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HEAT OF

NEUTRALIZATION

Neutralization Reaction
Adding lime to neutralize acidic
soil
Treating excess acid in the
stomach with anti-acids

Definition
Neutralization is the reaction of
hydrogen ions (H+) from an acid with
hydroxide ions (OH-) from a base or
alkali to form water molecules.
Heat of neutralization is the heat
change when one mole of water is
formed from the reaction between an
acid and an alkali.

Heats of neutralization
between strong acids and
strong alkalis
Chemical
equation
HCl + NaOH

Ionic equation

H (kJ mol-1)

H+ + OH-

H 2O

- 57.3

H+ + OH-

H 2O

- 57.3

NaCl + H2O
HNO3 + NaOH
NaNO3 + H2O
H2SO4 + 2KOH
K2SO4 + 2H2O

2H+ + 2OH-

2H2O

- 114.6

Explanation.
The H for monoprotic acid is the same
because the reaction between one mole H +
and one mole of OH- will produced one mole
of water.
In diprotic acid reaction, the value of H is
double because diprotic acid produced two
mole of H+.
It undergoes complete dissociation.

Heats of neutralization between


weak acids and alkalis

Chemical equation
CH3COOH + NaOH

Ionic equation

H (kJ mol1
)

H+ + OH-

H 2O

< 57.3

H+ + OH-

H 2O

< 57.3

H+ + OH-

H 2O

< 57.3

CH3COONa + H2O
H3PO4 + KOH
K3PO4 + H2O
CH3COOH + NH3
CH3COONH4 + H2O

Explanation.
The value for H involving weak
acid is always less than 57.3
kJ/mol.
Because some of the heat given
out during the neutralization is
used to dissociate the acid
molecules completely.

H involving weak alkalis and weak


acid is much lesser 57.3 kJ/mol for
every mole of water formed.
This is because more energy is
needed to dissociate both the weak
acid and the weak alkali completely
to produce OH- ions and H+ ions.

HOW TO CALCULATE CHANGE OF


HEAT ENERGY IN NEUTRALIZATION
PROCESS
For example:
50 cm3 Sodium Hydroxide solution
1.0 mole dm-3 reacts with 50 cm3
Hydrochloric acid 1.0 mole dm-3 in a
plastic beaker. The temperature
changes from 28oC to 34oC .
Calculate the change of heat energy
in this reaction.

Steps to be taken
Step 1: Calculate how many moles of
sodium hydroxide and hydrochloric
acid
Number of mole for NaOH (n) = Molarity (M) x
Volume (V)
= 1.0 x 50/ 1000
= 0.05 mole
Number of mole for HCl (n)
= 1.0 x 50/ 1000
= 0.05 mole

= Molarity (M) x
Volume (V)

Step 2: Write the ionic equation for the


reaction.
H+(aq) + OH-(aq)
H2O(l)
1 mol
1mol
1 mol

Compare the mole ratio of H+, OH- and H2O

1mole H+
OH-

react with
+

1 mole

Step 3: Calculate the change of temperature


and mass of the mixed
Change of temperature ,
= Maximum temperature Initial temperature
= 34oC - 28oC
= 6 oC
Mass of mixed solutions m,
= Total volume x Density of water
= (50 + 50)cm3 x 1.0 g cm-3
= 100 g

Heat given out,H


= mc
= Mass of mixed solution x Heat
Capacity x Change of temperature
= 100g x 4.2 Jg-1 oC-1 x 6.0oC
= 2520 J

Step 4: Calculate the heat of neutralization


0.05 mole of water, H2O produces
2520 J of heat
1 mole = 2520 x 1
0.05
= 50400 J
H = -50.4 kJmol-1
The answer must have a negative sign to
show that it is an exothermic reaction