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Step in a Scientific Investigation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Identify the problem Form a hypothesis Plan the experiment Controls variables Collect data Analyse and interpret data Make a conclusion Write a report Physical quantities and their units 1. Physical quantities are quantities which can be measured. 2. Physical quantities are measured in SI units. 3. The five base quantities are length (m), time (s), mass (kg), temperature (K) and electrical current (A). 4. Prefixes are used when the quantities that we measure have very small values or very big values. Prefixes, symbol and symbol value in standard form Prefixes Symbol Actual symbol value 1 000 000 000 1 000 000 1 000 Symbol value in standard form 1 X 109 1 X 106 1 X 103 giga mega Kilo G M k deci centi mili micro nano pico d c m n p 0.1 0.01 0.001 0.000001 0.000000001 0.000000000001 1 X 10-1 1 X 10-2 1 X 10-3 1 X 10-6 1 X 10-9 1 X 10-12 Weight 1. The weight of an object is pull of gravitational force on the object. 2. The larger the force that pulls the object towards the centre of the Earth, the heavier the object becomes. 3. The weight of an object differs from place to place. 4. The SI unit used to measure weight is newton (N). 5. Weight can be measured by using a spring balance and compression balance. Mass 1. The mass of an object is the quantity of matter in the object. 2. The more matter present in an object, the greater its mass. 3. The quantity of matter in an object is constant at any place. 4. The SI unit for mass is kilogram (kg). 5. Mass can be measured by using a beam balance, lever balance and triple beam balance. Differences between Weight and Mass Difference Quantity and value SI unit Weight Influenced by gravitational force Newton (N) Mass Depends on the quantity of matter in an object Kilogram (kg) Measuring tools Spring balance, compression balance Weight of an object differs from place to place Beam balance, lever balance, triple beam balance Mass of an object remains constant anywhere Characteristic Measurement of Length 1. Measurement of length (a) Length is the distance between two points or two fixed ends. (b) The SI unit for length is metre (m). 1 km = 1 000 m 1 m = 100 cm = 1 000 mm 1 cm = 10 mm 2. Measuring the length of an object (a) A ruler is placed at the side of the object. (b) When measuring, make sure your eyes are straight above the end of the object and not at other positions. (c) The readings that are taken from the wrong positions are not accurate. These errors are known as the parallax error. (d) The ruler should be placed on its edge if the ruler used for measuring is thick. This has to be done to reduce errors in reading. 3. Measuring the length of a curve (a) An opisometer and a ruler is used to measure the length of a curved line. (b) A crooked line can also be measured by using a ruler and a piece of thread. 4. Measuring the diameter of an object (a) Calipers and a ruler can be used to measure the internal or external diameter of round or cylindrical objects. (b) There are two types of calipers for these measurements: (i) Internal calipers – To measure internal diameter (ii) External calipers – To measure external diameter Measurement of Area