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Chapter 1

Introduction to Training Management and Development


A successful, growing organization is one, made up of productive and motivated Human Resources. Training is a key factor in determining the level of productivity of human resources, and thus the achievement of organizational objectives/goals.

Training is a planned program, usually of short term duration, designed to improve performance at the individual level, group level an/or organizational levels, so as to enable them to achieve their personal and organizational goals, Training helps employees to fill up the Gap between their present knowledge, skills, attitude and the desire knowledge, skills and attitude for their present jobs. Training is a systematic process of changing of the behavior, knowledge and/or motivation of present employees to improve the match between employee characteristics and employment requirements. Training is closely linked to other HR activities. It is sometimes seen as a short term structured and relatively focused activity. Training is usually imparted to fill up gap between the present performance and the desired performance of employees.

Major purposes of training are: To improve job related knowledge To update employee skills
Due to technological changes Solve organization problem & achieve organization goals To develop employees for promotion (promotion within the organization, attract & motivate employees)

To improve their job related attitude/behavior. Training is considered as investment in Human Resources, which provides many important benefits and Returns to the organization. A study conducted in U.S indicates that every $1 spent on training and development generates $3 in new economic activity.

Management is a process in organization to facilities efficient and effective attainment of organization objectives with the satisfaction of stakeholders.

It relates to utilizing the limited organization resources to train\develop HR efficiently to achieve personal and organizational goals\objective through improvement of performance.

Though, training is a continuous process in career development and hence contributes in the employees development. Development is the gap filling/enhancement of employees knowledge, skills and attitude to enable them to become FIT\Competent for the future higher job position.


A. B. C. Assessment Training & Development Evaluation A. Training needs assessment It is conducted at three levels. At Organization Level The analysis at the organization level should un-cover major problem areas that may indicate training needs, such as productivity, quality, turn over, accidents and absenteeism. At Operations/Department Level: It is known as task analysis. It is carried out to determine the gap between the desired level and present level of employees performance At Individual Level In the individuals training analysis, the employees are identified who need training and development and identify skills, knowledge, abilities and attitudes needed to be acquired or developed

TRAINING OBJECTIVES: The training needs assessment results are translated into training objectives. The training objectives must be prepared /developed in a more precise terms and should be measurable, verified and achievable. Training objectives should contain three components: Performance desired: Describe clearly and precisely what the trainee should be able to so rather to know It should result in ends rather than means (Process) Work /Job Conditions: Should specify the circumstances, under which the trainee /learner will be performing that activity/job. It describes equipment, supplies and job aids that may or may not be used on the job It describes the work setting and information used for the actions. Criteria (standard) for Test: Specify level/degree of proficiency for successful job performance Quality of performance to achieve objectives The above training objectives will provide Basis/standard for evaluating the performance of trainees and effectiveness of training.

B. Training and Development: Designing the Training curriculum Selection of the Training and Development methods Selection of Training and Development Methods Training and development methods are to be selected carefully keeping in view: Effectiveness of training method: Cost and time consumed by each training method C. Evaluation: To verify a programs success, HR managers increasingly demand that the training and development activities must be evaluated systematically The evaluation of training and development should follow the following steps: Evaluation criteria should be carried out before training begins Test of participants should be carried out before training During the course, the trainees should be evaluated at different intervals and feedback provided for improvement. Post test or post training evaluation should be carried out to assess that the desired training objectives have been achieved


Training and management development activities are among the most common and costly methods of achieving HR objectives. These activities help employees learn new skills, refine existing skills, and improve their attitudes. Training and development is a powerful tool to enhance efficiency and equity of an organization. Some of the duties /roles of a training manager are as follow: Identifying which skill or knowledge areas need development and which methods are most effective for acquisition of those desired skills and knowledge Assessing training needs and objectives meticulously, designing programmes alternatives accordingly and adopting systematic approach to training decisions Carrying out periodic checks of performance and review of training events to assess progress and determining if any change is necessary Regularly reviewing and evaluating of training facilities, class rooms, training aids and equipments keeping in view the present and future needs Maintaining regular coordination and close liaison with departments, sponsors (if any), line managers and if need be the supervisors for training needs, feedback on training and cooperation. Identifying short and long term needs in light of the turnover of personnel, induction of new plants/equipments, projected diversification in the production/industrial outputs, potential technological changes in business strategies etc.

Keeping himself and his staff abreast of new trends in training and teaching techniques and impact of industrial outputs, potential technological changes in business strategies etc. Up keeping training policies, guidelines and procedures and suggesting changes and modifications in these to the higher management as and when necessitated Maintaining and regularly updating training plans, programmes, syllabi, reports and records in accordance with the policies in vogue Ensuring that training commitments are met as desired and the training staff is competent, well-groomed and motivated to carry out their functions effectively Affording due consideration to the effects of training on equity goals, while evaluating the efficiency contributions of training programmes Making sure that while evaluating training, the following factors are taken into consideration:
Trainees reaction The validity of the in0use training material specified training concept Application of the specified concepts on the job Positive effects of the approach on the organization.

Overseeing trainees presence, regularity and punctuality in training classes and adherence to the approved training plan/programmes.



