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ELECTRICAL

MACHINES
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-CHAPTER 2DC MOTOR

Learning Objectives:

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1. Understand the construction and principle operation of


a DC motor
2. Apply the principle operation of DC motor.

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Electric Motor
The input is electrical energy (from the supply source), and the
output is mechanical energy (to the load).

CONSTRUCTION
DC motors consist of one set of coils, called armature winding,
inside another set of coils or a set of
permanent magnets, called the stator. Applying a voltage to the
coils produces a torque in the armature, resulting in motion.

Stator: Stationary part of the machine.


The stator carries a field winding that
is used to produce the required
magnetic
field by DC excitation. Often know
as
the field.
Rotor:
The rotor is the rotating part of
the machine. The rotor carries a
distributed winding, and is the
winding where the emf is induced.
Also known as the armature.
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Rotor

Brush

Stator with
with poles

Field

CONSTRUCTION

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Stator
The stator is the stationary outside part of a motor.
The stator of a permanent magnet dc motor is composed of
two or more permanent magnet pole pieces.
The magnetic field can alternatively be created by an
electromagnet. In this case, a DC coil (field
winding) is wound around a magnetic material that forms part of
the stator.

CONSTRUCTION

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Rotor
The rotor is the inner part which rotates.
The rotor is composed of windings (called armature windings)
which are connected to the external
circuit through a mechanical commutator.
Both stator and rotor are made of ferromagnetic materials. The
two are separated by air-gap.

CONSTRUCTION
A winding is made up of series or parallel connection of coils.
Armature winding - The winding through which the voltage is
applied or induced.

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Field winding - The winding through which a current is passed


to produce flux (for the electromagnet)
Windings are usually made of copper.

CONSTRUCTION
The rotor iron core is mounted on the
shaft.

Coils are placed in the slots.

The end of the coils are bent


and tied together
to
assure
mechanical strength.

Note the commutator mounted on


the shaft. It consists of several
copper segments, separated by
insulation.

Poles
Brushes

Rotor winding
Bearing

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Fan

Commutator

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES
Energy Conversion
If electrical energy is supplied to a conductor lying perpendicular
to a magnetic field, the interaction of

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current flowing in the conductor and the magnetic field will


produce mechanical force (and therefore,
mechanical energy).

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES
Value of Mechanical Force
There are two conditions which are necessary to produce a force
on the conductor. The conductor must
be carrying current, and must be within a magnetic field. When
these two conditions exist, a force will be
applied to the conductor, which will attempt to move the conductor
in a direction perpendicular to the magnetic

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field. This is the basic theory by which all DC motors operate.

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

The first finger points in the direction of


the magnetic field (first - field), which
goes from the North pole to the South pole.
The second finger points in the
direction of the current in the wire
(second - current).
The thumb then points in the direction
the wire is thrust or pushed while in the
Flemings Left Hand Rule
magnetic
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field (thumb - torque or thrust).

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The force exerted upon the conductor can be expressed as


follows : F = B x i x l (unit Newton)
where B is the density of the magnetic field, l is the length
of conductor, and i the value of current flowing in the
conductor. The direction of motion can be found using
Flemings Left Hand Rule.

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DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

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Principle of operation
Consider a coil in a magnetic field of flux density B. When the two
ends of the coil are connected across a DC voltage source,
current I flows through it. A force is exerted on the coil as a result
of the interaction of magnetic field and electric current. The force
on the two sides of the coil is such that the coil starts to move in
the direction of force.

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES
In an actual DC motor, several such coils are wound on the rotor,
all of which experience force, resulting in rotation. The greater the
current in the wire, or the greater the magnetic field, the faster the
wire moves because of the greater force created.

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At the same time this torque is being produced, the conductors


are moving in a magnetic field. At different positions, the flux
linked with it changes, which causes an emf to be induced (e = )
as shown. This voltage is in opposition to the voltage that causes
current flow through the conductor and is referred to as a countervoltage or back emf.

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

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Induced voltage in the armature winding of DC motor

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

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The value of current flowing through the armature is


dependent upon the difference between the applied voltage
and this counter-voltage. The current due to this countervoltage tends to oppose the very cause for its production
according to Lenzs law. It results in the rotor slowing down.
Eventually, the rotor slows just enough so that the force
created by the magnetic field (F = Bil) equals the load force
applied on the shaft. Then the system moves at constant
velocity.

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES
Induced Counter-voltage (Back emf):
Due to the rotation of this coil in the magnetic field, the flux linked
with it changes at different positions, which causes an emf to be
induced The induced emf in a single coil, e = dc/dt

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Since the flux linking the coil, c = Sin t


Induced voltage : e = Cos t

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES
Note that equation (induced voltage) gives the emf induced in one
coil. As there are several coils wound all around the rotor, each
with a different emf depending on the amount of flux change
through it, the total emf can be obtained by summing up the
individual emfs.

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The total emf induced in the motor by several such coils wound
on the rotor can be obtained by integrating equation, and
expressed as:
where K is an armature constant, and is related to the geometry
and magnetic properties of the motor, and m is the speed of
rotation. The electrical power generated by the machine is given
by:

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES
Generated EMF in a Real DC Machine

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Where
Z = total number of conductors, P = total number of poles
a = P for lap winding, a = 2 for wave winding, = flux,
= speed in rad/s and n = speed in rpm.

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES
Counter EMF:
When the motor is running, internally generated
emf, (EG = EC) opposes the applied voltage, thus:

IA
=

VT
E RA

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Where: VT = terminal voltage, Ec = counter


EMF, RA is the armature resistance and IA is
the armature current

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

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The Relationship Between The Induced Emf And Torque

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PRINCIPLES

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Example 1

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PRINCIPLES

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Example 2

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DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES
Equivalent circuit
The equivalent circuit of DC Motors (and Generators) has two
components:
Armature circuit: It can be represented by a voltage source and
a resistance connected in series (the armature resistance). The
armature winding has a resistance, Ra.

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The field circuit: It is represented by a winding that generates


the magnetic field and a resistance connected in series. The field
winding has resistance Rf.

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES
Shunt Motors
-Field and armature windings are connected in parallel.
Series Motors
-Field and armature windings are connected in series.
Compound Motors

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-Has both shunt and series field so it combines features of


series and shunt motors.

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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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Example 1

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DC MOTOR BASIC
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Example 2

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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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Shunt Motor: Speed Control

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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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Shunt Motor : The effect of an open field circuit

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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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DC MOTOR BASIC
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Compound Motor: Speed Control

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES
Torque-Speed Characteristics:
In order to effectively use a D.C. motor for an application, it is
necessary to understand its characteristic curves.

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For every motor, there is a specific Torque/Speed curve and


Power curve.
The relation between torque and speed is important in choosing a
DC motor for a particular application.

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DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

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DC Motor Speed Control

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DC Motor Starting

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DC Motor Efficiency

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DC MOTOR BASIC
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It is important to mention that the total input and output power can
be calculated in many different ways using the power flow
diagram, depending on the information given. Also note that the
torque developed inside the rotor is different from the final
(output) torque supplied to the load due to rotational losses.

DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

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Example 1

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DC MOTOR BASIC
PRINCIPLES

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Example 2

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Self Test 1

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Self Test 2