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CONSUMER ATTITUDE

FORMATION & CHANGE

Understanding of consumer attitude


models, the hierarchies of attitude, how
attitudes are formed and how attitudes can
be molded /changed.
What are Attitudes
 An attitude is a learned predisposition to a
consistently favorable or unfavorable fashion.
 Attitude are object specific. It can be DVD
players or may be included brands such as
Panasonic, Sony, Samsung etc.
 Attitudes are learned predisposition (attitudes
have a motivational quality).
 Attitudes have consistency.
 Attitudes occur within a situation.
ATTITUDE – DEFENITION &
CHARACTERISTICS
 Attitudes are Learned ( formed by an
individual on the basis of some
experience or based on information
received about the object).

 Attitudes are based on Predispositions


(they already reside in the mind).

 Attitude cause Consistent Response


(they precede and produce behavior)
ATTITUDE – DEFENITION &
CHARACTERISTICS

 Therefore attitudes can be used to predict


behaviour.

 (If you show a positive attitude towards a


new product concept, the marketers
predict that when the product is made
available, you are likely to buy it).
 Alternatively behaviour can be used to infer the
underlying attitudes.
 (If you buy a ticket for a fine arts show, then
marketers infer that you have a favourable
attitudes towards fine arts. Later a fund raising
letter is send to you in the hope that the
interest in arts category will translate to
support for development of fine arts.
ATTITUDES AS
EVALUATIONS
 Attitudes are our evaluations of objects,
people, places, brands, products,
organizations and so on.
 People evaluate these in terms of their
goodness, likeability or desirability.

 Attitudes are measured by getting


customers to rate statements such as: I
like it; I am positive to this; Ifeel like
buying it.
 Please check how you feel about
Anchor Tooth paste (the 100%
vegetarian tooth paste)
 My Opinion of Anchor is: positive - - -
- - - ------ negative
 I dislike Anchor very much - - - - - - - -
- - - - - - - I like it very much
 Toward Anchor, I feel favourably - - - -
- - - - - - I feel un-favourably
Tri-component Attitude
Model

Cognitio
n

Conation

Affect
Tri-component Attitude Model
 Cognition or thoughts about brands are also called
as beliefs (expectations of what something is or is
not, or what something will do or will not do).
Statements of belief connect an object ( person,
brand) to an attribute or a benefit.
 Affect is feelings a person has toward an object or
the emotions that object evokes for the person.
 Conation is the action a person wants to take
toward the object.
 Researchers can measure attitude components by
asking respondents how well each statement
describe them or their beliefs.
THREE COMPONENT MODEL OF
ATTITUDE
An Illustration
 DHL for shipping Small Packages
 Attitude Component – Cognition (Beliefs)
 DHL is very reliable in its service
 DHL is more economical than other package-carrier
services
 DHL is not able to customize to customer needs
 Attitude Component - Affect (Feelings)
 When I ship by DHL I feel secure
 I am very happy to be using DHL for my services
 I don’t care if DHL goes out of business
 Attitude Component – Conations (Actions)
 I use DHL for my shipping needs than others
 I often recommend DHL to my business associates
 I am looking for alternative carriers.
 Shopping For Airline Tickets On The Internet.
 Attitude Component – Cognition (Beliefs)
 Shopping on Net is very convenient for my airline tickets
 You can get the cheapest airline fares by shopping in internet
 Internet based travel agents provide only very limited travel
options
 Attitude Component - Affect (Feelings)
 Shopping on the internet is considered to be ------- (Tick
whatever you feel appropriate). (a) Cool (b) Boring (c)
Enjoyable (d) Confusing (e) Terrible (f) Trendy
 Attitude Component – Conations (Actions)
 I have used the internet for my travel airline tickets recently
 I often search the internet for planning my travel itinerary
 I will not recommend internet to my friends for booking airline
tickets.
Tri-component Attitude
Model
 The Cognitive component:
 Knowledge and perceptions that are
acquired by combinations of direct
experience with the object or through
related information from various sources.
Evaluative scale used to attitude towards Dove
moisturizing lotion - Compared to other moisturizing
lotions, Dove is
Moisturizing effect Good ____ ____ _____ ______ Bad
Cleansing effect Positive ____ ____ ____ ______ Negative
Fragrance Pleasant _____ ____ _____ _____ Unpleasant
Packaging /product Appealing _____ _______ ______ Unappealing
Cognition – Brand Belief
 Cognition or thoughts about brands are also called
Brand beliefs
 A Brand Belief is a thought about a specific
property or quality of the brand. (3 types)
 Descriptive Beliefs connect an object to the quality
of the outcome ( this computer has large memory;
this airline is always late)
 Evaluative Beliefs connect an object to personal
likes or dislikes (this computer is very user friendly;
the service in this airline is pathetic)
 Normative Beliefs invoke moral and ethical
judgments in relation to some ones acts (its unfair
for business to take advantage of innocent clients)
Tri-component Attitude
Model
 The Affective Component
 The consumers emotions or feelings
towards the object.

