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Finite Element

Method
Final Project
Rear
SuspensionDouble A- Arms

Jaime Taha T.

2003

April 29th

Mini Baja

Competition takes place on a motor cross


track.
Suspension must

React and perform well.


Protect the driver from impacts from the rough terrain.
Be strong enough to survive the track

More pictures.

As we can see, is very feasible


could be hit by another one, or
could hit a rock, bumps, etc.

that
that

the cars
the tires

Problem Statement

The Rear Suspension of the Mini Baja car


must be able to withstand the rough
terrains associated with the competitions
motor cross track.

Problem Statement

The Rear Arm Suspension consist of 3 parts: Top


Arm, Bottom Arm, and a Hub.
Using the material properties for 4130 Chromoly
Steel.
The tubing is a 1 diameter and 0.058 thickness.
In this project the Top arm was analyzed.

FEA Analysis

3 Scenarios were analyzed (Worst Case


scenarios)
Arm Moving
Tire hits a rock, wood, bump, etc.
Tire hit from the side

2 & 3 Scenarios

F=820 lb

Impact Force

This force is applied in the second and


third scenarios where:

Another car traveling at 30 MPH hits our car


and comes to rest at one second
The car hits an object traveling at 30 MPH

Vi=30 MPH, Vf=0 MPH, Time (t) = 1


second,
Mass (m) = 600 lb

V f Vi a t
a(impact )

V f Vi

t
F m a (impact )
F 820lbf

Forces acting in the


system
Weight of the car, Stress of the Spring/Damper force
acting on both arms

only on the Top Arm

Car Frame

Reaction force of the weight of the


structure acting on both arms

Pro E Model

Impact
Force
=
820 lbf

Spring/Damper
Spring Force = 175
lb/in
Damper Force (C) =
10.2 Lbf

Top Arm

Spherical
Joints

Assumptions

Welded zones where neglected


The actuator in the tire simulates the displacement of
the tire-arm when the car is driven.
The spring-dash is acting in the as a distributed load
(Pro E model image.)
Spherical joints were used where the arm is attached
to the cars structure, also the car frame was assumed
that doesnt move (Cars frame doesnt take any load.)
To simulate the impacts in the car, a ramp function
was used.
The reaction force of the tire is calculated as a worse
case scenario where all the weight of the car is
applied only in one tire 600 lb, as a distributed
force.

Finite Element Modeling


Scenario 1 Arm moving.

Stress Analysis

Stress Analysis 0.02ft


Max. Value = 8.6 e8
alue in a specific point = 7.03e8 Pa

Stress Analysis 0.03ft


Max. Value = 7.46e8
Value in a specific point = 6.03e8 Pa

Finite Element Modeling

1 Arm moving.
Factor of Scenario
Safety

FS-0.03

FS-0.0

FS-0.03 - Front (above) and Back (below) views of Factor of Safety (Mesh size o
FS-0.02 - Front (above) and Back (below) views of Factor of Safety (Mesh size o

Finite Element Modeling

Scenario 2 Tire hits a rock, wood,


bump, etc.
Using 0.02 ft. Mesh

Max. Value = 8.62e8 Pa


Value in a specific point = 6.71e8 Pa

Finite Element Modeling

Scenario 2 Tire hits a rock, wood,


bump, etc.
Using 0.03 ft. Mesh

Max. Value = 7.68e8 Pa


Value in a specific point = 4.66e8 Pa

Finite Element Modeling

Scenario 2 Tire hits a rock, wood,


bump, etc.
Using 0.04 ft.
Mesh

Max. Value = 1.42e9 Pa


Value in a specific point = 1.12e9 Pa

Finite Element Modeling

Scenario 2 Tire hits a rock, wood,


bump, etc.
Factor of Safety

FS 0.02ft

FS 0.03ft

Finite Element Modeling


Scenario 2 Tire hits a rock, wood,
bump, etc.

Simulation of stress analysis


tire-arm with movement

in the

Change in stresses when object moves Movement and stresses

Finite Element Modeling

Scenario 3 Tire hit from the side.

Using 0.03 ft. Mesh

Max. Value = 6.7e8 Pa


Value in a specific point = 5.06e8 Pa

Finite Element Modeling

Scenario 3 Tire hit from the side.

Using 0.02 ft. Mesh

Max. Value = 1.27e9 Pa


Value in a specific point = 8.25e8 Pa

Finite Element Modeling


Scenario 3 Tire hit from the side.

Simulation of stress analysis


tire-arm with movement

Change in stresses when object moves

in the

Movement and stresses

Improvement - Pro E
Drawings.

Adding the pipe showed, the stresses


concentration could be distributed.

Previous

Possible Alternative

Cont

Comparing the 1st case scenario:

The addition of the pipe decreases the stresses


and also distribute the stress concentration
Point2

Stress Analysis 0.03ft


Stress Analysis 0.03ft
Max. Value = 7.46e8 Pa
Max. Value = 1.4e8 Pa
Value in a specific point = 6.03e8 PaValue in a specific point1 = 2.9e7 Pa
Value in a specific point2 = 1.1e8 Pa

Finite Element Modeling


Scenario 1 Arm moving.

Actual part

Modify part (addition of


a pipe)
the addition
of the pipe,

As explained before, with


the
stress concentration decrease and also was distributed
(Mesh size 0.03 ft). An increase is notable in the new model
(right image) in the Factor of Safety from 0.54 to 3.46.

Finite Element Modeling


Scenario 3 Tire hit from the side.

Actual part

Modify part (addition of


a pipe)

In this scenario, the addition of the pipe also affect the factor
of safety, as we can see the red zones from the figures.

Problems/Comments
while doing my project.

Pro E
Drawings
Cut the inside of the pipes
Verify units
Geometry settings/connection to Visual
Nastran (Why doesnt work???)

Problems/Comments
while doing my project.

Visual Nastran
Meshing the part play with the mesh size.
The use of H-Adaptivity is hard to run it because
thin structure and other elements (such as
spring, actuator, etc)
Verify the restraints, forces, springs, actuators,
motor, etc.
Verify Joints (also is very important to verify the
dynamic loadings)
While running the FEA with motion theres no
way to stop it.

Comments

3 scenarios were analyzed


H-Adaptivity was not used because of the
complexity of the part and the thickness.
A possible alternative of adding a pipe between
the arms with the purpose of decrease stress
concentration and also distribute the load. In
fact the results showed that by adding the pipe,
the stresses slightly reduce
FEA is a time consuming process, it can be
improve if the analysis is run on a more capable
computers.
Further work:

Verify the pipes diameter/thickness and do FEA

Acknowledgem
ents
Dr. Arturo Fuentes
Mini Baja Team
Classmates