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BASIC INDUSTRIAL RIGGING


AND CRANES
Basic Rigging
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Rigging and Cranes
This Rigging and Cranes Presentation will review general
rigging principles, general cranes types and components ,
crane safety and hand signals to direct crane operation.

Click on the subject below to hyperlink to a specfic
presentation.

Industrial Rigging
Cranes
Crane Safety
Crane Hand Signals
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INDUSTRIAL RIGGING
Basic Rigging
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Objectives
Define Rigging Principles
Define Loads
Define Sling Angles
Define Sling Safe Working Load
Define Hitch types
Define Rigging Equipment
Define Block and Tackle
Define Levers and Mechanical Advantage


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Rigging
Hoisting and Rigging refers to the lifting and moving of
loads using mechanical devices
Objectives of rigging training programs:
Protect personnel from injury
Protect equipment from damage
Protect property from damage
Protect the environment from harm
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Basic Rigging Principles
Rigging is the process of moving heavy loads with
ropes, chains, hoists and other special tools.
The equipment used for lifting and moving loads is
also called rigging.
Safety must be the foremost concern: any task
involving airborne loads can be extremely dangerous
if not handled carefully and properly.
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Definitions
Static load: the load resulting from a constant
applied force or load.
Working load limit: the maximum mass or force
which the product is authorized to support in general
service when pull is applied in-line. Interchangeable
with the following terms:
Working load limit (WLL).
Rated working load (RWL).
Resultant working load (RWL).
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Definitions
Proof load: the average force applied in the performance of a test.
Proof test: A test applied to determine manufacturing defects.
Ultimate load: the average load of force at which the product fails
or no longer supports the load.
Shock load: A force that results from rapid application of a force or
rapid movement of a static load.
Design (safety) factor: an industry term denoting a products
theoretical reserve capability. Usually expressed as a ratio (example
5 to 1).

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Finding the Weight
The weight of the load is the first piece of
information required when planning a rigging job.
The first place to look for the weight is on the load
itself.
The weight could be found in the equipment manual
or operators guide.
The weight could be estimated.
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Estimating Weight
There are two ways to estimate load weight
1. Estimate the weight by comparing it to the known
weight of a similar piece.
2. Calculate the volume of the load and multiply that
figure by the density of the material.

Example: steel weighs 490 pounds per cubic foot.
10 cubic feet of steel = 490 x 10 = 4,900 pounds.
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Basic Rigging Principles
Rigging safety involves three elements:
Planning the job.
Inspecting the equipment.
Using the equipment properly.
Planning a rigging job consists of four steps.
1. Finding the weight of the load.
2. Determining the balance of the load.
3. Checking the clearances for moving the load.
4. Selecting the rigging equipment to be used.

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Determining the Balance
Every load must be balanced if it is to be lifted safely,
therefore unbalanced loads will tilt or swing when they
are lifted.
Some loads are much more easily balanced than
others, which makes a regularly shaped load easier to
lift from a point balanced above its center.
Loads with irregular shapes may be more difficult to
balance and will take greater care when rigging is to
be done.
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Determining the Balance
Every object has a point at which it will balance perfectly. This
point is call the objects center of gravity. When a load is lifted
from a point directly above its center of gravity, it will remain
stable.
One way to find a loads center of gravity is to make a model of
the load .
To find the model center of gravity, it is lifted from
several points.
While the model is suspended from each lift point, a
line is drawn straight down from the lift point being
used.
Since the center of gravity always shifts so that it
hangs directly beneath the lift point, all the lines will
intersect at the center of gravity.
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Checking Clearances and Route
Checking clearances is the third step in planning a
rigging job.
Before a load is moved, the size of the load must be
compared to the size of the corridors and the tight
spots along the way to make sure that the load will
fit.
The best way to avoid mistakes is to measure the
load and path to make sure there is sufficient
clearance for the load and equipment being used to
transport the load.

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Checking Clearances and Route
When planning the route over which a load will
travel, several other considerations are as important
as clearances.
The load should be kept as close to the floor as
possible.
Loads should not be lifted over other equipment
unless no other route is possible.
People must be kept out of the way. Loads
should never be lifted above a person.
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Selection of Equipment
Once a loads weight, balance and the necessary clearances
have been determined, enough information exists to select the
equipment for the job.

Rigging equipment, in general can be grouped into four
categories:
Hoists and Cranes provide lift.
Slings short lengths of wire rope, chains or
synthetic fibers used to attach a load to a hoist or
crane.
Connectors hooks, eyebolts, and shackles used
to link different pieces of rigging together.
Adjustors load levelers and turnbuckles used to
balance loads.

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Slings
Three types of fiber-line and wire-rope slings are commonly used
for lifting a load are
the endless sling
single- leg sling
bridle slings
The ENDLESS SLING, can be made by splicing together the ends of
a piece of fiber line or wire rope to form an endless loop. The endless
sling is easy to handle and is frequently used as a choker hitch.
A SINGLE-LEG SLING, commonly referred to as a STRAP, can be
constructed by forming a spliced eye in each end of a piece of
fiber line or wire rope. Sometimes the ends of a piece of wire rope
are spliced into eyes around thimbles, and one eye is fastened to a
hook with a shackle. With this arrangement, the shackle and hook
are removable. A single-leg sling also may be used as a choker
hitch.
Bridle slings are usually made from single-leg slings.

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Sling Angle
When slings are to be used the least amount of tension
is exerted when using vertical slings.
When shorter slings are being used, their angle moves
farther away from vertical, creating steeper angles and
therefore more tension is produced.
In extreme cases, the greater the angle, the greater the
tension, causing overloading of the slings.
The prevent overloading slings, their angle must be no
greater than 60 degrees from the vertical.
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1000 lbs
1000 lbs
1000 lbs
1000 lbs
90

60

45
30
5
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0

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5
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1000 lbs
1000 lbs
1000 lbs
Sling Angle Load Examples
Examples of how sling angles affect the loading on
the legs of a sling.
Sling capacity decreases as the sling angle
decreases

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Calculating Sling Load
In order to calculate the load on a sling two items
are needed:
Sling angle
Load to be lifted
The following table gives the load angle calculation
factor for some common angles.
Use the formula Sling Load = Load x Load Angle
Factor
Sling Angle Degrees Load Angle Factor = L/H
90 1.000
60 1.155
50 1.305
45 1.414
30 2.000
Load on each leg of sling.
Sling = Vertical Load x Load Angle Factor
Load in each sling =
500 x Load Angle
Factor
1000 lbs
A
Load in each sling = L/H x 500
A
L
H
1000 lbs
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Sling Angle What it means basically
To gain a perspective assume that a 3/8 inch wire rope is rated for
2000 lbs in a vertical lift. In a four point lift the maximum load can then
be 8000 lbs (4 tons).
If the sling angle is changed to 60 degrees then the max load seen by
each sling is 2310 pound and the total load seen by the slings is a
total of 9240 pounds.
This exceeds the lifting capacity of the wire rope.
The solution would be to use a larger wire rope or reduce the load
size.
8000 lbs
2000 lbs
60

8000 lbs
2310 lbs
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Ropes and Chains
Ropes and chains are perhaps the most common of all
rigging tools. They are used on hoists and cranes and
as slings to attach a load to a lifting device
Rope is the oldest of all tools still used in rigging. In the
past, all ropes were made of vegetable fibers twisted
together to make a sturdy line for lifting and hauling.
Although natural fiber ropes have some use in rigging
today, ropes made of synthetic fibers or wire are much
more common.
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Ropes and Chains
Rope made of synthetic fibers such as nylon or
polyester is often constructed in much the same way as
natural fiber ropes.
Synthetic fiber ropes have the advantage of greater
strength and the additional characteristic of an
increased ability to stretch and then return to its original
size.
Stretch is sometimes an advantage, since the rope can
rebound from a sudden shock load without snapping.