 Measuring consumers feelings and emotions


with regard to Dove Moist. Lotion – How your
skin felt after using Dove for 30 days.
 I feel Relaxed (Very) ____ ____ ____ Not at
all
 I feel Refreshed ____ ____ ___ ____ Not at all
 I feel Younger ____ ___ ____ ____ Not at all
Tri-component Attitude
Model
 The Conative component
 It is about the likelihood or tendency that an individual
will undertake a specific action or behave in a particular
way to the particular object.
 According to some interpretations, the conative
component may include the actual behavior.
 In marketing and consumer research conative
component is frequently treated as an expression of
consumers intent to purchase.
Tri-component Attitude
Model
 Intention to Buy – Conative Component
 Buyer intention scales are used to assess the
likelihood of a consumer purchasing a product.
 Consumers who respond positively to an intention
to buy generally purchase the product (than
consumers who were not asked to respond to the
question).
Tri-component Attitude
Model
 Intention To Buy Scales (Examples)
 Which of the following best describes the chance that you will
buy Dove Lotion the next time you buy a skin care product.
 ___I will definitely buy it. * ___ I Probably will buy it
 ___ I am uncertain whether I will buy it.
 ___I probably will not buy it * ___ I certainly will not buy
 How likely are you to buy Dove Lotion in next three months
 __ Very Likely * ___ Likely
 __ Unlikely * ___ Very unlikely
Multi Attribute Attitude
Models

The attitude - The attitude - The Theory –


Toward - Toward – Of reasoned –
Object Behaviour Action
Model Model Model
Multi Attribute Attitude
Models
 Multi attribute models portray
consumers attitude with regard to
an attitude (product / service or an
issue) as a function of consumers
perception and assessment of the
key attributes or beliefs held with
regard to the particular attitude
object.
Multi Attribute Attitude
Models
 1. The Attitude Toward Object Model
 Especially suitable for measuring attitudes
toward a product category or specific brands.
 Consumer attitude toward a product (or
specific brands of the category) is a function
of the presence (/ absence) and evaluation of
certain product specific beliefs and / or
attributes.
Multi Attribute Attitude Models
 1. The Attitude Toward Object Model
 Consumers generally have favorable
attitude toward those brands that they
believe to have an adequate level of
attributes that they consider as positive
 And the have an unfavourable attitude
toward those brands which they consider
not to have required level of desired
attributes or have too many negative
attributes.
MULTI ATTRIBUTE MODELS OF
ATTITUDE

 Suggest that overall attitude is based on the


component beliefs about the object, weighted by
the evaluation of those beliefs.
 1. Fishbein Model: (Attitude-Toward-Object
Mode) Explain overall attitude by seeing the
object as having a set of consequences which
couldn be desirable/ undesirable
Ao is the overall attitude, Bi is the belief that object I
i=1
 Ao = Bi x Eihas a certain consequence, Ei is the evaluation of that
consequence and n is the number of consequences.
Customer Attitude Toward Two
Internet Service Providers
Evaluation Of Attributes
(Unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 Likely)

America Evaluation OF
Attribute AT&T Consequences
Online
1. Connection will be established 3 5 +3
successfully every time.
2. The connection will be 4 3 +2
established speedily
3. The connection can get 3 3 -3
disconnected in the middle of a
session
4. The price (monthly fee) will be 2 3 -1
high (Very Bad -3, -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Very Good)

