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Business English at Work

2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill

Sentence
Development

Demonstrate knowledge of terms used in sentence


construction.
Use correct ending punctuation for statements,
questions, commands, and exclamations.
Identify simple, compound, and complete subjects.
Identify simple, compound, and complete
predicates.

Objectives

continued
Business English at Work

PP 3-1a

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Development
continued

Recognize direct objects, indirect objects, and other


complements.
Identify normal and inverted sentence order patterns.
Differentiate between phrases and clauses.
Identify simple, compound, complex, and compoundcomplex sentences.

Objectives

Business English at Work

PP 3-1b

Sentence
Development
A Sentence
A sentence consists of words correctly arranged
to form a complete statement or idea.
A sentence
begins with a capital letter.
ends with an ending mark of punctuation.

Business English at Work

PP 3-2

Sentence
Development
Ask these questions to determine
whether words are a sentence.
Do the words make sense?
Do the words indicate a complete thought?
Does the group of words begin with a capital
letter?
Does the group of words end with a period,
question mark, or exclamation point?
Business English at Work

PP 3-3

Sentence
Development
Four Purposes of Sentences
Express statements (declarative sentences).
End with a period.
We offer a 30-day return policy.

Ask questions (interrogative sentences).


End with a question mark if direct questions.
Are the new brochures available yet?

End with a period if indirect questions.


He asked whether I planned to revise the news
release.
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PP 3-4a

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Development
continued

Four Purposes of Sentences

Give commands and requests (imperative sentences).


End with a period.
Direct Command
Place your order within two days to receive a discount.
Courteous Request
Will you please call me by the end of the week.

Express emotions (exclamatory sentences).


End with an exclamation point.
Always satisfy your customers!
Business English at Work

PP 3-4a

Sentence
Development
Sentences Have Two Parts
Subject
Often a noun or pronoun
Indicates who is speaking, who is spoken to, or who
or what is spoken about

Predicate
Verb (action or to be form)
Tells what the subject is doing or what the subject is
Business English at Work

PP 3-5

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Development
Simple Subject
The simple subject is the main word of the
subject.
Users can schedule unlimited sales calls
with contact management software.
We offer a discount to our employees.
Outstanding customer service is our goal.
Business English at Work

PP 3-6

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Development
Compound Subject
The compound subject is two or more main
words in a subject.
Hudson Communications and Cellular Depot
share an office building in the Redwood Business
Park.
Evening hours and free parking interest customers.
Focus groups, phone messages, and postal card
responses are all ways to obtain user opinions.
Business English at Work

PP 3-7

Sentence
Development
Complete Subject
The complete subject consists of the simple or
compound subject plus any of its modifiers.
Most customers comment on our window
displays.
Sales brochures describe our products.
Free upgrades and extra bonus miles
attract some travelers.
Business English at Work

PP 3-8

Sentence
Development
Simple Predicate
The simple predicate is a single verb or verb
phrase.
Tim speaks softly.
I take inventory once a week.
Our store hours are convenient.
We have advertised our sale in the local
newspaper.
Business English at Work

PP 3-9

Sentence
Development
Compound Predicate
The compound predicate is two or more verbs.
I researched our orders and designed our latest
sales brochure.
Our accountant and the sales manager analyzed
our sales and recommended new pricing of
products.
Other companies have visited our call center
and ordered similar telephone headsets.
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PP 3-10

Sentence
Development
Complete Predicate
The complete predicate consists of the simple
or compound predicate plus all modifiers that
limit or describe the verbs.
This short survey asks for your opinions about our
customer service.
Our company has an extensive video training
library.
The reports on this Website review a wide range of
customer service issues.
Business English at Work

PP 3-11

Sentence
Development
A Direct Object
Can be a noun or pronoun.
Completes the verb by answering the
questions whom? or what? after the verb.
Glenda plans seminars for our company.
Service companies need outstanding delivery
records.
My supervisor praised me for resolving the
problem.
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PP 3-12

Sentence
Development
An Indirect Object
Can be a noun or pronoun.
Answers the questions to whom? or for
whom?
Usually precedes the direct object.
Usually follows verb forms such as give,
offer, wish, ship, make, refuse, present, or
send.
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PP 3-13a

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Development
continued

Examples of Indirect Objects

Dynamic Designs offers me a 15 percent


discount.
The warehouse shipped Kerry the furniture
last week.
Our company gives customers a moneyback guarantee.