1. Purpose: The purpose or objectives should be smart (specific, measurable, achievable, realistic and time bound). These objectives must be developed carefully after carrying out the training needs assessment, at organizational, operational and individual levels and in line with the strategies and goals of the organization. These objectives should be stated in behavioral terms to provide specificity and direction to the instructors and learners alike. (Emphasis on to be ABLE to do at the end of the training programme rather than to know. Similarly, the desired outcome/results/effects have to be stated rather than the procedure etc). The purpose should also cater for the needs of the organization as well as the participating trainees. The HRD system must have purposes ranging from: Creation of awareness to modify behaviors Improvement of job performance Professional development/career development of individuals HRD system should serve shared purposes of the organization and employees. Cost/benefit analysis of the purposes should be carried out thoroughly during the development of HRD programme, keeping in view the budget and priority of the organization.

2. Personnel: Employees ranging from Chief Executive to the shop level are benefited by the HRD system which are of prime importance Grouping of employees into categories of shared characteristics: example: sales personnel, accounts personnels etc however, there are some drawbacks resulting from time and geographical factors Other characteristics to be considered during HRD development are: Work orientation: how far the participants are committed to their jobs? Personal factors-crises at home/work place, conflict among workers, career conscious or laid back Learning style: how the participants learn quickly? What method is effective for learning? Personnel for training, supervision and supporting the HRD activities: Full time staff employed by HRD department is usually generalists and cost intensive. This may be counterproductive to achieving long term goals and purposes. Outside experts or trainers are hired to design and develop programme tailored to the needs of the organization. Moreover experienced and qualified supervisors are another source to be used for need assessment, training employees on their jobs, provide guidance and coaching etc. Therefore, proper training of trainers programmes are conducted to ensure supervisor and managers to become effective trainers. All direct & indirect costs including opportunity costs are calculated to decide upon the programmes.

3. Material: After purposes and personnel involved in the system are carried out, the next step is to assess the material required and sources Prepare inventory of materials, equipment and facilities required and those available within the organization Maximum use of material, facilities and equipment already in place Compare the cost of hiring extra materials with purchasing them Facilities: While deciding the facilities, consider the learning environment, costs, convenience of participants and other factors for smooth running of training programme as well as the organization operations Consider labs, workshops etc which serve dual purpose and save cost, travel and time Explore off-site facilities like schools etc. Equipment: Equipment having multiple utility may be used for training and production purposes In some cases, where the equipment is for special purpose and occasionally used, may be hired from other organizations Use existing equipment for greater flexibility Materials: Some of the materials such as policy documents, reports, DATA etc can be used both for operational and training purposes. Teaching materials should be developed for the equipment available in the organization to ensure cost effectiveness and in line with the learning principles

4. Methods: Methods of training ranges from simple lecture to complex simulation methodologies. Any method employed, must be directly relevant and appropriate to the purposes/objectives, personnel and materials of HRD system. There is always trade off in the selection of methods while considering the effectiveness od learning and costs. Methods also depend on availability of material/facilities. Allow for flexibility in methods to respond to changes. Support methods that encourage discussions and interactions Focus on long term on-going incremental methods like news letter, jobs rotations etc.

5. Evaluation: It is an important element of training system Major purpose of evaluation is focused on the achievement of purposes or objectives of HRD system Proper documentation and systematic evaluation will enable the organization to gauge the success and identify areas of improvements and feedback to concerned quarters. The feedback is a critical dimension of evaluation. It can incorporate information from tests conducted after completion of programme. Evaluation should be cost-effective, reliable valid and objective Efficiency and effectiveness be kept in consideration. All the five elements have to be critically examined particularly the personnel (50-90% of HRD budget) Interval tests, performance tests, participant reactions, on the job performance and cost/benefit analysis are the major tools of evaluation of HRD system

DEVELOPING HRD SYSTEM(Relationship Among 5 HRD System Elements)

The five elements of training systems, used for HRD are shown in the form of five overlapping circles, each containing all possible alternatives within that element. Out of all the combinations/possibilities, the few possibilities (shown as shaded area shared by all five elements) to be incorporated into a HRD activity. As seen major portions of the circles are unused meaning that only the required alternatives are chosen. When needs and conditions change, the proportion (overlapping) of the circles (elements) can be modified to have other suitable combinations The five elements are interactive, and that is the requirement of HRD system. For continuing improvements in training and development programmes, interaction should be repetitive. Each of the five elements have important and direct influence on other elements. Therefore, the elements need to be combined for effective interactions. While evaluating the HRD effort, it is necessary to know the interactive dimensions of these fine elements. For example: Validation of materials depends on effectiveness of training method and facilities. The involved persons and the purpose. Effectiveness of trainers depends on the type of trainees, purposes, material and training methods. We can take a start by choosing any of the five elements, but mostly the first to be used are purpose and personnel. For developing HRD system, it is important to delineate and operationalize the dimensions of each of the five elements i.e. determining as to what shall be purposes, who will be the participants, what will be the methods used and what will be the materials needed. Personnel and material only incur direct costs; the other three will indirectly affect costs.

Relationship Among Elements of a Human Resources Development System




Purpose Methods

The Training Spiral

Determining New Training Needs

Evaluating the Training

Determining Training Needs

Adjusting the Design Daily Collecting Data for Training Needs Assessment

Delivering the Training Program

The Training Spiral

Analyzing the Training

Evaluating the Design

Costing the Training

Designing the Training

Presenting to Management

Revising Training Needs Assessment to Include Input