x
x g b
Example 4
If xy=10, find the value of

2 , ) = y when
dy
dx
a
2 , ) = y when
dx
dy
b
2
5
) 2 ( 10
, 2
10
10 )
2
2
1
÷ = ÷ =
=
÷ =
=
÷
÷
÷
dy
dx
y when
y
dy
dx
y x a
5
2
) 5 ( 10
5 , 2
10
10 )
2
2
1
÷ = ÷ =
= =
÷ =
=
÷
÷
÷
dx
dy
x y when
x
dx
dy
x y b
First derivative of a composite function
n
u y =
dy dy du
dx du dx
= ×
5
) 2 3 ( . . + = x y g E
For a composite function in the form where u = f(x)
and n is a constant
4
4
4
5
5 5
) 2 3 ( 15
3 5
5 3
2 3
) 2 3 (
+ =
× =
× =
= =
= + =
= + =
x
u
dx
du
du
dy
dx
dy
u
du
dy
dx
du
u y x u
u x y
) ( ) (
;
1
dx
du
u an
dx
dy
au y
n
n
÷
=
=
Example 5
Find the first derivative of each of the following
3
4
3
1
)
3
) 4 4 ( 5 )
x
y c
x y b
x y a
÷
=
÷ =
+ =

3
3
4
) 4 4 ( 80
) 4 ( ) 4 4 )( 4 ( 5
) 4 4 ( 5 )
+ =
+ =
+ =
x
x
dx
dy
x y a
) 3 ( 2
1
) 3 (
2
1
) 1 ( ) 3 (
2
1
) 3 (
3
2
1
2
1
2
1
x
or x
x
dx
dy
x y
x y b
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
÷
÷

3
4
3
4
3
4
3
1
3
) 3 ( 3
1
) 3 (
3
1
) 1 ( ) 3 (
3
1
) 3 (
3
1
)
x
or x
x
dx
dy
x y
x
y c
÷
÷ ÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ =
÷
=
÷
÷
÷
First Derivative of a product of two
polynomials
• For a function y=uv where u = f(x) and v = g(x)
dy du dv
v u
dx dx dx
= +
Example 6
Differentiate each of the following with respect to x
3
) 37 ( ) ( ) + = x x x f a ) 1 3 )( 7 3 ( )
2 2
+ + = x x x y b
) 37 4 ( ) 37 (
) 3 37 ( ) 37 (
) 37 ( 3 ) 37 (
] ) 37 ( 3 [ ) 37 (
) ( '
) 37 ( 3 1
) 37 (
2
2
2 3
2 3
2
3
+ + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ + + =
+ =
+ = =
+ = =
x x
x x x
x x x
x x x
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v x f
x
dx
dv
dx
du
x v x u
7 6 63 36
42 18 7 6 21 18
) 3 )( 7 3 ( ) 7 6 )( 1 3 (
3 7 6
1 3 7 3
2 3
2 3 2 3
2 2
2 2
+ + + =
+ + + + + =
+ + + + =
+ =
= + =
+ = + =
x x x
x x x x x
x x x x x
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
dx
dy
x
dx
dv
x
dx
du
x v x x u
First Derivative of a quotient of two
polynomials
For a function where and
2
du dv
v u
dy
dx dx
dx v
÷
=
Example 7
Differentiate each of the following with respect to x
5
3
) ( )
2
2
+
÷
=
x
x
x f a
4
2
) 4 (
2
)
+
+
=
x
x
y b
2 2
2 2
2 2
2
2 2
) 5 (
6 10
) 5 (
2 ) 3 ( 2 ) 5 (
) ( '
2 2
5 3 )
+
+
=
+
÷ ÷ +
=
÷
=
= =
+ = ÷ =
x
x
x
x x x x
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
x f
x
dx
dv
x
dx
du
x v x u a
3 4 4
2
4
2 3 2 3
4
2 2
2
2 2
) 4 (
) 1 2 (
) 4 (
) 4 )( 1 2 (
) 4 (
16 28 8
) 4 (
16 4 8 2 32 16 2
) 4 (
) 8 2 )( 2 ( 2 ) 4 (
8 2 ) 4 ( 2 2
) 4 ( 2 )
+
÷
=
+
+ ÷
=
+
÷ +
=
+
÷ ÷ ÷ ÷ + +
=
+
+ + ÷ +
=
÷
=
+ = + = =
+ = + =
x
x
x
x x
x
x x
x
x x x x x x
x
x x x x
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
dx
dy
x x
dx
dv
x
dx
du
x v x u b
Gradient of the tangent to a curve at a point
If , gradient = (substitute the x-
coordinates of a given point)
( ) y f x =
dy
dx
Example 8
Find the gradient of the tangent to the curve
a) when
b)
(5,4) at ) 2 4 )( 1 3 ( ) ( ÷ + = x x x f
3 2
2 3 12 8 y x x x = ÷ ÷ + 1 x =
118 2 ) 5 ( 24 ) 5 ( '
2 24 ) ( '
2 2 12 ) (
(5,4) at ) 2 4 )( 1 3 ( ) ( )
2
= ÷ =
÷ =
÷ ÷ =
÷ + =
f
x x f
x x x f
x x x f b
12
12 ) 1 ( 6 ) 1 ( 6
, 1
12 6 6
8 12 3 2 )
2
2
2 3
÷ =
÷ ÷ =
=
÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ ÷ =
dx
dy
x when
x x
dx
dy
x x x y a
Example 9
Given that the gradient of the tangent to the curve
y=ax+bx
2
at point (1,0) is 1/2, find the value of a and b