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Rope Lays
Wire ropes can be made in several ways.
Each different technique is called a lay.
There are four types of ropes which are used in industry.
1. Right regular lay.
2. Right Lang lay.
3. Left regular lay.
4. Left Lang lay. .


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Rope Lays
Right regular lay, when you look at the end of the
rope the strands wind to the right, but the wires
composing the strands are wound in the opposite
direction.
Right Lang lay, when you look at the end of the rope,
the strands and the wires composing the strands are
wound in the same direction.
This holds true for left or right lay types of rope.
Right Regular lay is the most common.
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Example of Regular vs. Lang Lay
4 Full Wires
Rope
Axis
1 Full Wire
Rope Axis
REGULAR
LAY STRAND
LANG LAY
STRAND
The wires in regular
lay wire rope appear to
line up with the axis of
the rope.
In contrast, the wires in
Lang lay wire rope
appear to form an
angle with the axis of
the rope.
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Basic Factors Concerning Use of
Wire Rope Slings
Rated load (rated capacity) of a wire rope sling is based
upon
the nominal strength of the wire rope
attachment or splicing efficiency
the number of parts of rope in the sling
type of hitch
diameter of the body around which the sling is bent
the diameter of the hook over which the eye of the
sling is rigged
Rated load of a sling is different for each of the three basic
methods of rigging: vertical, choker and basket.
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Basic Factors Concerning Use of
Wire Rope Slings
Never shock load a sling. The rated load of a wire
rope sling can easily be exceeded by the sudden
application of force
Protect a wire rope sling with corner protectors when
lifting on sharp edges or corners.
Increasing sling angle increases the loading of a sling.
Never use a sling with an angle less than 30 degrees
from the load.
Visually inspect slings before use.
Slings should never be used over a hook or pin with a
body diameter larger than the natural width of the.
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Wire Rope
The basic component of the wire rope is the wire. It may be
of steel, iron, or other metal in various sizes.
The number of wires to a strand varies, depending on the
purpose for which the wire rope is intended.
Wire rope is designated by the number of strands per rope
and the number of wires per strand.
Thus an 1/2-inch 6 x 19 rope has six strands with 19 wires per
strand. It has the same outside diameter as a 1/2-inch 6 x 37
rope that has six strands with 37 wires (of smaller size) per
strand.
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Parts of Wire Rope
Strand - The design arrangement of a strand is called the
construction.
Wire - the wires in the strand maybe all the same size or
a mixture of sizes.
Core -The wire rope core supports the strands laid around
it. The three types of wire rope cores arc fiber, wire
strand, and independent wire rope
Strand
Core
Wire
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Wire Rope Inspection
Like all rigging tools, wire rope
must be inspected for wear and
damage before each use. Five
types of damage that must be
checked for are:
1. Kinks
2. Broken wires
3. Excessive wear
4. Unraveling
5. Overstretching

Wire Rope
Strand
Center
Wire
Core
Wire
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Pictorial Example of Damaged Wire
Rope

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Kinks
One of the most common forms of damage resulting from improper
handled wire rope is the development of a kink.
A kink starts with the formation of a loop.
If the loop is pulled tight enough to cause a kink this will result in
irreparable damage to the rope
Kinking can be prevented by proper uncoiling and unreeling methods
and by the correct handling of the rope throughout its installation.
Loop
Kink
Kink damage
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WIRE ROPE SAFE WORKING LOAD
The term Safe working load (SWL) of wire rope
means the load that can be applied and still obtain the
most efficient service and also prolong the life of the rope.
The formula for computing the SWL of a wire rope is
the diameter of the rope squared, multiplied by 8 (D x D x
8 = SWL in tons).
Example: The wire rope is 1/2 inch in diameter.
To Compute the SWL for the rope.
The first step is to convert the 1/2 into decimal
number by dividing the bottom number of the fraction
into the top number of the fraction: ( 1 divided by 2 =
.5).
Next, compute the SWL formula: (.5 x .5 x 8 = 2 tons).
The SWL of the 1/2-inch wire rope is 2 tons.
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Chains
Like wire rope, chain is
used on hoists and as
slings to attach a load
to a hoist or crane.
Chain differs from wire
rope in that chain
weighs more than wire
rope of the same
capacity.
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Chain Slings
Chain slings may also
be either endless or
single-leg chain slings
and may have rings or
hooks at each end.
Some single leg chain
slings have a hood at
one end and an eye at
the other end like any
other chain.
SINGLE LEG
DOUBLE-LEG
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Chains
Chain has a lesser ability to stretch and can
sometimes snap without warning.
Chain has the ability to turn around tight
corners without suffering undue wear or
damage..
There are two different types of chain used
commonly for rigging:
1. Common chain.
2. Roller chain.
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Common Chain
Common chain is constructed of interlocked
welded links of forged steel. The capacity of
the chain is determined by the thickness of
the metal of the links.
There are four different kinds of damage
chains are subject to:
Wear.
Cracks.
Stretching.
Twisting.
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Chain Wear
Wear exceeds 15% of
link diameter
Cut, nicked,
Cracked, gouged, burned,
or corrosion pitted.
Twisted or bent
Bent Twisted
Stretched.
Links tend to close up
And get longer.
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Roller Chain
Roller chains has at least two distinct constructions.
Large roller chains are usually made with side bars that
flare outward between the pins causing an overlapping
condition or piggy back style of chain formality.
Smaller roller chains are used on bikes or motorcycles
and are sometimes used on lifting devices. The links are
constructed that every other link is held together with a
male connector.
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Roller Chain
Roller chains are made up of roller links that are joined
with pin links. The links are made up of two side bars,
two rollers, and two bushings. The roller reduces the
friction between the chain and the sprocket, thereby
increasing the life of the unit
Roller link
Pin link
Pin link plate
Roller link plate
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Roller Chain
Roller chain must be inspected for:
Cracks and wear just as common chains.
An additional point is to check the security of the
roller pins. Each must be attached firmly to
prevent the sidebars from slipping off.
The chain should be worked bad and forth to
check its flexibility. If it is stiff the chain should be
lubricated and cleaned.
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43
Slings
When loads are lifted with hoists or cranes, short
lengths of wire rope, chain or synthetic fibres, called
Slings are used to secure the load to the lifting
device.
Slings made of any of these materials can be made in
either of two ways:
as endless slings
as single leg slings.
Of all the different types of slings, wire rope slings are
the most common in rigging work.
Endless slings are a continuous loop with no
connectors.
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44
44
Sling Eyes
Single leg wire rope slings have
eyes at each end.
They often contain a insert called
a thimble to help retain the shape
of the eye.

THIMBLE
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45
45
Seizing and Cutting
When the ends of the rope are not secured properly
maximum service cannot be obtained because some
strands can carry a greater portion of the load than
others.
Before cutting steel wire rope, place seizing on each
side of the point where the rope is to be cut
1. Wrap with
small wire
2 .Twist ends
together counter
clockwise
3. Tighten twist
with nippers
4. Bend twist down
against rope and
cut ends
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46
46
Swaged Connection
Swaging makes an efficient and permanent attachment for
wire rope, as shown below.
A swaged connection is made by compressing a steel sleeve
over the rope by using a hydraulic press. When the connection
is made correctly, it provides 100-percent capacity of the wire
rope.
Careful inspection of the wires leading into these connections
are important because of the pressure put upon the wires in
this section. If one broken wire is found at the swaged
connection or a crack in the swage, replace the fitting.
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47
47
Synthetic Fiber Slings
Synthetic fiber slings are typically made of braided nylon
or polyester.
Although synthetic fiber slings are light and strong, they
are not as durable as wire rope or chain slings.
Since synthetic slings are easily cut, special care must
be take to protect them where sharp corners or rough
spots are a problem.
Additionally, the material may melt if it is placed near hot
pipes or other sources of heat.
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48
48
Synthetic Fiber Slings
Synthetic fiber slings are made up two different ways
which are very handy when it comes to rigging
techniques: endless or grommet slings and single leg
slings (most commonly used).

