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Load and Stress
Analysis
Section III
2
Introduction about stresses
Shearing force and bending moment
diagrams
Bending, Transverse, & Torsional stresses
Compound stresses and Mohr’s circle
Stress concentration
Stresses in pressurized cylinders, rotating
rings, curved beams, & contact
Talking Points
3
Assume downward force as negative and upward
force as positive; and counterclockwise moment as
positive and clockwise as negative.
Loads may act on multiple planes.
Introduction about stresses
Body Diagram  i. Static Equilibrium and Free
0 =
¿
F 0 =
¿
M
0 =
¿
T
4
The load is applied along
the axis of the bar
(perpendicular to the
crosssectional area) and it
is uniformly distributed
across the crosssectional
area of the bar.
The normal stress can be
tensile (+) or compressive
() depending on the
direction of the applied
load P.
The stress unit in N/m
2
or
Pa or multiple of this unit,
i.e. MPa, GPa.
Introduction about stresses
– Cont.
ii. Direct Normal Stress & Strain
A
P
= o
c o E =
Assuming elasticity
¬ ÷ = =
o
L
L
A
P o
c
o
E
E ·
·
=
A
L P
L
o
o
o
L
L o
c =
Hooke’s Law
5
Sometimes, a body is subjected
to a number of forces acting on
its outer edges as well as at
some other sections, along the
length of the body. In such case,
the forces are split up, and their
effects are considered on
individual sections. The resulting
deformation of the body is equal
to the algebraic sum of the
deformation of the individual
sections. Such a principle of
finding out the resultant
deformation is called the
principle of superposition.
Introduction about stresses
– Cont.
¿
·
·
=
n
E
1
o
A
L P
L o
Principle of Superposition:
L
1
L
2
L
3
d
1
d
2
d
3
L
3
L
2
L
1
d
3
d
2
d
1
P
1
P
2
P
3
P
4
6
Introduction about stresses
– Cont.
Example on Principle of Superposition:
A brass bar, having cross sectional area of 10 cm
2
is subjected to axial forces as
shown in the figure. Find the total elongation of the bar (oL). Take E = 80 GPa.
oL = 150 µm
7
For engineering materials, v = 0.25 to 0.33.
For a rounded bar, the lateral strain is equal to the reduction
in the bar diameter divided by the original diameter.
Introduction about stresses
– Cont.
s Ratio ’ iii. Poisson
( )
Strain Axial
Strain Lateral
Ratio s Poisson' = v
x
z
x
y
c
c
c
c
v ÷ = ÷ =
or
s Law: ’ From Hooke
¬ =
E
x
x
o
c
E
x
z y
vo
c c ÷ = =
For 1D stress system ( )
1D stress
system
0 = =
z y
o o
For 2D stress system ( )
0 , 0 = =
z y
o o
( )
y x x
E
vo o c ÷ =
1
( )
x y y
E
vo o c ÷ =
1
and
8
Introduction about stresses
– Cont.
s Ratio: ’ Example on Poisson
A 500 mm long, 16 mm diameter rod made of a homogenous, isotropic material is
observed to increase in length by 300 µm, and to decrease in diameter by 2.4 µm
when subjected to an axial 12 kN load. Determine the modulus of elasticity and
Poisson’s ratio of the material.
E = 99.5 GPa
v = 0.25
9
Introduction about stresses
– Cont.
iii. Direct Shear Stress & Strain
Assuming elasticity
The load, here,
is applied in a
direction
parallel to the
crosssectional
area of the bar.
A
Q
= t
G =
¸
t
¸ = Strain Shear
G is known as
modulus of rigidity
Single & Double Shear
The rivet is subjected
to single shear
The rivet is subjected
to double shear
A
Q
2
= ¬ t
v + =1
2G
E
Relation between
v , and G , E
Q
Q
10
Shearing Force (S.F.) and Bending
Moment (B.M.) Diagrams
Simply supported
beam
Cantilever beam
Sign Convention
Relationship between shear force
and bending moment
dx
dM
Q =
}
= Qdx M
Or
diagram force shear under the area The = M
11
Shearing Force (S.F.) and Bending
Moment (B.M.) Diagrams  Examples
i. Concentrated Load Only:
12
Shearing Force (S.F.) and Bending
Moment (B.M.) Diagrams  Examples
ii. Distributed Load Only:
13
Shearing Force (S.F.) and Bending
Moment (B.M.) Diagrams  Examples
iii. Combination of Concentrated and Distributed Load:
14
Shearing Force (S.F.) and Bending
Moment (B.M.) Diagrams  Examples
iv. If Couple or Moment is Applied:
15
Bending, Transverse, &
Torsional stresses
I
y M ·
= o
i. Bending Stress
where, M is the applied bending moment (B.M.) at a transverse
section, I is the second moment of area of the beam crosssection
about the neutral axis (N.A.), i.e. , o is the stress
at distance y from the N.A. of the beam crosssection.
}
= dA y I
2
16
ii. Transverse Stress
Bending, Transverse, & Torsional
stresses – Cont.
Ib
y A Q · ·
= t
where Q is the applied vertical shear force at that section; A
is the area of crosssection “above” y, i.e. the area between y
and the outside of the section, which may be above or below
the neutral axis (N.A.); y is the distance of the centroid of
area A from the N.A.; I is the second moment of area of the
complete crosssection; and b is the breadth of the section at
position y.
or
}
= dA y
Ib
Q
t
d
b
R
17
iii. Torsional Stress
Bending, Transverse, & Torsional
stresses – Cont.
J
T µ
t
·
=
where T is the applied external torque; µ is the radial direction
from the shaft center; J is the polar second moment of area of
shaft crosssection; r is the shaft radius; and t is the shear
stress at radius µ.
J
r T ·
=
max
t
4
2
1
r J t = ( )
4 4
2
1
i o
r r J ÷ = t
Solid
section
Hollow shaft
when torsion is present Note:
Ductile materials tends to break in a plane perpendicular
to its longitudinal axis; while brittle material breaks along
surfaces perpendicular to direction where tension is
maximum; i.e. along surfaces forming 45
o
angle with
longitudinal axis.
Ductile material Brittle material
18
Compound stresses and Mohr’s
circle
Machine Design involves among other
considerations, the proper sizing of a machine
member to safely withstand the maximum
stress which is induced within the member
when it is subjected separately or to any
combination of bending, torsion, axial, or
transverse load.
19
Compound stresses and
Mohr’s circle – Cont.
Maximum & Minimum Normal Stresses
2
2
(min)
2
2
(max)
2 2
2 2
xy
y x y x
n
xy
y x y x
n
t
o o o o
o
t
o o o o
o
+