( )
2
1
,
2
1
, 1 into ) 2 (
) 1 ( 2
2
1
) 2 ( 2
0
2
÷ = =
÷ + =
÷ ÷ = + =
+ = + =
a b
b a
b a b a
dx
dy
b a bx ax y

• The equation of the tangent
to the curve at
point can be
determine by
• i) Find the gradient of the
tangent at point P, that is

• ii)
Equation of the tangent to a curve at a point
( ) y f x =
1 1
( , ) P x y
'( ) m f x =
1 1
( ) y y m x x ÷ = ÷
Example 10
Find the equation of the tangent to the curve
at point (2,3)
2
2 4 3 y x x = ÷ +
5 4
) 2 ( 4 3
tangent, the of Equation
4 4 ) 2 ( 4 , 2
4 4
3 4 2
2
÷ =
÷ = ÷
= ÷ = = =
÷ =
+ ÷ =
x y
x y
dx
dy
m x when
x
dx
dy
x x y
Example 11
Find the equations of the tangents to the curve
where the tangents and the curve meet at y = 4
x
x y
2
÷ =
2 , 1
0 ) 1 )( 2 (
, 2
2
1 , 1
2 1
2
2
2
1
= ÷ =
= + ÷
÷ =
÷ = =
+ =
÷ =
÷
÷
x x
x x
x x
x
x y when
x
dx
dy
x x y
4
2
3
) 2 (
2
3
1
tangent, of Eqn
2
3
, 2
4 3
) 1 ( 3 1
tangent, of Eqn
, 3 , 1
+ =
+ = ÷
= =
+ =
+ = ÷
= ÷ =
x y
x y
m x when
x y
x y
m x when
Equation of the normal to a curve at a point

• The equation of the
normal to the curve
at point can be
obtain by
• i) gradient of the tangent
at point P,
• ii) gradient of the normal
at point P,
• iii)
( ) y f x =
1 1
( , ) P x y
1
'( ) m f x =
2
1
1
m
m
= ÷
1 2 2
( ) y y m x x ÷ = ÷
Example 12
Find the equation of the normal to the curve
at point (1,-2)
2
3 4 9 y x x = + ÷
10
19
10
1
) 1 (
10
1
2
normal, the of Eqn
10
1
10 4 6
4 6
9 4 3
2
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ = +
÷ =
= + =
+ =
÷ + =
x y
x y
m
x
dx
dy
x x y
Second Derivative
If , then
( ) y f x = '( )
dy
f x
dx
=
2
2
''( )
d dy d y
f x
dx dx dx
| |
= =
|
\ .
Example 13
Find the second derivative of each of the following
a)

