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Series or Parallel???

**Comment on whether R1, R2 and R3 are in
**

series/parallel/series-parallel combination. Signify your

answer.

branches. FIG.Parallel elements Two elements. or networks are in parallel if they have two points in common. . 1 Different ways in which three parallel elements may appear.

That is. 2. for the parallel network of Fig. 2 Determining the total conductance of parallel conductances. the total conductance is the sum of the ind conductance.Total conductance & resistance Recall that for series resistors. . we write FIG. the total resistance is the sum of the resistor values. What about conductance??? Can you work it out????? For parallel elements.

FIG. Since G =1/R. 3 Determining the total resistance of parallel resistors . 2 will result in the network of Fig. the total resistance for the network can be determined by direct substitution into the equation of GT .Total conductance & resistance Substituting resistor values for the network of Fig. 3.

1 Find the total resistance for the circuit shown in fig 4. Also find the total conductance. 4 Circuit diagram for example problem#1 . FIG.Example problems Q.

(check it out with Q.Resistors in parallel……. The total resistance of parallel resistors is always less than the valu of the smallest resistor. . In other words.1 u just did!!!) For equal resistors in parallel. the equation becomes significantly easier to apply. the total resistance of N parallel resistors of equal value is the resistance of one resistor divided by the number (N) of parallel elements.

For 3 parallel resistors Parallel elements can be interchanged without changing the total resistance or input current. FIG. For parallel resistors.Resistors in parallel……. 5 Circuit diagram for example problem#2 . Q. the total resistance will always decrease as additional elements are added in parallel.2 Find the RT for the circuit in fig. 5. The total resistance of two parallel resistors is the product of the tw divided by their sum.

For single-source parallel networks. the source current (I s ) is equa to the sum of the individual branch currents. FIG. 6 Parallel network. . The voltage across parallel elements is the same.Resistors in parallel…….

c. b. Determine the power delivered by the source. and compare it to the total power dissipated by the resistive elements. and demonstrate that Is _ I1 _ I2. Calculate I1 and I2.3 For the parallel network of Fig. 7 a. Calculate RT.Example problems Q. d. FIG. Determine the power to each resistive load. e. Determine Is. 7 Circuit diagram for example problem#3 .

Determine P2. d. Determine R3.4 Given the information provided in Fig. Calculate E. Find I2. b. c. a. 8. FIG. Find Is. e. 8 Circuit diagram for example problem#4 .Example problems Q.

or junction must equal the sum of the currents leaving the area. “The sum of the currents entering an area. or junction”. system. .KIRCHHOFF’S Current Law Kirchhoff’s current law (KCL) states that the algebraic sum of the currents entering and leaving an area. In other words. system. system. or junction (or node) is zero.

Don’t use calculator……… Q. 9 Circuit diagram for example problem#5 . FIG.I3 .I4 & I5 of Fig.5 Determine the currents I1 . 9 using Kirchhoff’s current law.

and I7 for the network of Fig.Don’t use calculator……… Q. Kirchhoff’s current law can be applied to determine all the unknown currents. 10 Circuit diagram for example problem#6 . I4. Even though the elements are not in series or parallel. I6. FIG.6 Find the magnitude and direction of the currents I3. 10.

For parallel elements of different values. . the smaller the resistanc greater the share of input current.Current divider rule For two parallel elements of equal value. the current will split with a equal to the inverse of their resistor values. the current will divide equa For parallel elements with different values.

Current divider rule Technique #2 Current seeks the path of least resistance. .

Voltage sources in parallel .

11 Demonstrating the characteristics of an open circuit. FIG. but the current is always zero amperes. .Open circuit An open circuit can have a potential difference (voltage) across its terminals.

V=10 V. but the potential difference (voltage) across its terminals is zero volts. I=infinite. . Net resistance = 0. hence.Short circuit A short circuit can carry a current of a level determined by the exter circuit.

. 12 Single phase of house wiring: physical details.FIG.

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