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Chapter 2-Electrical Machines
DC Motor

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MACHINES

abdulsalam@pmj-2015/DET3043

Learning Objectives:

abdulsalam@pmj-2015/DET3043

a DC motor

2. Apply the principle operation of DC motor.

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Electric Motor

The input is electrical energy (from the supply source), and the

output is mechanical energy (to the load).

CONSTRUCTION

DC motors consist of one set of coils, called armature winding,

inside another set of coils or a set of

permanent magnets, called the stator. Applying a voltage to the

coils produces a torque in the armature, resulting in motion.

The stator carries a field winding that

is used to produce the required

magnetic

field by DC excitation. Often know

as

the field.

Rotor:

The rotor is the rotating part of

the machine. The rotor carries a

distributed winding, and is the

winding where the emf is induced.

Also known as the armature.

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Rotor

Brush

Stator with

with poles

Field

CONSTRUCTION

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Stator

The stator is the stationary outside part of a motor.

The stator of a permanent magnet dc motor is composed of

two or more permanent magnet pole pieces.

The magnetic field can alternatively be created by an

electromagnet. In this case, a DC coil (field

winding) is wound around a magnetic material that forms part of

the stator.

CONSTRUCTION

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Rotor

The rotor is the inner part which rotates.

The rotor is composed of windings (called armature windings)

which are connected to the external

circuit through a mechanical commutator.

Both stator and rotor are made of ferromagnetic materials. The

two are separated by air-gap.

CONSTRUCTION

A winding is made up of series or parallel connection of coils.

Armature winding - The winding through which the voltage is

applied or induced.

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to produce flux (for the electromagnet)

Windings are usually made of copper.

CONSTRUCTION

The rotor iron core is mounted on the

shaft.

and tied together

to

assure

mechanical strength.

the shaft. It consists of several

copper segments, separated by

insulation.

Poles

Brushes

Rotor winding

Bearing

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Fan

Commutator

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

Energy Conversion

If electrical energy is supplied to a conductor lying perpendicular

to a magnetic field, the interaction of

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produce mechanical force (and therefore,

mechanical energy).

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

Value of Mechanical Force

There are two conditions which are necessary to produce a force

on the conductor. The conductor must

be carrying current, and must be within a magnetic field. When

these two conditions exist, a force will be

applied to the conductor, which will attempt to move the conductor

in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic

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DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

the magnetic field (first - field), which

goes from the North pole to the South pole.

The second finger points in the

direction of the current in the wire

(second - current).

The thumb then points in the direction

the wire is thrust or pushed while in the

Flemings Left Hand Rule

magnetic

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field (thumb - torque or thrust).

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follows : F = B x i x l (unit Newton)

where B is the density of the magnetic field, l is the length

of conductor, and i the value of current flowing in the

conductor. The direction of motion can be found using

Flemings Left Hand Rule.

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DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

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Principle of operation

Consider a coil in a magnetic field of flux density B. When the two

ends of the coil are connected across a DC voltage source,

current I flows through it. A force is exerted on the coil as a result

of the interaction of magnetic field and electric current. The force

on the two sides of the coil is such that the coil starts to move in

the direction of force.

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

In an actual DC motor, several such coils are wound on the rotor,

all of which experience force, resulting in rotation. The greater the

current in the wire, or the greater the magnetic field, the faster the

wire moves because of the greater force created.

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are moving in a magnetic field. At different positions, the flux

linked with it changes, which causes an emf to be induced (e = )

as shown. This voltage is in opposition to the voltage that causes

current flow through the conductor and is referred to as a countervoltage or back emf.

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

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DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

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dependent upon the difference between the applied voltage

and this counter-voltage. The current due to this countervoltage tends to oppose the very cause for its production

according to Lenzs law. It results in the rotor slowing down.

Eventually, the rotor slows just enough so that the force

created by the magnetic field (F = Bil) equals the load force

applied on the shaft. Then the system moves at constant

velocity.

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

Induced Counter-voltage (Back emf):

Due to the rotation of this coil in the magnetic field, the flux linked

with it changes at different positions, which causes an emf to be

induced The induced emf in a single coil, e = dc/dt

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Induced voltage : e = Cos t

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

Note that equation (induced voltage) gives the emf induced in one

coil. As there are several coils wound all around the rotor, each

with a different emf depending on the amount of flux change

through it, the total emf can be obtained by summing up the

individual emfs.

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The total emf induced in the motor by several such coils wound

on the rotor can be obtained by integrating equation, and

expressed as:

where K is an armature constant, and is related to the geometry

and magnetic properties of the motor, and m is the speed of

rotation. The electrical power generated by the machine is given

by:

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

Generated EMF in a Real DC Machine

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Where

Z = total number of conductors, P = total number of poles

a = P for lap winding, a = 2 for wave winding, = flux,

= speed in rad/s and n = speed in rpm.

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

Counter EMF:

When the motor is running, internally generated

emf, (EG = EC) opposes the applied voltage, thus:

IA

=

VT

E RA

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EMF, RA is the armature resistance and IA is

the armature current

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

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DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

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Example 1

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PRINCIPLES

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Example 2

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DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

Equivalent circuit

The equivalent circuit of DC Motors (and Generators) has two

components:

Armature circuit: It can be represented by a voltage source and

a resistance connected in series (the armature resistance). The

armature winding has a resistance, Ra.

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the magnetic field and a resistance connected in series. The field

winding has resistance Rf.

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

Shunt Motors

-Field and armature windings are connected in parallel.

Series Motors

-Field and armature windings are connected in series.

Compound Motors

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series and shunt motors.

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PRINCIPLES

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PRINCIPLES

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Example 1

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PRINCIPLES

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Example 2

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PRINCIPLES

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DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

Torque-Speed Characteristics:

In order to effectively use a D.C. motor for an application, it is

necessary to understand its characteristic curves.

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Power curve.

The relation between torque and speed is important in choosing a

DC motor for a particular application.

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PRINCIPLES

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PRINCIPLES

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PRINCIPLES

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DC Motor Starting

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PRINCIPLES

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PRINCIPLES

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PRINCIPLES

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DC Motor Efficiency

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PRINCIPLES

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PRINCIPLES

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PRINCIPLES

DC MOTOR BASIC

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It is important to mention that the total input and output power can

be calculated in many different ways using the power flow

diagram, depending on the information given. Also note that the

torque developed inside the rotor is different from the final

(output) torque supplied to the load due to rotational losses.

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

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Example 1

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PRINCIPLES

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

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Example 2

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DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

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Self Test 1

DC MOTOR BASIC

PRINCIPLES

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Self Test 2

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