Single Leg Sling
Eye
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49
49
Fiber Sling Inspection
Fiber Sling Inspection :
Tell-Tails must be visible
Cover damage
Heat or Acid burns
No knots in any sling
Damaged eyes
Cuts
Abraded web, faded color (UV degradation)
Crushed webbing or no label
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50
50
Hitches
When using slings for rigging, there are three possible
hitches that can be used with rigging techniques. They
are used with both single leg and endless slings.
Vertical hitches.
Choker hitch.
Basket hitch.
Basket Choker Vertical
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51
51
Verticle Hitches
Vertical hitch - The load is lifted from a single point,
usually and eye on top of the load.

VERTICAL HITCH
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52
52
Choker Hitches
Choker hitches-uses single leg slings that are formed by
passing one end of the sling around the load and coupling
it to the upright portion of the sling with a free-running
shackle or a sliding hook.

CHOKER HITCH
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53
53
Double wrapped Choker Hitches
Double-wrap choker hitches-
are used to give the sling an extra grip on the
load.
The additional wrap around the load prevents the
choker from slipping along the length of the load
while it is being lifted.
DOUBLE WRAP CHOKER
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54
54
Basket Hitches
Basket hitches
It is similar to the cradle
hitch made with endless
slings.
The sling passes around
the bottom of the load
and its two eyes are
gathered together at the
load hook.
BASKET HITCH
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55
55
Double Wrapped Basket Hitch

DOUBLE WRAP BASKET HITCH
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56
56
Multiple-Leg Bridle Hitch
Multiple-leg bridle hitch-
may be made with two,
three or more legs.
These hitches are
made up with multiple
single leg slings, which
usually attaches to an
eye on the load with a
shackle.
MULTIPLE - LEG BRIDLE HITCH
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57
57
Sling Safe Working Load
Formulas for estimating the loads for most sling
configurations have been developed.
These formulas are based on the safe working load of the
single-vertical hitch of a particular sling.
The efficiencies of the end fittings used also have to be
considered when determining the capacity of the
combination.
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58
58
Bridle Hitch SWL
The formula used to compute the safe working load (SWL) for a
bridle hitch with two, three, or four legs is :




When the sling legs are not of equal length, use the smallest H/L
measurement.
This formula above is for a two-leg bridle hitch, but it is strongly
recommended that it also be used for the three- and four-leg hitches
and replace the 2 with a 3 or 4.
4
L
H
hitch) verticle SWL(single SWL
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59
59
Four Bridle Hitch SWL
H
L
4
L
H
hitch) verticle SWL(single SWL
The formula for a four bridle hitch is:
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60
60
Basket Hitch SWL
Single Basket
Hitch


Double-basket
hitch



For inclined legs:
4
L
H
hitch) verticle SWL(single SWL
L
H
4 hitch) verticle SWL(single SWL
2 hitch) verticle SWL(single SWL
Single Basket
Hitch
Inclined Legs
Basket Hitch
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61
61
Choker Hitch SWL
Single Choker Hitch


Double-Choker Hitch


Note formula only works for
sling angles greater than 45
degrees. Angles less than 45
are not recommended.
4
3
hitch) verticle SWL(single SWL
L
H
Sling Angle
2
L
H
4
3
hitch) verticle SWL(single SWL
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62
62
Estimating Sling SWL
The 1 2 3 4 Rule for wire rope slings
Wire Rope Dia. 3/8 inch inch 5/8 inch inch
Vertical Hitch 1 ton 2 ton 3 ton 4 ton
Choker (30%) .7 ton 1.4 ton 2.1 ton 2.8
Basket 2 ton 4 ton 6 ton 8 ton
Basket hitch must be equal or greater than diameter of load.
Choker hitch less than vertical due to kink in hitch.
The purpose of the 1 2 3 4 rule in the next two
slides is to provide quick guidelines for the rigger in
the field. Notice how the table changes for each
1/8 inch of wire rope diameter.
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63
63
Estimating Sling SWL with Angles
The sling leg length is the same as
or longer than the connecting
points. Thus for a 3/4 inch sling
times 4 legs will equal a SWL of 16
tons.
If the leg length is less than the
connecting point length than the
SWL is half. Thus for the inch
sling times 4 legs will equal 8 tons.
Connecting
points
Leg
Based on previous 1 2 3 4 rule table the safe working
load with sling angles is a multiple of the legs if:
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64
64
Sling Operating Practices
Slings that are damaged or defective shall not be used.
Slings shall not be shortened with knots or bolts or other
makeshift devices.
Sling legs shall not be kinked.
Slings shall not be loaded in excess of their rated
capacities.
Slings used in a basket hitch shall have the loads
balanced to prevent slippage.
Slings shall be securely attached to their load.
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65
65
Sling Operating Practices
Slings shall be padded or protected from sharp edges to
their loads.
Suspended loads shall be kept clear of all obstruction.
All personnel shall be kept clear of loads about to be
lifted and loads that are suspended in the air.
Hands or fingers shall not be placed between the sling
and its load while the sling is being tightened around the
load.
Shock loading is prohibited.

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66
66
Connectors
Connectors are rigging attachments used to link
separate pieces of equipment.
The most common connectors are hooks,
shackles and eyebolts.
Since these attachments are basic to all rigging
work, riggers need to know where they are used,
how they work and how they are inspected for
wear and damage.
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67
67
Hooks
In rigging work, hooks are often used as connectors on
hoist, cranes, adjusters, and slings,
Hooks can be connected to shackles, eyebolts, or directly
to eye of a sling.
In rigging there are two basic styles.
Grab hooks.
Sling hooks.
Grab Hook
Sling Hook
Mouth
Throat
Eye
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68
68
Hook Maintenance
Hooks have markings stamped in the radius of the hook
casting. This is to let the rigger measure to see if the hook
has been over loaded.
There are also markings to help indicate the approximate
included angle of the sling when hooked up to a load.
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69
69
Hook Indicators
Deformation Indicators - Two strategically
placed marks, one just below the shank or eye
and the other on the hook tip allows for a
measurement to determine if the throat
opening has changed, thus indicating abuse or
overload. To check, measure the distance
between the marks. The marks should align to
either an inch or half-inch increments. If the
measurement does not meet this criteria, the
hook should be inspected further for possible
damage.
Angle Indicators - Indicates the maximum included angle which
is allowed between two (2) sling legs in the hook. This also
provide the opportunity to approximate other included angles
between two sling legs.
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70
70
Hook Safety
For added safety in lifting, hooks should be equipped
with safety latches whenever possible. Several different
types of latches are available that prevent a sling or
shackle from pulling or slipping off a hook during a
rigging procedure.
The most common types of latches are:
Gate latch.
Flapper latch.
Mousing procedure.
MOUSING
HOOK
LATCH
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71
71
Mousing
Mousing is a technique often used to close the open
section of a hook to keep slings, straps, and similar
attachments from slipping off the hook.
Hooks may be moused with rope yarn, seizing wire, or
a shackle.
When using rope yarn or wire, make 8 or 10 wraps
around both sides of the hook.
To finish off, make several turns with the yarn or wire
around the sides of the mousing, and then tie the ends
securely
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72
Shackles
Shackles come in two
basic types of styles:
Screw type.
Round pin type.
Shackles also have
three basic type of
bodies:
Anchor shackles.
Chain shackles.
Sling type shackles.
Caution should be taken when
using shackles to prevent
overloading them. All shackles are
load rated and stamped with the
working load limit (WLL). Shackles
also have angle indicators on them
that will help identify load angles.
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73
73
Shackles Side Load
NEVER EXCEED 120
INCLUDED ANGLE
USE BOLT TYPE AND SCREW
PIN SHACKLES ONLY
Load
120
INLINE
45
90
SIDE LOAD CHART
(for Screw-pin and Bolt Shackles only)
Angle of Side Load
(from vertical in-line)
Angle Working Load Limit
0 100% of rated load
45 70% of rated load