b)
3 2
( ) 6 2 f x x x = ÷ ÷
12 6 ) ( "
12 3 ) ( '
2 6 ) ( )
2
2 3
÷ =
÷ =
÷ ÷ =
x x f
x x x f
x x x f a
3
2
2
2
2
2
2
) 1 ( 2
) 1 (
) 1 (
1
) 1 (
) ( 1
1 1
1
1
)
÷
÷
+ ÷ =
+ =
+
=
+
÷ +
=
÷
=
= =
+ = =
+
=
x
dx
y d
x
x
x
x x
v
dx
dv
u
dx
du
v
dx
dy
dx
dv
dx
du
x v x u
x
x
y b
x
x
y
+
=
1
Example 14
Find the value of f(1), f ’(1) and f ” (1) of
3 2
( ) 4 1 f x x x = + ÷
14 8 6 ) 1 ( "
8 6 ) ( "
11 8 3 ) 1 ( '
8 3 ) ( '
4 1 4 1 ) 1 (
1 4 ) (
2
2 3
= + =
+ =
= + =
+ =
= ÷ + =
÷ + =
f
x x f
f
x x x f
f
x x x f
Maximum and Minimum Value
0 =
dx
dy
In the diagram above, the tangents to the curve y = f(x) at its
turning points, P and Q, are parallel to the x-axis. This means
that
Example 15
Find the coordinates of the turning points of the curve
3 2
4 3 2 y x x = + ÷
(-1,-3) and (0,-2) points turning
3 2
2 ) 1 ( 3 ) 1 ( 4 2 ) 0 ( 3 ) 0 ( 4
1 ; 0
0 ) 1 ( 6
6 12 0
point, turning find To
6 12
2 3 4
2 3 2 3
2
2
2 3
=
÷ = ÷ =
÷ ÷ + ÷ = ÷ + =
÷ = =
= +
+ = =
+ =
÷ + =
y y
x x
x x
x x
dx
dy
x x
dx
dy
x x y
The maximum and the minimum points of a curve are the turning
points of the curve where . In the diagram above, A is a
maximum point and B is a minimum point.
To determine whether a turning point is a maximum or a minimum
point of a curve , we check the values of to the
left and the right of the turning point.
0
dy
dx
=
( ) y f x =
dy
dx
Example
• Find the coordinates of the turning points of
each of the curve . Hence,
determine whether each of the turning points
is a maximum or a minimum point.
3 2
4 3 2 y x x = + ÷
3 2
2
2
4 3 2
12 6
0 12 6
6 (2x 1) 0
1
0;
2
7
2;
4
y x x
dy
x x
dx
dy
x x
dx
x
x
y
= + ÷
= +
= = +
+ =
= ÷
= ÷ ÷
x -0.1 0 0.1
-ve 0 +ve
sketch
shape
At point (0,-2)
(0,-2) is a minimum point
x -0.6 -1/2 -0.4
+ve 0 -ve
sketch
shape
At point (-1/2, -7/4)
(-1/2, -7/4) is a minimum point
Example 16
Find the coordinates of the turning points of each of the
curve . Hence, determine whether each of
the turning points is a maximum or a minimum point.
9
4 y x
x
= +
2
3
9 4
9 4 0
9 4
9 4
9
4
2
2
2
1
± =
=
÷ = =
÷ =
+ = + =
÷
÷
÷
x
x
x
dx
dy
x
dx
dy
x x
x
x y
x 1 3/2 2
-ve 0 +ve
sketch
shape
At point (3/2, 12)
(3/2, 12) is a minimum point
x -2 -3/2 -1
+ve 0 -ve
sketch
shape
At point (-3/2, -12)
(-3/2, -12) is a maximum point
Using second derivative to determine the
maximum or minimum
Example 17
Find the coordinates of the turning points of each of the
curve below. Hence, determine whether each of the
turning points is a maximum or a minimum point.
a) b)
12
3 y x
x
= +
3 2
3 9 7 y x x x = ÷ ÷ +
point minimum a is )
2
51
,
2
1
(
(min) 0 192 )
2
1
( 24
2
51
,
2
1
2
1
12 3 0
24 12 3
12 3 )
3
2
2
2
3
2
2
2
1