Aaol = 3(3) + 2(4) + -3(3) + -1(2) = 6 / Aat&t = 3(5) + 2(3) + -3(3) + -1(3) = 7
Multi Attribute Attitude
Models
 2. The Attitude-Toward-Behaviour
Model
 Is the individuals attitude toward
behaving w.r.to an object rather than
the attitude to the object itself.
 It seems to correspond more closely to
actual behaviour than does the
attitude- toward-object model
Tri-component Attitude
Model
 Intention To Buy Scales (Examples)
 Which of the following best describes the chance that you will
buy Dove Lotion the next time you buy a skin care product.
 ___I will definitely buy it. * ___ I Probably will buy it
 ___ I am uncertain whether I will buy it.
 ___I probably will not buy it * ___ I certainly will not buy
 How likely are you to buy Dove Lotion in next three months
 __ Very Likely * ___ Likely
 __ Unlikely * ___ Very unlikely
Multi Attribute Attitude
Models
 2. The Attitude-Toward-Behaviour Model
 Rahul’s attitude toward the act of
purchasing a BMW (attitude toward the
behaviour) reveals more about the potential
act of purchasing
 than just simply knowing his attitude toward
expensive German cars or specifically BMW.
 The consumer might have a positive attitude toward
BMW but is negative about his prospects for
purchasing such an expensive model
Multi Attribute Attitude
Models
 Theory-Of-Reasoned-Action Model
 This model incorporates a cognitive
component, an affective component
and a conative component, however
arranged in a pattern different from
that of the tri-component model.
 With this expanded model, to
understand intention to buy – one has
to measure the subjective norms also.
Multi Attribute Attitude
Models
 3. Theory-Of-Reasoned-Action Model
 A subjective norm can be measured directly by
assessing a consumers feeling as to what
others (friends, relatives, peers) would think of
the action being contemplated.
 A fresh MBA is planning to buy a M. swift. He
stops himself to contemplate what his parents
& girlfriend will think about the same.
 --- such reflection will reflect his subjective
norms.
3.Extended Model Of Behavioral
Intention

 Also called the THEORY OF REASONED ACTION.


 In this expanded model, to understand purchase
intention we also need to measure the subjective
norms that influence an individuals intention to act.
 Subjective norms can be directly measured by
assessing a the normative beliefs that the individual
attributes as relevant to others (friends, relatives,
co-workers etc.).
 Bachelor planning to buy a Swift may check with his
girl friend and parents.... ”My parents consider the
car expensive, but my girlfriend will love it” …. Will
comply with one of them.
3.Extended Model Of Behavioral
Intention
BELIEFS ABOUT
OUTCOMES (Bi) Attitude
Bi . Ei
Ao
EVALUATIONS OF
THE OUTCOMES (Ei)

Intention Behaviour

NORMATIVE BELIEFS
RELATED TO OTHER
REFERANTS (Nj) Subjective
Nj . Mj
Norms Sn

MOTIVATION TO
COMPLY WITH
SUBJECT NORMS (Mj)
Multi Attribute Attitude Models
Beliefs that behaviour
Will lead to certain
Outcomes. Attitude toward
The behaviour
Evaluations of the
outcomes
Intention Behaviour
Belief that my referents Think
that I should/Shouldn’t
perform the behaviour
Subjective norm

Motivation to comply with


The specific referents
Attitude-Toward-The-Ad Models
 Model to understand the impact of ads or
some other promotion on generating
favourable consumer attitudes towards a
brand/ product.
 The consumer forms various feelings (affect)
and judgments (cognitions) as the result of
exposure to an Ad.
 They in turn affect the consumers attitude
toward the brand and also the beliefs about
the brand.
Attitude-Toward-The-Ad Models

Exposure to an ad

Judgment about the Ad Feelings from the Ad


(Cognition) (Affect)

Attitude towards the Ad


Beliefs about the Brand

Attitude towards the brand


Attitude-Toward-The-Ad Models
 Positive relation exists between attitude
toward the advertisement and purchase
intention for each of the advertised
product/brand.
 For a novel product (foot gear for dogs),
consumer attitude toward the ad has a
stronger impact on the brand attitude and
purchase intention than a familiar product
(dog food).
Attitude Formation