90 50% of rated load

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74
Shackle Inspection

Check for Wear
Check for Wear
and Straightness
Check that Pin is
always seated
Check that
shackle is not
opening up
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75
75
Eye Bolts
As a rule eyebolts usually come with a shoulder and
are locked into place with either a tapped hole or a
nut on the underside of the frame of the bolt.
Regular Nut
Eyebolt
Shoulder Nut
Eyebolt
Machinery
Eyebolt
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76
76
Shoulder Nut Eye Bolt Installation for
Angular Load
The threaded shank must
protrude through the load
sufficiently to allow full
engagement of the nut.
If the eye bolt protrudes so far
through the load that the nut
cannot be tightened securely
against the load, use properly
sized washers to take up the
excess space BETWEEN THE
NUT AND THE LOAD.
Thickness of spacers must
exceed this distance between
the bottom of the load and the
last thread of the eye bolt.
90
45
Direction of Pull Adjusted Working Load
45 degrees 30% of rated working load
90 degrees 25% of rated working load
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77
Eye Bolt Inspection/Safety
Inspection/Maintenance Safety
Always inspect eye bolt before use.
Never use eye bolt that shows signs that it is
bent or elongated.
Always be sure thread on shank and receiving
holes are clean
Never machine, grind or cut eye bolt.
Never exceed load limits specified in the
following table for in-line load for eye bolts.

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78
78
Eye Bolts
Inspection/Maintenance Safety Continued
Never use regular nut eye for angular lifts.
Always use shoulder nut eye bolts for angular
lifts.
For angular lifts, adjust working load as follows.
Never undercut eye bolt to seat shoulder against
the load.
Always countersink receiving hole or use washers
to seat shoulder.
Always screw eye bolts down completely for
proper seating.
Always tighten nuts securely against the load.
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79
Operating Safely
Always stand clear of load.
Always lift load with steady, even pull do not jerk.
Always apply load to eye bolt in the plane of the eye not
at eye.
Never exceed the capacity of the eye bolt.
When using lifting slings of two or more legs, make sure
the loads in the legs are calculated using the angle from
the vertical to the leg and properly size the shoulder nut
or machinery eye bolt for the angular load.
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80
80
Swivel Hoist Rings
Swivel hoist rings were perfected by Crosby and are now
commonly used to move or pick up loads.
Swivel rings are fastened with an allen head type bolt
and need to be torqued to proper specs.
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81
Proper Hoist Rings Usage

After slings have been properly attached to the hoist
ring, apply force slowly.
Watch the load and be prepared to stop applying
force if the load starts buckling
Buckling may occur if the load is not stiff enough to resist the
compressive forces which result from the angular loading.
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82
Example Swivel Hoist Rings
Do not reeve slings from one bail to another.
This will alter the load and angle of loading on
the hoist ring.
WRONG
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83
83
Wedge Sockets
The wedge socket attachment is used most often to
attach dead ends of wire ropes to pad eyes or like fittings
on cranes and earthmoving equipment.
NOTE: The wedge socket develops only 70% of the
breaking strength of the wire rope due to the crushing
action of the wedge
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84
Parts of a Wedge Socket

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85
85
Wire Rope Clips
Wire rope clips (Crosby clips) are commonly
used in the joining of wire rope or for putting a
loop onto the end of a wire rope with the use of a
thimble.
When installing wire rope clips special attention
should be take to install properly, so that the wire
rope does not slip under tension.
Saddle
U-Bolt
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86
86
Wire Rope Clip Installation
Always place a clip with the U-bolt on the bitter (dead)
end, not on the standing part of the wire rope.
If clips are attached incorrectly, the standing part (live
end) of the wire rope will be distorted or have mashed
spots. (A rule of thumb when attaching a wire rope clip is
to NEVER saddle a dead horse.)
Two simple formulas for figuring the number of wire
rope clips needed are as follows:
3 x wire rope diameter + 1 = Number of clips
6 x wire rope diameter = Spacing between clips
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87
Installation of Wire Rope Clips
Apply u-bolt over dead end of the wire rope.
Live end of the rope rests in the saddle.
A termination is not complete until it has been re-torqued
a second time.
Turnback
1
2
3
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88
Example of Incorrect Installation
Right way for maximum rope strength
Wrong way the clips are staggered
Wrong way the clips are reversed
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89
89
Spreader Bars
Spreader bars are used to distribute weight evenly over the load that
is being rigged.
When using spreader bars caution has to be taken to be sure that
the weight being lifted does not exceed the working load limit of the
bar being used.
Spreader bars should be certified for the maximum load it can lift
with the maximum load stamped on the bar itself.
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90
90
Spreader Bars
Advantages
Distributes weight more evenly, therefore putting
less stress on the rigging equipment used.
When making heavier loads the weight can be
controlled more easily.
Spreader bars use less distance between the
hook and the load.
Spreader bars decrease the included angle
between the load and the sling.
Disadvantages
When rigging lighter lifts spreader bars can be
awkward to sling.

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91
91
Adjusters and Load Levelers
When an unbalanced load is lifted, sling lengths
must be adjusted to place the load hook of the hoist
or crane directly above the loads center of gravity.
Two types of adjusters are commonly used for
balancing loads:
Load levelers
Turnbuckles

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92
92
Sling Load Levelers
Sling load levelers allow the center point of the spreader
bar to be moved thereby allowing the center lift point of
the load to be shifted.
In the below example the crank moves the center lift
point.
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93
93
Turnbuckles
Turnbuckles are adjusters that are useful for making small
adjustments in the length of a sling.
Turnbuckles are made with a right and left hand thread so
that when adjustments are made the turnbuckle will turn both
ends in or out to make fine adjustments and level loads.
A turnbuckle can also be used in any part of a lift providing
that it meets the weight requirements and safe working
loads.
The draw back of using turnbuckles is that they only provide
a very limited adjustment and cannot be used to level loads
that are unbalanced.
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94
94
Turnbuckles
The turnbuckle is inspected for wear and damage,
the body checked for bends and cracking, especially
around the threads.
When using turnbuckles for load adjustments the
rigger should always secure the screwed ends with
either a lock nut or by mousing the rotating ends to
prevent turnbuckles from rotating.
LOCK NUT
MOUSING
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95
95
Example Turnbuckle Leveling
In the example below the turnbuckle is used to change
the sling length to adjust the levelness of the load
Turnbuckle
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96
96
Chain Hoists and Come-alongs
Chain Hoists and come-alongs enable a person to lift a heavy
load by multiplying muscular energy. Hoists reduce the amount
of effort needed to lift a load by using a series of reduction
gears.
Come-alongs have levers that allow a person to raise a load
lightly while swinging the handle through a wide arc.
Both of these devices work providing a mechanical advantage:
a reduction in speed multiplies the force exerted on the load.
Both hoists and come-alongs are commonly used in rigging
work.
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97
97
Chain Hoist
A chain hoist works on the
block and tackle principle of
operation.
Some are manually operated
while others are operated by an
electric motor.
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98
Example Come-along
Interlocking pawl to
prevent slippage
Cable stores
in drum
Handle usually
designed to bend
during overload
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99
99
Hoists and Come-alongs
Come-alongs (can also known as chain hoists or
ratchet jacks) advantages
Light in weight
Easy hook up for short pulls
Disadvantages
Short pull distance compared to chain falls
Limited weight

