ARPITA SINGH 39116 , NUPUR TEWARI 39117

SIMILARITIES BETWEEN PS & CONVERSATION
‡ Organize your thoughts
± Giving someone directions to your house

‡ Tailor your message to the audience ‡ Telling a story for maximum impact
± Don t tell the punch line of a story first

‡ Adapting to listener feedback
± Watch for non-verbal feedback looks of confusion, looks of pain or hurtfulness

DIFFERENCES BETWEEN PS & CONVERSATION
‡ PS is more structured
± Usually time limited ± Questions not allowed to interrupt the speech, ‡ usually left for at end (time permitting)

‡ PS requires more formal language
± No slang, jargon or bad grammar ± Speeches should be something special so that they qualify as life events and are remembered

‡ PS requires a different method for delivery
± More formal delivery ‡ No vocalized pauses uh , ah , um ‡ Don t use stock phrases repeatedly you know , basically , I mean

THE SPEECH COMMUNICATION PROCESS
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Speaker - speech communication starts here Message - whatever is communicated Channel means by which a message is communicated Listener the receiver of the communicated message Feedback comes in many forms and must be understood Interference - anything impeding the communication of the message ‡ Situation the time and place of occurrance

THE PSYCHOLOGY OF AUDIENCES
‡ It s up to the speaker to make the audience choose to pay attention. ‡ Every speech contains two messages:
± One from the speaker ± One received by the listener ± People hear what they want to hear and disregard the rest. Simon s The Boxer

Paul

‡ People are egocentric
± Egocentrism the tendency for people to be most interested in themselves, their own problems and the way to solve them. ± They pay closest attention to what affects their own values, beliefs and well being.

USE OF LANGUAGE
‡ Language is Important
± How well do you use language?
‡ Do you confuse the use of good/well? ‡ Do you use phrases like terrible disaster or a good benefit ? ‡ Do you use in the eventuality instead of if ? ‡ Do you clutter your speech with meaningless words as you know , like , basically , man , and really ?

MEANINGS OF WORDS
‡ Words have two kinds of meanings:
± denotative
‡ the literal or dictionary meaning of a word or phrase.

± connotative
‡ the meaning suggested by the associations or emotions triggered by a word or phrase ‡ give words their intensity and emotional power ‡ the same words may have completely different effects on different audiences

MORE THINGS TO REMEMBER...
‡ Use language accurately
± say what you mean

‡ Use language clearly
± Use familiar words ± Choose concrete words ± Eliminate clutter

‡ Use Language vividly
± Concrete words ± Rhythm ± Repetition

VOCALIZATION
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Volume ± loudness or softness
± adjust to the situation (electronically if necessary, don¶t yell)

Pitch ± highness or lowness of the voice
± use inflections in your voice to avoid ³monotone´

Rate speed at which you speak
± 120-150 wpm is normal, too slow leaves people hanging on your words, too fast and they get confused and miss information

Pauses ± momentary breaks in your speaking
± takes experience to know when to pause, pause at the end of thought units ± avoid vocalized pauses (³uh´, ³er´, ³um´...)

Variety
± vary the loudness, pitch and rate to make the speech sound more natural and interesting

Pronunciation ± use correct pronunciation of common words
± genuine, arctic, theater, err, nuclear, February, library

Articulation ± physical production of speech sounds
± we habitually chop, slur and mumble, rather than enunciating ± ³ought to´, ³didn¶t´, ³for´, ³don¶t know´, ³ask´

‡

Dialect ± variety of language distinguished by variations of accent, grammar or vocabulary

OVERCOMING FEAR
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Start Small Prepare Don't Memorize Reduce Stress Find a Friend Engage the Audience

5 ELEMENTS
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Audience Awareness Positive Preparation Confident Content Test Technology Validate Value

BEGINNING AND ENDING
‡ ‡ ‡ ‡ Get Attention and Interest Reveal the Topic Establish Credibility and Goodwill Preview the body of the speech

‡ Signal the End of the speech ‡ Reinforce the central idea

TYPES OF PS
‡ If you're a high school or college student in a public speaking class, there are three kinds of speeches you're almost definitely going to be assigned: informative, persuasive, and ceremonial.

INFORMATIVE SPEECHES
‡ The purpose of an informative speech is to teach the audience a small but useful tidbit of information. If your speech is a success, the audience will walk away with some new knowledge. Here are some tips to keep in mind for effective informative speaking: ‡ Don't cram too much information into your speech or you'll lose your audience. Keep it simple. ‡ Be careful not to include information your audience does not understand. Avoid using terms that all or some of the audience will not recognize. If you do use unfamiliar terms, be sure to define them very clearly. ‡ Choose a topic your audience will find interesting and relevant. ‡ Make sure your speech is not persuasive. You're trying to teach your audience something, not change their mind.

PERSUASIVE SPEECH
‡ The purpose is a persuasive speech is to change people's minds or behavior about something. For a persuasive speech to be truly effective, it's not enough to simply present your arguments in an eloquent way. Here are some tips for how to deliver a persuasive speech: ‡ Deliver your speech with passion. No one's going to be convinced unless it's clear that you really care. ‡ Look for common ground with the people in your audience who disagree with you. ‡ Don't choose an impossible task. In your short speech, you won't change anyone's mind about gun control. However, you might change their minds about a smaller part of this issue, such as whether a certain type of weapon should be legal. ‡ Ask your audience to take a specific action-- and one that they might actually take. Asking people to call their elected officials will not be effective. However, if you ask your audience to recycle their campus newspapers, they just might do that.

CEREMONIAL SPEECH
‡ A ceremonial speech is one that is given to mark an important occasion in someone's life, such as a graduation speech, a wedding toast, or a eulogy at a funeral. These speeches can be both emotionally moving and fun. Here are some ceremonial speech tips: ‡ Tell lots of stories about whomever you're giving the speech about. For example, instead of saying, "She's a very thoughtful person," say, "She sends birthday and anniversary cards to everyone she knows." ‡ Tell stories about the people in the audience. This will make them feel included and special. For example, if you're giving a eulogy, talk about nice things the departed did with their loved ones. ‡ Avoid cliches. If you're giving a graduation speech, don't say "spread your wings and fly." If you're giving a wedding toast, don't say, "today you marry your best friend." Be original. ‡ Be appropriate. Don't make jokes about the groom's ex-wife in the wedding toast. Don't talk about Aunt s shoplifting habit in her eulogy. Use common sense.

THANK YOU

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