1. Hierarchies in Attitude
2. Attitude Formation – How?
HIERARCHIES IN ATTITUDE (1)
 Attitude hierarchies refers to the sequence
in which the three components occur.
 Answering the questions such as Do you
think first and act ? Or do you act first and
think afterward ?
 Learning Hierarchy:
Learning Cognitive Affective Conative
(Actions) (Feelings) (Actions)
HIERARCHIES IN ATTITUDE 1
 An NRK coming back to settle in India. Will consider
his home town - Trichur, or cities in his state like
Kochi or Calicut. Or metros like Bangalore or
Chennai.
 He first rationally consider the cost of living, real
estate costs, infrastructure & facilities, where his
friends relatives are based and his opportunities to
pursue something etc.
 Then he considers all these information and looks
at which of these places excites him to be.
 Based on this judgment he initiates action toward
buying a house/property.
HIERARCHIES IN ATTITUDE 2
 Emotional Hierarchy

Affect Conations Cognition


Emotions (actions) (thoughts)
(feelings)

 “My decision to join advertising industry was


based on a commercial I saw on Ad agencies
where I saw young men and women casually
dressed having lots of fun while doing
extremely creative work”.
HIERARCHIES IN ATTITUDE 2
 Based on your emotions – attraction or
repulsion toward certain brands or person
or things - you embrace (avoid) them,
buy them and start to use them.
 Finally through experience you learn more
about the brand.
 A Manager fixing the site for his next conference
– Goa because the beaches enchanted him. (Eg.
From business situation)
HIERARCHIES IN ATTITUDE (3)
 Low-Involvement Hierarchy of Attitude

Low Conation Affect Cognition


Involvement (actions) (feelings) (thoughts)
HIERARCHIES IN ATTITUDE (3)
 You are in the neighborhood bakery and see a new
variety of bread with nuts and dry fruits and looked
good.
 The bread is new so you do not have an attitude
towards it. You do not have to know a lot about it or
feel attracted to it to buy it. So you pick it up and
bring it home. You take the first bite and then find
out whether you like it or not.
 Then you may pause to find out about its flavor,
taste and may go through the ingredients and
information on who manufacture it etc.
HIERARCHIES IN ATTITUDE
 Learning and Emotional hierarchies are
high involvement hierarchies, because the
attitude the object generates is of high
involvement (degree of stake one has in
the object).
 In the case of low involvement product
action comes first followed by affect and
thought process.
 Involvement is not a property of the
product or service, rather it is the
importance of it to a customer.
HIERARCHIES IN ATTITUDE
 Thus the same product could be low
involvement for some one while its
high for some others.
 Involvement is no dichotomous
( choice between high & low), but it’s
a matter of degree (continuum).
 At the very low involvement end can
be something of no consequence to
the customer.
Attitude Formation

How attitudes are learned


and the sources that influence
attitude formation.
How Attitudes are Learned
 Attitude formation is a result of learning.
 Consumers often purchase new products that
are associated with a favourably viewed
brand name.
 Classical conditioning – the established brand
name is the unconditioned stimulus that
through past reinforcements have created a
favourable brand attitude.
 New product yet to be established become
the conditioned stimulus.
How Attitudes are Learned
2

 Sometimes attitude follows the purchase of


a product. (Operant / Instrumental
conditioning).
 Consumer may buy a brand because it is
the only product available.
 Consumers also make trial purchase of
brands in categories belonging to low
involvement for them.
 If they find the brand to be satisfactory then
they will develop favourable attitude.
Sources Of Influence On
attitude Formation
 Consumer attitude is strongly influenced
by personal experience.
 Primary means of attitude formation is
through consumers direct experience in
trying and evaluating them.
 Realizing this marketers often stimulate
trial of new products by offering special
bargains or free samples.
 Free test drive for cars.
Sources Of Influence On
attitude Formation 2
 Through mass media we are constantly
exposed to new products, ideas etc thru
advertising.
 For people without direct experience of
the product, exposure to emotionally
appealing Ads will create favourable
attitude.
 Attitudes developed thru direct
experience is much more enduring than
those developed from indirect
experience (Ads).
Sources Of Influence On
attitude Formation 3
 Personality factors also play a critical role in
attitude formation.
 Individuals with a high need for cognition (who
crave for info & enjoy thinking) are likely to form
positive attitude response to direct mail or
ads that are rich with product related info.
 Individual with low need for cognition – ads
with well known model or a celebrity helps.
Strategies of attitude
Change
Factors that are relevant for
attitude formation are relevant for
attitude change also.
Strategies of attitude
Change
 Altering attitude is a key consideration for
most marketers.
 Most competitors target market leaders when
they develop their strategies.
 Their objective is to change the attitudes of
the market leaders customers and win them
over.
 Market Leader in turn will try to fortify the
attitudes which customers currently hold
towards them.
Strategies of attitude
Change
 1. Changing consumers basic
motivational function.
 2. Associating the product with an
admired group or event.
 3. Resolving two conflicting attitudes.
 4. Altering components of the multi
attribute model
 5. Changing consumers beliefs about
competitors brands.
1. Changing The Basic
Motivational Function
 The utilitarian Function
 We hold certain brand attitudes partly
because of its utility.
 The attitude tends to be positive if the
product has been useful in the past.
 One way of changing attitudes is to show
that the product provide a utilitarian
function which the competitors are not
giving
 Indigo car; Bacteria Free Air conditioning –
Samsung; Pepsodent 24 hours Germicheck
Changing The Basic
Motivational Function 3