.

\
 ÷
÷
+
=
+


.

\
 ÷
+
+
=
Stress State
3D General
Stress State
2D Stress
State
D Case: 2 For
Where:
o
x
is a stress at a critical point in tension or compression normal to the
cross section under consideration, and may be either bending or axial
load, or a combination of the two.
o
y
is a stress at the same critical point and in direction normal to the o
x
stress.
t
xy
is the shear stress at the same critical point acting in the plane normal
to the Y axis (which is the XZ plane) and in a plane normal to the X axis
(which is the YZ plane). This shear stress may be due to a torsional
moment, transverse load, or a combination of the two.
o
n(max)
and o
n(min)
are called principal stresses and occurs on planes that
are at 90° to each other, called principle planes also planes of zero shear.
Note: o
x
, o
y
, o
z
all +ve, t
xy
,
t
yx
, t
zy
, t
yz
, t
xz
, t
zx
all +ve.
Due to static balance, t
xy
=
t
yx
, t
zy
= t
yz
, and t
xz
= t
zx
.
Counterclockwise (CCW)
Clockwise (CW)
20
Compound stresses and
Mohr’s circle – Cont.
( )
y x
xy
o o
t
÷
= u
2
2 tan
t
max
at the critical point being investigated is equal to half of the greatest difference of
any of the three principal stresses. For the case of twodimensional loading on a particle
causing a twodimensional stresses; The planes of maximum shear are inclined at 45°
with the principal planes.
( ) ( )
( )
2
1
2
min max
2
2
max n n xy
y x
o o t
o o
t ÷ = +


.