Business English at Work

PP 3-13b

Sentence
Development
A Subject Complement
Is a predicate noun or predicate pronoun that
follows a linking verb (am, are, is was, were).
Renames the subject.
Richard Herrera is a customer service
representative.
We are the best sales team.

Business English at Work

PP 3-14

Sentence
Development
A Predicate Complement
Is a predicate adjective that follows a linking
verb (am, are, is, was, were).
Modifies (describes) the subject.
Billboard advertising is expensive.
Customers are a companys most
important asset.

Business English at Work

PP 3-15

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Development
Sentence Order
Normal Order
The subject appears first and the predicate
follows.
Jerry responded.
Your companys competitors hired several young
salespeople.
I received the sales totals.
We wish you success.
The training video is free.
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PP 3-16a

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Development
continued

Sentence Order

Inverted Order
The predicate or part of the predicate is before
the subject.
There are many compliments about our customer service.
Here is the latest inventory report.
Should we offer discounts to attract customers?
How much will a customer satisfaction survey cost?
On the Website are the details about our shipping policies.
Business English at Work

PP 3-16b

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Development
Phrase
A phrase is a sequence of words which has
neither a subject nor a predicate.
Prepositional phrase: Begins with a preposition such as
of, in, at, and for and ends with a noun or pronoun. Does
not include a verb.

in our call center

at our warehouse

Infinitive phrase: Begins with to and includes a verb form.

to offer a compromise
Business English at Work

to request a refund
PP 3-17

Sentence
Development
Clause
A clause is a sequence of words with both a subject
and a predicate.
Independent clause: Is a complete sentence and can
stand alone.
We send a confirmation e-mail for each online order.

Dependent clause: Is not a complete sentence and


cannot stand alone. It must be joined to an independent
clause to make sense.
When you call our customer service department,
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PP 3-18a

Sentence
Development
continued

Clause

When a dependent clause introduces an


independent clause, place a comma at the end
of the dependent clause.
If the office furniture was damaged in moving,
our standard guarantee still applies.
Because we have 24-hour customer service,
we have three customer service shifts.
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PP 3-18b

Sentence
Development
Sentence Formations
Simple sentences
Compound sentences
Complex sentences
Compound-complex sentences

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PP 3-19

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Development
Simple Sentence
A simple sentence is one independent clause
in a subject-verb pattern.
We cancelled the order last week.
Rachel and I purchased a subscription to Advertising Age.
Our customers shop online and refer others to our Website.
The human relations specialist and my manager
recommended less phone work and offered me another
position.
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PP 3-20

Sentence
Development
Compound Sentence
A compound sentence is two independent
clauses connected by a coordinating
conjunction.
Many of our customers are self-employed,
and they purchase items for themselves.
Limited quantities of this product are available,
but we will ship your order next week.
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PP 3-21

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Development
Complex Sentence
A complex sentence consists of an independent
clause and a dependent clause.
When a product is listed as out of stock, your
order will be filled as soon as possible.
If your order cannot be shipped within 30 days,
we will cancel the order.
Because I arrived late for the sale, I could not find
the items that I wanted.
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PP 3-22

Sentence
Development
Compound-Complex Sentence
A compound-complex sentence consists of
more than one independent clause and one or
more dependent clauses.
If your order has not been shipped within 30 days, we
will notify you of this delay by e-mail, and you will
have the option to cancel your order.
When you receive a promotional code, enter it on
your order, but only one promotional code may be
used for each order.
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PP 3-23

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Development
Sentence Fragment
A sentence fragment consists of words,
phrases, or dependent clauses that cannot stand
alone and may contain subjects and predicates.
The multiple gift certificates
Ordered by phone last week

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PP 3-24

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Development
Run-On Sentence
A run-on sentence is a complete sentence with
period or comma faults.
I want to order online credit card thefts worry
me.
Your serial number is provided with your product
documentation you can also find the serial
number by opening the software and clicking on
the Help menu.
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PP 3-25

End of

Business English at Work


2003 Glencoe/McGraw-Hill