Presented By
Engr. Alexander M. Aquino

Adder : In electronics an adder is digital circuit that perform addition of numbers. In modern computer adder reside in the arithmetic logic unit (ALU).

Adders : Adders are important not only in the computer but also in many types of digital systems in which the numeric data are processed. Types of adder: 1. Half adder 2. Full adder

a sum bit and a carry bit. .Half adder : The half adder accepts two binary digits on its inputs and produce two binary digits outputs.

.Full adder : The full adder accepts two inputs bits and an input carry and generates a sum output and an output carry.

Truth Table of Adder A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cout 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1  0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 .

Truth Table of Adder A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cout 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1  0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 .

Truth Table of Adder A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cout 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1  0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 .

Truth Table of Adder A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cout 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1  0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 .

Truth Table of Adder A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cout 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1  0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 .

Truth Table of Adder A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cout 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1  0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 .

Truth Table of Adder A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cout 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1  0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 .

Truth Table of Adder A 0 0 0 0 1 1 1 1 B 0 0 1 1 0 0 1 1 Cin 0 1 0 1 0 1 0 1 Cout 0 0 0 1 0 1 1 1  0 1 1 0 1 0 0 1 .

Circuit of Adder A B .

Circuit of Adder A B X .

Circuit of Adder A B  Cin .

Circuit of Adder A B  Cin Y .

B .Circuit of Adder A B  Cin Y = A.

B .Circuit of Adder A B  Cin Cout Cout= (A B). Cin + A.

Verification of Truth Table .

Verification of Truth Table A A B  0 B 0 Cin 0 Cout 0  0 Cin Cout .

Verification of Truth Table A A B  0 B 0 Cin 1 Cout 0  1 Cin Cout .

Verification of Truth Table A A B  0 B 1 Cin 0 Cout 0  1 Cin Cout .

Verification of Truth Table A A B  0 B 1 Cin 1 Cout 1  0 Cin Cout .

Verification of Truth Table A A B  1 B 0 Cin 0 Cout 0  1 Cin Cout .

Verification of Truth Table A A B  1 B 0 Cin 1 Cout 1  0 Cin Cout .

Verification of Truth Table A A B  1 B 1 Cin 0 Cout 1  0 Cin Cout .

Verification of Truth Table A A B  1 B 1 Cin 1 Cout 1  1 Cin Cout .

From 0=0000 to 9=1001 by using 8421 code. 9 8 1001 1000 BCD representation was used in some early computers and many handheld calculators. For example: Convert 98 into BCD.Binary Coded Decimal   It is possible to represent decimal numbers simply by encoding each decimal digit in binary form called binary coded decimal Because there are 10 digits to represent. . it is necessary to use four bits per digit.

Decimal Digits Decimal Number 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 BCD Equivalent 0000 0001 0010 0011 0100 0101 0110 0111 1000 1001 .

Addition is the most important operation in BCD.The BCD Adder    BCD is a numerical code and can be used in arithmetic operations.  Step2 If a 4-bit sum is equal to or less than 9. it is a valid BCD number. . using the rules for binary addition. Following are the steps to perform addition:  Step1 Add the two BCD numbers.

THE BCD ADDER  Add the following BCD number 0011 + 0100 0011 + 0100 0111 3 +4 7 .

What happens if we want to add binary numbers with more than 1bit? The concept of additional full-adders must be used i.4-Bit Adder    A single full ±adder is capable of adding two 1-bit numbers and input carry. . to add 2-bit numbers two adders must be needed and to add 4-bit numbers four adders must be needed.e.

Problem with 4-bit Adder  1+1=2 1 + 1 = 10 0001 + 0001 = 0010  1+5=6 1 + 101 = 110 0001 + 0101 = 0110 .

Problem with 4-bit Adder  1+8=9 1 + 1000 = 1001 0001 + 1000 = 1001  1 + 9 = 10 1 + 1001 = 1010 0001 + 0101 = 0001 0000 .

Problem With 4-bit Adder  Results > 9 are Not Correct  Need Correction .

Solution  The Difference is Always 6  Add 6 to the Result .

The Corrected BCD Adder     Take input bits to the 4-bit adder Check if result >9 If it is not. then return as it is If it is. add 6 to it and return .

Implementing the Logic  Circuit to check if result > 9  Input BCD A: A3A2A1A0  Input BCD B: B3B2B1B0  Result BCD: S3S2S1S0 .

Implementing the Logic Remember: 610 = 0110BCD .

Summary .

g.Cin  = A B Cin Multi-bit Adder (e.Summary      The Adders Cout = A. 4-bit Adder) Applications and Uses of Adder .B + (A B).

Q/A Session .

Thanks! .