\

÷
=
)
max
t Maximum Shear Stresses (
The planes of maximum shear are inclined at 45° with the principal planes.
The angle between the principal plane and the XY plane is defined by:
21
Compound stresses and Mohr’s
circle – Cont.
s Circle ’ Mohr
It is a graphical method to find the maximum and minimum normal stresses
and maximum shear stress of any member.
From the diagram:
o
x
= OA, t
xy
= AB, o
y
=OC, and t
yx
= CD. The line BED
is the diameter of Mohr's circle with center at E on the o
axis. Point B represents the stress coordinates o
x
,
t
xy
on
the X faces and point D the stress coordinates o
y
,
t
yx
on
the Y faces. Thus EB corresponds to the Xaxis and ED to
the Yaxis. The maximum principal normal stress o
max
occurs at F, and the minimum principal normal stress
o
min
at G. The two extremevalue shear stresses one
clockwise and one counterclockwise, occurs at H and I,
respectively. We can construct this diagram with
compass and scale and find the required information
with the aid of scales. A semigraphical approach is
easier and quicker and offer fewer opportunities for
error.
2D
22
Compound stresses and
Mohr’s circle – Cont.
Principal Element
True views on the various faces of the principal element
Max
Min
t
max
is equal to half of the greatest
difference of any of the three principal
stresses. In the case of the below figure:
3D
( )
2
1
3 1 13 max
o o t t ÷ = =
where,
( ) ( )
3 2 23 2 1 12
2
1
,
2
1
o o t o o t ÷ = ÷ =
23
Example:
A machine member 50 mm diameter by 250 mm long is supported at one end as a
cantilever. In this example note that o
y
= 0 at the critical point.
Compound stresses and Mohr’s
circle – Examples.
: Axial load only: 1 Case
: Bending only: 2 Case
In this case all points in the member are subjected to
the same stress.
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
MPa 83 . 3 2 MPa, 65 . 7
0
MPa 65 . 7 10 96 . 1 10 15 A P
m 10 96 . 1 10 50 4 A
(max) (max) (max)
3 3
2 3
2
3
= = = ¬
=
= × × = + =
× = × × =
÷
÷ ÷
n n
xy
x
o t o
t
o
t
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(Shear) MPa 60 . 30 2
on) (Compressi MPa 1 . 61 , 0
MPa 1 . 61
: B point At
(Shear) MPa 60 . 30 2
0 (Tension), MPa 1 . 61
MPa 1 . 61
64 10 50
10 25 10 250 10 3
: A point At
(max) (max)
(min) (max)
(max) (max)
(min) (max)
4
3
3 3 3
= =
÷ = = ¬
÷ =
·
÷ =
= =
= + = ¬
=
× ×
× · × × ×
=
·
+ =
÷
÷ ÷
n
n n
x
n
n n
x
I
y M
I
y M
o t
o o
o
o t
o o
t
o
24
Compound stresses and Mohr’s
circle – Examples.
: Torsion only: 3 Case : : Bending & Axial Load 4 Case
In this case the critical point occur along the outer
surface of the member.
(Shear) MPa 7 . 26 2 5 . 53
on) (Compressi MPa 5 . 53 , 0
on) (Compressi MPa 5 . 53 1 . 61 65 . 7
: B point At
(Shear) MPa 4 . 34 2 8 . 68
0 (Tension), MPa 8 . 68
(Tension) MPa 8 . 68 1 . 61 65 . 7
: A point At
(max)
(min) (max)
(max)
(min) (max)
= =
÷ = = ¬
÷ = ÷ =
·
÷ + =
= =
= = ¬
= + =
·
+ + =
t
o o
o
t
o o
o
n n
x
n n
x
I
y M
A
P
I
y M
A
P
( ) ( )
( ) ( )
(Shear) MPa 7 . 40
on) (Compressi MPa 7 . 40
(Tension) MPa 7 . 40
MPa 7 . 40
32 10 50
10 25 10 1
0
(max)
(min)
(max)
4
3
3 3
=
÷ =
= ¬
=
× ×
× · ×
=
·
=
=
÷
÷
t
o
o
t
t
o
n
n
xy
x
J
r T
25
Compound stresses and Mohr’s
circle – Examples.
: Bending & Torsion: 5 Case : : Torsion & Axial Load 6 Case
( )
( ) (Shear) MPa 9 . 50 2
on) (Compressi MPa 4 . 81
(Tension), MPa 3 . 20
MPa 7 . 40
MPa 1 . 61
: B point At
(Shear) MPa 9 . 50 2
on) (Compressi MPa 3 . 20 7 . 40
2
1 . 61
2
1 . 61
(Tension), MPa 4 . 81 7 . 40
2
1 . 61
2
1 . 61
MPa 7 . 40
MPa 1 . 61
: A point At
(min) (max) (max)
(min)
(max)
(min) (max) (max)
2
2
(min)
2
2
(max)
= ÷ =
÷ =
= ¬
=
÷ =
= ÷ =
÷ = + 
.

