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2015-2016

MAED 6161
Teaching and Learning Mathematics in
the Changing Curriculum
Ng Ka Wai
1155073128
Chang Hei Man Kate
1155073105
Eugene Sze
1155073134
Tse Tung Ho
1155006557
Tam Wai Man
1010091880

Agenda
Introduction
Summary of the article
Examples
Reflection based on the local context
Conclusion
Reference

Introduction
2 Primary School Teachers
2 Secondary School Teachers
1 International School Teacher
● Article:
[C4]Watson, A. & Mason. J. (2006). Seeing an exercise as
a single mathematical object: Using variation to structure
sense-making, Mathematical Thinking and Learning, 8(2),
91-111.

Variation 3. Discernment 2. 1997) Three important factors for learning 1. Simultaneity .Theory of Variation (Marton & Booth.

. ❖ simultaneously keeping other aspects invariant or constant. ❖ allowing the discernment of the appropriate critical aspects by the students.Theory of variation (Con’t) ❖ Some aspects of the object of learning vary.

Hypothetical learning trajectory (Simon 2005) Three main components: .

. Anticipate responses of students and hence have an influence on students’ experiences to the mathematical phenomena.Advice to Teachers (By Watson and Mason 2006) 1. 2. Directing the discernment towards the planned direction by using constrained variation of exercises.

2. Both combination of several similar examples and further not-quite similar examples should be provided to let learners self-correct their errors and make further refinement on their conjectures.Design of constrained variation of exercises 1. The number and the nature of the differences presented to learners should be constrained to let learners focus on important variables. .

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Reflection based on the local context Private through-trained School Primary School Secondary School .

Reflection based on the local context Private through-trained School Discovery and Guided Independent Thinking Parents: Academic Achievement → Tutorial Sessions Practicing the “surface syntactic structure” Result: Calculation Skill & Method Not Mathematical Concept .

Reflection based on the local context Primary School & Secondary School Abundant Examinations Territory-wide System Assessment (TSA) Pre-Secondary One Hong Kong Attainment Test (Pre-S1) The Hong Kong Diploma of Secondary Education Examination (HKDSE) Teachers: Preparing students for Exam .

Reflection based on the local context Reality: Limited Lessons & wide syllabus Solution: Remembering the pattern → “surface syntactic structure” AGAIN Result: Cannot solve when the structure of question is changed Solution: Providing learning experiences .

2006) Example: Different among sphere. pyramid and prism .Reflection based on the local context “Variation is a tool to scaffold the construction of different tasks that are conceptually related” (Watson & Mason.

Conclusion Variation: ❖ enhance students understanding and the underlying theoretical framework behind this notion ❖ textbooks are unlikely to be able to have the resources to design such variation-based exercises for every mathematical concept given their need to work towards tight timeframes .

guide learners to wider and more abstract mathematical concepts. make sure learners' focus is towards the hypothesised learning outcome 2.Teacher's role 1. .

Micro-modelling opportunities should be offered in sequences . Revise and review the mathematical concept to be learnt by the learners Identify opportunities for learners to generalise 3. Provide learning activities that provide controlled and relevant variation 5. Plan and identify the variations required to highlight the learning outcome 4.Some advice for teachers 1. 2.

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(1997).References Marton. Mason. S. A. Mathematical Thinking and Learning. Simon. (1995). F. pp. 26. A.. Seeing an exercise as a single mathematical object: Using variation to structure sense-making. 8 (2). 114-145 Watson. 91-111 . pp. Reconstructing mathematics pedagogy from a constructivist perspective. Journal for Research in Mathematics Education. Learning and Awareness. Booth. J. New Jersey: Lawrence Eribaum Associates. (2006). M..