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100
10
0
Block and Tackle
The push or pull a human can exert depends on the
weight and strength of that individual.
To move any load heavier than the amount you can
physically move, a mechanical advantage must be
used to multiply your power. The most commonly used
mechanical devices are block and tackle, chain hoist, and
winches
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101
10
1
Fiber Line Block
A block consists of one or
more sheaves fitted in a wood
or metal frame supported by a
shackle
The sheave is a round,
grooved wheel over which the
line runs. Usually the blocks
will have one, two, three, or
four sheaves. Some blocks
will have up to eleven sheaves.
Hook Pea
Inner strap
Outer strap
Shell
Swallow
Sheave
Breach
Becket
Thimble
Pin
Cheek
Face
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102
10
2
Tackle
A tackle is an assembly of
blocks and lines used to gain
a mechanical advantage in
lifting and pulling
In a tackle assembly, the line is
reeved over the sheaves of
blocks.
The two types of tackle
systems are:
simple - an assembly
of blocks in which a
single line is used (
Compound - an
assembly of blocks in
which more than one
line is used
Simple
Compound
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103
10
3
Terms Used with Tackle
The fall is either a wire rope or
a fiber line reeved through a
pair of blocks to form a tackle.
lThe hauling part of the fall
leads from the block upon
which the power is exerted.
The standing part is the end
which is attached to a becket
(metal loop at end of block).
The movable (or running)
block of a tackle is the block
attached to a fixed object or
support.
When a tackle is being used,
the movable block moves and
the fixed block remains
stationary.
Hauling part
Hook
Fixed (standing)
block
Hook
Moving (running)
block
Standing part
Falls
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104
10
4
BLOCK CONSTRUCTION
Blocks are constructed for use with
fiber line or wire rope.
Wire rope blocks are heavily
constructed and have large sheaves
with deep grooves. A large sheave is
needed with wire rope to prevent sharp
bending.
According to the number of sheaves,
blocks are called SINGLE, DOUBLE,
OR TRIPLE blocks.
Blocks are fitted with a number of
attachments, such as hooks, shackles,
eyes, and rings
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105
10
5
Types of Blocks
A STANDING BLOCK is a block that is connected to a fixed object.
A TRAVELING BLOCK is a block that is connected to the load that is
being lifted. It also moves with the load as the load is moved.
A SNATCH BLOCK is a single sheave block fabricated so the shell
opens on one side at the base of the hook to allow a rope to slip over
the sheave without threading the end through the block.
Snatch Blocks
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106
10
6
Levers
Levers are machines because they help you to do your work.
They help by changing the size, direction, or speed of the force
you apply.
You will find that all levers have three basic parts:
the fulcrum (F), a force or effort (E), and a resistance (R).
Look at the lever. You see the pivotal point (fulcrum) (F); the
effort (E), which is applied at a distance (A) from the fulcrum;
and a resistance (R), which acts at a distance (a) from the
fulcrum. Distances. A and a are the arms of the lever.
E
a
A
F
R
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107
10
7
Classes of Levers
There are three classes of levers. The difference is in
the relative points where effort is applied, where
resistance is overcome, and where the fulcrum is
located.
First-class levers have the effort and the resistance on
opposite sides of the fulcrum, and effort resistance
move in opposite directions.
Second-class levers have the effort and the resistance
on the same side of the fulcrum but the effort is farther
from the fulcrum than is the resistance. Both effort and
resistance move in the same direction.
Third-class levers have the effort applied on the same
side of the fulcrum as the resistance but the effort is
applied between the resistance and the fulcrum, and
both effort and resistance move in the same direction.
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108
10
8
Classes of Levers

First- and second-class levers magnify the amount of
effort exerted and decrease the speed of effort.
First-class and third-class levers magnify the distance
and the speed of the effort exerted and decrease its
magnitude.
Fulcrum
Effort (E)
Weight (R)
First Class Lever
Fulcrum
Effort (E)
Weight (R)
Second Class Lever
Fulcrum
Effort (E)
Weight (R)
Third Class Lever
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109
10
9
The same general formula applies to all three types of
levers:


Resistance Arm (l)
Effort Arm (L)
Resistance (R)
Effort (E)
Fulcrum (F)
Effort(E)
(R) Resistance
(l) Resistance
L) EffortArm(

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110
11
0
Mechanical Advantage
Levers are used to magnify the applied force, they provide positive
mechanical advantages.
A third-class lever provides what is called a fractional mechanical
advantage, this is a mechanical disadvantage. It takes more force
than the force of the load lifted.
In a wheelbarrow, a 50-pound pull actually overcomes a 200-pound
weight. The workers effort is magnified four times, so the mechanical
advantage of the wheelbarrow is 4.
1
4
E
R
F
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111
11
1
How many levers can you find in the loader?
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112
11
2
Mechanical Advantage

Expressing the same idea in mathematical terms: MECHANICAL
ADVANTAGE = RESISTANCE divided by EFFORT




This rulemechanical advantage equals resistance divided by
effort applies to all machines.
Effort
Resistance
M.A.
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113
11
3
Mechanical Advantage
The mechanical advantage of a lever may also be found by dividing
the length of the effort arm (A) by the length of resistance arm (a).
Stated as a formula, this reads:



How does this apply to third-class levers?
Your muscle pulls with a force of 1,800 pounds to lift a 100-pound
object. So you have a mechanical advantage of which is fractional-
less than 1.
Arm(a) Resistance
A) EffortArm(
M.A.
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114
11
4
Mechanical Advantage
A single fixed block is a first-class
lever with equal arms. The arms
(EF and FR) in the figure are
equal.
The mechanical advantage is 1.
A single fixed block does not
magnify force nor speed.
You have to apply 200 pounds of
force to keep the weight
suspended.

200 lbs
200 lbs
200 lbs
F
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115
11
5
Mechanical Advantage
If you use a single block and fall to
magnify the force you exert.
In the figure the block is not fixed. The
fall is doubled as it supports the 200-
pound load.
When rigged this way, you call the
single block and fall a runner.
Each half of the fall, EF and FR, carries
one-half of the total bad, or 100 pounds.
Thus, with the runner, the man is lifting a
200-pound load with a 100-pound pull.
The mechanical advantage is 2.
100 lbs
Fall
100 lbs
200 lbs
F
R
E
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116
11
6
Many combinations of single, double, and triple blocks
can be rigged to give greater advantages.
The number of parts of the fall going to and from the
movable block tells you the approximate mechanical
advantage of the tackle.
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117
11
7
The mechanical
advantage of those
obtained from A is
multiplied four times in B.
The overall mechanical
advantage is the product
of the two mechanical
advantages or 12.
100 lbs
100 lbs
100 lbs
100 lbs
400 lbs
400 lbs
400 lbs
400 lbs
1200 lbs
B
A
If the rule is applied by which the parts of the fall going to and from
the movable blocks are counted, you find that block A gives a
mechanical advantage of 3 to 1.
Block B has four parts of fall running to and from it, a mechanical
advantage of 4 to 1.
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118
11
8
Summary
Review Objectives
Question and Answer Session