\

÷ =
= + 
.

\

+ = ¬
=
·
=
=
·
+ =
n n
n
n
xy
x
n n
n
n
xy
x
J
r T
I
y M
o o t
o
o
t
o
o o t
o
o
t
o
( ) (Shear) MPa 9 . 40 2
on) (Compressi MPa 1 . 37 7 . 40
2
65 . 7
2
65 . 7
(Tension), MPa 7 . 44 7 . 40
2
65 . 7
2
65 . 7
MPa 7 . 40
MPa 65 . 7 A P
(min) (max) (max)
2
2
(min)
2
2
(max)
= ÷ =
÷ = + 
.

\

÷ =
= + 
.

\

+ = ¬
=
·
=
= + =
n n
n
n
xy
x
J
r T
o o t
o
o
t
o
26
Compound stresses and Mohr’s
circle – Examples.
: Bending, Axial Load, and Torsion: 7 Case
( )
( ) (Shear) MPa 7 . 48 2
on) (Compressi MPa 5 . 75
(Tension), MPa 9 . 21
MPa 7 . 40
MPa 3 . 53 1 . 61 65 . 7
: B point At
(Shear) MPa 3 . 53 2
on) (Compressi MPa 19 7 . 40
2
8 . 68
2
8 . 68
(Tension), MPa 7 . 87 7 . 40
2
8 . 68
2
8 . 68
MPa 7 . 40
MPa 8 . 68 1 . 61 65 . 7
: A point At
(min) (max) (max)
(min)
(max)
(min) (max) (max)
2
2
(min)
2
2
(max)
= ÷ =
÷ =
= ¬
=
÷ = ÷ =
·
÷ + =
= ÷ =
÷ = + 
.

\

÷ =
= + 
.

\

+ = ¬
=
·
=
= + =
·
+ + =
n n
n
n
xy
x
n n
n
n
xy
x
I
y M
A
P
J
r T
I
y M
A
P
o o t
o
o
t
o
o o t
o
o
t
o
27
s circle: ’ Example on Mohr
The stress element shown in figure has o
x
= 80 MPa
and t
xy
, = 50 MPa (CW). Find the principal stresses
and directions.
Compound stresses and Mohr’s
circle – Examples.
Locate o
x
= 80 MPa along the o axis. Then from o
x
,
locate t
xy
= 50 MPa in the (CW) direction of the t axis to
establish point A. Corresponding to o
y
= 0, locate t
yx
= 50
MPa in the (CCW) direction along the t axis to obtain point
D. The line AD forms the diameter of the required circle
which can now be drawn. The intersection of the circle
with the o axis defines o
max
and o
min
as shown.
( )
°
=

.

\

= u
u
÷ = ÷ = = + =
= + =
3 . 51
40
50
tan 2
: is CW to axis  X the from 2 angle The
MPa 24 64 40 MPa, 104 64 40
MPa 64 40 50
1 
max
(min) (max)
2 2
(max)
o
o o
t
28
Stress Concentration
Occurs when there is sudden changes in crosssections of members
under consideration. Such as holes, grooves, notches of various
kinds.
The regions of these sudden changes are called areas of stress
concentration.
Stressconcentration factor (K
t
or K
ts
)
The analysis of geometric shapes to determine stressconcentration
factors is a difficult problem, and not many solutions can be found.
o
ts
o
t
K K
t
t
o
o
max max
= =
Theoretically
29
Stresses in pressurized
cylinders, rotating
rings, curved beams,
& contact
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