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# Laporan TIMSS 2011

## Kemahiran Berfikir Aras

Tinggi

Apa itu
KBAT

Definisi LOT
(KBAR)
Resnick (1987): Lower-order thinking (LOT) is often characterized by
the recall of information or the application of concepts or knowledge
to familiar situations and contexts.

## Schmalz (1973): LOT tasks requires a student to recall a fact,

perform a simple operation, or solve a familiar type of
problem. It does not require the student to work outside the
familiar.
Senk, Beckman, & Thompson (1997): LOT is involved when students
are solving tasks where the solution requires applying a well-known
algorithm, often with no justification, explanation, or proof required,
and where only a single correct answer is possible.

## Thompson (2008): generally characterized LOT as solving tasks while

working in familiar situations and contexts; or, applying algorithms

## Definisi HOT (KBAT)

Resnick (1987): characterized higher-order thinking (HOT) as
non-algorithmic.
Stein and Lane (1996): describe HOT as the use of complex,
non-algorithmic thinking to solve a task in which there is not
a predictable, well-rehearsed approach or pathway explicitly
example.
Senk, et al (1997): characterized HOT as solving tasks where
no algorithm has been taught, where justification or
explanation are required, and where more than one solution
may be possible.
Thompson (2008): generally characterized HOT as involving
solving tasks where an algorithm has not been taught or
using known algorithms while working in unfamiliar contexts
or situations.

## Definisi KBAT KPM

Kemahiran berfikir aras tinggi ialah
keupayaan untuk mengaplikasikan
pengetahuan, kemahiran dan nilai
dalam membuat penaakulan dan
refleksi bagi menyelesaikan
masalah, membuat keputusan,
berinovasi dan berupaya mencipta
sesuatu.

Blooms Taxonomy
Higher order
thinking skills are
normally those
skills in the top four
levels of the revised
Blooms taxonomy:
applying, analysing,
evaluating, and
creating.

HOTS
Evaluating
Analysing
Applying
Understanding
Remembering

LOTS

## What are HOTS?

Blooms Taxonomy
Old Version
Evaluate
Synthesis
Analysis
Application
Comprehension
Knowledge

Revised Version
Creating
Evaluating
Analysing
Applying
Understandin
g
Remembering

Creating
Evaluating
Analyzing
Applying
Understanding
Remembering

construct, create,
design,
defend, judge,
value
compare, contrast,
criticize
interpret,
illustrate, solve
describe, discuss,
explain
define, duplicate,
list

KBAT

Mengapa
perlu KBAT
dalam
kurikulum

Higher-order questions
Higher-order questions
promote learning because
these types of questions
require students to apply,
analyse, synthesize, and
of simply recalling facts.

Kepentingan KBAT
Menghasilkan modal insan yang cerdas,
If we want students
to develop the
capacity to think,
reason, and problem
solve then we need

Bagaimana tingkatkan
KBAT?
Guru perlu berubah cara:
berfikir
mengajar - kurangkan chalk and talk,
perbanyakkan hands on
menyoal
memotivasi
mentaksir
perlu meningkatkan kualiti tugasan yang
diberi

Different Levels of
Responses

by Robert Sternberg
(American Cognitive
Psychologist)

questions in a way that promotes
HOTs.

Level 4: