Structural Theories &

Building Structural System

they change with changes in environmental conditions and load duration has also a significant effect upon strength and deformation. the practicing engineer needs to be aware of the particular properties of the timber being specified. .Introduction   Wood is a natural resource that is widely available throughout the world.  To be able to design timber structures successfully.  Due to the low energy required and the low pollution during manufacture timber has a far less detrimental impact on the environment than other building materials.  With proper management. Its properties are anisotropic. there is a potential for an endless supply of timber and other wood-based materials.  Timber is a live material.

Environmentally friendly 4. Fast. Hand crafted 5. Flexible to add further extensions 3. Unique character 6.Introduction  Benefits of Timber Framing: 1. efficient and cost effective 2. earthly charm . Buildings with an organic. natural.

) Roof Structure .Introduction  Timber building structure Timber Framing (Post & Beams const.

respectively. is often comparable. .Timber as Structure   Timber as a structural material is similar to steel and both materials are available in similar shapes and even jointing of timber or steel members.  Table below shows an overview of similarities and differences regarding steel and timber.

rafters and other roof components or for walls in timber framed housing. . for example.  Most timber is found in buildings having a simple rectangular form used. in floor joists. compression and bending members. the modulus of elasticity is low.  The texture and appearance of timber makes it very suitable for use in visually exposed structures.  Compared to steel or concrete.  The combination of steel and timber often produces light and competitive structures with timber as compression and steel as tension members. large structures can be built economically in other forms such as domes and examples exist spanning over 100 meters.Timber as Structure   Timber members are particularly capable of acting as tension.

Wall stud Horizont al . Element  Vertic al .Post .Beams .Timber Const.Wall Plate .

Resist lateral forces 3. 2.Timber (Load)  Instead of decorative purpose: 1. Transmit load. instability & loads) . Support beams Through : Compressions (Equilibrium.

.Axial Load   To determine strength of materials F Figure a: Cantilevered beams An axial load is a force administered along the lines of an axis.


A . F Area.Stress (Calculation)  Normal Stress. õ = Force.

into the structure.Deflection  Cause by certain Force. .

Deflection  Degree where structural elements displaced. Example 1: Cantilevered Beam Example 2: Both end supported beam .

Deflection (Calculation)  .

Deflection (Calculation)  .

Conclusion   Timber is a natural material the essential properties vary considerably  Timber is a lightweight material with a high strength to weight ratio.  Shrinkage and swelling have to be considered during the design life of timber structures. It has a low shear strength and shear modulus. .  Timber acts well compositely with both steel and concrete.  Timber is strong and stiff parallel to the grain whereas it is prone to cleavage along the grain if tension stresses perpendicular to the grain occur.  The strength and stiffness properties of timber are highly dependent on the angle between load and grain. s-in-timber-beams.References  URL  http:// m  http://en.1/step/a05/ ng ) Books  C.Mettem.html  http://en. Structural Timber Design and .co.1/  tybeta1.

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