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Overview of an

Engineering Drawing

TOPICS
Graphics language

Engineering drawing
Traditional Drawing Tools

Orthographic projection

GRAPHICS
LANGUAGE

Effectiveness of Graphics Language
1. Try to write a description of
this object.

2. Test your written description
by having someone attempt
to make a sketch from your
description.

You can easily understand that …
The word languages are inadequate for describing the
size, shape and features completely as well as
concisely.

The language is known as “drawing” or “drafting” . instruments or computer methods.Composition of Graphic Language Graphic language in “engineering application” use lines to represent the surfaces. . A drawing can be done using freehand. edges and contours of objects.

Example .Freehand drawing The lines are sketched without using instruments other than pencils and erasers.

circles.Instrument drawing Instruments are used to draw straight lines. the drawings are usually made to scale. Example . and curves concisely and accurately. Thus.

Example . solid works etc.Computer drawing The drawings are usually made by commercial software such as AutoCAD.

Engineering Drawing .

Elements of Engineering Drawing Engineering drawing are made up of graphics language and word language. Word language Describe size. location and specification of the object. Graphics language Describe a shape (mainly). .

Traditional Drawing Tools .

DRAWING TOOLS .

Mini Drafter Board . DRAWING TOOLS 1. Drawing 2.

DRAWING TOOLS 3. T-Square 4. Triangles .

Pencils . Adhesive Tape 6. DRAWING TOOLS 2H or HB for thick line 4H for thin line 5.

Protector 8. Scale . DRAWING TOOLS 7.

Roller Scale 10. DRAWING TOOLS 9. French curve .

Compass . Sandpaper 12. DRAWING TOOLS 11.

Erasing Shield . Pencil Eraser 14. DRAWING TOOLS 13.

Drawing Clip . Circle Template 16. DRAWING TOOLS 15.

Sharpener 18. Clean paper . DRAWING TOOLS 17.

PROJECTION METHOD .

PROJECTION THEORY The projection theory is used to graphically represent 3-D objects on 2-D media (paper. computer screen). The projection theory is based on two variables: 1) Line of sight 2) Plane of projection (image plane or picture plane) .

PROJECTION METHOD Perspective Parallel Oblique Orthographic Axonometric Multiview .

There are 2 types of LOS : parallel and converge Parallel projection Perspective projection Line of sight Line of sight .Line of sight is an imaginary ray of light between an observer’s eye and an object.

The image is produced by connecting the points where the LOS pierce the projection plane. Parallel projection Perspective projection Plane of projection Plane of projection .Plane of projection is an imaginary flat plane which the image is created.

2) It does not reveal exact shape and size.Disadvantage of Perspective Projection Perspective projection is not used by engineer for manu- facturing of parts. Width is distorted . because 1) It is difficult to create.

Orthographic Projection .

MEANING Orthographic projection is a parallel projection technique in which the parallel lines of sight are perpendicular to the projection plane Object views from top 1 2 1 5 2 3 4 5 3 4 Projection plane .

Tilt More than one view is needed to represent the object. Multiview drawing Three dimensions of an object is shown. Axonometric drawing . ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW Orthographic view depends on relative position of the object to the line of sight. Rotate Two dimensions of an object is shown.

Six Principle Views The 6 views of projection include: • FRONT • RIGHT SIDE • TOP • BOTTOM • LEFT SIDE • REAR .

normally the longes t dimension is chosen as the width (or dep th) • Most common combination of views is to use are Front. Top. and Side View .Rules of Orthographic Drawing • Pick a Front View that is most descriptive of object.

Both drawing types are used in technical drawing for communication. 2. ORTHOGRAPHIC VIEW NOTES Orthographic projection technique can produce either 1. Axonometric drawing that show all three dimensions of an object in one view. . Multiview drawing that each view show an object in two dimensions.

. Right angle becomes obtuse angle.Axonometric (Isometric) Drawing Advantage Easy to understand Disadvantage Shape and angle distortion Example Distortions of shape and size in isometric drawing Circular hole becomes ellipse.

Example Multiviews drawing (2-view drawing) . Disadvantage Require practice in writing and reading. Multiview Drawing Advantage It represents accurate shape and size.

Right Side and Top are views that simpl y represented by rotating the obje ct .Principle Views • Front.

Glass Box • Most powerful technique to understand orthographic projections • Suspend the object with transparent strings inside a glass box • Freeze the view from each direction (each of the six sides of the box) and unfold the box .

Glass Box .

Glass Box .

Glass Box .

Glass Box .

Glass Box .

Glass Box .

Side and Top Views Width Top View Depth Right Front View Side Height View .Front.

. Basic Line Types Name according Types of Lines Appearance to application Continuous thick line Visible line Continuous thin line Dimension line Extension line Leader line Dash thick line Hidden line Chain thin line Center line NOTE : We will learn other types of line in later chapters.

centers of circles. axis of axisymmetrical parts Dimension and Extension lines indicate the sizes and location of features on a drawing . Meaning of Lines Visible lines represent features that can be seen in the current view Hidden lines represent features that can not be seen in the current view Center line represents symmetry. path of motion.

Line Types and Styles .

and double short-dashed and usually thin (0.3 mm) • Phantom lines  – Indicates imaginary features such as alternate position of moving parts and adjacent positions of related parts – Long.5 .3 mm).35 – 0.6 mm) • Hidden lines – Represents hidden edges and boundaries – Short-dashed lines and medium thick (0.45 mm) • Center lines – Represents axes of symmetry – Long and short-dashed and thin (0. Line Types and Styles • Visible lines – Represents visible edges and boundaries – Continuous and thick (0. .0.