> = =
= =
± =
÷ =
= ÷ =
+ =
÷
÷
÷ ÷
÷
dx
y d
y x when
x
x
x
dx
y d
x
dx
dy
x x y a
point maximum a is )
2
15
,
2
1
(
(max) 0 192 )
2
1
( 24
2
15
,
2
1
3
2
2
÷ ÷
< ÷ = ÷ =
÷ = ÷ =
÷
dx
y d
y x when
point minimum a is ) 20 , 3 (
(min) 0 6 6 ) 3 ( 6
20 , 3
1 ; 3
9 6 3 0
6 6 9 6 3
7 9 3 )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2 3
÷
> = ÷ =
÷ = =
÷ = =
÷ ÷ =
÷ = ÷ ÷ =
+ ÷ ÷ =
dx
y d
y x when
x x
x x
x
dx
y d
x x
dx
dy
x x x y b
point maximum a is ) 12 , 1 (
(max) 0 12 6 ) 1 ( 6
12 , 1
2
2
÷
< ÷ = ÷ ÷ =
= ÷ =
dx
y d
y x when
Example 18
The curve has two turning points. One
of the turning points is at . Find
3 2
( ) 2 5 3 f x px x x = + ÷ +
1 x = ÷
3
5 4 3 0
1 , 0 ) ( '
5 4 3 ) ( '
3 5 2 ) ( )
2
2 3
=
÷ ÷ =
÷ = =
÷ + =
+ ÷ + =
p
p
x x f when
x px x f
x x px x f a
a) the value of p
b) the coordinates of the turning points
2
2
) '( ) 9 4 5
'( ) 0,
0 9 4 5
(9 5)( 1) 0
5 5 329
, 1; ( ) ; ( 1) 7
9 9 243
''( ) 18 4
5
''( ) 0 (min); ''( 1) 0 (max)
9
coordinates of turning points
5 329
min point ( , ) & min point( 1, 7)
9 243
b f x x x
when f x
x x
x x
x x f f
f x x
f f
= + ÷
=
= + ÷
÷ + =
= = ÷ = ÷ =
= +
> ÷ <

= ÷
Example 19
Zefri has a piece of wire of 60cm long. He intends to form a
sector with a maximum area using the piece of wire.
Determine
a) the radius of the sector when its area is a maximum
b) the angle of the sector, θ, in radians, such that its area
is a maximum
cm r
dr
dA
r
dr
dA
r r
r
r
r A
r
r
r
a
15 , 0 , max is Area
2 30
30 )
2 60
(
2
1
2
1
sector a of Area
2 60
60 r 2r Perimeter )
2 2
2
= =
÷ =
÷ =
÷
=
=
÷
=
= + =
u
u
u
r
r
cm r
dr
dA
b
2
15
) 15 ( 2 60
2 60
15
, 0 , max is Area )
=
÷
=
÷
=
=
=
u
Example 20
A cuboid has a height of h cm and a square base with sides
x cm each. The volume of the cuboid is 343 cm
3
.
a) Show that the total surface area of the cuboid, A cm
2
is
given by

b) Determine the value of x that makes the value of A a
minimum.

c) Hence, find the minimum value of A
2
1372
2 A x
x
= +
Show that the total surface area of the
cuboid, A cm
2
is given by
2
1372
2 A x
x
= +
) (
1372
2
)
343
( 4 2
4 2 area surface Total
343
343
cuboid of volume )
2
2
2
2
2
2
2
Shown
x
x
x
x x A
xh x
x
h
h x
h x a
+ =
+ =
+ =
=
=
=
x
x
h
Determine the value of x that makes the
value of A a minimum.
2
1372
2 A x
x
= +
cm x
x x
dx
dA
x x
dx
dA
x
x A b
7
1372 4
0 minimum, is area when
1372 4
1372
2 )
2
2
2
=
=
=
÷ =
+ =
÷
÷
Hence, find the minimum value of A
2
2
294
7
1372
2(7) A
minimum, is Area , 7 when )
cm
cm x c
=
+ =
=
Example 21
The above diagram shows
the frame of the block
PQRSTUVWXY with a
uniform cross-section
PQRST that is formed from
a wire. It is given that
5 PQ PT VW VU x cm = = = =
2 QR TS UY WX x cm = = = =
8 RS XY x cm = =
SY RX TU QW PV y cm = = = = =
a) If the volume of the block is 985.6 cm
3
, show that
2
35.2
y
x
=
b) If the length of wire needed to form the block is L cm,
shows that . Hence, find the minimum length
of wire

needed to form the block.
2
176
44 L x
x
= +
if the volume of the block
is 985.6 cm
3
, show that

2
35.2
y
x
=
) (
2 . 35
28 6 . 985
28
) 8 3 (
2
1
) 8 2
block the of volume )
2
2
2
Shown
x
y
y x
y x
y x x x x (
a
=
=
=
×
(
¸
(

¸

× + × =
8x
5x
3x
4x
P
Q T
If the length of wire needed to form the block
is L cm, shows that . Hence, find the
minimum length of wire needed to form the
block.