119
CRANES
Basic Crane Types and
Components
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120
12
0
Objectives
Define Cranes and Crane Types
Define typical crane parts
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121
12
1
Cranes are classified as weight-handling equipment
and are designed primarily to perform weight-lifting and
excavating operations under varied conditions.
To make the most efficient use of a crane, you must
know their capabilities and limitations.
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122
12
2
Definitions
Crane Consists of a rotating structure for lifting and
lowering horizontally on rubber tires or crawler treads
Hoist - Used to lift and lower load.
Boom An inclined spar, strut, or other long member
supporting the hoisting tackle
Boom stops A device used to limit the angle of the
boom at its highest position
Brake To slow or stop motion by friction or power
Block Sheaves or grooved pulleys in a frame with
hook, eye and strap
Jib Extension attached to the boom point to provide
added boom length for lifting specified loads.
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123
12
3
Types of Cranes
The following list of cranes described are
just a few of the many different types of
crane application.
Mobile
Gantry
Overhead
Jib
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124
12
4
Mobile Crane
The most basic type of
mobile crane consists of a
steel truss or telescopic
boom.
It is mounted on a mobile
platform, which may be rail,
wheeled or caterpillar
tracks.
The boom is hinged at the
bottom, and can be raised
and lowered by cables or
by hydraulic cylinders.
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125
12
5
Mobile Crane
A hook is suspended from the top of the boom by wire
rope and sheaves.
To increase the horizontal reach of the hoist, the boom
may be extended by adding a jib to the top. The jib can be
fixed or, in more complex cranes, luffing (that is, able to
be raised and lowered).
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126
12
6
Mobile Crane
The wire ropes are operated by whatever prime movers
the designers have available, operating through a variety
of transmissions.
Some examples of this type of crane can be converted to
a demolition crane by adding a demolition ball, or to an
earthmover by adding a clamshell bucket or a dragline
and scoop.
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127
12
7
Mobile Crane Parts
Jib or whip line
Jib hook & headache ball
Jib section
Jib mast (gantry)
Main line
Main block or hook
Gantry
Counterweight
Machine deck
Ring gear, turntable, swing circle
Equalizer or outer ball
Inner ball
Boom tip sheaves
Jib tip
Upperworks or superstructure
refers to entire crane structure
above the swing circle
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128
12
8
CRANE DESCRIPTION
PEDESTAL: a fabricated tubular steel structure
which supports the crane from the deck to the
turntable.
It gives the crane a set height over temporary and
permanent structures.
Allows access to machinery spaces and the cab of
the crane and houses the turntable gears..
TURNTABLE: is mounted on the upper end of the
pedestal.
Serves as a base for crane mast and also houses
machinery spaces.
Allows the crane to rotate in circular motion..

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129
12
9
CRANE DESCRIPTION
MAST: an enclosed steel structure which supports
the rigging for the boom.
Provides attachment points for topping lift and
hoist fairlead sheaves
CONTROL CAB: an enclosed structure which
houses and protects all crane operator controls.
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13
0
HOOK BLOCK
A hook block on a
crane is the primary
unit for lifting an
objector load,
transferring it to a new
place by swinging or
traveling and then
placing the load.
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13
1
Sheaves
Sheaves are located in
the hook block boom
tip, boom bridle, gantry,
and boom mast.
Sheaves rotate on
either bearings, or
bushings, and are
installed where wire
rope must turn or bend.
The sheave grooves
must be smooth and
free from surface
defects which could
cause rope damage

Worn sheave groove
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13
2
Boom Angle Indicators
Boom angle indicators are
normally mounted on the
boom butt, visually
readable by the operator.
On most crane the boom
angle indicator is a metal
plate with degree numbers (0
to 90 degrees) and a freely
swinging arm that reacts as
the boom angle changes
The numbers and arm
should remain clean and
visually readable at all time.
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13
3
Clamshell
The clamshell bucket is
two scoops hinged
together in the center
with counterweights
bolted around the hinge.
A clamshell consists of:
hoist drum lagging
(hoist drum diameter)
clamshell bucket
tag line
wire ropes to operate
holding and closing
lines.
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134
13
4
Example Clamshell Rigging
Arrangement
The two hoist drum wire
ropes on the crane are
rigged as the holding and
closing lines for controlling
of the bucket.
The tag line winder
controls the tension on the
tag line that helps prevent
the clamshell from twisting
during operations.
Tag line
Winder
Tag line
Cable
Cable guide
roller
Sheave
Closing cable
Holding cable
Cable Drum
Boom point
sheave
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13
5
Dragline
The dragline component
consists of a dragline bucket
and fairlead assembly.
The wire rope components
of the dragline are the drag
cable, the bucket hoist, and
the dump.
Once a crane is rigged with
a dragline, the crane is
referred to by the name of
the attachment.
Hoist Socket
Drag and Drag Rope Socket
Dump Cable
Dump Block
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13
6
Example Dragline Rigging
Arrangement
The drag cable pulls
the bucket through the
material when digging.
The bucket is raised
by the hoist wire rope
and moved to the
dump point
Dump the bucket by
releasing the tension
on the drag cable.
Fairlead
Drag cable
Cable Drum
Drag cable
Hoist
cable
Boom point
sheave
Dump sheave
Dump cable
3-point
socket
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137
13
7
Improper load rating
Excessive speeds
No hand signals
Inadequate inspection
and maintenance
Unguarded parts
Unguarded swing
radius
Working too close to
power lines
Improper exhaust
system
Shattered windows
No steps/guardrails
walkways
No boom angle
indicator
Not using outriggers
Crane Hazards
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13
8
Planning
Level the crane and ensure support surface is firm and
able to support the load
Contact power line owners and determine precautions.
Know the location and voltage of overhead power lines.
Know the basic crane capacities, limitations, and job
site restrictions, such as the location of power lines,
unstable soil, or high winds.
Make other personnel aware of hoisting activities.
Barricade areas within swing radius.
Ensure proper maintenance and inspections.
Determine safe areas to store materials and place
machinery.
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139
13
9
Load Limiting Factors
Not level
Wind
Side loads
On its wheels
Lifting over the side
Use of extensions, jibs and other attachments
Limits of wire rope, slings and lifting devices
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140
14
0
Mobile Cranes Lifting Principles
Center of Gravity
Leverage
Stability
Structural Integrity
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14
1
Gantry Crane
A gantry crane has a hoist in a which runs horizontally
along gantry rails, usually fitted underneath a beam
spanning between uprights which themselves have
wheels so that the whole crane can move at right angles
to the direction of the gantry rails.
These cranes come in all sizes, and some can move very
heavy loads, particularly the extremely large examples
used in shipyards or industrial installations
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14
2
Gantry Crane
Trolley
Bridge
Gantry Legs
Hook & Block
Trucks
Rails
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143
14
3
Overhead Traveling Crane
Also known as a "suspended crane", this type of crane
works in the same way as a gantry crane but without
uprights.
The hoist is on a which moves in one direction along one
or two beams, which move at right angles to that direction
along elevated tracks, often mounted along the side walls
of an assembly area in a factory.
Some of them can lift very heavy loads.
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144
14
4
Overhead Traveling Crane
Trolley
End Truck
Hoist
Bridge
Bridge Drive
Runway
Hook & Block
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14
5
Jib Crane
A jib crane is a type of crane where a horizontal member
(jib or boom), supporting a moveable hoist, is fixed to a
wall or to a floor-mounted pillar.
Jib cranes are used in industrial premises and on military
vehicles.
The jib may swing through an arc, to give additional
lateral movement, or be fixed.
Similar cranes, often known simply as hoists, were fitted
on the top floor of warehouse buildings to enable goods to
be lifted to all floors.
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146
14
6
A jib crane contains a tilted strut (the jib) that supports a
fixed pulley block.
Cables are wrapped multiple times round the fixed block
and round another block attached to the load.
When the free end of the cable is pulled by hand or by a
winding machine, the pulley system delivers a force to the
load that is equal to the applied force multiplied by the
number of lengths of cable passing between the two
blocks. This number is the mechanical advantage.
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147
14
7
Jib Crane
Rigid
Support
Rigid
Support
Jib Boom
Column
Trolley
Hoist
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148
14
8
Summary
Review Objectives
Question and Answer Session

149
CRANE SAFETY
Basic Handsignals
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150
15
0
Cranes
Cranes are classified as weight-handling equipment
and are designed primarily to perform weight-lifting and
excavating operations under varied conditions.
Overhead cranes are a standard fixture in many
industrial, manufacturing and assembly environments.
They are devices that raise and lower a desired load and
move it along a horizontal plane. This plane of movement
is determined by the type of overhead cranes used.
To make the most efficient use of a crane, you must
know their capabilities and limitations.
The most common types are the beam crane, gantry
crane and the jib crane.