8 mm) – Arrows are placed at both ends of the cutting plane line to indicate the direction of sight • Section lines – Used to show areas that have been cut by the cutting plane – Grouped in parallel line pattern and usually drawn at a 450 angle – Continuous line and thin (0.6 – 0. which indicates the directi ons and extent of the dimension – Continuous lines and thin (0. Line Types and Styles • Dimension and Extension lines – Used to show the size of an object. Placed between two extension lines and its terminated by arrowheads.3 mm) • Break lines – Used to show imaginary breaks in objects. made up of series of connecting arcs .3 mm) • Cutting Plane Lines – Used to show where an imaginary cut has been made through the object in order to view interior features – The line type is phantom and very thick (0.

Line Types and Styles Dimension Visible and Line Extension Line Hidden Cutting Line Plane Line Center Line Section Line Phantom Line Break Line .

Line Types and Styles .

Line Types and Styles

Line Types and Styles

Line Types and Styles

Line Types and Styles

Line Types and Styles Dimension lines Phantom lines Path lines Center lines Visible lines Dimension lines Center lines Section lines Hidde n lines Break lines .

Letters and Numbers .

Letters and Numbers Standards of letters and numbers  Clear  Uniform  ISO 3098/1-1974 .

.

Scales .

Scales • A scale is defined as the ratio of the linear dimension of the object as repr esented in a drawing to the actual di mensions of the same. • Scales are used to prepare drawing at: – Full size – Reduced size – Enlarged size .

Scales • Recommended Scales • Intermediate scales can be used in exceptional cases where recommended scales can not be applied for functional reasons .

Paper Size .

Paper Size A2 A1 A A4 0 A3 A6 A5 A8 A7 .

5” x 11” • A1 : 594 x 840 mm . A3 & A4 : 10 mm .D : 22” x 34 “ • A4 : 210 x 297 mm .E : 34” x 44” Margin • A0 & A1 : 20 mm • A2. Paper Size International Standard ISO American National Standard • A0 : 841 x 1189 mm .A : 8.B : 11” x 17” • A2 : 420 x 594 mm .C : 17” x 22” • A3 : 297 x 420 mm .

Drawing Presentation .

Drawing Standards –Sheet Format Example C-Size .

Penerbangan UNSURYA . Drawing Title :T.

Example 1. Visible 2. Hidden 3. Center .

Extend the lower side of the top view to intersect a vertical line drawn to the right of the front view. 25-40 mm Step 1: Lightly construct the front view. . the front view. Lightly construct the top view directly over the front view. Drawing the Views To complete an orthographic Step 2: projection drawing follow Space the top view 25-40 mm above these steps.

Draw a line at 45o from the point of intersection as shown. The use of a 45o mitre line helps to project features from the top view to the side view. Drawing the Views Step 3: Project the features of the front view to the right of the vertical line. .

draw vertical projection lines to the side view. .Drawing the Views Step 4: Where the horizontal projection lines of the top view intersect with the mitre line.

Spacing Orthographic Views To determine the starting point of your drawing use the following criteria: to find X: HSA – HSN = ? ÷ 2 • Measure the horizontal distance between borders Horizontal Shadow Angle (HSA) • Subtract the total length of the views to be drawn Horizontal Shadow Numerical (HSN) • Divide the result by 2 to find Y: VSA – VSN = ? ÷ 2 • Measure the vertical distance between borders Vertical Shadow Angle (VSA) • Subtract the total height of the views to be drawn Vertical Shadow Numerical (VSN) • Divide the result by 2 .

Spacing Orthographic Views Distance between borders HSA 260 56 Length Space Width 40 120 38 120 38 31 (HSA) – (HSN) = ? ÷ 2 = 120 260 . + 40 + 38 198 = 62 ÷ 2 = 31 .

Methods of Drawing Orthographic Projections First Angle Projections Method Third Angle Projections Method Here views are drawn Here views are drawn by placing object by placing object in 1st Quadrant in 3rd Quadrant. Fv below X-y ) PRESENTATION OF BOTH METHODS WITH AN OBJECT STANDING ON HP ( GROUND) TV FV ON IT’S BASE. X Y HP term is used in 1 Angle method st & FV TV For the same G L Ground term is used in 3rd Angle method of projections . Tv below X-y ) SYMBOLIC ( Tv above X-y. ( Fv above X-y. X Y NOTE:.

J E O B VP PP V.P. MEANS ABOVE HP & INFRONT OF VP. THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE SITUATED IN FIRST QUADRANT V. OBJECT IS INBETWEEN C T OBSERVER & PLANE.V. P. FV LSV X Y S R R F. S.V. ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS IN FIRST ANGLE METHOD OF PROJECTIONS .V. FO . FIRST ANGLE PROJECTION FOR T. IN THIS METHOD.P.V FO TV HP . F.

E C B J TV O X Y LSV FV S.P. THIRD ANGLE FOR T. T V. F.V.V. ) PLANES BEING TRANSPERENT AND INBETWEEN OBSERVER & OBJECT. PROJECTION IN THIS METHOD.V. ACTUAL PATTERN OF PLANES & VIEWS OF THIRD ANGLE PROJECTIONS . THE OBJECT IS ASSUMED TO BE SITUATED IN THIRD QUADRANT ( BELOW HP & BEHIND OF VP. P.P.

Isometric Drawing .

Rules of Projection Scale .

Example : Line conventions in engineering drawing .