2
176
44 L x
x
= +
2
2
2
176
44
)
2 . 35
( 5 44
2 . 35
5 44
) 8 ( 2 5 ) 5 2 ( 4 )
x
x
x
x L
x
y Given
y x L
x y x x Perimeter b
+ =
+ =
=
+ =
+ + + =
cm x
x
dx
dL
x
dx
dL
x
x L
88
) 2 (
176
44
L length, min
2
0 n length whe min
352 44
176
44
2
3
2
= + =
=
=
÷ =
+ =
÷
Rate of Change
If , then represents the change in y with
respect to the change in x. For example:

i) means y increase by 5 units for each unit
increase in x.

ii) means y decreases by 5 units for each units
increase in x.

In case where three variable are involved, say
and then
( ) y f x =
dy
dx
5
dy
dx
=
5
dy
dx
= ÷
( ) y f x =
( ) x f t =
dy dy dx
dt dx dt
= ×
Example
Given that where x and y are two related
variables, find the rate of change of x when
if y decrease at a rate of 2 unit s
-1

y =
2
(2 3) x ÷
3 x =
12 8
) 3 2 ( 4
) 2 )( 3 2 ( 2
) 3 2 (
2
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
x
x
x
dx
dy
x y
12 8
2
2 12 8
2 ; 12 8
÷
÷
=
× ÷ = ÷
× =
÷ = ÷ =
x dt
dx
dx
dt
x
dx
dt
dt
dy
dx
dy
dt
dy
x
dx
dy
unit/s
6
1
-
12 3 8
2
, 3
=
÷
÷
=
=
） （ dt
dx
x when
Example
b) Vcm
3
, represent the volume of a leaked container when
the time, t is . Find the rate of the water
leak from the container when
2
500 3 V t t = ÷ ÷
10 t =
s cm
dt
dV
t when
t
dt
dV
t t V
/ 23
) 10 ( 2 3
, 10
2 3
3 500
3
2
÷ =
÷ ÷ =
=
÷ ÷ =
÷ ÷ =
Example 22
Area of a circle increase in the rate of 4π cm
2
s
-1
. Find the
1
2
4
1
) 8 ( 2
4
; 8
2
4
4 2
4 ; 2
÷
= = =
=
× =
× =
= =
=
cms
dt
dr
r when
r dt
dr
dr
dt
r
dr
dt
dt
dA
dr
dA
dt
dA
r
dr
dA
r A
t
t
t
t
t t
t t
t
Example 23
A packet of sand is pour on
the floor with the rate of
4cm
3
s
-1
, and this make a
cone with the height is
of its radius. Find the rate
3
4
2
3
2
4
9
4
3
4
3
r
dr
dV
r
r r V
t
t
t
=
=
× =
1
2
2
2
9
1
) 4 (
4
9
4
; 4
4
9
4
4
4
9
4 ;
÷
= =
=
=
× =
= × =
cms
dt
dr
r when
r
dt
dr
dr
dt
r
dt
dV
dr
dt
dt
dV
dr
dV
t
t
t
t
Approximation Values

The approximation value of y is given by

where
new initial
y y y o = +
dy
y x
dx
o o ~ ×
Example
Given that , calculate the value of if x = 2.

Hence, estimate the values of
5
4
y
x
=
dy
dx
5
4
2.03
16
5
) 2 ( 20
, 2
20
4
4
6
6
5
5
÷ = ÷ =
=
÷ =
= =
÷
÷
÷
dx
dy
x when
x
dx
dy
x
x
y
320
3
03 . 0 16
5
03 . 0
2 03 . 2
÷ =
= ÷
~
=
÷ =
÷ =
y
y
x
y
dx
dy
x x x
initial new
o
o
o
o
o
320
37
)
320
3
(
2
4
5
=
÷ + =
+ = y y y
initial new
o
Example 24
Given that , calculate the value of if x = 3.

Hence, estimate the values of
5
243
y
x
=
dy
dx
5
243
2.98
3
5
) 3 ( 1215
, 3
1215
243
243
6
6
5
5
÷ = ÷ =
=
÷ =
= =
÷
÷
÷
dx
dy
x when
x
dx
dy
x
x
y
30
1
02 . 0 3
5
02 . 0
3 98 . 2
=
÷
= ÷
~
÷ =
÷ =
÷ =
y
y
x
y
dx
dy
x x x
initial new
o
o
o
o
o
30
31
)
30
1
(
3
243
5
=
+ =
+ = y y y
initial new
o