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151
15
1
Trolley
End Truck
Hoist
Bridge
Bridge Drive
Runway
Hook & Block
Overhead Traveling Crane
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152
15
2
Gantry Crane

Trolley
Bridge
Gantry Legs
Hook & Block
Trucks
Rails
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153
15
3
Jib Crane
Rigid
Support
Rigid
Support
Jib Boom
Column
Trolley
Hoist
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154
15
4
Verbal Communication
Verbal communications vary upon needs.
The most common method is portable radios and are
widely used at construction sites.
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155
15
5
Nonverbal Communication
While there is a broad range of non-verbal signals such as
signal flags, buzzers and whistles the most common mode
used in the industry is the ASME B30.5 Consensus Standard
of Hand Signals.
Unless voice communications are used then according to
B30.5 the operator must use standard hand signals.
A hand signal chart must be conspicuously posted at the job
site.
When a crane is traveling or moving, without direction from
the rigger, audible signals must be given from the cranes horn
Stop one signal
Forward two signals
Reverse three signals
Never give signals to a crane operator unless you are the
designated signal giver.
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156
15
6
Hand Signals
Hand signal charts
similar to this one
should be posted
conspicuously.
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157
15
7
General Rigging Safety
The rigging worker must be aware of the hazards
associated with the trade.
The movement of loads moving around other workers can
be a safety hazard where falling material and equipment
can occur.
It is the personal responsibility of the employee to supply
full participation in an employer's safety program
Safety consciousness is the key to reduction of accidents,
injuries and death on job sites.
Safe work habits can reduce mistakes that lead to
accidents.
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158
15
8
Personal Protection
Always be aware of your environment when working with
cranes.
Stay alert and know the location of equipment at all times
when moving about the work area.
Use standard personal protective equipment which
includes:
Hard hats
Safety shoes
Gloves
Barricades
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159
15
9
Equipment and Supervision
Rigging operations must be planned and supervised to
ensure the following:
Proper equipment is available
Correct load ratings are available for the material and
equipment
The rigging equipment is well maintained and in good
working condition
The supervisor is responsible for the following functions:
Proper load rigging
Crew supervision
Rigged material and equipment meets required
capacity and safe condition
Lifting bolts and other rigging material is installed
correctly
Guaranteeing the safety of crew and personnel
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160
16
0
Basic Rigging Precautions
Determine the weight of all loads before attempting a lift.
Rig the load so the load is stable and center of gravity is below
hook.
Follow the following safety practices:
Always read manufacturers literature for all equipment which
provides information on checks and inspections.
Determine the weight of loads which includes the rigging and
hardware.
Know the safe working load capacity of the hardware and rigging
Inspect all equipment and rigging before using, discard defective
components
Report defective equipment and hazardous conditions to supervisor
Stop hoist and rigging operations when weather provides hazardous
condition, such has lightning or high winds
Recognize factors that can reduce rigging equipment capacity, such
as side loads
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161
16
1
Barricades
Barricades should be used to isolate the area of and
overhead lift.
Always follow the site requirements for proper erection of
barricades.
Contact the supervisor for clearance before proceeding
Be sure to account for crane swing radius in barricading,
especially the rear of the crane

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162
16
2
Load-Handling Safety
Safe and effective control of a load involves stric
observance of safety requirements.
Ensure that the swing path or load path is clear of
personnel and obstructions.
Keep both front and rear swing paths clear during lift.
Be aware of crane movements while observing the
movement of the load.
With the exception of tag line tenders make sure the load
placement area is clear of personnel and ensure the
required blocking and cribbing for the load is in place
before positioning the load.
No one should work under the load
If blocking load after setting load then do not remove load
stress from sling.

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163
16
3
Load-Handling Safety Contd
Follow these procedures when loads are handled:
Before lifting ensure loads are securely slung and
balanced to prevent shifting
Use tag lines to control the load
Safely land and properly block loads before removing
slings
Only use lifting beams for the purpose they were
designed for. Ensure that the weight and working load for
the beam is visible.
Never wrap hoist ropes around load, only use slings and
other lifting devices.
Do not twist multiple-part lines around each other.
Bring load line over the center of gravity of the load before
beginning the lift.
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164
16
4
Load-Handling Safety Contd
Make sure rope is properly seated on the drum and in the
sheaves if rope had been in a slack condition.
Load and secure any materials and equipment being
hoisted to prevent movement.
Keep hands and feet away from pinch point as slack is
taken up.
Wear gloves when handling wire rope.
Ensure that all personnel are standing clear of while loads
are lifted and lowered and when slings are removed.
Never ride a load that is being lifted
Never lift a load over other personnel.
Never work under a suspended load
Never leave load suspended when hoisting equipment is
unattended.
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165
16
5
Load-Handling Safety Contd
Never make temporary repairs to a sling
Never lift loads with a multi-leg sling unless unused legs
are properly secured.
Ensure all slings are made of the same material when
using two or more slings on a load.
Remove or secure all loose pieces from a load before
moving it.
Lower load onto adequate blocking to prevent damage to
the slings.
Never pull a choker sling from under a load if the load has
been set upon it.
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16
6
Working Around Power Lines
The crane signalman must stationed at times to warn the
operator when the load or crane is approaching the
minimum safe working distance from a power line.

Crane in Operation Crane in Transit
Power Line
(kV)
Boom or Mast
Minimum Clearance
(feet)
Boom or Mast Minimum
Clearance (feet)
0 to .75 10 4
0 to 50 10 6
50 to 200 15 10
200 to 350 20 10
350 to 500 25 16
500 to 750 35 16
750 to 1000 45 20
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16
7
Method to determine line voltage
One rough method of
determining the line voltage is
to count the number of
insulators suspending the line
Insulators
in a String
Line Voltage
(kV)
2 13.2
2-3 23 to 34.5
4-5 69
5-6 88
6-8 110
8-10 138
9-11 154
12-16 230
18 345
Suspension
Insulators
High
Voltage
Line
Count Insulators Supporting Line to
Determine Line Voltage
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168
16
8
Crane Improperly Close to Lines