 The Value Expressive Function


 Attitudes are a reflection of one’s general
values.
 If a consumer segment holds positive attitude
owning latest electronic devices, then their
attitudes owning latest cellular phones will also
reflect the same.
 Segment who has a positive attitude toward
‘being in fashion’, will show favourable attitudes
toward high-fashion clothing.
Changing The Basic
Motivational Function 4

 The Value Expressive Function (contd.)


 Thus by knowing target consumers
attitudes, marketers can anticipate their
values, life style and out look.
 These can the be depicted in the ads which
will create favourable disposition from the
target group.
 The product can then be placed to appeal to
the right attitude of the group.
 Ac Delco (General Motors) “ You have not missed a day of
work in 12 years. --- so it comes as no surprise that your auto
parts are AC Delco
Changing The Basic
Motivational Function 2

 The Ego Defensive Function


 Most people want to hide their inner feelings of
doubt and project confident outlook.
 Cosmetic and personal care products understand
this need, increase both their relevance and the
likelihood of a favourable attitude change -------
 By offering reassurance to the consumers self
concept.
 Rexona Deodorant, Fair & Lovely, Axe
 “True Love is not Disposable” Express Zippo Lighter and the long
lasting relationship it can build with the customer.
Changing The Basic
Motivational Function 5

 The Knowledge Function


 Individuals generally have a strong need to
know and understand the people and things
they encounter.
 This cognitive need is important in
positioning
 Brand positioning is an attempt to satisfy
people’s ‘need to know’ and it improves
consumers attitude towards the product by
emphasizing its advantages.
Changing The Basic
Motivational Function 6

 The Knowledge Function


 An Ad message for an advanced-design
tooth brush might point out how it is
superior to other tooth brushes in
controlling gum disease by removing more
plaque which is so important for overall
health.
 This Ad also might use a bar or pie chart to
show its plaque removal abilities vis-à-vis
competition.
2. Associating The Product
With A Special Group
 Attitudes are related at least in part to
certain groups, social events or causes.
 It is possible to alter attitudes toward
product, brands or services by pointing at
their relationship (in ads) with certain social
groups, events etc.
 Microsoft - Bill Gates and their charity
contribution for AIDS patients, Tata Steel
and their community projects (Coke and
water conservation in Palakkad).
3. Resolving Two Conflicting
Attitudes
 If consumers are made to see that their
negative attitude toward a product, a
brand or its attributes is really not in
conflict with another attitude they may be
induced to change their evaluation (from
negative to positive).
 Nitin loves the idea of moving from his computer
and having a portable laptop, but what prevents
him is the slow processing capabilities.
 However on learning Compaq makes laptops with
high processing speed he is considering of
purchasing a laptop seriously.
4. ALTERING COMPONENTS
OF THE
MULTIATTRIBUTE MODELS
 Global attitude have been measured by a
couple of simple scales such as dislike /
like or as favorable / unfavorable etc.
 We can infer only that customers attitude
is favourable or unfavourable but we do
not know why.
 Multiattribute models help to infer the
underlying beliefs and how they are
weighted to yield overall attitudes.
4. ALTERING COMPONENTS
OF THE
MULTIATTRIBUTE MODELS 2
 Multi attribute scales bring in the following
advantages.
 Diagnosticity – ability to diagnose or explain
why certain attitudes are the way they are
and the attributes that contributes to them.
 Since Multi Attribute Models specify what
underlies attitudes, it gives us the cue on
how to change or influence customer
attitude.
Evaluation Of Attributes
(Unlikely 1 2 3 4 5 Likely)

