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nomenclature refers to the terminology or set of technical terms that is employed in a particular branch of science.
TERMINOLOGY RELATED TO VARIOUS TOOTH SURFACES
FACIAL SURFACE ;LABIAL SURFACE;- FACING TOWARD LIP BUCCAL SURFACE ;-FACING TOWARD CHEEKS LINGUAL SURFACE ;- FACING TOWARDS TONGUE PALATAL SURFACE ;-FACING TOWARD PALATE MESIAL SURFACE;-FACING TOWARD MIDLINE DISTAL SURFACE;-FACING AWAY FROM MIDLINE INSISAL SURFACE;-FUNCTIONAL EDGE OF INCISSOR OR CANNINE OCCLUSAL SURFACE ;- MASTICATING SURFACE OF PREMOLAR OR MOLAR
CERVICAL PORTION;-PORTION OF TOOTH RELATED TO NECK OF TOOTH GINGIVAL PORTION ;-PORTION OF TOOTH RELATED TO GINGIVA
TERMINOLOGY RELATED TO CARIES
ACCORDING TO LOCATION,CARIES CAN BE PRIMARY CARIES;.PIT AND FISSURE CARIES .SMOOTH SURFACE CARIES .ROOT SURFACE CARIES .RESIDUAL CARIES SECONDARY /RECURRENT CARIES
ACCORDING TO AMOUNT OF TOOTH INVOLVEMENT;INCIPITENT CARIES ADVANCED /CAVITED CARIES ACCORDING TO RATE OF PROGRESSING OF CARIES;ACUTE CARIES CHRONIC CARIES
• PIT AND FISSURE CARIES;-
caries begning in pit and fissures .pit and fissures are imperfect coalescence of developmental enamel lobes. • Smooth surface caries;-caries invading the smooth surface of tooth covered by plaque for prolonged period
• Root surface caries;-also called senile caries
.caries occuring in the exposed surface of roots covered with plaque for prolonged time. • Residual caries;-caries that remain after cavity preparation.
• Secondary caries;- are recurrent caries that •
begins around or beneath restoration Incipitent caries;-also called initial caries or reversible caries .it is the begning of carious activity and appears as white opaque areas. Advanced /cavited caries;-caries that progress to dentoenamel junction and is no longer reversible. Acute caries;-caries of rapid onset ,ie rampent and nursing bottle caries Chronic caries;caries of slower onset ,they are dark brown to black in colour.
Terminology related to other defects of tooth;Attrition ;-loss of tooth structure due to frictional contact of opposing teeth. Abrasion ;-wearing of tooth structure due to direct frictional force between teeth and externel object ie tooth brush Erosion;-it is the dissolution of the tooth structure by chemicomechanical action Abfraction;-it is the wedge shaped defeact in the cervical portion due to high occlusal forces.
Fracture;- break in the continuity of the
tooth surface due to traumatic injury. Enamel hypoplasia ;-defective formation of enamel due to injury to the ameloblast during the formative years.
NOMENCLATURE RELATED TO CAVITY PREPARATION
Cavity;- it is the defect in the enamel or both
in enamel and dentin Cavity preparation;-it is the alteration of the defective diseased or injured toothstructure by dental dental surgical procedure and subsiquently shaping the remaining enamel and dentin to receive a restorative material such that the tooth returns to its normal form ,function and esthetic.
Intracoronal cavity preparation;-it is the
cavity preparation in the interiour of the tooth Extracoronal cavity preparation ;-cavity preparation that involves the exteriour of the tooth. Simple cavity;-cavities involving only one surface of tooth e.g mesial ,distal ,facial .. Coumpound cavity ;-cavity involving two adjoining surfaces of tooth e.g mesio occlusal cavity ,mesio buccal cavity,…
Complex cavity;-cavities involving more
than two adjoining surfaces of tooth.
VARIOUS WALLS IN CAVITY PREPARATION
Internal wall;-surface of prepared cavity that
does not extend to exteriour of tooth. External wall;-surface of prepared cavity that extend to exteriour of the tooth. Floor/seat of cavity;-any cavity wall that is flat and is perpendicular to the occluso-gingivally directed force. E.g pulpal & gingival wall.
Facial wall; a)labial wall;- facing towards lips
b)buccal wall;-facing towards cheeks
Lingual wall;-facing towards tongue and
palate. Incisor/occlusal wall;-walls facing toward incisal and occlusal portion of tooth. Mesial/distal wall;-walls facing the mesial and the distal aspect of tooth. Axial wall;-wall nearest the pulp and parrell to the long axis of tooth. Pulpal wall;-wall neareat the pulp and perpendicular to long axis of tooth.
Gingival wall;-wall facing the gingiva. Subpulpal wall;-when the pulpal chamber is
accesed and the roof of the pulp chamber is removed ,the floor of the pulp chamber left behind is called subpulpal wall.
VARIOUS ANGLES IN CAVITY PREPARATION
ANGLE ;- junction of two or more surfaces of
a prepared cavity is called angle. Line angle;-the angle formed at the junction of two adjoining walls in a cavity preparation is reffered to as line angle. Point angle;-the angle formed at the junction of three adjoining walls in a cavity preparation is reffered as point angle.
Axial line angle;-any line angle parrell to the
long axis of the tooth. Pulpal line angle ;-any line angle horizontal to the long axis of the tooth. Cavosurface angle;-angle formed at the junction of the cavity walls and the unprepard tooth surface.
TYPICAL CLASS 1 CAVITY
facial (f), distal(d) lingual (I), mesial (m), pulpal (p).
Line angles are Point angles are 1.faciopulpal (fp), 1.distofaciopulpal(dfp), 2.distofacial (df), 2.distolinguopulpal (dlp), 3.distopulpal (dp), 3.mesiolinguopulpal (mlp) 4.distolingual (dl), 4.mesiofaciopulpal (mfp 5.linguopulpal (Ip), 6.mesiolingual (ml), 7.mesiopulpal (mp), 8.mesiofacial(mf)
Typical Class II mesioocclusal
BEVELS;Ultra short/partial bevel;-involving the part
of enamel Short bevel;-involving entire enamel wall. Long bevel;-involving all enamel wall and upto one half of dentinal wall. Full bevel;-involves all enamel and dentinal wall
Hollow bevel;-it is concave preparation
involves only enamel or enamel and part of dentine. Inverted bevel;-it is a incline in the labial shoulder for metal ceramic crown.
CLASSIFICATIO OF CAVITIES by G.V. BLACK
Class 1 cavities;-cavities begning in the
structural defect like the pit and the fissures that occur on the occlusal surface of the permolar and the molar ,occlusal two-third of the buccal and the lingual surface of the molar,the lingual surface of the incisor and and any abberent location. Class 2 cavities;-cavities in the proximal surface of the premolar and molar.
Class 3 cavities;-cavities on the proximal
surface of the incisor and canines but not involving the incisal angle. Class 4 cavities;-cavities on the proximal surface of the incisor and canines but also involving the incisal angle. Class 5 cavities;-cavities on the gingival third of the facial and lingual surface of all teeth. Class 6 cavities;-cavities on the incisal edge and cusp tips of all teeth.
ARNAB KAR C.R.R.I