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169
16
9
Power Line Procedures and Precautions
Ensure that a power line awareness permit (or equal) has
been prepared
Erect non-conductive barricades
Use non-conductive tag lines for controlling load
Qualified signalman shall be in constant contact with
operator
Supervisor shall alert and warn all personnel about
electrocution hazards and how to avoid these hazards
All non-essential personnel shall be removed from crane
work area
No one shall be permitted to touch the crane or load
unless signalman indicates it is safe
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17
0
Guidelines When Crane Contact Power
The operator should stay in the cab unless a fire occurs
Do not allow anyone to touch the crane or load
If at all possible, the operator should reverse the crane
and attempt to break contact with the power line
If the operator cannot stay in the cab he should jump
clear of the cab and attempt to land on both feet at the
same time. He should then walk away using very short
steps.
Call the local power authority or owner of the power line
Have the power lines verified as secure and properly
grounded within view of the operator before allowing
anyone to approach the crane or load.
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17
1
Site Hazards and Restrictions
There are many site hazards and restrictions related to crane
operations.
These hazards include the following:
Underground utilities such as gas, oil, electrical and telephone
lines; sewage and drainage piping; and underground tanks.
Electrical lines or high-frequency transmitters
Structures such as buildings, excavations, bridges and abutments
Operators and riggers should inspect work areas for the following
hazards:
Ensure ground can support the crane and load
Check for a safe path to move the crane around the site
Make sure crane can rotate in the required quadrants for the
planned lift

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17
2
Emergency Response
Operators and riggers need to react quickly and correctly
in response to any crane malfunction or emergency.
They must learn the proper responses to emergency
situations
The first priority of any response is to first prevent injury
or loss of life.
The second priority is to prevent damage to equipments
and structures.
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17
3
Fire
The first response to a fire is to immediately cease crane
operations. If time allows lower the load and secure the
crane.
In all cases of fire, evacuate the area even if the load
cannot be lowered.
Notify emergency services first then make a judgment to
see if the fire can be put out with a fire extinguisher.
Do not become overconfident, the first priority to consider
is the prevention of loss of life or injury to anyone.

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4
Malfunctions During Lifting
Operations
If a malfunction or failure causes a crane radius to increase
unexpectedly then the crane can tip over or collapse.
Loads can also be dropped during a malfunction. This could cause a
whiplash effect that could cause the boom or crane to fail.
If a problem or fault occurs the operator should lower the load
immediately.
The operator should then
secure the crane and tag the
controls for out of service.
Report the problem to the
supervisor.
Do not operate until qualified
repairman has cleared the
problem.
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5
Hazardous Weather
Most crane operations take place out door.
Extreme hot or cold weather and high winds can make
work uncomfortable and hazardous.
Snow and rain can affect the weight of the load.
Instability can be affected by winter because freezing can
give the false stable feeling to the ground.
Severe rain can cause the ground under the crane to
become unstable due to erosion of softening of the soil.
Major weather hazards that need to be seriously take is
Lightning and High Winds. Cranes, due to height and
construction make them prone to lightning strikes. During
high winds the boom should be lowered to the ground.

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6
Using Cranes to Lift Personnel
Using a crane is not specifically prohibited, but OSHA regulations
discourage it.
The restrictions are such that it is only permitted is special situations.
When it is allowed, certain controls must be in place, including the
following:
The rope design factor is doubled
No more than 50 percent of the crane capacity, including rigging,
may be used
Anti two-blocking devices are required on the crane boom. Anti
two-blocking devices are electrical sensing devices. They are
installed on the crane to prevent the "headache ball" from hitting
the sheave.
Platform must be specifically designed for lifting personnel
Basket must be tested with appropriate weight and then
inspected
Every intended use must undergo a trial run with weights rather
than people
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7
Personnel Platform Loading
Must not be loaded in excess of its rated capacity/
Number of employees, including material, occupying the
platform must exceed limit established for platform.
Platforms must be used only for employees, their tools
and material necessary to perform their work.
Materials and tools for use must be secured to prevent
displacement during lift.
The materials and tools must be evenly distributed in the
platform while suspended.
Operators may be required to shut down at a certain wind
speed.
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8
Personnel Platform Rigging
Hooks must be closed
and locked, no mousing
Legs of bridles must be connected
to master link or shackle
Permanent marking for
weight and rated capacity
Eyes in wire rope must be
fabricated with thimbles.
Attachments must be able to lock
Guardrail, midrail and toeboard
system. Requires inner grab rail.
Overhead protection
is required if there is
danger of falling
objects from above
Bridles and rigging for
attaching platform to
hoist must not be used
for any other purpose
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17
9
Lift Planning
Before conducting a lift most construction sites and
companies require a lift plan to be completed and signed.
Lift plans are mandatory for steel erection and multiple-
crane lifts.
The lift plan contains information relative to:
Crane
Loading
Rigging
Special Instructions for lift
Restrictions for lift
A new lift plan is required if there are deviations from
original plan.
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18
0
Summary
Review Objectives
Question and Answer Session

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18
1
Terms
Anti Two Blocking Device
Barricades
Center of gravity (CG)
Cranes
Kilovolts (kV)
Lift Plan
Line voltage
Personnel Platform
Personal protection equipment (PPE)
Weight-handling equipment
182
HAND SIGNALS
Basic Hand signals
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18
3
Objectives
Define a Signalman
Define basic hand signals
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18
4
Signalman
The signalman is part of the crane or lifting crew and is
responsible to the operator to give signals for lifting,
swinging, and lowering loads.
A signalman should also be a qualified seasoned crane
operator.
Not only does the signalman give signals for handling
loads but the signalman can visually observe what the lift
operator cannot.
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18
5
Some Checks for a Signalman
1. The load hook is centered over the center of balance
of the load, as the weight is being lifted by the crane.
2. The boom deflection does not exceed the safe load
radius.
3. All the rigging gear is straight and not causing damage
to itself or the load.
4. During a lift with a boom crane, check the boom
suspension system and boom hoist reeving to
ensure proper operation.
5. Check the hook block and boom tip sheaves reeving
to ensure proper operation.
6. Check the stability of the outriggers especially when
swinging from one quadrant of operation to another.
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18
6
Some Checks for a Signalman
7. Use tag lines and tag line handlers to prevent the load
from swinging or twisting
8. Signal only to lift the load high enough to clear any
obstacles.
9. ALWAYS have eye-to-eye contact with the crane
operator. The crane operator depends on the signalman
to lift, swing, and lower a load safely.
10. The signalman must also know the load weight
being lifted and the radius and capacity of the crane.
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18
7
Raise
With forearm vertical, forefinger pointing up, move hand in
small horizontal circle
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18
8
Lower
With arm extended downward, forefinger pointing down,
move hand in small horizontal circles.
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9
Use Main Hoist
Tap fist on head: then use regular signals
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190
19
0
Use Whip Line
(Auxiliary Hoist). Tap elbow with one hand: then use
regular signals
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1
Raise Boom
Arm extended, fingers closed, thumb pointing upward.
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19
2
Lower Boom
Arm extended, fingers closed, thumb pointing downward.
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19
3
Move Slowly
Use one hand to gave any motion signal and place the
other hand motionless in front of hand giving the motion
signal.
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4
Raise Boom and Lower Load
With arm extended, thumb pointing up, flex fingers in and
out as long as load movement is desired
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5
Lower Boom and Raise Load
With arm extended, thumb pointing down, flex fingers in
and out as long as load movement is desired.
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19
6
Swing Boom
Arm extended, point with finger in direction of swing of
boom.
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7
Stop
Arm extended, palm down, hold position rigidly
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8
Emergency Stop
Arm extended, palm down, move hand rapidly right and
left
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9
Travel
Arm extended forward, hand open and slightly raised,
make pushing motion in direction of travel.
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20
0
Dog Everything
Clasp hands in front of body.
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201
20
1
Travel Both Tracks
Both fists in front of body, make circular motion about
each other indicating direction of travel-forward or back.
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202
20
2
Travel One Track
Lock track on one side indicated by raised fist. Travel
opposite track in direction indicated by circular motion of
other fist, rotated vertically in front of body.
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20
3
Summary
Review Objectives
Question and Answer Session