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shell and tube heat exchanger

shell and tube heat exchanger

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Tube

Heat Exchanger

A simple approach

What is known and how do I

start?

The heat load, Q, must be known usually from

an Energy Balance calculation

The log mean temperature difference, LMTD or

Tlm.

The required process temperatures are usually known

Utility temperatures may be given or have to be

assumed

Estimate an initial value of the overall heat

transfer coefficient, Uo take typical values from

references or just assume a value, say 30 W/m2K

First trial design

Calculate the heat transfer area

based on the outside diameter of

tubes, A

Q Do not confuse T lm with

o

U o Tlm T in Q = m.Cp. T

diameter, Do, and tube length, L,

calculate the

At heat

d o transfer

L area of

one tube

First trial (continued)

Knowing the area required and the

area of one tube, calculate the

N t Ao required:

number of tubes At

Round up to the nearest whole

number. A fractional number implies

a leak!! Rounding down may mean

the requirement of the heat

exchanger is notN t' met.

Call this number

First trial (continued)

Assuming no phase change in either

fluid, check TEMA table for nearest

'

number of tubes greater N t than (or

equal to) for a single pass

exchanger for Ndexo and tube

arrangement

N ex chosen. Call this

Knowing calculate the total

cross-sectional

Atf area

N ex

4

available

d i

2

for

Note internal diameter!

flow:

First trial (continued)

Knowing the tube-side flowrate,mt ,

and the density of t the fluid, ,

mt t

calculate the volumetric flowrate

and hence the linear velocity in Atf

the tubes by dividing by

If the velocity is in the range of about

1-3 m/s, this is acceptable.

Now calculate the Reynolds number

for the flow in the tubes.

First trial (continued)

From the ESDU equation:

Nu 0.0204 Re 0.805

Pr 0.415

hi

Note the exponent on Pr is independent of

heating or cooling (unlike Dittus-Boelter)

Look up a typical dirt film coefficient for the

type of fluid. Note these values are often given

in old units and sometimes as resistances (i.e.,

the reciprocal of the coefficient).

First trial (continued)

The flow in the shell is far less well defined

than that in the tubes. Some is at right

angles to the tubes, then nearly parallel with

the tubes and again at right angles. In

addition there is leakage through the gaps

between the holes in the baffles and the

tubes and in the space between the shell

and the outermost tubes. A rigorous

calculation is therefore difficult without

access to specialised software.

First trial (continued)

Professor Heggs has suggested that

you use a value of 20-50 W m-2 K for

the gas shell-side heat transfer

coefficient

If you know hdo and kw for the tube

material, the overall heat transfer

coefficient, Uo can be found

First trial (continued)

do

d o ln

1 1 1 di do do

U o ho hdo 2 kw d i hi d i hid

value of Uo with the assumed

value.

If this is in the range 10% of

the assumed value, accept

this.

And now?

If not, repeat the process

WhenU o ,calculated is in the range -10

to +10% of U othe value of

, assumed

accept the value. Specify the heat

exchanger:

Tube Length Tube Thickness

Tube Diameter Tube Arrangement

Tube Passes Headers

Shell Diameter Nozzles

Heat Load Overall HTC, LMTD,

etc.

And finally!

Please remember to send me fortnightly

Progress Reports by email and save

them in your Group Wiki in the VLE

List:

Those present, incl. chair & secretary

Any absentees

Progress made I can only guide

Problems encountered you if you tell

me where you

Plans for the next 2 weeks

struggle!

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