America Evaluation OF
Attribute AT&T Consequences
Online
1. Connection will be established 3 5 +3
successfully every time.
2. The connection will be 4 3 +2
established speedily
3. The connection can get 3 3 -3
disconnected in the middle of a
session
4. The price (monthly fee) will be 2 3 -1
high (Very Bad -3, -2 -1 0 +1 +2 +3 Very Good)

A aol = 3(3) + 2(4) + -3(3) + -1(2) = 6 / A at&t = 3(5) + 2(3) + -3(3) + -1(3) = 7
4. ALTERING COMPONENTS OF
THE MULTIATTRIBUTE
MODELS 3
 Customer attitude can be changed in three
ways (Multi attribute rule based)
 1. By changing a specific component of
belief, which can be done by changing the
perception about an attribute or associated
consequence.
 (AOL has higher rating on speed. So
emphasize the importance of speed to
increase its evaluation)
4. ALTERING COMPONENTS OF
THE MULTIATTRIBUTE
MODELS 4
 2. By changing the importance customers assign
to an attribute
 (AOL improves its connection success rate and
initiates communication about this to
consumers).
 3. By introducing a new attribute (a new
evaluation criteria) into customers evaluation
process. (If AOL has superior customer support
then convince customers the importance of this)
4. ALTERING COMPONENTS
OF THE
MULTIATTRIBUTE MODELS 5
 Changing The Overall Brand rating
 Attempting to alter consumers overall
assessment of the brand directly, without
attempting to improve or change their evaluation
of any single attribute
 “We are the No. 1” – “The largest selling Brand”
 “The one all other imitate”
 “We set standards for other cars” – Honda.
5. Changing Beliefs About
Competitors Brands
 Changing consumer beliefs about the
attributes of competitor brands.
 Comparison Ads
 Indica V2 vs. Santro
 Ford Ikon vs. Accent
 It can boomerang as it give
unwarranted visibility to competitors
claims.
The Elaboration Likelihood
Model
 ELM: Consumer attitudes are changed by
two distinctively different routes.
 Central route & Peripheral route
 Central route happens when consumer is
motivated to assess the object.
 He will actively seek and analyze
information leading to attitude learning and
change.
The Elaboration Likelihood Model
 The peripheral Route is when consumer’s
motivation or assessment skills are low.
 Consumer learning and attitude change
occur without consumer actively searching
for information relevant to the object.
 Attitude change often is due to secondary
inducements – discounts, samples, great
packaging, ambience, celebrity
endorsements etc.
DEGREES OF INVOLEVEMENT &
TYPES OF ATTITUDE HEIRARCHY
High
Emotional Hierarchy Rational Hierarchy
Involvement
Begins with intense Begins with
emotions consideration of
multiple features

Begins with
Begins with consideration
mood of 1 or 2
features

Low
Involvement
hierarchy

Low Involvement
CONSISTENCY AMONG THE THREE
COMPONENTS
 A person tries to make the three components consistent and
to maintain consistency among them.
 Certain cognitions will give rise to certain affect and certain
action tendencies.
 The Consistency can be related to two factors
 1. Valence & 2. Strength

Three Attitude Components in


Affective Mutual Interdependence
(feelings)

Conative Cognitive
(actions) (thoughts)
CONSISTENCY AMONG THE THREE
COMPONENTS
 Attitude Valence: refers to favourable and unfavourable
thoughts feelings and actions.
 Thus favorable cognitions will be associated with positive
affect and unfavourable cognition with negative effect
regardless of the sequence in which they might have arisen
initially.
 Favourable action tendencies will be associated with
positive affect and positive cognitions.
 Likewise favorable action tendencies will be associated with
positive affect and positive cognition.
 If one of them needs to be modified even other elements
need to be changed.
 Repositioning cases (involves such modifying).
Behavior Can Precede or
Follow Attitude Formation
 Cognitive Dissonance Theory and
Attribution theory each provide a
different explanation as to why
behavior might precede attitude
formation.